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  Messages 1-23 from 23 matching the search criteria.
Supplemental nutrition found to treat brain injury better than prescriptions, and may even provide some protection against injury Darrell Miller 7/26/18
'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says Darrell Miller 2/2/17
Can L-Leucine Help Glucose Metabolism And Insulin Function? Darrell Miller 6/2/14
Zinc monomethionine and aspartate Darrell Miller 1/25/14
How Does Creatine Boost Muscle Strength? Darrell Miller 10/28/13
The Role of Glycine in Collagen and Its Remarkable Health Benefits Darrell Miller 3/17/13
glycine: a healthy amino acid Darrell Miller 11/15/12
The Health benefits of L-Arginine Darrell Miller 6/8/12
What Are The Health Benefits Of Rhodiola Rosea? Darrell Miller 2/26/12
Can Ginseng Boost Your Energy Safely? Darrell Miller 10/5/11
L-Methionine Darrell Miller 5/2/09
Strengthen The Liver and Kidneys With Leucine Darrell Miller 4/27/09
Glycine Darrell Miller 10/11/08
This Amino Acid may help your heart… and your heart’s desire. Darrell Miller 5/24/06
ABC News Calls for Input on Children and Supplements Darrell Miller 4/26/06
Instant Energy B-12 2000mcg per serving 75 packets/Box Darrell Miller 2/16/06
Benefits of L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 2/12/06
The edge Darrell Miller 12/30/05
Carnitine Creatinate Darrell Miller 12/8/05
Energy Vitamins Darrell Miller 6/11/05
Summer Sports Nutrition Guide Darrell Miller 6/11/05
Re: Natural Energy Production ... Darrell Miller 6/9/05
Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Darrell Miller 6/1/05



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Supplemental nutrition found to treat brain injury better than prescriptions, and may even provide some protection against injury
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Date: July 26, 2018 08:58 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Supplemental nutrition found to treat brain injury better than prescriptions, and may even provide some protection against injury





Supplemental nutrition found to treat brain injury better than prescriptions, and may even provide some protection against injury

Researchers from Texas Christian Univeristy recently led a research review into whether nutritional supplements can aid in recovery from Sports Related Concussions (SRC). SRCs, sometimes referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), are caused by biomechanical forces resulting from a direct blow to the head, face or neck. While mTBIs are harder to diagnose than other TBIs, they can become progressively more serious through repeated trauma and the brain’s inflammatory response. The research review decided that Curcumin, Creatine and Omega-3 supplements show potential for promoting recovery from SRCs, but noted that more research is needed.

Key Takeaways:

  • According to findings from Texas Christian University, nutritional supplements can be used effectively to treat brain injuries such as concussions from sports.
  • Specific nutrients can affect a broader spectrum of neurological pathways than mainstream drugs, offering more treatment options for mTBIs.
  • Creatine, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin all positively impact the neurometabolic sequelae involved in concussive impacts.

"Mild traumatic brain injuries, however, are not as easily detected as that of a severe TBI. The authors noted that while sports-related concussive and sub-concussive impacts start out as mild, the brain’s inflammatory response to an injury may aggravate it, especially in repeated and prolonged exposures."

Read more: https://www.naturalnews.com/2018-07-23-supplemental-nutrition-found-to-treat-brain-injury-better-than-prescriptions.html

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'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says
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Date: February 02, 2017 07:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says





If you suffer from high cholesterol, you are probably being prescribed a statin. Along with the effectiveness of statins to treat cholesterol issues, there is also the risk of side effects such as muscle and liver damage. For a while, red yeast rice has been recommended as a natural alternativeto prescribed statins. However, it has recently been found that this alternative choice can also increase muscle and liver injury. This is believed to be due to the fact that the active ingredient in each is monacolin K.

Key Takeaways:

  • Red yeast rice could increase risk of muscle injury or liver damage, Italian researchers reported after reviewing 13 years of patient data.
  • the compounds in red yeast rice -- monacolin K -- has the same chemical structure as the statin drug lovastatin [...] and cannot be sold legally as dietary supplements.
  • Reports of muscle pain came from 19 patients, including some who experienced an increase in levels of Creatine phosphokinase [...] The products are not as well-controlled and the dosages are variable

"Red yeast rice could increase risk of muscle injury or liver damage."



Reference:

//www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=201194

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=3868)


Can L-Leucine Help Glucose Metabolism And Insulin Function?
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Date: June 02, 2014 08:54 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can L-Leucine Help Glucose Metabolism And Insulin Function?

What is a leucine

leucineLeucine is one of 3 amino acids that increases muscle mass and will also help you to recover after exercise. Leucine supplies the body with energy and regulate blood sugar. Being an essential amino acids, it cannot be synthesized by the body and thus you need to get it from food or supplements. But Can L-Leucine help glucose metabolism and insulin function?

What does leucine do

L-leucine has direct bearing on the amount of insulin produced. L-leucine will stimulate the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas. One of the ways in which it influences the amount of insulin produced is by enhancing glutaminolysis by allosterically activating GDH (glutamate dehydrogenase).

Benefits of leucine

Increased insulin levels have a major implications on glucose metabolism. Increased insulin level will directly result into faster glucose absorption into the blood stream. Increased glucose metabolism prevents the body from using lean muscles to supply energy during workouts. Unlike isoleucine and valine, L-leucine are converted to glucose slowly and thus you can have sustained energy for long.

It is also very effective in muscle building. By stimulating insulin release and glucose metabolism, it enables key nutrients such as amino acids, Creatine and glucose to enter muscle cells. Since insulin will stimulate rapid muscle synthesis while inhibiting protein breakdown, L-leucine will build lean muscle mass with a short period.

L-leucine is alternative to steroids, it is safer and its effects are lasting. During workouts, it supports oxidative metabolism in muscles and decrease protein degradation.

If you are looking for the best way you can build muscle mass and strength without adverse effects, L-leucine is premier supplement. Apart from building muscle, l-leucine will also improve brain functions. You can take more workouts. L-leusine supplement has been used by many body builders and has been proved beyond doubt to be effective supplement. If you have been wondering if l-leucine help glucose metabolism and insulin function, no doubt it is can.

You can also red more by visiting

//www.livestrong.com/article/261185-what-are-the-functions-of-leucine/

//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2969169/

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Zinc monomethionine and aspartate
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Date: January 25, 2014 09:24 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Zinc monomethionine and aspartate

What is ZMA?

ZMA food supplementZinc monomethionine and aspartate commonly known as ZMA and Magnesium Aspartate is a supplement mostly used by people involved in great excises such as the athletes, gymnasts, and bodybuilders. Supplements help in maximum building of body muscles though some could think about Creatine, weight gainers, testosterone boosters and protein powder. ZMA is one of the great supplements.

Importance of ZMA

ZMA is of great importance when it comes to immune boosting. Some of the body occurrence could damper somebody’s ability to train well. Zinc supplementation gives appositive effect as it decreases the levels of oxidative stress and it reduces inflammation in the body.  Also, the ZMA addition of this supplement to the daily diet since it happens to be one of the nutrients. These nutrients are frequently found in daily consumed foods like crab, oysters, pork shoulder and beef shanks. ZMA boosts the testosterone levels in the body since it is muscle building supplement that has been shown to boost testosterone levels. This substance contains zinc, magnesium together with vitamin B6.

The research has revealed that the usage of ZMA supplement increases the testosterone levels for about 30% and the strength could be increased by 250%. The ZMA testosterone boost makes a great progress in weight training. It also develops strength. The presence of this supplement is of great benefit to sleep as it boosts the testosterone hormone that helps in getting enough sleep. The sleep helps muscles by repairing them and giving enough rest.

The Magnesium presence could help in building of the lean muscles in from their ass. This gives the muscles enough oxygen as the function and recovering from their workouts and build new muscles. Still edge can be gotten by taking ZMA though zinc and magnesium contain high quantity of multivitamins, a condition called competing nutrients. This condition is by when one nutrient cancels the effect on another nutrient.

For the case of weight training, the presence of calcium in your body can cancel out or limit the effects of zinc and magnesium that you ingest through food or a multivitamin.

References:

  1. //www.bodybuilding.com
  2. //ezimearticles.com




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How Does Creatine Boost Muscle Strength?
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Date: October 28, 2013 11:13 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How Does Creatine Boost Muscle Strength?

 

How Does Creatine Boost Muscle Strength?


meat proteinFirst of all what is Creatine? Creatine is a protein that is produced by the human body and converted to Creatine phosphate and stored in muscles. The stored form can then be utilized for energy by the muscles. It is also found in meat and protein rich food products such as fish. Some clinical studies have surmised that Creatine as an oral supplement enhance muscle strength and increase lean muscle bulk.


What Creatine Can Do?


Many young athletes utilize Creatine supplements as part of their muscle building routines. Although there have been varied responses to these diet supplements Creatine continues to thrive on the market as a sports and health vitamin. Other uses of it include lowering triglycerides in the body as well as homocysteine both of which play a role in heart attacks and strokes. Creatine also promotes better endurance and muscle strength among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson's disease and Muscular Dystrophy. Clinical trials are still under way.

Creatine, like all other medications and supplements may cause some adverse effects. It is important that you consult a health service provider or pharmacist before initiating the use of the supplement. The common side effects of Creatine include muscle cramps, weight gain, muscle strain, abdominal discomfort, changes in bowel movements, dizziness as well as liver and kidney dysfunction. This is due to the fact that this protein is metabolized in the liver and the kidney.


Taking Creatine


Creatine should be taken in the recommended dose. Taking more than the recommended dosage can result to severe adverse events such as Rhabdomyolysis which is the medical term for the breakdown of muscles, the components released after massive muscle cell death can damage the kidney and lead to kidney failure. The recommended dose for adults is 2g daily. Using Creatine for prolonged periods may eventually lower your body's production of Creatine and may lessen its effects.

When used judiciously and properly you can benefit from the positive effects of Creatine.

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The Role of Glycine in Collagen and Its Remarkable Health Benefits
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Date: March 17, 2013 08:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Role of Glycine in Collagen and Its Remarkable Health Benefits

Collagen is basically made up of several amino acids and one of which is glycine. This particular amino acid accounts 1/3 of the entire composition of collagen. It can be found in the third position in the sequence of the amino acids. One of the fundamental roles of this amino acid is that it reduces the water solubility of collagen by a hundred folds. Contrary to the fact that it's considered as a non-essential amino acid, glycine has many health benefits aside from being a part of the collagen synthesis. The details below present some of the most essential information that you ought to know about this collagen component. Here they are:

Glycine Synthesizes Normal DNA and RNA

DNA and RNA are genetic materials necessary for the proper cellular formation and function. Glycine prevents the breakdown of the muscle tissues by increasing the body's Creatine levels which is a compound that builds muscle mass. High concentration of this amino acid can also be found in the skin and connective tissues in the body and it keeps them flexible and firm. Without glycine, the body won't be able to repair damaged tissues.

Glycine Keeps the Central Nervous System Healthy

Studies had shown that this amino acid is an inhibitor of the neurotransmitters that can cause seizures, hyperactivity and bipolar depression. As a matter of fact, it can be converted into serine which is a neurotransmitter beneficial in the treatment of schizophrenia. Researchers found out that schizophrenic patients exhibited significant improvements after adding glycine with their anti-psychotic medication. It was also found out that it improves memory. Glycine Promotes Proper Function of the

Digestive System

This amino acid is known to induce bile acid production which is used to digest fats. It is also often included in most over-the-counter gastric antacid agents to prevent and treat acid reflux. Glycine Provides Glucose Specifically, this non-essential amino acid is also considered as glucogenic amino acid. That simply means that it provides glucose in the body. One of its benefits includes regulation of blood sugar levels, so it can be helpful in treating symptoms manifested by low energy and fatigue.

Glycine May Help With Cancer

Preliminary studies considered this amino acid as another breakthrough in cancer treatment. Results suggested that it can prevent the development of cancerous cells as it acts as an inhibitor of angiogenesis which is a process in which tumors, benign or malignant, develop their own blood supply.

Sources of Glycine

High-quality protein foods such as white meat from fish and chicken, beans, legumes, eggs and milk are known to be the main sources of this amino acid. Glycine supplements are also available in tablet or powder forms and can also be one of the components of many amino acid supplements. Except for some people complaining about having stomach upset and dizziness after taking glycine supplements, there are no other noted adversarial or severe side effects of glycine. If taken properly, such supplementation is extremely safe.

Who Should Not Take Glycine?

Those individuals suffering from kidney and liver diseases should never take glycine. Pregnant women should never take as well. People taking antispatic medication are not allowed also since there could be interference between the drugs and glycine. It's always best to consult a doctor first before taking such supplement.

Those are all the most notable benefits of glycine. The point here is that it is not just a mere part of a collagen but it also has a number of health benefits.

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glycine: a healthy amino acid
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Date: November 15, 2012 07:56 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: glycine: a healthy amino acid

For those who have heard about glycine and wonder about its health benefits, they should first of all know that it's a proteinogenic amino acid with its name being a combination from the words glycogen and glucose. This is not an essential amino acid for the body, because it can be obtained from other sources.

Nutritional Role

Many studies have been performed around glycine and the results show that it can be easily used in order to reduce the psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and at the same time it can also be used to reduce symptoms that are associated with BPH or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Health benefits

It seems that glycine also has many benefits in nutrition and they are as following:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Mental health
  • Digestion
  • Nervous system
  • Energy metabolism

Importance

Glycine is similar with many other amino acids and one of those similarities is in the fact that it has a great importance for the nervous system, more specifically in what regards understanding and memory. Due to the fact that glycine work as a neurotransmitter, it has been successfully used in many treatments for hyperactivity, epilepsy and bipolar depression. Not only that, but it also supplies the human body with Creatine which is vital for having healthy developing muscles.

More to that, it also helps with maintaining a healthy prostate and with healing damaged skin. On the other hand, it seems that its uses are much broader and deeper, down to even helping out the body with detoxifying the liver and eventually helping with the calcium absorption process.

Where is it found?

People can easily get glycine from foods like seeds, soya, gelatin, dairy and fish products, but also meat. In some cases, it's used as a sweetener and also in food supplements and protein drinks. Lastly, unless the individual needs this amino acid specifically, there is no need to actually get it, as the body can produce it unless for some reason the body mechanism that produces it is blocked.  Then supplementation is essential to good health and wellness.

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The Health benefits of L-Arginine
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Date: June 08, 2012 08:10 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Health benefits of L-Arginine

What is L-Arginine?

L-Arginine, also referred to as Arginine, is a non-essential amino acid-it's produced naturally in the body-and it is vital for the normal functioning of pituitary gland. This substance comes from natural sources such as nuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, popcorn, chocolate, brown rice, raisins, carob, oatmeal, gelatin desserts, protein rich foods, and whole wheat bread. Men, whose seminal fluids consist of up to 80 percent of this amino acid, especially need L-Arginine as a deficiency could cause infertility. L-Arginine is not only obtained from food sources but through supplementation as well. As we age, the production of this amino acid decreases in the body and this is thought to cause many degenerative processes associated with aging. Thus, Arginine is vital for maintaining your overall health as well as sexual health.

Arginine deficiency

Deficiency of L-Arginine can delay sexual maturity, impair insulin production, cause liver lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance.

Functions of L-Arginine

L-Arginine amino acid performs various functions in the body, including:

It is a component of collagen, enzymes, ejaculate, hormones, connective tissues, and skin. It plays an important role in the manufacture of protein molecules such as insulin and Creatine. It's a precursor of nitric oxide as well as other metabolites.

Health benefits of L-Arginine

Although the benefits of Arginine supplements are debated, proponents state that Arginine converts into nitric oxide inside the body and enlarges or dilates the blood vessels. This helps better circulation and it's one of the reasons it is used to cure erectile dysfunction. This amino acid produces positive results as it enhances blood circulation, especially to the genitalia. Arginine is also a key component in sperm and seminal fluid production, so it's used to treat sterility in men. Other health benefits of L-Arginine include:

Boosts energy

Aids in muscle-building

Helps maintain blood-sugar levels

Increases immune function

Increase fertility in females

Improves blood flow and decreases clogged arteries

Increases sperm count

Helps in liver detoxification

Maintains nitrogen balance

Promotes body fat burning

Promotes better bone density

Provides anti-oxidant properties

Reduces effects of alcohol toxicity

Reduces blood pressure

Reduces heart and vascular disease, cholesterol risk and stroke

Helps reduce body fat

Helps remove excess ammonia

Aids faster healing of wounds

L-Arginine anti-aging properties

One last benefit to note about L-Arginine is the fact that it simulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), IGF, and testosterone. As your body ages, it produces less and less of these hormones which directly affects the aging process. These hormones are responsible for reducing body fat, keeping the skin elastic, and increasing sexual stamina. While your body won't turn into that of a teenager, taking L-Arginine supplements can make you feel and look younger.

Conclusion

Just as other forms of supplementation, you should take caution while using L-Arginine. This means that you have to get a doctor's approval before you take this drug. You should carefully follow the drug's instructions on dosage and frequency. As long as you take L-Arginine with care, you can greatly enhance your overall health and wellbeing.

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What Are The Health Benefits Of Rhodiola Rosea?
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Date: February 26, 2012 07:02 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What Are The Health Benefits Of Rhodiola Rosea?

Rhodiola Rosea:

Rhodiola rosea is medicinal herb that has many beneficial health effects on humans. It grows in the cold regions of the world like Europe, Central Asia and Arctic region. The phytochemicals present in this medicinal plant are good antioxidants and they are quercetin, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and proanthocyanidins. It also consists of essential polyphenols namely rosiridin, rhodioniside and rhodiolin in the extracts of Rhodiola. These substances are the active ingredients of this herb and helps in improving the overall health of the body. The extracts of this plant can be taken in the form of tea, pills or liquid form and must be taken after prescription by medicinal health expert.

Some of the health benefits of Rhodiola rosea plant are explained as follows

Stabilize the Nervous system: This nature gifted herb is very helpful to stabilize the levels of neurotransmitters in our brain and thereby increase the levels of tryptophan, dopamine and norenephrine in our body naturally. Thereby, improve the neuro-chemical reactions inside the body.A Good Anti-oxidant: It acts as a good antioxidant and also protects our nervous system. It helps to overcome the damage caused to nervous system by eliminating the free radicals present in our body.

Treat Depression: It is known though a scientific research that Rhodiola rosea gave good results to treat mild and moderate depression on people of age group from 18 years to 70 years. The prescribed dosage to get the complete health benefit is 340 mg to 680 mg per day. SHR-5, the extract of this plant enhances the mental performance and also helps the person to concentrate on healthier subjects. This medicinal herb can also be used along with other anti-depressant drugs as it has the synergistic effect. Regular intake of the plant's extract according to the prescribed dosage by expert doctor reduced the symptoms of fatigue and helped them improve their concentration power. This herb is being used in cold counties like Scandinavia and Russia to overcome the stressful life and chill climate. Improves the Overall Health: This medicinal herb is known to enhance the immune system of a person and also improve the overall health. It helps in preventing the side-effects of stress and improve the physical activity, enhance the mood, appetite, estrus cycle, reduce fatigue etc.

It also helps to overcome stress, anxiety, anemia, hormonal imbalance cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders of a person. It is also known to decrease the time needed for recovery after any strenuous muscular activity.

Treat Insomnia: It is also being used to treat Insomnia and has given good results. Sleeplessness can be cured effectively with this herb without any side effects. Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers should not take this medicinal herb as it has some side effects on them.

Always consult your medicinal health expert before taking the extracts of this herb and take the correct dosage.It is known to maintain Creatine phosphate at high levels and this is especially useful for athletes to maintain their stamina levels. Rhodiola rosea is also used to overcome the side effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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Can Ginseng Boost Your Energy Safely?
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Date: October 05, 2011 04:27 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can Ginseng Boost Your Energy Safely?

Ginseng is a slow - growing perennial plant in which its roots are fleshy which are commonly used as dietary supplement and beverage. This plant is a member of the genus known as Panax of the family of Araliaceae. It grows abundantly in the eastern part of Asia where the climate is cool specifically in Korea, northern China and east region of Siberia. There are many species of ginseng in which they are named according to where they are discovered. What is common among these ginseng species is its property as an adaptogen.

Ginseng is an herb which is considered as an adaptogen. This classification of chemicals improves the body’s resistance to physical exhaustion and external stress. In fact, for almost twenty centuries, Ginseng has been commonly used as a natural dietary supplement to boost vitality and endurance. The mechanism is that cellular energy is produced in the cell’s powerhouse called mitochondria which turn nutrients into usable energy called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphate (CP). However, when we are under stressful situations, the body produces hormones which can alter the ability of the mitochondria to produce ATP and CP. Thus, energy levels are also reduced. Eventually, adaptogenic substances plays a critical role in improving the cell’s production of ATP and CP by allowing the body to deliver more oxygen to cells while greatly reducing oxidative damage affecting the mitochondria of the cells.

Not to mention, ginseng also has ginsenosides which are considered to effectively control the release of stress hormones such us cortisol and noradrenalin, thus, preventing chronic stress which can greatly affect one’s energy level. Studies show that ginseng also relaxes the blood vessels thereby improving circulation and delivery of oxygen to the cells of the body. Clinical research reveals that ginseng has the high potential to improve performance of athletes. It can boost stamina.

Other benefits of Ginseng are that it can serve as a nourishing stimulant to improve depression and as adjunct treatment for Diabetes Mellitus Type II. It can also be employed as a support agent for the improvement of sexual dysfunction among men.

The fleshy root of Ginseng is available in the market in dried form which may be whole, sliced, minced or semi – granule form. These ginseng products are often found in many energy drinks, teas, health drinks, food additives and energy – boosting supplements. Other commercial products which contain ginseng are also common such as shampoos, conditioners, skin moisturizers, soaps and even cosmetic items. This is for the reason that ginseng can effectively delay the ageing process and improve the health of the cells and tissues. Ginseng also has the ability to enhance memory, reduce mental fatigue and improve the health of the immune system. To note, ginseng combined with Gingko biloba can considerably stimulate memory among middle – aged individuals.

Ginseng is generally safe to use for any ages. In fact, this herb is widely used as day – to – day beverage among many people in Asia especially in Korea. However, if you are planning to undergo supplementation, it would be best that you should seek medical advice first.

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L-Methionine
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Date: May 02, 2009 11:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Methionine

Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning that it is not synthesized by the body, and so has to be taken as part of your diet. It also contains sulfur, one of two sulfur-containing amino acids that can form proteins, the other being cysteine. It is a precursor for taurine, which is an aminosulphonic acid, and not strictly an amino acid, which together with cysteine supports the health of your cardiovascular system and helps to eliminate toxins from the body.

Maintenance of Cell Membranes

It is also an important intermediary in the maintenance of cell membranes. Phospholipids are fat-soluble components of the cell membrane, phosphatidylcholine being a very important example. Also known as lecithin, this substance is derived from choline, itself biosynthesized in a chemical pathway involving S-adenosylmethionine.

This substance is made in the body from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and methionine with the help of the enzyme methionine adensosyltransferase. Known as SAM (or SAM-e), S-adenosylmethionine employs a number of metabolic pathways in its reaction, though generally aminopropylation, transmethylation and transsulfuration. These add aminopropyl, sulfo and methyl groups to a number of substances, the most common being the methylation of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.

Phosphatidylcholine is produced by the enzyme-catalyzed sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, SAM donating the methyl groups. The maintenance of the integrity of the cellular membrane by phosphatidylcholine is critical to all of the basic processes in human biology, including communication between cells, flow of information and bioenergetics.

A by-product of this reaction is homocysteine, formed in the liver from the S-adenosylhomocysteine that SAM is changed to after donating methyl groups. Excess homocysteine in the blood can create the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. SAM is also of use in the treatment of depression and of arthritis.

Muscle Development

Creatine is a substance well known to athletes as being useful in provide short-term energy for high-intensity training. Although available in the diet, about 50% Creatine used by the body is biosynthesized from methionine and two other amino acids, glycine and arginine. It allows a burst of energy lasting about 10 seconds, carried out without the use of glycogen reserves or fatty tissue.

Glycine and arginine combine to release ornithine as a by-product, and form guanidino acetate. SAM donates a methyl group to the latter to form Creatine, about 95% of which is then stored in the skeletal muscle tissue. The stored Creatine phosphate has the effect of allowing the muscle cells to hold more water, which also enables an enhanced level of protein synthesis, and hence an increase in muscle bulk, which also results from the increased blood flow resulting from the short-term high-intensity exercise that Creatine allows.

Creatine can also increase the levels of MRF4 (myogenic transcription factor), resulting in an increasing in the myonuclei provided by satellite cells to damaged muscle tissue, that not only repair damaged muscle fibers, but also increase their ability to grow.

Detoxification of the Liver

Substances that help the liver to process fats, or lipids, are known as lipotropic, and the important lipotropics in human biochemistry are imositol, betaine, choline and methionine. They prevent fat from accumulating in the liver, and methionine is also useful in its effect of glutathione. This is a substance that helps the liver to neutralize toxins, such as excessive doses of acetaminophen, and its supplies are regulated by methionine.

Methionine and Autism

Research into autism is closely studying the Methionine/Glutathione Transsulfuration Pathway. This pathway is a very important biochemical means of detoxification, whereby toxins are methylated and then excreted. This pathway seems to be disrupted in autistic individuals.

Not only that, but disruption can lead to oxidative stress which results in many health problems. An example of this is the build-up of the oxidant homocysteine when there is insufficient Vitamin B6 to convert it into cysteine. This has been discussed previously, and is discussed again below.

Miscellaneous Benefits

Although research is in its infancy, it appears that AIDS sufferers also have decreased levels of methionine in their blood. It is believed that the process of AIDS could be linked to this, particularly the dementia that can occur as a result of the deterioration of the nervous system.

It is also hoped that it can help with some symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and pancreatitis. Initial research into this use of methionine has been very promising, as are studies into its use for urinary tract infections. It appears to operate like cranberry in this respect, preventing bacteria from attaching to the cell walls and multiplying in the urinary tract.

Methionine is believed to be essential for the formation of collagen, and for healthy pliable skin, hair, nails and other forms of connective tissue. For this reason it is often used as a supplement for the treatment of arthritis, although an excess should be avoided for reasons discussed above. S-Adenosylmethionine generates homocysteine during the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, and this can cause cardiovascular problems.

So stick to the recommended doses when you use methionine as a supplement. Used properly, and according to instructions, it offers many health benefits, and can also be used to bulk up your muscle tissue and give increased energy when you need it most.

Dietary sources include fish, eggs, lentils, onions, garlic, meat, seeds, spinach and yoghurt. A good supplement would be from 800mg - 1000mg per day, and is best taken along with a B vitamin complex, or at least folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12, in order to prevent the increased generation of homocysteine.

Methionine also promotes the excretion of estrogen, so is a possible supplement for women on oral contraceptives that lower the production of this hormone. The elderly might also benefit from a supplement although, if taken for any specific condition, your health professional should be consulted first, as they should be for any supplement.

Nevertheless, methionine is a very useful supplement, and can be taken to prevent a large number of conditions. Research is continuing on its effect on AIDS patients, and Parkinson's, and it is hopeful that it will one day be recommended to help people suffering from these conditions.

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Strengthen The Liver and Kidneys With Leucine
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Date: April 27, 2009 02:08 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Strengthen The Liver and Kidneys With Leucine

L-leucine is an amino acid that is used by the body to fuel exercise and muscle-building to provide you with that athletic edge that gets you ahead of your opponents. It does so in a number of ways, none of them specifically by the direct generation of energy as such.

It is also an essential amino acid, since it cannot be manufactured by your body and hence must be taken as a supplement or as part of your diet. Foods rich in leucine include nuts, whole wheat products such as wholemeal bread, and brown rice. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, meaning that it does not like water.

It is also one of three essential branched chain amino acids, the other two being L-valine and L-isoleucine, and offers many benefits to athletic performance that shall be discussed below It also helps to preserve the body's stores of glycogen, used as an emergency energy source. Other than these properties, it possesses others, such as the maintenance of the nitrogen balance in the body.

So how does it work to fuel your body while you are exercising? The answer is not as you might think. L-leucine doesn't increase your energy levels as Creatine does when it elevates your ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels. ATP is the molecule of energy that is synthesized in your body cells, and is then converted back to ADP, the diphosphate, with the release of energy in the form of muscular contractions.

This amino acid is what is referred to as a 'limiting' substance, in that the other amino acids cannot do their jobs in your body unless you have sufficient L-leucine in proportion to them. Specifically, you need two parts of L-valine and two parts of L-leucine to one part of L-isoleucine for optimum usage of the food that you eat.

Therefore you cannot just take the supplement without considering how much should be taken to ensure this balance. Excess will be wasted and a deficiency would fail to make proper use of the protein content of your food.

If you suffer from a deficiency, therefore, your body cannot make best use of the protein in your diet to the extent that muscle tissue will not be generated during exercise. In fact it causes catabolism, or the breakdown of muscle tissue, resulting in a loss of performance and possible increase in fatty tissue as opposed to lean muscle. The only way to build muscle is take in sufficient nitrogen in the form of amino acids and protein, along with L-leucine to put that protein to best use.

One of the major properties of L-leucine is in stimulating the synthesis of skeletal muscle tissue and by using a supplement, the protein balance can be positive after a workout. It has been shown that this protein balance is generally negative until specifically L-leucine is consumed.

The way it works is to activate a muscle-generating pathway known as mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin). mTOR is normally activated when the levels of ATP in the muscle cells is high, and when these levels drop then mTOR is deactivated. The activity of mTOR is sensitive to the concentration of L-leucine, and when the concentration of the amino acid in the body rises it informs mTOR that the protein in the diet is sufficient to manufacture skeletal muscle tissue, and so mTOR s activated.

Exactly how this is done is unknown, but is a fact the mTOR depends upon both L-leucine concentration and also ATP levels. This amino acid also decreases catabolism through a number of different mechanisms, one of which involves increasing insulin levels.

In fact, when insulin and L-leucine levels increase at the same time, there is a synergy that promotes the synthesis of new protein. Not only that, but the response of insulin to the presence of carbohydrates is enhanced, this resulting in an enhancement of your body's metabolism.

The amino acid can also be used to help those suffering from kidney and liver problems because it increases liver protein synthesis. It is therefore a useful adjunct both to diabetics and those suffering from liver and kidney disease.

However, because L-leucine is an essential amino acid with so many important properties, a deficiency can have specific consequences. Catabolism has been stated earlier as one such reaction to a deficiency, and others include decreased energy levels and irregularities in the levels of blood sugar.

Everything about this substance is not good however, and when taken by itself in excess, it can reduce the amount of the other amino acids in the blood, particularly of the other two branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). This in turn upsets the balance of amino acids, and reduces further the ability of the body to produce muscle tissue until a balanced supplement is taken.

Leucine also helps to maintain the nitrogen balance. It is essential for the human body to maintain a positive nitrogen balance, and L-leucine supports this. In fact, one study has demonstrated that after 12 hours infusion with L-leucine, nitrogen balance was improved by as much as 23%.

A supplement alone is not always sufficient to maintain a positive nitrogen balance. It is generally essential that you rest your body for a sufficient length of time to allow protein to be generated. If you don't take the required amount of rest, a surplus of protein could be used to maintain energy levels rather than replace lost protein and maintain a good nitrogen balance.

A positive nitrogen balance is essential for the generation of muscle tissue, such as in bodybuilding for example, since all proteins contain nitrogen and the net nitrogen intake must exceed the excretion rate. Not in gaseous form, of course, but in the intake of amino acids and proteins. The more positive your nitrogen balance is, the faster you will recover after exercise. It is essential for anabolic exercise.

L-leucine, therefore, is a supplement that can help to maintain your current muscle mass while undergoing strenuous exercise, in addition to increasing it while resting. It offers other health benefits, one being helping to maintain clarity of thought in the aged. However, it is for its effect on muscular build-up and the athletic edge that provides that the supplement is most commonly taken.

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Glycine
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Date: October 11, 2008 10:26 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Glycine


The non-essential amino acid glycine is needed to generate muscle tissue and also for the conversion of blood glucose into energy. It is referred to as being ‘non-essential’ because the body can manufacture its own glycine, and is therefore not an essential component of your diet. Other uses to which glycine is put by the body includes the maintenance of a healthy nervous system, and is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system.

Amino acids play three essential roles in the human body:

1. They are the building blocks of proteins: proteins comprise about half of the dry weight of the majority of your body cells, and without them there would be no life. They are produced using monomers known as amino acids, and there are about 20 different amino acids used to make the vast variety of proteins that make up the human body. Proteins are needed to form enzymes, the catalysts that permit the majority of chemical reactions within our bodies, and also genes, the building blocks of DNA.

2. More relevant here, amino acids play an important role in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) by phosphorylation with Creatine phosphate. The more Creatine phosphate available, the more ATP can be produced. Since ATP is the molecule responsible for the generation of energy, then the more ATP available the more energy is generated. Although Creatine is available from many food sources, it is destroyed by cooking, and over half of what you use is made from the three amino acids, glycine, arginine and methionine. The energy produced in this way is very short-lived, and last only a few seconds - more on that later.

3. Glycine is heavily involved in the production of collagen, which is the substance that maintains the flexibility of your skin and other connective tissues while still maintaining their strength and firmness. Without glycine your skin would become slack due to the degrading effect of sunlight, free radicals and oxidation.

The non essential amino acid, glycine, is believed to offer other benefits to the human body, but it is the second of those above, the production of ATP, which interests us here. ATP is an extremely important nanomolecule, second in importance to the body only to DNA, and possibly also RNA since the two are linked. RNA makes copies of your DNA structure for use in cell division and growth.

When a cell expends energy for whatever reason, such as when I am typing this, or when your heart beats, or even when your liver synthesizes a protein, one of the phosphate groups is removed from the adenosine triphosphate molecule, and converts it to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The ATP is then said to be 'spent', just as your energy is spent when you are tired and can exercise no more.

The ADP is then immediately reconverted to ATP in the mitochondria, a part of every cell in your body. A cell can contain hundreds, or even thousands, of mitochondria, the number depending upon that particular cell's need for energy. Hence, cells in your muscles, or in your liver where most of the body's chemistry takes place, contain thousands of mitochondria whereas those in your scalp contain a lot less. Once changed to ATP, a phosphate is again lost when energy is expended, and so the cycle continues.

Glucose is needed allow the ADP to be converted to ATP, hence the need for sugars, or the carbohydrates from which they are manufactured in your body. Each cell can contain up to a billion molecules of ATP, although the couch potatoes among you probably have a lot less! Your store of ATP molecules last about 2 to 5 seconds before being changed to ADP although more rapidly for athletes that expend a lot of energy. Then the energy stored in the form of glycogen in the liver kicks in for another 4 - 6 seconds.

Additionally, you cannot expend more energy that the (eventual) sugars that you take in your diet, which can be in the form of ordinary 'sugar' (sucrose), fruit (fructose), glucose, carbohydrates that are metabolized into sugars, or any other member of the sugar family (e.g. lactose, maltose, etc.).

Glycine is one of what are called glucogenic amino acids, which refers to their ability to provide glucose to the blood. Because it helps to maintain proper blood glucose levels, it is often prescribed for conditions that are caused by low glucose levels, such as hypoglycemia that shows symptoms of fatigue and tiredness, and also anemia and what is known as CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome).

The one activity of the human body, in fact that of any mammal, for which ATP is essential, is the heartbeat. Without that no mammal could survive, or any other creature that relies on a circulation system for life. The only reason you heart has to beat is to pump your blood around your body, and it is your blood that contains the oxygen and nutrients needed to sustain life. Your cardiovascular health relies on lots of ATP being available to power each and every heartbeat.

Analysis of the heart during the final stages of heart failure has revealed that there is a general decrease in the myocardial arginine: glycine amidinotraferase (AGAT) gene expression, which is indicative of the necessity of this enzyme for proper heart function. The enzyme is responsible for the first stage in the biosynthesis of Creatine from glycine.

Creatine is well known to athletes, and while it is available naturally from some food sources, it can be destroyed during cooking, and at least 50% of the Creatine needed by the body is produced in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. It is Creatine phosphate that is broken down into Creatine and phosphate, the latter of which is used by the mitochondria to regenerate ATP from ADP.

The study carried out on the reduced AGAT levels found in heart failure patients indicates the importance of glycine to heart health. Without a good supply of glycine, there will insufficient Creatine produced biochemically to generate the phosphate needed to for the ATP to produce the energy required to keep the heart pumping with the required strength. The energy provided by the mitochondria is used locally by the cells in which it is produced, and within a few seconds of that production. As explained earlier, ATP stores are used up within 2 - 5 seconds, and glycogen stores within another 4 - 6 seconds.

That is why sprinters cannot keep running at maximum speed for more than around 10 seconds or so, because the immediate availability of glycine, and hence Creatine, are insufficient to last longer than that. That is one reason why they have to finish those 100 meters as fast as possible, because otherwise they would run out of energy. Other than trying to win, of course!

However, when it comes to the heart, ATP stores are essential, and the cells in your heart require a constant supply of ATP from Creatine, which itself depends upon your intake or biosynthesis of glycine. Since dietary sources are insufficient to meet all your needs, and destroyed by cooking, a glycine supplement is the only way to ensure a sufficient intake. You cannot undernourish your heart and remain healthy.

ATP biosynthesis is essential if that of glycine theoretically is not, but the fact that 50% of your glycine requirement has to be produced by your body and the other 50% is sensitive to heat during cooking, a supplement of glycine could be essential to many people.



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This Amino Acid may help your heart… and your heart’s desire.
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Date: May 24, 2006 05:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: This Amino Acid may help your heart… and your heart’s desire.

Give all to love, obey thy heart,” cries the poet, and most of us have felt the link between our hearts and our passionate feelings. In the more reasoned language of science, what connects the heart with the heat of amore is blood flowing freely through relaxed, wide-open arteries.

That’s where Arginine comes in. This amino acid (protein building block) has stirred excitement because of its ability to improve blood flow. Scientists now think that one reason nuts promote heart health, in addition to their high omega-3 content, is because they provide plenty of Arginine (as do other high-protein foods such as meat, cheese and eggs), and supplemental Arginine has been linked to improvements in cardiovascular function. This nutrient is also under the microscope as a way to promote healthy sexual functioning in both men and women.

Arteries Unclenched

As often as we’ve heart the heart described as a pump and the blood vessels as pipes, the plumbing analogy doesn’t entirely hold. For one thing, arteries—those vessels that carry oxygen and nutrient rich blood from the heart to the body are dynamic creations, with muscular walls that can narrow or widen as needed. One of the chemicals that control this process is called nitric oxide, and Arginine plays a crucial role in nitric oxide production.

Because the body can create its own stores, Arginine is classified as a non-essential amino-acid. However, scientists now think that getting a supplemental supply (in the form of L-Arginine) may be best for optimal well-being. In a well-designed multinational study, for example, men with high cholesterol who took l-Arginine experienced drops in both blood pressure and homocysteine, a substance associated with heart attack and stroke (Journal of nutrition 2/05). And a research team at UCLA believes that combining l-Arginine with such antioxidants as vitamin C and E may reduce inflammation that can lead to blocked coronary blood vessels.

Ardor Enabled

Arginine’s ability to stimulate bountiful blood flow supports enhanced intimacy, which is both genders depends on a fully activated circulatory system. In fact, Arginine’s effects on nitric oxide are similar to those of Viagra and comparable drugs except that Arginine “is much less dangerous,” according to nationally noted herbalist Ellen Kamhi.

Men and women experiencing sexual dysfunction enjoyed greater levels of satisfaction after taking an Arginine based supplement, and the ladies reported having better relationships with their partners. What’s more, Arginine has helped infertile men by making sperm stronger and healthier.

Arginine may also help keep things pumping smoothly as the gym. It promotes the release of human growth hormone, which helps muscles grow bigger, and boosts the production of Creatine, which serves as a power pack for high-intensity sports. What’s more, Arginine helps the body rid itself of ammonia, a toxic byproduct of physical activity. The amino acid’s ability to enable protein creation aids not only athletes but also people recovering from wounds, including those associated with surgery and burns. (note: the herpes virus that causes cold sores thrives on Arginine; avoid supplements if your having an outbreak.)

When the mind is willing but the body falls short, let Arginine unleash your potential. –Lisa James, Energy Times.



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ABC News Calls for Input on Children and Supplements
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Date: April 26, 2006 04:39 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: ABC News Calls for Input on Children and Supplements

April 26th 2006,

ABC News Calls for Input on Children and Supplements

For a future report, ABC News has issued a call for “Stories” from parents whose children have taken dietary supplements. Queries like these, posted on the ABC News website, are used to identify potential participants for upcoming news programs, such as “World News Tonight” and “20/20.”

To help ensure that ABC News hears from consumers who have had positive experiences, NNFA urges retailers to pass this information onto customers who purchase supplements for their children.

“This is a great opportunity to get in on the ground floor of a news story while it is still developing,” Said David Seckman, NNFA’s executive director and CEO, “Retailers especially should know of consumers who have a personal story about how dietary supplements have positively impacted the health of their children.”

The text of the query, which is in the business section of the ABC News Web Site, is as follows:

“Do you give your children Echinacea, melatonin or other supplements? Have you tried nonprescription treatments for your child’s ADHD or other aliments? Maybe you’re found that your teenager buys Creatine of muscle building or has experimented with with herbal mood enhancers. If this sounds like you and you’d like to share your story, please fill out the form below and let us know whether an AFC News producer may contact you to possibly include you in one of our reports. Make sure to include a phone number where you can be reached, and we may give you a call.”

Those wishing to answer the query, which is located in the “Money” section of the ABC News Web site, can go to the following link: //abcnews.go.com/business/story?id=1884324 and complete and submit the web form. While anyone can submit their information, news organizations typically give preference to those without a connection to the industry about which they are reporting. NNFA will also be contacting ABC News directly to help ensure this story is accurate and balanced.



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Instant Energy B-12 2000mcg per serving 75 packets/Box
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Date: February 16, 2006 03:46 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Instant Energy B-12 2000mcg per serving 75 packets/Box

Of all the vitamins, minerals, herbs and specialized dietary supplements at the disposal of the health-conscious public, not a single one can mirror the biological complexity of Vitamin B-12. It is involved in thousands upon thousands of chemical reactions throughout the body, and its presence has a direct influence on energy, red blood cell production, metabolism, central nervous system function, cardiovascular health, cognitive function, emotion, DNA repair and digestion, just to scratch the surface.*

Our researchers and product formulators had one goal in mind – to develop a vitamin B-12 formula that was superior to anything to precede it – a potent, fast-acting B-12 complex capable of expediting delivery while maximizing uptake. After months of research and development, this was accomplished by uniting cyanocobalamin (the primary form of B-12) with the vitamin’s two co-enzyme forms (methylcobalamin and dibencozide) in perfect balance. But we didn’t stop there. To further enhance the activity of this one-of-a-kind formula, we merged the three with a group of proven synergists that includes Chromium Picolinate, Creatine Monohydrate, and a optimally balanced arrangement of 6 additional B vitamins.

It’s clear that B-12 plays a vital role in human health. Unfortunately, many consumers might not be aware of just how vital it is. As we age, it becomes increasingly difficult for the body to properly utilize, and is almost non-existent in many processed foods. This makes B-12 especially important for people over the age of 50, as well as vegetarians, those who regularly consume fast and processed foods, social drinkers and individuals who live with digestive challenges. Simply put, you can feel completely confident recommending NOW® Instant Energy B-12 Packs to virtually any customer trying to take charge of their health.*

NOW® Instant Energy B-12 makes it simple to get the B-12 they need to function at their absolute best. NOW’s unique collaboration of all three B-12 forms goes to work quickly to effectively boost energy, support cognitive health, promote normal homocysteine conversion and support healthy red blood cell production. Our convenient packets can be taken throughout the day, and are perfect for the office, the car or when traveling.*

Serving Size 1 Packet
Thiamine (from Thiamine HC1) 1.5 mg
Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) 1.7 mg
Vitamin B-3 (as Niacinamide) 20 mg
Vitamin B-6 (from Pyridoxine HC1) 2 mg
Folate (as Folic Acid) 400 mcg
Vitamin B-12 2 mg (2,000 mcg)
Cyanocobalamin 1.4 mg (1,400 mcg)
Methylcobalamin 300 mcg
Dibencozide 300 mcg
Vitamin B-5 (from Calcium d-Pantothenate) 30 mg
Chromium (from Chromium Picolinate) 60 mcg
Creatine Monohydrate 250 mg



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Benefits of L-Carnitine
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Date: February 12, 2006 03:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of L-Carnitine

Benefits

Helps the body burn fat for energy*

L-Carnitine promotes energy production in cells by transporting fatty acids into the mitochondrion. Its primary function is to transfer long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Fatty acid molecules are activated to coenzyme A (CoA) esters in the cytoplasm of the cell, and then esterified to L-Carnitine. The combination of a fatty acid molecule and L-Carnitine is called “acyl-carnitine.” Much of the body's L-Carnitine content is stored in the form of acyl-carnitine.1

The mitochondrion is the cell’s energy-generating furnace. Called an “organelle,” the mitochondrion is a self-contained structure inside the cell. Like all cellular structures, the mitochondrion is surrounded by a membrane. This membrane is an impenetrable barrier to acyl-CoA esters; passage across the membrane requires L-Carnitine as a transporter. On the inside of the mitochondrial membrane, the acyl-CoA esters are made available to be metabolized through the process of beta oxidation. One of the key metabolic byproducts of this process is acetyl-CoA, also called “active acetate,” which enters the Krebs cycle (also known as the “citric acid cycle”) to supply fuel for production of ATP, the cell’s primary energy “currency.” L-Carnitine shuttles excess fatty acid residues out of the mitochondrion, and in this role is essential for preventing toxic buildup of fatty acids inside the mitochondrion.

Evidence suggests that L-Carnitine and short chain acyl-carnitine esters can protect the mitochondrion from adverse effects of drugs and toxic chemicals. L-Carnitine has been shown to protect animals form cardiotoxins and decrease mortality rate in animals with diphtheria, due to this cardioprotective effect.2

Helps maintain a healthy heart and cardiovascular system*

Muscle tissue contains a high concentration of L-Carnitine. With its constant energy needs, heart muscle tissue is especially rich in L-Carnitine. If the body’s ability to biosynthesize L-Carnitine is compromised, energy production in muscle tissue is impaired, and a toxic buildup of fatty acids can occur.3 Defective production of L-Carnitine by the body can result from a variety of factors, including kidney or liver malfunction, increased catabolism or the inability of tissues to extract and retain L-Carnitine from the blood.

Along with glucose and lactate, fatty acids are the primary oxidation fuel for the heart. A considerable amount of scientific data from animal experiments indicates that L-Carnitine protects the heart under conditions of hypoxia, or low oxygen. In addition to the oxidation of fat for energy in the cell, L-Carnitine is involved in the metabolism of glucose.4 Evidence of L-Carnitine’s role in glucose metabolism was uncovered in a small trial on 9 diabetic individuals. Given intravenously, L-Carnitine improved insulin-mediated glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity.5

Depletion of the body’s L-Carnitine supply is linked to various abnormal states, especially of the heart muscle. The effect of L-Carnitine on hypoxic (oxygen-starved) isolated heart muscle tissue has been studied.6 At high concentrations, L-Carnitine demonstrates a clear-cut ability to potentiate the contractility of isolated heart muscle tissue, indicating the L-Carnitine has a strengthening effect on the heart. L-Carnitine has been shown to improve the performance of rats subjected to fatigue test.

Research has revealed that in animals and humans with defective heart muscle, the amount of free L-Carnitine (not bound to fatty acids) is reduced. Administration of L-Carnitine to hamsters prevents damage to the heart muscle. Given to humans with angina, L-Carnitine was found to improve exercise tolerance. In a small study, patients with congestive heart failure showed gains in heart function with oral consumption of L-Carnitine, reportedly by restoring normal oxidation of fatty acids.7 In heart valve replacement patients, L-Carnitine has been shown to increase the valve tissue levels of ATP, pyruvate and Creatine phosphate, which are key cellular energy substrates. In a controlled study, L-Carnitine was administered to 38 patients prior to open heart surgery. Prior to surgery, heart circulatory function, as assessed by measurements of hemodynamics, was “good” in all 38. While there was evidence of a “preserving” effect of L-Carnitine on heart cells, no differences in cardiac performance were observed. These results suggest that noticeable improvements in heart muscle performance with L-Carnitine are most likely to occur in people with compromised hearts.8

It has been suggested that L-Carnitine favorably influences blood lipids. Preliminary evidence of this was seen in a small open trial on 26 patients who took 3 grams of L-Carnitine daily for 40 days. Blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides dropped substantially, while the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol–– a known marker of cardiovascular health––markedly improved.9

While L-Carnitine is not a treatment for heart disease, (nor should it be used as a substitute for medical treatment) the results of these and other studies suggest that oral consumption of L-Carnitine has a beneficial influence on maintaining a healthy heart and cardiovascular system.



Safety

Suggested Adult Use: Take 1 to 4 capsules daily without food.

L-Carnitine is considered to be very safe for oral consumption. L-Carnitine is generally well tolerated, even at doses as high as 15 grams daily. Toxicity or overdosage has not been reported.10



Scientific References
1. Wagenmakers, A. L-Carnitine supplementation and performance in man. Brouns, F. ed. Advances in Nutrition and Top Sport. Med Sport Sci. Basel, Karger, 1991;32:110-27.
2. Arrigoni-Martelli, E., Caso, V. Carnitine protects mitochondria and removes toxic acyls from xenobiotics. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 2001;27(1):27-49)
3. Pepine, C.J. The therapeutic potential of carnitine in cardiovascular disorders. Clinical Therapeutics 1991;13(1):2-21.
4. Calvani, M., Reda, E., Arrigoni-Martelli, E. Regulation by carnitine of myocardial fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Basic Research in Cardiology 2000;95(2):75-83.
5. Capaldo, B. et al. Carnitine improves peripheral glucose disposal in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 1991;14:191-96.
6. Fanelli, O. Carnitine and acetyl-carnitine, natural substances endowed with interesting pharmacological properties. Life Sciences 1978;23:2563-2570.
7. Kobayashi, A., Masumura, Y., Yamazaki, N. L-Carnitine treatment for congestive heart failure-experimental and clinical study. Japanese Circulation Journal 1992;56:86-94.
8. Pastoris, O. et al. Effect of L-Carnitine on myocardial metabolism: results of a balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients undergoing heart surgery. Pharmacological Research 1998;37(2):115-22.
9. Pola, P. et al. Carnitine in the therapy of dyslipidemic patients. Current Therapeutic Research 1980;27(2):208-16.
10. L-Carnitine. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. First Ed. 2001.Montvale, NJ:Medical Economics.



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The edge
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Date: December 30, 2005 08:55 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The edge

The edge

If you consider yourself a serious, competitionminded athlete, you already know how important the “edge” is when it comes to your success. Regardless of whether it’s shaving a second off your personal best, squeezing out one more rep on the bench, or bumping up your batting average by just a tenth of a point, the difference between achieving fi rst place and an honorable mention may be a simple as knowing what specialty nutrients can make it so.

Thanks to impressive advances in the science of sports nutrition, there are plenty to choose from these days. Creatine monohydrate, for example, helps foster the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a mitochondrial chemical that makes it possible to store, produce and use energy for muscular contractions. Another, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), help increase protein synthesis by promoting anabolic balance by preventing the catabolism that typically occurs during intense training. Pyruvate, a unique pairing of calcium and pyruvic acid, helps facilitate the transfer of glucose from the bloodstream into muscles where it supports the production of metabolic energy.

When it comes to fueling your body with the nutrients and compounds it needs to perform at its pinnacle, quality takes top priority. Purchasing a line of supplements based on the allure of the label won’t do a thing for your ability to improve, physically. In fact, it may end up costing you more than just money in the long run. NOW Sports supplements are developed under the same demanding, science-based standards inherent to every NOW product, and guaranteed to be exceptional in potency, purity and quality.

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Carnitine Creatinate
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Date: December 08, 2005 03:33 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Carnitine Creatinate

Carnitine Creatinate

Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 6/30/05

LIKELY USERS: Athletes, Bodybuilders, Dieters, People who consume a lot of fat, People needing cardiovascular support (energy for the heart), People who need quick energy, especially for fast muscle response, People with muscle wasting problems (including the elderly), Weightlifters

KEY INGREDIENTS: L-Carnitine and Creatine Monohydrate

MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: Carnitine Creatinate Monohydrate is a specialized form of Creatine bonded to L-Carnitine. Creatine is a compound natural to the human body that aids in the regeneration of ATP, the chemical energy used by muscle tissue. During exercise, large quantities of Creatine are irreversibly consumed. Clinical studies have shown that oral supplementation with Creatine can increase the amount of Creatine available in muscles for ATP production. L-Carnitine is an amino acid that is necessary for the transfer of fatty acids into the fat-burning parts of the cell, facilitating energy production from fat. The combination of these two compounds can produce a synergistic effect, making NOW® Carnitine Creatinate an ideal energy supplement.

ADDITIONAL PRODUCT USE INFORMATION & QUALITY ISSUES: Carnitine and Creatinate Monohydrate is a patented ingredient that has been the subject of research studies. It is supported by the scientific staff in the laboratories of both NOW Foods and the raw material supplier, both of which have a mutual interest in protecting the integrity and efficacy of this product. Protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,994,581 (L-Carnitine Creatinate Monohydrate).

Look at the price: this is a better way to buy both supplements than purchasing them separately.

This formula is suitable for vegetarians and is offered in both tablet and powder forms.

SERVING SIZE & HOW TO TAKE IT: As a dietary supplement, every two tablets provide 1,000 mg. (one gram) each of both L-Carnitine and Creatine Monohydrate. Or one teaspoon provides 1,150 mg.) each of both L-Carnitine and Creatine Monohydrate. Take one or more servings per day with a carbohydrate source, such as fruit juice or sports drinks.

COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS: CoQ10, carbohydrates, B-Complex vitamins, chromium, vanadium, Hawthorn leaf and flower extract, protein supplements. Adaptogenic herbs: ginsengs, Eleuthero, Rhodiola, Maca, Ashwaganda, licorice root

CAUTIONS: none.

PRODUCT SPECIFIC: This product is very sensitive to moisture. Please keep in the original packaging or in a moisture resistant container. Do not take more than 20 grams per day. Discontinue use if cramps of stomach upset occur, especially if taking large doses. Do not take if kidney disease is present. Do not use large doses of caffeine with Creatine, as it may increase the possibility of muscle cramping.

GENERAL: Pregnant and lactating women and people using prescription drugs should consult their physician before taking any dietary supplement. When taking any new supplement, use common sense and cautiously increase to the full dose over time to avoid any potential problems.

Packages may contain moisture or oxygen controlling packets or canisters that are not intended for consumption. In order to maintain maximum freshness, please do not remove these from your bottle (until the bottle is empty). Please recycle your container.

Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

REFERENCES:

Fang S-M (1998) Carnitine Creatinate. U.S. Patent 5,994,581.

L-CARNITINE:

Beers MH, Berkow R (eds). The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc, 1999, 881-3.

Broquist HP (1994) Carnitine, in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed., Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M (eds.) Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp. 459-465. Casey A, Greenhoff PL (2000) Does dietary Creatine supplementation play a role in skeletal muscle metabolism and performance? Am J Clin Nutr 72(suppl):607S-17S. Columbani P, Wenk C, Kunz I, et al. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double blind crossover field study. Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:434-9.

Dal Negro R, Pomari G, Zoccatelli O, Turco P. L-carnitine and rehabilitative respiratory physiokinesitherapy: metabolic and ventilatory response in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986;24:453-6.

Dal Negro R, Turco P, Pomari C, De Conti F. Effects of L-carnitine on physical performance in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1988;26:269-72.

Del Favero A. Carnitine and gangliosides. Lancet 1988;2:337 [letter].

Dipalma JR. Carnitine deficiency. Am Fam Physician 1988;38:243–51.

Digiesi V, Palchetti R, Cantini F. The benefits of L-carnitine in essential arterial hypertension. Minerva Med 1989;80:227-31.

Giamberardino MA, Dragani L, Valente R, et al. Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort. Int J Sports Med 1996;17:320-4.

Green RE, Levine AM, Gunning MJ. The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on lean body mass in male amateur body builders. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;(suppl):A-72.

Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E (1992) Elevation of Creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by Creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 83(3):367-374.

Kendler BS. Carnitine: an overview of its role in preventive medicine. Prev Med 1986;15:373–90.

Kobayashi A, Masumura Y, Yamazaki N. L-carnitine treatment for congestive heart failure—experimental and clinical study. Jpn Circ J 1992;56:86–94.

Murray MT. The many benefits of carnitine. Am J Natural Med 1996;3:6-14 [review].

Tamamogullari N, Silig Y, Icagasioglu S, Atalay A. Carnitine deficiency in diabetes mellitus complications. J Diabetes Complications 1999;13:251–3.

Yesilipek MA, Hazar V, Yegin O. L-Carnitine treatment in beta thalassemia major. Acta Haematol 1998;100:162-3. Creatine MONOHYDRATE: Almada A, Mitchell T, Earnest C. Impact of chronic Creatine supplementation on serum enzyme concentrations. FASEB J 1996;10:4567.

Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral Creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8.

Casey A, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Howell S, et al. Creatine supplementation favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal intensity exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 1996;271:E31-E7.

Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure Creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci 1996;91:113-8.

Earnest C, Almada A, Mitchell T. Influence of chronic Creatine supplementation on hepatorenal function. FASEB J 1996;10:4588.

Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, et al. The effect of Creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;153:207-9.

Felber S, Skladal D, Wyss M, et al. Oral Creatine supplementation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a clinical and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neurol Res 2000;22:145-50.

Feldman EB. Creatine: a dietary supplement and ergogenic aid. Nutr Rev 1999;57:45–50.

Green AL, Hultman E, Macdonald IA, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle Creatine accumulation during Creatine supplementation in man. Am J Physiol 1996;271:E821–6.

Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments Creatine retention during Creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202.

Greenhaff PL. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Int J Sport Nutr 1995;5:94-101.

Greenhaff PL. The nutritional biochemistry of Creatine. J Nutr Biochem 1997;8:610-8 [review].

Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Soderlund K, et al. Effect of oral Creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphoCreatine resynthesis. Am J Physiol 1994;266:E725-30.

Greenhaff PL, Casey A, Short AH, et al. Influence of oral Creatine supplementation on muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin Sci 1993;84:565-71.

Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of Creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by Creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 1992;83:367-74.

Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons J, et al. Muscle Creatine loading in man. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:232–7.

Juhn MS, O’Kane JW, Vinci DM. Oral Creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:593–5.

Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of Creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82.

Poortmans JR, Auquier H. Renaut V, et al. Effect of short-term Creatine supplementation on renal responses in men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;76:566–7.

Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral Creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1108–10.

Pritchard NR, Kaira PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral Creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;351:1252–3 [letter].

Sewell DA, Robinson TM, Casey A, et al. The effect of acute dietary Creatine supplementation upon indices of renal, hepatic and haematological function in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 1998;57:17A.

Silber ML. Scientific facts behind Creatine monohydrate as a sports nutrition supplement. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999;39:179–88 [review].

Sipila I, Rapola J, Simell O, et al. Supplementary Creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. N Engl J Med 1981;304:867-70.

Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5-weeks) Creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65.

Stout JR, Eckerson J, Noonan D, et al. The effects of a supplement designed to augment Creatine uptake on exercise performance and fat-free mass in football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:S251.

Tarnopolsky MA. Potential benefits of Creatine monohydrate supplementation in the elderly. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2000;3:497-502 [review].

Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology 1999;52:854-7.

Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of Creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Muscle Nerve 1997;20:1502-9.

Toler SM. Creatine is an ergogen for anaerobic exercise. Nutr Rev 1997;55:21-5 [review].

Vandenberghe K, Gills N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle Creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452–7.

Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term Creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63.

Walter MC, Lochmuller H, Reilich P, Klopstock T, Huber R, Hartard M, Hennig M, Pongratz D, Muller-Felber W. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology. 2000 May 9;54(9):1848-50. PMID: 10802796

Walter MC, Reilich P, Lochmuller H, Kohnen R, Schlotter B, Hautmann H, Dunkl E, Pongratz D, Muller-Felber W. Creatine monohydrate in myotonic dystrophy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Neurol. 2002 Dec;249(12):1717-22. PMID: 12529796



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Energy Vitamins
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Date: June 11, 2005 05:50 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Energy Vitamins

Energy Vitamins by Daniel Mowrey, PhD Energy Times, June 7, 1998

Do you suffer groggy mornings clouded with tired and achy feelings? Do you have to struggle to muster sufficient energy to cope with the day? Then, throughout the morning and afternoon, does frequent fatigue, weakness or depression persist on your horizon like an ugly storm cloud? And your evening may bring little relief as you slump into bed for a restless night, only to begin the same routine the next morning. If lack of vim and vigor plagues your days and nights, your body may be suffering from an inability to synthesize sufficient energy.

Our lives depend on processing the food we eat into substances our cells can take in and use. In a never-ending cycle, our body breaks food down and reconstructs the components to form body structures and burn as energy.

How much you exercise, the food and supplements you eat and how much you sleep influence the efficiency of these processes.

Vitamins and Energy

Certain nutrients are called vitamins because they are crucial for vitality. These nutrients are essential to a productive life, the starting point for all life-giving and life-sustaining processes. Because of vitamins' crucial role in energy production, many people can perk up their stamina simply by consuming an adequate supply of vitamins in their daily diet. Since many vitamins - especially the ones concerned with energy - must be constantly replenished, a decent diet and the right supplements must be consumed every day.

Be Energetic with B Vitamins

Vitamins, especially the B vitamins, play extremely important roles in producing cellular energy. Their most important roles are shown in the illustration on page 48. The chart on page 46 lists the key vitamins and describes their effects as well as the consequences of not getting enough of them. Their effect is felt most profoundly in the energy producing process known as the Krebs cycle (which we'll explain in a moment).

Vitamins B2 and B3, for example, supply the major building blocks for substances called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and FADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH) which are critical elements of producing energy in the Krebs cycle as well as a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

Even though you may never have heard of NAD and NADH, these molecules are found in many places in your body; they play a role in hundreds of biochemical reactions in all kinds of cells. B vitamins also combine with other materials to build coenzymes, chemicals which help form other chemicals necessary for cellular energy. B vitamins are crucial: miss out on one or more and you may break these metabolic chains necessary for peak energy.

Energy to Spend

The main energy currency of every cell is ATP: adenosine triphosphate. This material is used by cells for every imaginable task including reproduction, growth, movement and metabolism. Specialized metabolic cycles within the cell are designed to generate ATP.

Consequently, the more ATP our cells create, the more energy can be generated. The raw materials used to make cellular energy are glucose (blood sugar) and "free" fatty acids. The best way to supply your cells with the sugar they need is to consume complex carbohydrates which also supply fiber and other nutrients. When you eat carbohydrates, they are made into glucose which is stored as a starch called glycogen in muscles and the liver. Your body can rapidly turn glycogen into glucose for extra energy (The process of making energy from glycogen yields carbon dioxide and water as well as ATP.)

Making Energy

The first step in making glucose into energy is called glycolysis. This complicated process requires nine different steps. During these steps, glucose is made into a substance called pyruvate. The process of glycolysis requires ATP, but yields twice as much ATP as is present when it starts.

From here, the process gets a little more complicated as pyruvate enters into a complex chain of events in tiny cellular structures called mitochondria. (Many metabolic events take place in the mitochondria.) The pyruvate molecules are converted to a molecule known as acetyl coenzyme A and eventually made into carbon dioxide, water and more ATP. This process is known as the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. It also involves a series of events known as oxidative phosphorylation in which NADH formed during the Krebs cycle is oxidized to form ATP.

Why is fat such a concentrated source of energy? Free fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle to help generate ATP much more efficiently than glucose - producing roughly six times more energy per gram than glucose.

Get Your Vitamins Every Day

While we rely on our diet to supply many of our vitamins, a B complex supplement and multi-vitamins can ensure you consume sufficient amounts of these crucial nutrients.

Many experts agree that a diet rich in raw fruits, nuts and vegetables that minimizes saturated fat can supply adequate a-mounts of these nutrients. Other supplements that may aid energy production:

Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioxidant that works in the fatty tissues of cell membranes and in cells' watery interiors. CoQ10, a nutrient that protects cell membranes, especially of the heart, against oxidation and toxins. Plus, herbs such as suma, ginseng and licorice root as well as Creatine, carnitine and pyruvate.

Of course if you suffer from any long term, intractable fatigue, consult your health practitioner. But for most cases of decreased vim and vigor, adequate vitamins should help your body recover your get up and go.



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Summer Sports Nutrition Guide
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Date: June 11, 2005 03:54 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Summer Sports Nutrition Guide

Summer Sports Nutrition Guide by Joyce Dewon Energy Times, June 18, 2004

If you're hooked on exercise you're probably just as hooked on using top-notch equipment when you work out. Those who are serious about staying in shape buy the best running shoes, carefully pick out the best bikes and tread on durable treadmills. But do you pay just as much attention to your nutrition?

Scientists who have studied exercise have found that what you eat before, during and after workouts is crucial to maintaining your health, getting into shape and staying fit. To achieve your best athletic performance without getting injured or sick depends on optimum nutrition. When you carefully plan what to feed your exercised body, it rewards you by feeling and looking better.

Short 'n Sweet

If you thought long exercise sessions were the only ways to get decent exercise benefits, take notice: small doses of exercise during the week can go a long way. " The important thing, apparently, is just do it," says Howard D. Sesso, ScD, author of an American Heart Association study on exercise and heart disease. In his study, exercisers demonstrated that several short sessions of exercise were as good for the body as a single long session (Circ 8/00; 102:975-80). " Short sessions lasting 15 minutes long appear to be helpful,"Dr. Sesso explains. Even walking about three miles per week, which is a moderate level of exercise, lowers your risk of heart disease by 10%.

No Sweat?

Some people glorify in working up a sweat; others curse the dampness. But putting in extra effort in even short bursts of activity pays off: experts have found that intense exercise burns more calories than more relaxed sessions, more effectively reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease and helps stabilize blood sugar levels. In addition, it stimulates production of human growth hormone, which offsets some of the effects of aging (Exp Biol Med 2004 Mar; 229(3):240-6).

But don't go crazy if you haven't worked out in a long time. The intensity of the workout should match your physical fitness. According to the American Heart Association, when people exercise at a comfortable pace, their heart rate and level of exertion stay within a safe range, but still high enough to benefit their health. Strenuous activities, for those who can handle them, produce the most physiological bang for the jog. But brisk walking within your own level of fitness still offers significant benefits.

Feeding Your Muscles

When you exercise, you work and develop your muscles, which are made primarily out of protein. Despite this fact, many exercise experts have advocated high-carb diets for athletes. But, as John Ivy, PhD, and Robert Portman, PhD, point out in their book The Performance Zone (Basic Health), "[While] there is no doubt that aerobic athletes require more carbohydrate than strength athletes...we are now discovering that the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement offers significant benefits to aerobic athletes."

That is why researchers believe that consuming plenty of protein along with carbohydrates offers the best fitness benefits. Protein helps fuel activity more efficiently and aids in recovery after a session at the gym, allowing your body to repair muscle damage and build up muscle fibers.

During exercise, you break down muscle tissue. It is during recovery, after your exercise session ends, that muscles are rebuilt. At the same time, other cellular processes take place that adapt the body to working out.

According to Ivy and Portman, timing your intake of nutrients after exercise is crucial: "The ability of the muscle machinery to regenerate itself decreases very rapidly after a workout, so that the nutrients consumed more than 45 minutes after exercise will have far less impact in helping the muscles regenerate than nutrients consumed earlier."

Stresses and Tears

Engaging in athletics can cause microscopic muscle tears. These tears can cause a range of problems that, when you exercise excessively, can cause pain and injury.

Inflammation is the body's response to cellular damage. The damaged area can swell as the body sends white blood cells and other cells to repair the injured area. Unfortunately, the swelling can further damage the muscle cells.

Since inflammation can take 24 hours or more to cause the collection of cells in the injured area, it can be a day or two before the resulting muscle soreness reaches its peak painfulness and then starts to subside.

Cortisol, a hormone produced when you exercise strenuously, which can result in muscle fiber damage. Cortisol boosts protein breakdown, so it can be used to fuel muscle movement. But the more protein breaks down, the more potential exists for muscle fiber injury. Free radicals are caustic molecules that are created when the mitochondria (small structures in cells) create energy; these marauders can also cause microscopic shredding of muscle strands. As you increase your use of energy during exercise, you simultaneously increase the production of free radicals. This collection of free radicals can outstrip the body's antioxidant defenses, leading to extensive muscle damage and dampening of the immune system.

All of these cellular events can make you sore. They are also the reasons that athletes who overdo it day after day are liable to come down with nagging colds and a variety of infections.

Muscle Fuel

Your muscles use different substances for fuel depending on what you ask them to do. Lift a heavy weight and muscles recruit two processes called the Creatine phosphate system and glycolysis to generate a large amount of quick energy. These are known as anaerobic types of energy production.

But if you jog, swim, bike or perform any other aerobic activity, the cells use oxygen in what is called cellular respiration to supply energy to working muscles.

When you exercise aerobically for extended periods of time, the energy available is generally limited by how much oxygen your body is capable of taking in and supplying to the muscles, where it takes part in energy production. In athletic circles, this upper limit is known as your VO2max.

The carbohydrates your body burns for energy during aerobic activity are taken from blood sugar and carbohydrate reserves called glycogen. (The muscles store glycogen, as does the liver.) During a workout session, your glycogen supply is limited to what is stored with your muscles. But blood glucose can be boosted by carbohydrate drinks, energy gels or bars.

Most people who work out have enough glycogen and blood sugar to fuel moderate aerobic activity for about two hours. After that, the body turns mostly to fat and protein stores to fuel exercise.

Fat Into the Fire

In contrast to the body's quickly diminishing supply of glycogen and blood sugar, fat can last for hours and hours of exercise. According to Portman and Ivy, a 200-pound man with 15% body fat has, theoretically, enough fat energy to run from Washington DC down to Miami Beach-and still has enough energy left over to jump into the ocean.

But using fat for energy is complicated; fat is stored in fat tissue and not readily available to working muscles. Plus, to burn fat for energy, the body needs carbohydrate-it cannot burn fat all by itself. What's more, the conversion of fat into energy doesn't go as quickly as carb conversion.

Protein is also used for energy when carbs run low. But the more you use protein for energy, the more you risk soreness as muscle fibers break down.

Prepare to Energize

To maximize your energy during exercise and minimize soreness, Portman and Ivy recommend some simple nutritional steps:

  • • Drink 14 to 20 ounces of water or a sports drink with electrolytes about a half hour before you work out. Consuming fluid helps stave off dehydration longer, helps you sweat more (which cools your body) and moderates the rise in body temperature that takes place during exercise. Portman and Ivy favor sports drinks to help you retain fluid and maintain your mineral balance.
  • • Eat carbohydrates an hour before exercising, which boosts glycogen and increases blood sugar and insulin. Portman and Ivy add that, alternatively, you can also consume a protein/carbohydrate sports drink about half an hour before working out. The protein helps protect muscle protein from being broken down.
  • • Drink small amounts of fluid frequently as you exercise to replace water lost through sweating. While some experts recommend only drinking enough to quench your thirst, most researchers agree that a sports drink with electrolytes is best to ensure proper mineral balance in your body.
  • • Consume carbs and protein during exercise. Portman and Ivy note that soccer players who consume sports drinks that contain electrolytes, carbohydrates and a bit of protein can perform more effectively. Cyclists who go on bike rides of three hours or more enjoy more endurance when they eat energy bars or consume other sources of carb and protein. Portman and Ivy advocate drinks that contain carbs and protein in a 4:1 ratio.

    Limit Soreness

    Taking protein and carbs while working out can limit muscle damage and curtail soreness. Carbs apparently drop your cortisol levels, and thereby limit muscle injuries linked to this hormone. While the mechanism that helps protein limit muscle soreness is not completely understood, it is possible that taking in protein while working out keeps the body from shredding muscle tissue in search of fuel.

    Supplements that contain antioxidants such as natural vitamin E and vitamin C (Portman and Ivy think you should take these during exercise) may limit free radical damage to muscle fibers.

    Muscle Reconstruction Plan

    If you want to help your exercise plan make you stronger, you should focus your after-exercise sports nutrition plan on these steps:

  • • Help your muscles recover from damage during activity and stimulate the rebuilding process
  • • Replace glycogen (carbohydrates) the muscles have used up during your workout
  • • Reinforce your immune system
  • • Replace water and minerals lost in sweat Even after you stop exercising, your muscles are still breaking down, according to Ivy and Portman. The key to putting the brakes on this breakdown and initiating the rebuilding process is by consuming a combination of protein and carbohydrate within 45 minutes after your workout is completed.

    The protein part of the equation is vital: don't merely indulge in only carbs after exercising. A recent study found that while carbs could help muscles rebuild, adding protein can make a big difference in improving your fitness (J App Phys 2/04).

    This combination of nutrients stimulates the pancreas so that it releases insulin. The release of insulin is the key, initial step that sets off a cascade of physiological events that speeds muscle recovery. Although many people think of insulin as an undesirable hormone-if you never exercise, too much insulin may help drive your blood sugar down and cause other problems-for exercisers, this hormone plays a crucial function in benefiting from exercise.

    By eating carbohydrate and protein soon after working out and stimulating insulin, according to Ivy and Portman, you help your body boost its synthesis of protein by:

  • • Increasing the amount of amino acids (protein building blocks) that get into the muscles-this can increase by up to 50%
  • • Increasing the production of protein synthesizing enzymes by up to two-thirds
  • • Slowing the breakdown of muscle proteins

    Drinking for Exercise The most obvious nutrient you lose during intensive exercise is water in your perspiration. However, that perspiration also contains an array of minerals known as electrolytes. So, for optimal performance and health, experts recommend you replace both the water and its minerals.

    Merely drinking water-instead of electrolyte-filled sports drinks-during prolonged aerobic activity can be dangerous. It leaves you vulnerable to a condition called hyponatremia, which can occur when your blood levels of sodium and other electrolytes drop, but your blood volume stays steady or increases because you drink lots of water.

    According to Edmund Burke, PhD, in his book Optimal Muscle Performance and Recovery (Avery), one out of four athletes who seek medical attention after a long race are suffering hyponatremia.

    " Typically," he says, "conscientious athletes get in trouble because they adhere too diligently to one recommendation: the need to drink lots of fluids. They tend to ignore another recommendation: The need to keep electrolytes up...for most endurance athletes the real problem is drinking too much water." Dr. Burke warns that you can possibly suffer hyponatremia even if you don't drink a lot of water.

    Signs of hyponatremia can be similar to those of heat exhaustion. But, while resting and cooling down can help alleviate heat exhaustion, that doesn't help hyponatremia. " To protect yourself against hyponatremia, start by paying attention to how much you sweat," Dr. Burke says. If your sweat seems very salty, burns your eyes or leaves an evident, white residue on your skin, you may be losing a great deal of sodium and should be diligent about eating salty foods. " You can also make sure you're getting enough sodium by drinking sports drinks instead of plain water during long (exercise) events," Dr. Burke notes.

    Exercise Matters

    Of course, no matter what you decide to eat or drink while exercising, the most important factor for your well-being is to get out to the gym, onto the track, or just on to the sidewalk, and do something, even if you only want to go out for a walk. No matter how old you are or what kind of shape you're in, you'll benefit from exercise.

    " It's solid evidence that across-the-board declines occur when people stop exercising," says Charles Emery, PhD, professor of psychology at Ohio State University (Health Psychology 3/04).

    Don't decline or remain supine. Let your fitness climb.



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    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 09, 2005 05:36 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)

    Energy Vitamins by Daniel Mowrey, PhD Energy Times, June 7, 1998

    Do you suffer groggy mornings clouded with tired and achy feelings? Do you have to struggle to muster sufficient energy to cope with the day? Then, throughout the morning and afternoon, does frequent fatigue, weakness or depression persist on your horizon like an ugly storm cloud? And your evening may bring little relief as you slump into bed for a restless night, only to begin the same routine the next morning. If lack of vim and vigor plagues your days and nights, your body may be suffering from an inability to synthesize sufficient energy.

    Our lives depend on processing the food we eat into substances our cells can take in and use. In a never-ending cycle, our body breaks food down and reconstructs the components to form body structures and burn as energy.

    How much you exercise, the food and supplements you eat and how much you sleep influence the efficiency of these processes.

    Vitamins and Energy
    Certain nutrients are called vitamins because they are crucial for vitality. These nutrients are essential to a productive life, the starting point for all life-giving and life-sustaining processes. Because of vitamins' crucial role in energy production, many people can perk up their stamina simply by consuming an adequate supply of vitamins in their daily diet. Since many vitamins - especially the ones concerned with energy - must be constantly replenished, a decent diet and the right supplements must be consumed every day.

    Be Energetic with B Vitamins
    Vitamins, especially the B vitamins, play extremely important roles in producing cellular energy. Their most important roles are shown in the illustration on page 48. The chart on page 46 lists the key vitamins and describes their effects as well as the consequences of not getting enough of them. Their effect is felt most profoundly in the energy producing process known as the Krebs cycle (which we'll explain in a moment).

    Vitamins B2 and B3, for example, supply the major building blocks for substances called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and FADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH) which are critical elements of producing energy in the Krebs cycle as well as a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

    Even though you may never have heard of NAD and NADH, these molecules are found in many places in your body; they play a role in hundreds of biochemical reactions in all kinds of cells. B vitamins also combine with other materials to build coenzymes, chemicals which help form other chemicals necessary for cellular energy. B vitamins are crucial: miss out on one or more and you may break these metabolic chains necessary for peak energy.

    Energy to Spend
    The main energy currency of every cell is ATP: adenosine triphosphate. This material is used by cells for every imaginable task including reproduction, growth, movement and metabolism. Specialized metabolic cycles within the cell are designed to generate ATP.

    Consequently, the more ATP our cells create, the more energy can be generated. The raw materials used to make cellular energy are glucose (blood sugar) and "free" fatty acids. The best way to supply your cells with the sugar they need is to consume complex carbohydrates which also supply fiber and other nutrients. When you eat carbohydrates, they are made into glucose which is stored as a starch called glycogen in muscles and the liver. Your body can rapidly turn glycogen into glucose for extra energy (The process of making energy from glycogen yields carbon dioxide and water as well as ATP.)

    Making Energy
    The first step in making glucose into energy is called glycolysis. This complicated process requires nine different steps. During these steps, glucose is made into a substance called pyruvate. The process of glycolysis requires ATP, but yields twice as much ATP as is present when it starts.

    From here, the process gets a little more complicated as pyruvate enters into a complex chain of events in tiny cellular structures called mitochondria. (Many metabolic events take place in the mitochondria.) The pyruvate molecules are converted to a molecule known as acetyl coenzyme A and eventually made into carbon dioxide, water and more ATP. This process is known as the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. It also involves a series of events known as oxidative phosphorylation in which NADH formed during the Krebs cycle is oxidized to form ATP.

    Why is fat such a concentrated source of energy? Free fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle to help generate ATP much more efficiently than glucose - producing roughly six times more energy per gram than glucose.

    Get Your Vitamins Every Day While we rely on our diet to supply many of our vitamins, a B complex supplement and multi-vitamins can ensure you consume sufficient amounts of these crucial nutrients.

    Many experts agree that a diet rich in raw fruits, nuts and vegetables that minimizes saturated fat can supply adequate a-mounts of these nutrients. Other supplements that may aid energy production:

    Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioxidant that works in the fatty tissues of cell membranes and in cells' watery interiors. CoQ10, a nutrient that protects cell membranes, especially of the heart, against oxidation and toxins. Plus, herbs such as suma, ginseng and licorice root as well as Creatine, carnitine and pyruvate.

    Of course if you suffer from any long term, intractable fatigue, consult your health practitioner. But for most cases of decreased vim and vigor, adequate vitamins should help your body recover your get up and go.



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    VitaNEt ® Staff

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    Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 01, 2005 01:13 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement

    Elan Vital Multiple

    What makes ÉLAN VITÀL unique is its unprecedented range of nutriments in high potencies and superior forms. Quite simply, it stands alone among multiples: a quantum leap beyond maintenance...into excellence. Not only does it offer unparalleled antioxidant nutrition and a full-spectrum of essential vitamins and minerals, ÉLAN VITÀL is also formulated with specific nutrients that support:

  • • structural integrity
  • • energy generation
  • • neurotransmitter production
  • • liver health ÉLAN VITÀL brings you the very best from all areas of advanced nutrition for a difference you can feel.

    Today’s inflated levels of stress and pollution give rise to harmful free radicals – unpaired electrons that can damage living cells and compromise the proper function of tissues and organs. Antioxidants serve to protect the body by neutralizing free radicals; in fact, many scientists believe that high levels of antioxidants may prolong the effective working life span of the body’s cells. The primary strategy of ÉLAN VITÀL is to provide a wide range of antioxidants at exceptional levels, from both botanical and biochemical sources.

    Plantioxidant Protection

    ÉLAN VITÀL has the powerful advantage of Plantioxidants™, standardized botanical extracts with unparalleled free radical-scavenging properties. Plantioxidants have the unique quality of providing targeted protection because they tend to be attracted to different organs in the body. Grape Seed extract is rich in potent proanthocyanidins, a special class of highly bioavailable, water-soluble bioflavonoids that have the unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the health of brain cells. Proanthocyanidins have been shown to efficiently scavenge oxygen radicals, as well as optimize the transport of vitamin C. They also have an affinity for collagen and elastin, the structural proteins that are abundant in vessel linings and other connective tissue. ÉLAN VITÀL contains the most concentrated extract of Bilberry available, with at least 25% anthocyanosides – compounds which are similar to proanthocyanidins but with an unusually strong attraction to optical tissue. They have been shown to protect cellular integrity in the delicate structures of the eyes. Ginkgo biloba extract is a standardized concentration of prime quality ginkgo leaves, yielding 24% ginkgoflavoneglycosides. These active compounds are potent antioxidants that have been associated with superior oxygen transport throughout the body with a special affinity for brain capillaries. Silymarin is the name given to a complex of three bioflavonoid-like compounds — silybum, silycristin, and silymarin — extracted and concentrated from milk thistle seeds. Silymarin functions in the body as an antioxidant with a special attraction for the liver. It has been researched and used extensively in Europe, where it is prized for its unique ability to nourish the liver and support its natural regeneration process by speeding up DNA synthesis in liver cells. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid present in some foods, such as onions and blue-green algae. A cousin of rutin, quercetin has been shown to stabilize cell membranes and help prevent free radical damage to this vital but vulnerable part of cells. Bioflavonoids and related compounds do their best antioxidant work when in the presence of Vitamin C, the nutrient they are most often paired with in nature. The vitamin C provided in ÉLAN VITÀL is both water- and fat-soluble. This combination is crucial because the tissues and membranes richest in fatty acids are most at risk to free radical attack. Fat-soluble vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl palmitate has an affinity for these highly vulnerable structures.

    Antioxidant Nutrients

    ÉLAN VITÀL not only provides botanical defense plants to combat free radicals, but also contains tried-and-true antioxidant nutrients: Biochemicals known as vitamins, minerals, and amino acids work together for maximum protection to all the body’s cells. The amino acid, N-Acetyl Cysteine, is a powerful and highly versatile antioxidant that doubles as a precursor to glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, two of the most formidable cell-protective compounds manufactured by the body. Studies have shown that supplemental N-acetyl cysteine enhances internal levels of glutathione far better than supplements of glutathione itself. Methionine also contributes to the synthesis of glutathione, and is an efficient transporter of certain antioxidant minerals, magnifying their activity. Vitamin A is included in both its fat-soluble palmitate form and in its provitamin form, Beta Carotene. While preformed A has long been known to play a role in the body’s defenses, beta carotene itself has recently been shown to possess a powerful ability to scavenge free radicals and contribute to the youthful function of some tissues. Vitamin E is one of the most important antioxidant compounds in nature. It works to prevent harmful oxidation within each cell and is vital in the protection of red blood cells from free radical-induced rupture. Selenium is an extremely powerful antioxidant shown in studies to work synergistically with Vitamins A, C, and E. In combination with cysteine, selenium helps build the glutathione peroxidase molecule. ÉLAN VITÀL offers a 50/50 blend of the two most scientifically supported forms of selenium: L-selenomethionine and sodium selenite. In addition to being an antioxidant itself, Zinc works closely with fat-soluble vitamin A by facilitating its release from the liver to the rest of the body. In ÉLAN VITÀL, Zinc is synergistically bound to methionine for optimal bioavailability. Copper sebacate is a natural compound that can function as the copper-SOD antioxidant system in the body, one of the first lines of defense against free radical attack. Copper sebacate is a highly absorbable form that possesses significant free radical scavenging activity.

    Supporting Structural Integrity

    An important adjunct to antioxidant nutrition is the amino sugar N-Acetyl Glucosamine, or N-A-G™. Amino sugars are essential components of cell membranes and their surface structures, as well as of the “ground substance” that holds body tissues together. They are also a key constituent of the synovial fluid in the joints. Recent research has revealed that amino sugars play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the connective and structural tissues of the body, a property that complements perfectly the actions of antioxidants: where antioxidants may prevent damage from occurring, amino sugars may help the body repair and regenerate damaged tissue. N-A-G’s activity is supported in ÉLAN VITÀL by other nutrients helpful to structural tissue. The mineral Manganese is required for building amino sugars into mucopolysaccharides, the large molecules that make up the ground substance that holds cells together. Choline and Inositol are both components of phospholipids, principal constituents in cell membranes. Two B vitamins, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12, are important to cell regeneration and to the development of healthy red blood cells.

    Enhanced Energy to Maximize Metabolism

    ÉLAN VITÀL is a potent source of coenzymes, metalloenzymes, and metabolites involved in energy production in the body. There are two main energy production cycles in the cells: the glycolytic cycle and the Krebs’ cycle. Together, they generate about 90-95% of the body’s entire energy supply – using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel, with enzymes as facilitators. The enzymes which catalyze energy production function in combination with coenzymes made from vitamins such as B1, B2, B3, B5 and Biotin, plus metalloenzymes made from minerals, including Magnesium, Manganese, and Copper. Biotin, an often overlooked nutrient, may function to help the body maintain a youthful metabolism. The mineral Magnesium aids in energy production, not only by acting as a cofactor to some enzymes, but also as a stabilizer of ATP, the body’s primary energy molecule. Some of the key connecting enzymes in the energy production process require two additional non-vitamin coenzyme nutrients to maximally convert food into energy: Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10. Lipoic acid helps convert the end-product of the glycolytic cycle, pyruvate, into acetyl-CoA, a principal fuel for the higher energy Krebs’ cycle. Coenzyme Q10. is the connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport System, an off-shoot of the Krebs’ cycle, where ATP molecules are “cashed in” for energy. The muscle-supporting electrolyte mineral Potassium is in the form of Alpha- Ketoglutarate, a critical Krebs’ cycle metabolite that has additional benefits. It has long been used to improve the efficiency of ammonia-clearance from the body, an indispensable function, as ammonia is both exceedingly harmful and constantly produced through the natural metabolism of proteins. Because alpha-ketoglutarate is an organic compound well-recognized by the cells, it is an excellent transporter of potassium into the cells. Succinic Acid, or succinate, is also a metabolite in the Krebs’ cycle. It not only boosts production of ATP energy potential, but also increases the muscle cells’ production of Creatine phosphate, another high energy biochemical. Chromium is the essential mineral component of glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, which functions to help insulin (one of the two main blood sugar-controlling hormones in the body) draw sugar molecules from the bloodstream into the cells.

    Smart Nutrients

    ÉLAN VITÀL contains natural substances that sharpen performance beyond just the physical. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is a highly stable and absorbable form of the conditionally essential amino acid L-tyrosine, a precursor to the major excitatory neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. DMAE is a precursor to one of the body’s main neurotransmitters, acetylcholine. From the Plantioxidants comes standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, whose compounds readily cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the integrity of the capillaries in the brain.

    Guarding the Liver

    ÉLAN VITÀL provides several nutrients which collectively support optimal liver function. This is an essential aspect of a multiple, because the liver is responsible for converting nutrients – from food as well as from supplements – into their usable forms. If liver function is compromised in any way, nutrient supplements may be rendered inert in the body. The liver is especially at risk because it must filter out ingested toxins and is continually exposed to chemicals that generate free radicals. N-Acetyl Cysteine and Silymarin have both demonstrated a strong affinity for the liver. Nacetyl cysteine contributes to increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, both of which the liver uses in its natural cleansing function. Silymarin provides unparalleled support to the liver’s natural regeneration process. Because of its many vital functions, the liver uses as much as 12% of the body’s energy supply, even though it represents only 3% of body weight. The liver therefore uses a greater proportion of energy nutrients, especially Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid. Both are highly concentrated in the liver; and lipoic acid in particular has been researched and used heavily in Europe where it is prized for its special protective actions in the liver. Ascorbyl Palmitate is a fat-soluble form of Vitamin C, meaning it can provide antioxidant protection for fatty tissue. This is especially valuable to the liver, which tends to develop fatty streaks that are most vulnerable to damage. Vitamin E has been researched extensively for its antioxidant properties with regard to the liver.

    The Multiple for the 21st Century

    ÉLAN VITÀL is truly a one-of-a-kind multinutrient supplement: one that leaves no nutritional stone unturned. Based on the biochemical principles of nutrition and metabolism – in context of today’s challenges to our health – ÉLAN VITÀL approaches optimal nutrition from several directions...all leading to a lifetime of health and vitality.



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