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Does Garcinia Help With Weight Loss? Darrell Miller 8/17/15
Top Three Health Benefits of Mangosteen Darrell Miller 1/24/13
Garcinia, Hydroxycitric acid and weight loss Darrell Miller 12/3/09
Garcinia Cambogia Darrell Miller 8/28/08
Garcinia Cambogia Darrell Miller 7/8/08
Beyond Bran Fiber Darrell Miller 12/25/07
This sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite-stifling effect Darrell Miller 5/26/07
This is sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite stifling effect. Darrell Miller 1/13/07
Xanthones in Mangosteen Extract by Solaray 75 mg per pill Darrell Miller 8/5/06
Mangosteen 475mg 60ct from Thompson Nutritional Darrell Miller 11/18/05
Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids Darrell Miller 7/27/05
Supplement Efforts - to increase weight loss... Darrell Miller 7/7/05
MECHANISMS OF CHITOSAN FAT- BINDING Darrell Miller 6/25/05
Move it and Lose it! Burn off body fat! Darrell Miller 6/14/05



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Does Garcinia Help With Weight Loss?
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Date: August 17, 2015 05:40 PM
Author: Darrell Miller
Subject: Does Garcinia Help With Weight Loss?

Garcinia cambogia, a tropical fruit obtained from a herb called Malabar tamarind, has for a long time been used as a weight loss supplement.  Garcinia cambogia is found to grow naturally in South East Asia and some parts of Indonesia.  Traditionally, this herb was used as food flavor by traditional communities in India.  The fact that this supplement is obtained naturally implies that it has minimal side effects when used for weight loss by an individual.

How does Garcinia cambogia works?

The critical component that gives Garcinia cambogia its weight loss property is called hydroxycitric acid or simply HCA.  Garcinia cambogia works through;

  • Suppressing appetite in an individual; this reduces the mentality of frequently craving for more food. Emotional eating could lead to eating more food consequently leading to weight gain in an individual. Garcinia cambogia aids in increasing the levels of serotonin hormone. High levels of serotonin result in moderate craving for food while low serotonin levels lead to high or emotional eating.
  • Boosting fat - burning process by increasing the rate of metabolism in an individual; High rates of metabolism lead to faster burning of stored fats that result in shedding more pounds.
  • Blocking of fat formation process; it does so by blocking an enzyme called citrate lyase that is used by in the formation of fats.  Excess carbohydrates are usually converted into fats and stored in the body for future use. Do you know that such fats are the ones that build up to add the overall weight of an individual? Garcinia cambogia, therefore, inhibits this process.

Weight Loss

What determines the success of Garcinia cambogia in any weight loss program is the concentration of HCA.  The recommended HCA concentration that you should buy is 60%.  Moreover, it is also imperative to consider shopping for the Garcinia cambogia products that are certified and approved by the Food and Drug Administration.  This is to ensure that what you are shopping is safe and suitable for all your individual weight loss needs.

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Top Three Health Benefits of Mangosteen
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Date: January 24, 2013 03:10 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Top Three Health Benefits of Mangosteen

Mangosteen, botanically referred to as Garcinia Mangostana, is a topical fruit that finds its roots in Southwest Asia. The shape and size of this fruit is akin to that of a tangerine and it has a think rind. Additionally, mangosteen is sweet and has creamy white flesh. This fruit is well known for its powerful characteristics that can be attributed to its three nutrient contents; xanthones, flavonoids and fiber. Here is a look into a few benefits that you can avail by including mangosteen into your diet. Read on.

#Benefits of Mangosteen

*Xanthones

Xantone is basically a polyphenol that only exists in plants. This polyphenol is the cause of a variety of hues in plants but more importantly, it has antioxidant properties that promote healthy body functions. The most notable benefit offered by xanthones is its ability to neutralize free radicals and prevent cell damage. Numerous health experts are of the opinion that xanthones can help the body to combat harmful fungal invasions.

*Flavonoids

Just like xanthones, flavonoids are also found in the rind of the fruit. They enhance other antioxidants, especially those that promote the immune system. In addition to that, these flavonoids exhibit anti-inflammatory characteristics as they prevent the reaction between certain body enzymes and free radicals. Such a reaction can cause inflammation which is undoubtedly a leading cause of lymphatic diseases.

*Fiber

A single serving of mangosteen contains 5.1 g of fiber (dietary). Fiber aids in digestion and helps in promoting bowel movement. As such, it helps in eliminating bacteria that may have hitched camp in the colon and thus minimizing the risk of colon cancer. Proper bowel movement can soften your stool and eliminate constipation. Again, fiber helps in moderating the blood sugar level.

There are other numerous benefits of mangosteen including its ability to relieve anxiety, stress and depression, combating allergies and protecting the brain and nervous system. However, all these benefits boil down to the aforementioned nutrient content. So, you can incorporate mangosteen into your diet and avail a host of health benefits.

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Garcinia, Hydroxycitric acid and weight loss
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Date: December 03, 2009 01:10 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Garcinia, Hydroxycitric acid and weight loss

Garcinia is part of the plant genus in the family Clusiaceae. This plant is native to Asia, Austrlia, tropical and southern Africa, and Polynesia. The number of species of the Garcinia plant is highly disputed, but various sources recognize between fifty and three hundred species that are specifically valid. The plants in this genus are commonly called saptrees, mangosteens, or monkey fruit.

Garcinia is a little-known fruit that can be found growing extensively in India and Thailand. Used for centuries as a condiment, Garcinia is also known as Malabar tamarind or Gorkapuli. The Garcinia fruit is about the size of an orange and orange in color. However, it looks similar to an acorn squash in appearance. With approximately two hundred different species of Garcinia, only few contain the needed component necessary for herbal health. Scientists have identified the natural compound found in Garcinia to be hydroxycitric acid, which can help to curb appetite, reduce food intake, and slow the body’s fat production.

Hydroxycitric acid, that active component in Garcinia, is similar to the citric acid that is found in citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and grapefruit. The Garcinia fruit is actually composed of about fifty percent hydroxycitric acid. This acid seems to have potent fat-fighting properties and is known for its ability to block the formation of fatty tissue, which results in less storage of fat. The rind of the Garcinia fruit contains high amounts of hydroxycitric acid, which inhibits citrate lyase, which is an enzyme require to manufacture body fat. The hydroxycitric acid combines with citrate lyase, which leaves less of the enzyme available to form body fat and speeds up the fat-burning process. Some studies have found that fat production may actually be reduce by as much as seventy percent when taking hyroxycitric acid. Studies have determined the significant weight-loss benefits on both animals and humans when using Garcinia. One study, which involved fifty obese patients, gave 500 mg of Garcinia rind to these patients daily, along with 100 mg of chromium. This was also combined with a low-fat diet. The individuals who were taking the Garcinia-chromium lost an average of eleven pounds, while the control group reported only a four-pound weight loss.

Garcinia has been found to be beneficial in curbing the appetite, which aids in weight control and obesity. One study on animals found appetite reduction in lean and fat rats and mice. The animals ate less, and when hyroxycitric acid was added to their diets, their body fat decreased, but body protein was unaffected.

Garcinia is also thought to help burn fat through thermogenesis. When there is not enough thermogenic activity, weight gain can result. The thermogenic activity in Garcinia is responsible for helping to increase heat production, specifically in brown fat, which is the body fat surrounded by blood vessels and energy cells. Brown fat is harder to lose because it requires more heat to burn.

The fruit of the Garcinia plant is used to provide anorectic, anticatarrhal, astringent, demulcent, and thermogenesis properties. Primarily, Garcinia is extremely helpful in dealing with excessive appetite, obesity, and weight-related conditions. Look to your local or internet health food store for this and other great products to help with weight loss.

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Garcinia Cambogia
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Date: August 28, 2008 09:33 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia Cambogia is found naturally in India and parts of Asia, and also on the Pacific coast of South and Central America all the way from Peru up to Mexico, and likes a humid forested environment. Also known as Brindall berries, Garcinia is believed to act as an appetite suppressant and allows you to lose weight by diminishing your desire for food.

The Malabar tamarind, as it is also known, is about the size of an orange resembling a small pumpkin, and an extract from the fruit and rind is used in several weight loss products. The health risks presented by synthetic diet pills render a natural product extremely attractive were it to be effective. So can Garcia curb your appetite? What is the scientific evidence for it, and what biochemical route would it take?

Although tests on animals have been very positive, human results have been inconsistent. In some double blind tests using a placebo, weight loss was up to three times that of the control, but in others there was no apparent difference between those taking Garcinia, and those given a placebo. However, doubts have been raised of the validity of some of the negative tests, so what does science tell us?

The active ingredient in the cambogia extract is hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which is a powerful inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between citrate and Coenzyme A to Acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate. Since the acetyl CoA is necessary in the synthesis of fatty acids and lipogenesis (the conversion of glucose to fatty acids), then anything that inhibits the biosynthesis of acetyl CoA must help to reduce the amount of fat stored in your body.

By inhibiting this reaction, that occurs outside the mitochondria so is not a direct part of the Citric Acid Cycle, HCA should theoretically suppress the formation of fats from carbohydrates, reduce food intake and thereby induce weight loss. But that is not the only mechanism.

A study at Georgetown University in Washington found that after 8 weeks of taking the Garcinia extract, there was a 5.4% reduction in body weight and body mass index, and a significant reduction in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides with an associated rise in high density lipoproteins (HDL). This is good news for those suffering from high cholesterol levels, since the LDL lipoproteins are those that carry cholesterol to the major blood vessels, and which when oxidized by free radicals deposit fatty plaques on the artery walls. These plaques constrict the arteries and the resultant atherosclerosis can lead to cardiac problems and strokes. HDL lipoproteins carry cholesterol back to the liver for destruction, and is known popularly as ‘good cholesterol’.

The studies also indicated modifications to certain indicators of the status of fat deposits in the body and of appetite modifiers in the brain. In this respect they found 38% decreases in serum leptin and increases in serotonin levels of 44%, and the excretion of fat metabolites in the urine increased from between 32% and 104%.

These are significant findings, and further research has indicated that HCA helps to suppress appetite. Serum leptin is an indicator of the level of fat stores in the body, and as the leptin levels in the blood reduces, the hypothalamus is given an instruction to increase the appetite so as to increase the fat levels again. However, it is believed that HCA possesses leptin-like properties, and this signal is either not generated or is modulated.

The increase in serotonin has the same effect. It is known that serotonin controls the appetite, although the exact mechanism has not yet been established. What is known is that serotonin activates certain neurons and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) in the brain, that not only curb appetite but also block the effect of other neurons that would normally increase appetite by blocking the effect of MC4Rs.

This is how the banned anti-obesity and serotonin inciting drug Fen-Phen operated, and it appears that the hydroxycitric acid in Garcinia cambogia extract acts in a similar, but safer, way. The problem with drugs such as Feb-Phen was that they created cardiac problems which could be dangerous to obese people whose hearts might have been weakened.

However, now that the biological pathway by which serotonin controls weight is believed to be known, if not fully understood, the way is becoming clearer as to how safer weight loss pills, acting through appetite suppression, might be developed. It also provides a valid scientific explanation for the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract which might in itself prove to be that safer way.

The biochemistry supports the evidence of its effect on those wanting to lose weight, and also bolsters the claims that those tests and trials found to be negative were in some way flawed. Until the full chemical pathway is understood, the factors that can lead to flawed tests are unknown, although one could be the use of excessive fiber in some trials that could reduce the effect of the extract.

One of the effects of HCA is to limit the ability of your body to convert carbohydrates into fat (the Acetyl CoA inhibition mentioned above). That, combined with suppression of your appetite and a higher rate of thermogenesis, prevents the body from storing excess carbohydrates as fat. Instead you will have increased energy levels, so you should exercise to use this up while taking Garcinia extract. For this reason it is popular with athletes and bodybuilders seeking an energy source that has not yet been banned from sport.

Although diet pills based on the same principle had side-effects and could make the user feel on edge, there are none known with Garcinia. However, it is possible to reduce the absorption of some essential nutrients due to appetite suppression, so do not exceed the recommended dose. An excessive amount can also led to gastric discomfort, but none of these effects have been noted when the recommended doses have been adhered to.

However, if you are diabetic, pregnant or a nursing mother, you should consult with your physician or health professional before taking the extract. Garcinia Cambogia presents no specific risk to such people, and this warning should be given for all non-prescriptive treatments that your physician might be unaware of you taking.

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Garcinia Cambogia
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Date: July 08, 2008 03:00 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia cambogia is a small tree bearing a small pumpkin-like fruit of the citrus family, and is steadily appearing in an increasing number of weight loss supplements. It is indigenous to parts of Africa and Asia, and the rind is commonly used in Indian cookery.

Although the fruit is particularly sour to the taste, it is used in form of an extract of the rind and claimed to act as an appetite suppressant and also to increase the body’s capacity to metabolize fat. Although there are conflicting claims being made about its efficacy, or lack of it, research shows that it definitely has promise as an agent to prevent and fight obesity and its use is steadily increasing in this respect.

The active ingredient is hydroxy citric acid, otherwise known as HCA, contained in the form of the potassium and calcium salts of the acid in the aqueous extract of the Garcinia cambogia rind. It forms up to 30% by weight of the rind. It is tasteless and odorless, and so far found to have no toxic effects on humans. Animal studies have also been generally favorable.

HCA works in two specific ways both to reduce the desire to eat and to inhibit the storage of fat in the body. In each case, as with so many supplements that have an inhibitory effect on a physiological or psychological function or on a metabolic process, it involves an interaction with enzymes.

Citrate lysase is an enzyme in the body that helps to prevent lipogenesis and instead promotes the conversion of carbohydrates into fat. When this enzyme is inhibited from carrying out its intended part in the body’s metabolism, the process of carbohydrate oxidation is boosted, or, in other words, the excess carbohydrate is burned off, or changed into energy.

More fats could also be expelled unchanged from the body, but irrespective of that the end result is that less carbohydrate tends to be converted to fat. Garcinia cambogia, however, has not been found to reduce the body’s uptake of essential fatty acids which are necessary for health. Had this occurred, you would feel a raging hunger as opposed to the appetite suppressing properties the extract is claimed to have.

The oxidation of carbohydrates can also lead to thermogenesis, or the boosting of the metabolism by increasing your body temperature. An increase in the metabolic rate helps weight reduction through an increased calorie demand while your body is at rest. However, that is not the only way in which the HCA extract works to help reduce your weight, or at least help to maintain it at a healthy level. Let’s return to its specific appetite suppression properties.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a neuroreceptor found in the central nervous system. It has many regulatory effects on the body, one of which is appetite. Although it is by no means the only chemical in the body that has an effect on the appetite, serotonin is a significant factor. As you get hungry, serotonin is released in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain that regulates sleep and eating. The release of serotonin increases when you see and or smell food. It is the agent that starts canine salivation, and a ravenous hunger in those that have no immediate access to food.

It also causes you to snack, and, as you eat, the serotonin level in the hypothalamus continues to increase until it reaches a point where it provides the hypothalamus with a feeling of repletion or satisfaction. You then stop eating. So the more serotonin is produced, the quicker you stop feeling hungry.

Garcinia cambogia extract has the effect of stimulating the emission of serotonin into the hypothalamus, and so suppresses your hunger quicker. You don’t stop eating altogether, but attain that feeling of satisfaction much quicker and so tend to eat less with each meal. This can not only help you maintain your weight at a healthy level, but also to reduce weight in the obese.

Although the extract can work through each of these mechanisms, it does not have such a significant effect on a very fatty diet. It can help if you switch to a relatively healthy diet, lower in fats, but the effect might not be strong enough to compensate for a poor diet in terms of fat content.

Studies have indicated an anti-oxidant activity that likely comes from the xanthones and xanthone derivatives that are also contained in the fruit. In fact there are other recorded uses of Garcinia cambogia, and it has been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat fevers, dysentery, open wounds, ulcers and tumors.

According to a study carried out for the National Cancer Institute there is no documented toxicity effects on humans, and there is no regulation regarding the use of Garcinia cambogia. It has not been evaluated by the FDA.

However, there are contra-indications in the case of pregnant and lactating women, more as a safety measure than for any particularly known risk. Alzheimer patients should avoid taking HCA since there is a possibility of it promoting the synthesis of acetylcholine in the brain, and its glycemic action renders it unsuitable for diabetics.

Conversely, this same action is a positive benefit by reducing the craving of healthy adults for sweet foods. However, HCA is frequently taken in combination with chromium due to the latter’s positive effect on the regulation of blood sugar levels. Nevertheless, diabetics should avoid any supplement containing chromium without professional medical advice.

The supplement should be standardized on the HCA content, and an average dose is around 500 mg – 1000 mg of 50% extract a day. However, this varies, and the most important aspect of such extracts is that when changing brands; be sure to compare the strength of the relative extracts and change your dosage accordingly.

Although the benefits of Garcinia cambogia to those seeking to lose weight are debated, there is ample evidence to suggest that a regular intake of the extract is beneficial – and not only with respect to the maintenance of healthy weight.

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Beyond Bran Fiber
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Date: December 25, 2007 08:35 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Beyond Bran Fiber

At one point in time, when you went to the health food store you usually only had choice of wheat bran, which is a good source of the insoluble fiber that helps your digestive system stay on track, or oat bran, which contains the soluble fiber that helps lower cholesterol. Although both of these bran’s are still popular, as they have good reason to be, remaining excellent sources of dietary fiber, these days store shelves are gathering more and more fiber supplements ranging from encapsulated forms to powders and specialized to deal with a variety of health concerns.

Insoluble fiber has the ability to draw water into the intestines, preventing constipation and keeping waste matter from decaying within the body. However, it is the many types of soluble fiber that science has recently started investigating for health benefits. Part of soluble fiber’s value is closely related to its mechanical action, as it forms a thick gel within the digestive track that moves slowly to stop sugar from entering the body too quickly, therefore, helping to keep glucose levels down and carrying some fat and sugar out of the body completely. Additionally, when soluble fibers gel up it helps to reduce blood level cholesterol by trapping bile preventing the bile from doing its action (breaking down fats in the digestive tract so the body can absorb it). Unlike insoluble fiber, soluble fiber undergoes fermentation inside the colon to produce fatty acids that do a little bit of everything, including: helping the body digest food, protecting against polyps, stimulating immunity, increasing mineral absorption, and helping to keep cholesterol and glucose levels in check.

Soluble fiber is getting large amounts of research reviews. One study concluded that people who ate the least fiber are 63% more likely to have high levels of CRP (C-reactive protein). CRP is an inflammation marker that is associated with cardiovascular risk. Another study proved that flax seed improved glucose control. Another fiber source, psyllium, has been shown to bring relief to people with Chron’s disease, an inflammatory intestinal disorder.

Flax seed and psyllium are two of the best known types of soluble fiber available, but there are other types that aren’t as well known. Others including arabinogalactan (AG) have been shown to have a special affinity for natural killer cells. Beta-glucans are another form of fiber that can help boost immunity. Lignans, which are found in flax, have been shown to cause lower breast-cancer rates. Fenugreek is a spice that is rich in galactomannan, a heart-healthy fiber. Some fiber formulations pair up different kinds of fiber with complementary herbs. An example of this is Garcinia cambogia and Gymnema sylvestre, which can be used for glucose control; or astragalus, Echinacea, olive leaf, and shiitake to assist the immune system. Some supplements even provide natural enzymes which help prevent bloating.

It is, of course, important to eat a healthy and well-balanced diet. However, thanks to supplementation that is designed specifically for certain health concerns, it has become much easier to find the additional fiber that is needed by your body, no matter what kind of fiber that is. A large selection of fiber bran supplements can be found at your local or internet health food store.



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This sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite-stifling effect
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Date: May 26, 2007 05:44 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: This sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite-stifling effect

Stay satisfied with Garcinia

 

This sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite-stifling effect.

 

It’s funny how modern science continues to support ancient systems of herbal healing. Such is the case with Garcinia: the yellowish, pumpkin like fruit of the Garcinia cambogia tree, log valued in tropical Asian cooking for its sweetly acidic taste, is a traditional Indian remedy for digestive problems that is also used to make meals more filling. Today, Garcinia (also known as brindleberry and Malabar tamarind) is used in natural weight-loss products based on research supporting its stomach satiating powers. Scientists also believe that Garcinia helps block fat formation and regulate glucose (blood sugar) usage vital functions in an increasingly overweight world.

 

Filling up Faster

 

One reason so many people losing the battle of the bulge is that temptations to eat – and eat – are absolutely everywhere, often as the focal points of clever and well designed advertising campaigns. (Remember the slogan “belch’a can’t eat just one”?) To make matters worse, restaurants often serve overly generous portions and experiments have shown that the more food you serve, the more people will consume. For example, Chicago moviegoers ate 45% more popcorn from large containers even when they were given stale product (Food Quality and preference 1/01).

 

The answer would seem simple – just eat less. But knowing when to say when isn’t easy. That’s where Garcinia comes in, specifically an extract taken from the rind called HCA (Hydroxycitric acid). In laboratory animals HCA has upped levels of serotonin, a brain chemical that helps suppress appetite and elevate mood, which might help take the edge off the depressing and binge-eating urges that often affect would-be weight losers. At the same time HCA appears to reduce levels of another substance in the brain called neuropeptide Y, which enhances appetite (Experimental Biology meeting 4/06).

 

Garcinia gems

 

What is it: the pumpkin-like fruit of the Garcinia cambogia tree; this Indian native is used in cooking and in Ayurveda, the country’s system of traditional medicine.

 

What is does: A popular ingredient in natural weight-loss aids, Garcinia is being investigated for possible fat blocking and appetite-suppressing functions; it may also help regulate glucose (blood sugar).

 

Fat Smack down

 

The fat that stubbornly clings to your frame doesn’t always start out that way. In many cases, your body actually creates fat from excess carbohydrates (such as the icing encrusted doughnut you couldn’t pass u at breakfast). If you don’t burn off those extra carbs through exercise, they are broken down into citrates that are then transformed into the building blocks of body fat. This process is controlled by an enzyme called citrate lyase; HCA interferes with this crucial enzyme, an action that inhibits fat formation. Researchers believe the body uses those extra carbs to provide more energy; this mechanism may also have the happy side effect of further checking appetite. In addition, results from a Dutch lab study indicate that Garcinia may blunt sugar-induced increases in glucose, which can help forestall diabetes development.

 

Garcinia works best when teamed with out nutrients and herbs, such as chromium, green tea and forskolin. In one investigation, over weight people who stuck to a supervised diet and exercise program supplemented with a combination of HCA, chromium and another herb called Gymnema lost body weight and mass, and showed improved fat burning capacity (Nutrition Research 1/04). This modern usage mirrors Ayurveda’s ancient precepts, according to which individual remedies are generally used in combination for more effective results. Looking to get your meals more staying power? Then look for Garcinia in your favorite weight loss formula. –Lisa James

 

 



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This is sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite stifling effect.
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Date: January 13, 2007 02:44 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: This is sour Indian fruit can have a sweet appetite stifling effect.

It’s funny how modern science continues to support ancient systems of herbal healing. Such is the case with Garcinia: The yellowish, pumpkin like fruit of the Garcinia Cambodia tree, long valued in tropical Asian cooking for its sweetly acidic taste, is a traditional Indian remedy for digestive problems that is also used to make meals more filling. Today, Garcinia (also known as brindleberry and Malabar tamarind) is used in natural weight-loss products based on research supporting its stomach satiating powers. Scientists also believe that Garcinia helps block fat formation and regulate glucose (blood sugar) usage—vital functions in an increasingly overweight world.

Filling Up Faster

One reason so many people are losing the battle of the bulge is that temptations to eat-and eat—are absolutely everywhere, often as the focal points of clever and well designed advertising campaigns. (Remember the slogan “belch’a can’t eat just one”?) To make matters worse, restaurants often server overly generous portions and experiments have shown that the more food you serve, the more people will consume. For example, Chicago moviegoers ate 45% more popcorn from larger containers even when they were given stale product (Food Quality and Preference 1/01).

The answer would seem simple—just eat less. But knowing when to say when isn’t easy. That’s where Garcinia comes in, specifically an extract taken from the rind called HCA (Hydroxycitric acid). In laboratory animals HCA has upped levels of serotonin, a brain chemical that helps suppress appetite and elevate mood, which might help take the edge off the depression and binge-eating urges that often affect would-be weight losers. At the same time HCA appears to reduce levels of another substance in the brain called neuropeptide Y, which enhances appetite (Experimental Biology meeting 4/06).

Garcinia Gems

What it is: the pumpkin-like fruit of the Garcinia cambogia tree; this Indian native is used in cooking and in Ayurveda, that country’s system of traditional medicine

What it Does: A popular ingredient in natural weight-loss aids, Garcinia is being investigated for possible fat blocking and appetite suppressing functions; it may also help regulate glucose (blood sugar).

Fat Smackdown

The fat that stubbornly clings to your frame doesn’t always start out that way. In many cases, your body actually creates fat from excess carbohydrates (such as the icing encrusted doughnut you couldn’t pass up at breakfast). If you don’t burn off those extra carbs through exercise, they are broken down into citrates that are then transformed into the building blocks of body fat. This process is controlled by an enzyme called citrate lyase; HCA interferes with this crucial enzyme, an action that inhibits fat formation. Researchers believe the body uses those extra carbs to provide more energy; this mechanism may also have the happy side effect of further checking appetite. In addition, results from a Dutch lab study indicate that Garcinia may blunt sugar-induced increases in glucose, which can help forestall diabetes development.

Garcinia works best when teamed with other nutrients and herbs, such as chromium, green tea and forskolin. In one investigation, overweight people who stuck to a supervised diet and exercise program supplemented with a combination of HCA, chromium and another herb called Gymnema lost body weight as mass, and showed improved fat burning capacity (Nutrition Research 1/04). This modern usage mirrors Ayurveda’s ancient precepts, according to which individual remedies are generally used in combination for more effective results.

Looking to give your meal more staying power? Then look for Garcinia in your favorite weight loss formula. –Lisa James.



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Xanthones in Mangosteen Extract by Solaray 75 mg per pill
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Date: August 05, 2006 12:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Xanthones in Mangosteen Extract by Solaray 75 mg per pill

The Mangosteen fruit contains on of the highest concentrations of Xanthones and the Solaray Guaranteed Potency extract has standardized the Xanthones to deliver a powerful antioxidant punch for protection from scavenging free radicals. This product contains the extract from the peel of the Mangosteen fruit and has naturally occurring flavonoids, lactones and phenolic acids that provide additional antioxidant support. As a result, the ORAC value of Solaray Vitamins Mangosteen Extract is one of the highest (1750 ORAC Units!) we offer!

Supplement Facts:

Serving size 1 Vegetarian Capsule

Total Carbohydrate <1g Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) (Peel 500mg extract) Guaranteed to contain 75mg Xanthones and 100mg Polyphenols)

Mangosteen Extract 75mg



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Mangosteen 475mg 60ct from Thompson Nutritional
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Date: November 18, 2005 10:52 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Mangosteen 475mg 60ct from Thompson Nutritional

New Just Mangosteen

Definition of Mangosteen: mangosteen is one of the two most popular Asian fruits. However, unlike Durian, which is a yang or hot food, mangosteen is thought to have cooling, yin properties. The fruit of an evergreen tree native to Malaysia and Indonesia, the mangosteen is often available in Asian markets when in season. The ripe mangosteen is roughly the same size as a mandarin orange, with a reddish-purple rind. ...

The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. The tree grows from 7 to 25 meters tall. The edible fruits are deep reddish purple when ripe. The mangosteen fruit is known as the "queen of fruits," while the durian (Durio spp.) is known as the "king of fruits."

Supplement Facts
Total Carbohydrate - <1 g
Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana)(Whole Fruit) - 475mg





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Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids
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Date: July 27, 2005 11:31 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids

Benefits

• Defends Against Free Radicals*

The xanthone flavonoids and other compounds in mangosteen fruit are responsible for its high level of antioxidant activity. In vitro tests have been conducted on XanoMax? mangosteen 10% extract to determine the level of free radical scavenging ability in both watery and fatty environments. A major test recognized as the industry standard for measuring antioxidant activity is known as the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay.

The ORAC test is an in vitro assay that works by measuring the amount of free radical damage done to a fluorescent probe (measured by a change in probe intensity). Antioxidants lessen the damage to the probe fluorescence, which indicates a reduction in free radical damage. This measure is used to quantify the antioxidant’s (or combination of antioxidants) capacity to quench free radicals. This quantification is known as the total ORAC value. The total ORAC value provides a relative measure of total antioxidant strength of any substance, allowing for comparison of different mixtures. A high ORAC value corresponds to a high total in vitro antioxidant capacity.

The development of the ORAC test has led to a number of commonly eaten foods being assessed in terms of total ORAC scores per serving. Similarly, particular combinations of antioxidants, such as those in nutritional formulas, can also be assessed for their total ORAC scores. This has led to the ability to determine the potential usefulness of a particular supplement in increasing overall antioxidant capacity.

When XanoMax? mangosteen 10% extract was tested for ORAC value, the resulting antioxidant potential was over 3,500 ORAC units per gram of extract. This result is extremely high. ORAC values of compounds vary with their nutrient concentration, moisture content and other factors. For comparison purposes, whole blueberries, considered to be a rich source of antioxidants, had an ORAC value of 61 units per gram, while pomegranate tested at 105 ORAC units per gram.1 XanoMax? mangosteen extract is a potentially rich source of beneficial antioxidants*

• Maintains Healthy Immune Function*

Evidence from several animal and in vitro studies on various cell lines suggests that components of mangosteen fruit extract may play a role in modulating several factors important to healthy immune function. Of the active components, xanthone derivatives seem to play the major role in influencing parameters of immune function in animals and in vitro models. Mangostin is the xanthone derivative that most of these studies have focused on.

A study published in 2002 assessed the effects of mangosteen extracts on the release of histamine from rat cell lines. The comparison was made to extracts of a plant frequently used in Japan, Rubus suavissimus, which is a known inhibitor of IgE-mediated histamine release from these cells. The assay showed that the mangosteen extracts used inhibited the release of histamine from these cells more potently than the extract of Rubus suavissimus. In addition, the authors compared the two herbs for prostaglandin E2 synthesis in another rat cell line and found that the mangosteen extract potently inhibited prostaglandin E2 synthesis in this in vitro trial, whereas the other herb had no effect.2

An earlier study was performed in guinea pig tracheal and rabbit thoracic aortal tissue. In this study, alpha mangostin prevented histamine-induced contraction and was shown to be a competitive histamine receptor antagonist in the smooth muscle tissue of the trachea and aorta of the animals selected. The results seen in this laboratory study were determined to be concentration-dependent. The authors suggested that alpha mangostin should undergo further studies to determine its effects on the modulation of the histamine response.3

Further in vitro assessments point to potential actions of mangosteen components in modulating effectors of occasional inflammation in the immune system. Studies in rat glioma cells suggest that mangostins inhibit enzymatic reactions that can lead to the production of specific prostaglandins.4,5 By inhibiting these reactions, mangostins may play a role in modulating overall immune function, promoting healthy immunity.

Mangosteen and its constituents hold much promise for their potential ability to enhance immune function and promote health. In addition to being a highly nutritious food, mangosteen extract is full of antioxidant activity. It has an extremely high ORAC value and a great potential for enhancing free radical defenses in the body. Best Mangosteen 10% extract contains XanoMax ™, which is standardized to a high level of active mangostin, the class of compounds shown in in vitro studies to benefit certain aspects of immune function. Safety Scientific References

1. XanoMax ™: High-potency extract of Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana. Renaissance Herbs. From www.renaissanceherbs.com
2. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1137-41.
3. Chairungsrilerd N, et al. Pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Oct 31;314(3):351-6.
4. Nakatani K, et al. Gamma-Mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Sep;66(3):667-74.
5. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9.

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Supplement Efforts - to increase weight loss...
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Date: July 07, 2005 11:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Supplement Efforts - to increase weight loss...

If you're searching for a pill that magically melts away the pounds safely and quickly, allowing you to pig out on cookies and chips every night without having to walk a step or lift a weight, keep looking-- it doesn't exist. (If anyone tells you it does, lace up those high-tech sneakers and run in the opposite direction.) That being said, there are supplements that some folks find helpful in addition to (not instead of) a healthy diet and adequate exercise:

  • Calcium: Increased intake has been linked with lower body weight and fat; this vital mineral tends to fight the fat that magnifies your middle at middle age.
  • CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid): Helps shepherd fat and blood sugar into muscle cells instead of fat cells.
  • Garcinia Cambogia: Contains HCA, which gums up the carbs-to-fat conversion process; may also affect brain chemicals that control appetite.
  • Green tea: Thought to increase the rates at which energy is created and fat is burned; also serves as a mild diuretic, blocking water retention.
  • L-Carnitine: Helps the body turn fat into energy; may also help ease exercise-induced fatigue.
  • Don't forget a good, all-purpose multivitamin/mineral to make sure you're not missing anything nutritionally. (For in-depth information on another weight-loss option, Coleus Forskolii.) It's always a good idea to get a knowledgeable health practitioner's assistance in designing a supplementation program, especially if you are looking to lose weight because of a pre-existing health condition.



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    MECHANISMS OF CHITOSAN FAT- BINDING
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    Date: June 25, 2005 08:02 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: MECHANISMS OF CHITOSAN FAT- BINDING

    MECHANISMS OF CHITOSAN FAT- BINDING

    The exact way(s) that Chitosan prevents fat absorbtion is not fully understood but a number of experimental observations support two basic mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the attraction of opposite charges which can be compared to the attraction of opposite magnetic poles. The second entrapment mechanism can be compared to the effect of a net. In the first mechanism the positive charges on chitosan attract the negatively charged fatty acids and bile acids binding them to the indigestible chitosan fiber. This mechanism can explain why chitosan reduces LDL cholesterol levels.

    Our bodies make bile acids in the liver using the cholesterol from LDL. When chitosan binds bile acids it increases the rate of LDL loss thus improving the LDL to HDL ratio. If enough bile acids are bound, the fats are not solublized, which prevents their digestion and absorption. The second mechanism (figure 2) describes a netting effect of chitosan fiber.

    In this model the Chitosan wraps around fat droplets and prevents their being attacked and digested by lipid enzymes. Fats unprotected by Chitosan are digested and absorbed. The “netting” mechanism has been seen to operate in vivo. 108

    Substances that Enhance the Action of Chitosan

    Fibers can be likened to a tangled-up chain. Fibers must “unravel” in order for them to be of maximum benefit to us. “Unraveling” is especially critical for chitosan because each link has a hook on which to attach lipids. Chitosan can absorb an average of 4 to 5 times its weight in lipids. Reports of numbers above and below this range have also been reported and may well reflect the rate or extent of unraveling that had taken place. Fiber formulations can be prepared that unravel rapidly and swell quickly. These highly effective formulations are called superabsorbants. When certain substances are added to chitosan, its remarkable fat-binding ability can be significantly enhanced.

    Ascorbic Acid

    D-Ascorbic acid (erythorbic acid) and L-ascorbic acid are C-vitamins which enhance chitosan’s ability to bind lipids. Combining chitosan with ascorbic acid results in even less fat absorption and greater fecal fat losses.77,108 In one study the addition of ascorbic acid to a chitosan enriched diet increased fecal fat losses by 87 percent and decreased fat absorption by over 50 percent.77

    Cholesterol oxides cause lesions in artery walls which predispose blood vessels to collect plaque. These dietary cholesterol oxides profoundly influence the initiation of heart disease.Free radicals can also contribute to the formation of cholesterol oxides which are even more likely to damage the heart. Cholesterol oxides have been found in deep-fried foods, powdered eggs, processed meats and in human blood itself. Consequently, taking antioxidants like ascorbic acid is vital to protect against the cellular damage this type of free radical causes.112

    Citric Acid

    In feeding experiments with animals, adding citric acid to a chitosan enriched diet resulted in a decreased feed consumption.77 The most likely explanation for this effect is that the citric acid may be enhancing the swelling action of chitosan leading to a sense of fullness, producing satiety and appetite suppression.

    Indoles

    Indoles are remarkable phytochemicals which have the ability to selectively activate certain Mixed Function Oxidases (MFOs).113 These MFO’s help balance estrogen metabolism and prepare dietary toxins for elimination before they are absorbed. The presence of fiber in the intestines provides a bulk agent to carry the metabolized toxins out of the body. Chelat ed Minerals The very best approach to weight loss is to nutritionally augment food choices with nutrient supplementation. Certain biochemical compounds are essential to promoting vigor during the process of thermogenesis. Chelated minerals act to bolster, support and protect the organ systems of the body.114,115

    For example, when fat is burned, heat and energy are released. If a lack of certain minerals exists, energy levels will drop. Minerals help to transport needed nutrients to depleted areas of the body, thereby stemming off the fatigue we so often experience after eating a fatty meal. Even more importantly, free radicals are released whenever fat is consumed and burned and the presence of chelated minerals helps to expedite the removal of these metabolites and facilitate the availability of fuel for energy.

    Essential Fatty Acids

    Prostaglandins control and balance many body functions. The dietary building blocks for making prostaglandins are the essential fatty acids (EFAs). The role of prostaglandins in weight loss has been extensively discussed in a recent review.116 EFAs exert profound lipid-lowering effects.They reduce the synthesis of triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol) in the liver. EFA supplementation coupled with a low-cholesterol, low-saturated fat in diet produces a complementary effect in lowering serum lipid levels.117 Garcinia Cambogia ( Hydroxy Cit ric Acid) Garcinia Cambogia contains hydroxycitric acid (HCA). This form of citric acid inhibits the liver’s ability to make fats out of carbohydrates.118

    Carbohydrates are converted to glycogen stores, not fat stores, giving the body a better energy reserve and an increase in stamina.119 Ephedra And Thermogenisis Thermogenesis means “creating heat.” This is one of the ways our bodies have of burning off excess calories and maintaining a constant weight.120 This is an area of weight management research that is being intensely studied. When we repeatedly yo-yo diet or abuse ourselves by eating too much, our thermogenic ability may be reduced. Numerous animal and human studies have confirmed the benefits of ephedra and methylxanthines in inducing weight loss and restoring thermogenic responsiveness.43,44,121

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    Move it and Lose it! Burn off body fat!
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    Date: June 14, 2005 12:04 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Move it and Lose it! Burn off body fat!

    Move it and Lose it! Burn off body fat! by Mimi Facher Energy Times, June 1, 1997

    So you're feeling a little blah, a little overweight, and you're looking to drop a few of those winter pounds gained during the colder months. Maybe you've dabbled with diets and jogged around the neighborhood a few times but you're still packing unsightly bulges. If so, you may be considering the idea of turning to supplements to help you drop those pounds. Well, two types of diet supplements now generally available, combined with a diet and exercise program, may be able to help you trim those stubborn pounds.

    The first type of supplement, called metabolic optimizers, which include ephedra, caffeine and salicin (derived from willow bark), boost your metabolic rate, causing your body to burn calories faster. The second class, lipotropic substances, aid the body in fat mobilization, causing greater utilization of stored fat. These products include chromium, carnitine and hydroxycitric acid (HCA). Both classes of supplements have been around in various forms for quite a while but are now enjoying greater popularity among dieters.

    Trying to cope with a weight problem is a dilemma expanding throughout modern society. According to a 1995 Harris poll, nearly 75% of Americans are overweight. Although it's well known that the way to lose weight is to expend more calories than you take in, supplements may be able to help you burn off extra calories.

    Thermogenesis and You

    Metabolic optimizers are supposed to aid weight loss through a process called thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is a natural process in which fat is burned to produce body heat. Fat that isn't burned is stored on the hips, thighs, stomach, etc. Thermogenic agents are designed to counteract your body's fat storage mechanisms by causing your body to maintain a higher metabolic rate-turning your internal thermostat up to burn fat faster. The thermogenic process can be jump-started by a number of factors including cold, exercise, certain dietary nutrients and metabolic optimizers.

    Ephedra

    The ephedra herb, also known as ma huang is one of nature's earliest medicines, known for over 5000 years to the Chinese, who used it to relieve allergies, coughing, wheezing and cold and flu symptoms. In the US, ephedra has been available since the 1800s.

    The ingredients in ephedra include the alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and norephedrine. Concentrated forms of these substances are used in today's over-the-counter cold, allergy and asthma relief formulas.

    Ma huang's effectiveness as a weight loss aid is tied to its appetite suppressant and stimulant properties. By speeding up action of the thyroid gland, the ephedrine found in the herb acts a thermogenic agent, boosting the rate at which the body metabolizes fat and promoting weight loss. According to Mark Blumenthal, Executive Director of the American Botanical Council, "When used as part of a total package that includes diet modification and exercise, ma huang can be highly effective in the short run because it increases the speed of the body's metabolism and suppresses appetite."

    Because of their strong stimulant effect, ephedra and its derivatives have engendered some controversy. However, in its long history, billions of doses of ephedra have been consumed without problem. But ephedra supplements should only be used as directed on product labels. People with cardiovascular problems, diabetes, thyroid or prostate dysfunction, high blood pressure and those taking MAO inhibitors, pregnant or nursing should avoid this herb.

    Salicin Burns Fat

    Salicin, a substance derived from willow bark-which is also the original source for aspirin, a related compound-can boost the burning of fat when combined with ephedra. An animal study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that while ephedra boosted calorie burning by almost 10%, when ephedra was combined with aspirin, extra calorie burning just about doubled. Another study in the Internatioanl Journal of Obesity showed that when overweight women took aspirin and ephedrine during a meal, their bodies burned off more calories than normal. (Eating a meal produces a thermogenic effect as your body expends energy in digestion. That's why dieters are told not to skip meals. Skipping meals lowers your metabolic rate, decreasing your calorie expenditure.)

    Similar studies also show that caffeine, the stimulant that gives coffee its eye-opening kick, can also boost ephedra's thermogenic properties. But before using these combinations check with a health practitioner knowledgeable about nutrition. Aspirin or salicin may cause stomach upset in some people (although salicin is generally tolerated well.)

    Carnitine: Lipotropic Amino Acid

    To get carnitine into your system, you don't have to take it as a supplement. Your body already makes this vitamin-like substance. However, your body doesn't make that much. And it is said to be especially low in people with heart disease.

    This non-essential amino acid (said to be non-essential because human bodies produce it) is a key ingredient in the formation of mitochondria membranes. Mitochondria are tiny structures in your cells that burn fats for energy. Consequently, sufficient carnitine is necessary for the movement of fat into the mitochondria where it is consumed. When not enough carnitine is present, the breakdown of long chain fatty acids slows down.

    Said to improve the recovery rate for athletes (it may limit the production of lactic acid, a waste product in muscle tissue), carnitine can also lower cholesterol levels, boost levels of HDL (the good cholesterol) and decrease serum triglycerides (blood fats linked to heart disease). Not bad for a nutrient that coaxes fat into those teeny, ceullular, mitochondrial furnaces.

    Go for the Chrome

    Chromium-based supplements work as lipotropic agents by aiding insulin use in the body. This essential trace mineral is required for normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. According to Dr. Michael Janson, author of The Vitamin Revolution in Healthcare and President of the American Preventive Medical Association (APMA), "Chromium is important for proper insulin activity. Insulin moves sugar into the muscle cells, where it is burned off as energy. Chromium improves the activity of insulin, and since insulin causes fat deposition, less of it means less fat deposition." Chromium has also been shown to build muscle tissue and to reduce LDL cholesterol, which has been linked to heart disease.

    Although the body's minimum requirement is low, the American diet tends to be deficient in chromium, in part because the mineral can be difficult for the body to absorb. The fact that, in nature, chromium is most powerfully concentrated in brewer's yeast, wheat germ and liver-items most Americans rarely eat-probably hasn't helped either. Other natural sources of chromium include whole grains, molasses and beef. But it is estimated that 50% of Americans are chromium deficient. An early study found that overweight adults taking a chromium supplement lost an average of 22% body fat, while maintaining or gaining lean body mass. In another study, athletes consuming 200 mcg. of chromium a day showed an average loss of 7.5 lbs. of body fat after six weeks, without a corresponding loss of muscle tisue. Overall, although some studies question chromium's precise effects, many experts are optimistic about this substance because of its relationship to insulin in the body's metabolism.

    Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA)

    Another possible addition to the dieter's arsenal is HCA. In nature, HCA appears chiefly in a fruit called Garcinia cambogia (sometimes also called Malabar tamarind or brindall berry), a citrus plant found primarily in Asia, where the rind is often used as a flavoring agent. HCA works by inhibiting the enzyme in the body responsible for converting carbohydrates into fat. HCA causes calories to be burned in an energy cycle similar to thermogenesis and acts as somewhat of an appetite suppressant. HCA is also said to have a role in reducing triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels.

    Several animal studies have shown that HCA caused significant weight loss without a reduction in lean body mass. In other words, the pounds that came off came out of fat stores, and not out of energy or muscle reserves. This means that HCA takes off not just weight but body fat, making it a potentially effective tool against weight regain.

    Dr. Elson Haas, director of the Preventive Medical Center of Marin in San Rafael, CA, and author of Staying Healthy With Nutrition: The Complete Guide to Diet and Nutritional Medicine, believes that HCA can be a helpful aid for dieters when used in combination with eating habit changes and exercise. He recommends an HCA and chromium blend for optimum appetite suppression. "This combination can keep the appetite down and reduce sugar cravings," he says.

    Although human research data on HCA is still in the preliminary stages, the animal study results are positive, and the supplement seems to have minimal side effects in most people.

    Some Overall Recommendations

    You are likely to lose weight faster if you eat sensibly. This means avoiding foods high in fat or sugar (which are the most likely to add to stored body fat), but it doesn't mean starving yourself. A sensible balanced diet, along with moderate exercise, is still the best prescription for weight loss. As Dr. Haas puts it, "I'm a firm believer in diet and exercise. Using supplements responsibly can help you to lose weight provided they're combined with dietary changes and exercise. They won't work if you don't change anything." No one is suggesting that dietary supplements are a miracle cure for being overweight-as always in self-health care, there are no magic wands. But, used as directed and combined with a good diet and exercise plan, you could find that these supplements might help you work your way to a slimmer you.

    Mimi Facher is a freelance writer who has contributed to Prevention, Cosmopolitan and Self.



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