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Pregnenolone: A ‘Prohormone’ t=?UTF-8?Q?hat_May_Help_Relieve_Depression?= Darrell Miller 12/4/18
You Can Repair the Adrenal Glands with the Right Diet Darrell Miller 11/9/16
Boost Memory Darrell Miller 3/23/09
Thanks for the Memory Darrell Miller 6/11/05
PREGNENOLONE - The Balancing Hormone Darrell Miller 6/4/05
Intimate Response - The Freedom to Change. Boost intimacy Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone... Darrell Miller 5/17/05



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Pregnenolone: A ‘Prohormone’ t=?UTF-8?Q?hat_May_Help_Relieve_Depression?=
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Date: December 04, 2018 12:51 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: PREGNENOLONE: A ‘Prohormone’ t=?UTF-8?Q?hat_May_Help_Relieve_Depression?=





Relieving depression is not something that comes easy for anyone. Mental health issues are real and there are millions of people around the world that are suffering from these issues. It makes it really hard to diagnose these issues as depression is something that is unique to each person. If you have experience a form of it, then you know what it is. Now, studies are showing that the taking of some pro hormones can help combat depression.

Key Takeaways:

  • Taking a pro hormone is something that has been reported to help people deal with internal demons.
  • Depression is a real mental disorder that can take a really large toll on someone.
  • If you are feeling overly depressed, or down, then go and get checked out to see if you should take medication.

"Maybe you are looking to boost your cognitive health and want to use natural sources to stay mentally sharp. Aside from brain foods that boost focus and memory, a steroid called pregnenolone is gaining attention for its potential neuroprotective effects."

Read more: https://draxe.com/pregnenolone/

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You Can Repair the Adrenal Glands with the Right Diet
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Date: November 09, 2016 01:32 AM
Author: Darrell Miller
Subject: You Can Repair the Adrenal Glands with the Right Diet

Bored with trips to the doctor or naturopath and the costs involved as you attempt to restore the functionality of your adrenal glands? If yes, then embrace an adrenal-supportive diet plan. Apart from reducing the costs you incur to treat adrenal fatigue; you will enjoy several other benefits that come with eating right. Basically you will have to take nutritious whole foods, eat at the right time, and avoid foods that you have intolerances to. Apart from the above, you will have to reduce stressing your mind and body, eliminate toxins and embrace positive thinking at all times. The details below will give you a proper guide towards your recovery.


The Adrenal Fatigue Diet

Since the problem is already here, you have to start by removing toxins and hard-to-digest foods from your diet (embrace a Paleo or Primal diet). This means you have to eliminate legumes, grains, vegetable oils, caffeine, microwaved and processed foods, and refined sugar.

After that, take foods that help replenish the energy of your adrenal glands. They include avocado, olives, Cruciferous vegetables, coconut, Fatty fish, turkey and chicken, seeds (like flax, chia and pumpkin), seaweed and kelp, Himalayan or Celtic sea salt, nuts (like almonds and walnuts), and food fats. These foods have low sugar levels, they are nutrient-dense, and contain healthy fiber and fat.


Taking the Required Adrenal Fatigue Recovery Supplements

Remember that if these supplements are taken in their whole-food form, the symptoms of your adrenal insufficiency could greatly be improved. The supplements to take include Holy basil, Vitamin B5, fish oil (DHA/EPA), Ashwagandha, Magnesium, Vitamin C, Zinc, Vitamin D3 and Vitamin B12. Where your adrenal fatigue is severe, get an experienced doctor to prescribe the correct levels of PREGNENOLONE, DHEA, Progesterone, B6, Licorice Extract, and L-tyrosine

Once you follow the above and embrace good lifestyle changes to promote your recovery you will now have a solution to the full recovery of your adrenal glands. Good lifestyle in this case, means you sleep regularly or about 8-10 hours a night, exercise, rest whenever you feel tired, reduce relational and work stress, laugh and have time to relax. Also, always ensure that you are eating regularly. You can now live a happy and fulfilling life with your adrenal glands working perfectly.

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Boost Memory
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Date: March 23, 2009 01:56 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Boost Memory

Our memory is as natural to us as breathing. An ability we all have, but don’t often think of, it doesn’t seem to cross our mind until we perceive that we are losing the ability. Memory lapses are an annoyance in themselves, but the anxiety that often comes along with them seems to be even worse. We often wonder if our memory problems are a symptom of some other problem like midlife depression, arteriosclerosis, or even Alzheimer’s disease. Although Alzheimer’s disease is a fairly common disorder among older people, one must realize that most memory lapses have nothing to do with Alzheimer’s disease.

Generally, it is believed that increasing age brings about an increased likelihood of developing memory loss. The mildest form of this illness is called age-associated memory impairment. This is characterized by one’s perception of his or her own memory loss and it is estimated that it is experienced by 40 percent of Americans over the age of sixty-five. Not all memory loss is attributable to aging, as occasional memory lapses are a natural normal part of life at almost any age, and are not likely to precede serious memory loss. With a proper diet, nutrition, and memory use, the memory should remain sharp and active well into one’s nineties or beyond.

One big reason why people suffer from memory loss is an insufficient supply of necessary nutrients to the brain. The life of the body is in the blood, as it literally feeds and nourishes every cell within our bodies. Only certain substances are allowed to pass from the bloodstream into the brain, thanks to the protective envelope that is known as the blood-brain barrier. If the blood is thick with cholesterol and triglycerides, the amount of nutrient-rich blood that can pass through the blood-brain barrier decreases. This can result in the brain becoming malnourished over time.

The functioning of the brain also depends upon substances that are referred to as neurotransmitters, which are brain chemicals that act as electrical switches in the brain and are responsible for all the functions of the body. If the brain does not have an adequate supply of neurotransmitters, or the nutrients to make them, it starts to develop something similar to a power failure or a short circuit. If you are trying to recall as specific fact or piece of information and your mind goes blank, it is likely that the above “short circuit” has occurred.

There are many other factors that are involved in the deterioration of the memory. One of the most important is exposure to free radicals, which can cause huge amounts of damage if the memory is unchecked. Alcoholics and drug addicts often suffer a great deal of memory loss, with alcoholics being notorious for huge memory gaps that occur even though they are conscious. Allergies, candidiasis, stress, thyroid disorders, and poor circulation to the brain can also contribute to memory loss, while hypoglycemia can play a role in memory loss as well, as the brain requires that the level of glucose in the blood fall within a specific narrow range. Wide swings in blood sugar levels affect brain function and memory.

The following nutrients are beneficial in dealing with and preventing memory loss: acetylcholine, boron, DMAE, garlic, huperzine A, lecithin granules, manganese, multivitamin and mineral complex, omega-3 fatty acid complex, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl serine, SOD, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, vitamin B3, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, acetyl-l-carnitine, l-glutamine, l-tyrosine, coenzyme Q10, DHEA, DMG, melatonin, NADH, PREGNENOLONE, RNA and DNA, Brahmi, ginkgo biloba, anise, blue cohosh, ginseng, gotu kola, and rosemary.

All of the above mentioned as well as formulas tailored to help improve memory can be found in capsule, table, or power forms. Remember, only look to name brands such as Solaray, Source Naturals and Natures Plus for quality products. Memory vitamins and herbs can be found at your local or internet health food store.

*Statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Vitamins and herbs are not intended to diagnose, treat and cure or prevent disease. Always consult with your professional health care provider before changing any medication or adding Vitamins to medications.



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Thanks for the Memory
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Date: June 11, 2005 03:49 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Thanks for the Memory

Thanks for the Memory by Estelle Sobel , February 6, 2002

Thanks for the Memory By Estelle Sobel

"I feel like every day, I lose my memory more and more. It started when I couldn't find my car keys, sometimes I forget directions. My mother has Alzheimer's so I'm concerned," says Jerry Solowitz, a 63 year old man.

Ellen Lerner, 37, sometimes worries that she can't keep track of everything in her job as a public relations executive. "I feel like stress can get to me easily, and I worry because I forget simple things like where I put a file."

Should these people be concerned?

"Yes," says Lynda Toth, Ph.D., co-author with Pavel Yutsis, M.D., of Why Can't I Remember? Reversing Memory Loss (Avery, 1999).

Jerry should start a specific program with a health practitioner who specializes in memory loss, due to lots of unsuspected new causes for memory dysfunction. Ellen needs to make lifestyle changes, as stress can definitely lead to memory loss.

"Cortisol, which is one of the stress hormones, can be harmful because it keeps calcium in the memory pathway too long and destroys the neurons, which is very damaging to the brain," notes Toth.

Why Does Memory Fail?

Memory fails for several reasons, says Augustine DiGiovanna, M.D., author of Human Aging: Biological Perspectives, (McGraw-Hill 2000), and Professor of Biology at Salisbury State University in Salisbury, MD.

Normal Aging: Much of diminished memory as we age is due to reduced blood flow to the brain from atherosclerosis, which is hardening and narrowing of the arteries. Decreased blood flow causes neurons to shrink and function less effectively.

Also, as we age we lose neurons and neuron connections that can lead to memory loss. So the way people think, how much they remember, and the mental activities they do determine how many brain cells survive through the years.

Finally, as people live longer, the chance is greater that the body's immune system and other defense mechanisms won't be able to protect against certain diseases that affect the brain and memory (Parkinson's, strokes, Alzheimers, atherosclerosis).

A Starving Brain: The brain is not getting fed the nutrients it needs (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, glucose). Without the right "food" the brain's energy levels become lowered and stop powering the memory cells. Then, free radicals can do more dirty work and continue to rust memory cells.

Drink And Sink: Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and slows down the processing of information between memory neurons. Memory loss increases over time, as memory tissues shrink.

Sad Stories: Depression can imbalance the neurotransmitters and electrical charges of neurons.

Tense and Tight: High blood pressure can constrict and narrow blood vessels, limiting blood and oxygen flow to the brain.

Memory-Sustaining Supplements

One way to boost brain power is to take the right supplements.

Ginkgo biloba: The powerful medicinal herb ginkgo biloba increases blood flow and circulation to the head by dilating blood vessels in the brain, allowing more oxygenated blood to get to the neurons. It also protects against free radical damage.

Research: Ginkgo biloba extract displayed a significant effect on helping the mental abilities of people 50-59 years old (Phytotherapy Research 13, 1999: 408-415).

PREGNENOLONE: This powerful hormone regulates the balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system and helps enhance memory and brain function, possibly by repairing a fatty substance that is part of the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve cells. Research: A St. Louis University School of Medicine study on mice showed that PREGNENOLONE enhanced memory and helped mice to navigate mazes better.

Huperzine A: This herbal supplement is derived from club moss found in China; in purified form it inhibits the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter produced in the brain that you need for memory.

Research: Studies conducted by Alan Mazurek, M.D., found that huperzine A in purified form improves memory, enhances focus and concentration and has been used to improve memory loss in Alzheimer's patients (Alt. Ther. in Health Med. 5 [2], March 1999: 97-98).

Another study in The Journal of Neuroscience Research showed that huperzine A is a potent inhibitor of cholinesterase, which penetrates the brain and produces a dose-dependent increase of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine in rat cortex (41, 1995: 828-835).

Phosphatidylserine (PS): This substance, which occurs naturally in nerve cell membranes, helps keep fatty substances soluble and cell membranes fluid and helps reduce levels of cortisone which are damaging to tissues.

Research: Phosphatidylserine encourages a sense of calm by raising the levels of alpha brain waves and increasing the production of acetylcholine (Neuropsychobiology 24, 1990-1991: 42-48).

Vitamin E: This potent antioxidant attaches to bad cholesterol and helps prevent free radical damage to cells.

Research: Age-related processes like memory function and problem solving can be affected by free radical damage. Several studies show that vitamin E might slow the effects of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (JAMA 282, August 18, 1999: 621). Acetyl-l-carnitine: Increases cognitive performance because it rejuvenates cellular membranes of mitochondria, the storehouses of energy contained in every living cell.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid: Preserves memory tissue by increasing glutathione levels, which protect fat stores in neurons from being damaged.

Nine Ways to Remember

Dr. Lynda Toth suggests the following ways to make the most of what you've now got.

1) Power Up Your Smile. Remove dental fillings and replace them with porcelain or ceramic ones. The mercury in metal fillings may be harmful (some believe) and can affect the brain and nervous system, inflaming memory tissue and preventing the entry of nutrients into the cells.

2) Don't Be a Tin Man/Woman Avoid exposure to aluminum. Don't use aluminum pots to cook in. Aluminum accumulates in memory tissue, damaging cells. In fact, autopsies of Alzheimers patients show they have unusually huge amounts of aluminum in the brain. But no one knows where this aluminum comes from.

3) Eat Right. Eat organic and pesticide-free foods. Pesticides get into the cells and can damage DNA.

4) A Matter of Taste. Avoid foods with artificial coloring, monosodium glutamate (MSG, often called "natural flavors" or "natural seasoning"). Also avoid processed foods with taste enhancers called exito toxins such as l-cysteine and aspartic acid.

5) In the Raw. Make sure that your diet consists of enzyme-rich 50% raw foods (fruits and vegetables) to feed the brain. Eat less animal fats.

* Drink green juices to support levels of the brain's clean-up enzymes.

*Eat lots of fiber, which helps remove toxins from the body. Pick up psyllium fiber.

*Limit intake of processed sugar, caffeine and alcohol to lessen the load on the liver and pancreas.

6) Cut Bait. Watch the fish that you eat. Lots of ocean and inland-caught fish are contaminated with mercury. Go for deep, cold water fish such as cod. Avoid shark and swordfish.

7). Oil Up. Supplement your diet with omega-3 fatty acids, such as cod liver oil or flaxseed oil. These fats lubricate memory cells.

8) Work That Body. Stay fit and exercise. Exercise helps oxygenate the body, reduces cholesterol, and builds and energizes new memory cells which reduces wear and tear on the brain function.

9) Do Mind Games. Read, listen to music. Tune into different radio stations than the ones you normally listen to. Do crossword puzzles and a wide selection of word games which can stretch your brain and give it a tough workout.

Student of Life

You need to keep learning your whole life to keep your brain and memory in tip top shape. The brain is adaptable, and you are always building new neurons, says Dr. Toth, which means that there is no limit to how long it can develop. Anything that stimulates the brain will help it to grow. That's why as you get older it's even more important to take classes, start a new hobby, travel. In fact, the challenge of learning and doing new things (without stopping in a fit of frustration) causes your brain to grow, says Dr. Mazurek.

The Good News

As people get older, their brains may actually improve and repair themselves through a complicated process that is designed to eliminate faulty neurons that are prone to making mistakes. At the same time, brain activity goes on that results in the development of new and improved connections with neighboring neurons.

Research also shows that memory improves if you train people to have faith in themselves. (The brain helps those who help themselves.) Apparently, a confident perspective can encourage the brain to actually improve to the point where its new-found abilities may increase to the point where it fulfills expectations.

So keep your chin up and stay away from the artery-clogging saturated fat that can cut off the brain's blood supply. It's all in the attitude, says Dr. DiGiovanna. And, of course, the key to a long and happy life with your brain is also on the end of your fork and in that bottle of supplements.

Estelle Sobel, is the co-author of Beautiful Skin: Every Woman's Guide to Looking Her Best at Any Age (Adams Media, May 2000).



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PREGNENOLONE - The Balancing Hormone
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Date: June 04, 2005 01:40 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: PREGNENOLONE - The Balancing Hormone

PREGNENOLONE

Hormones are potent regulators of the most intricate biochemical functions involved in our metabolism, growth, development, emotion and behavior. For our bodies to function properly, our hormones must be in balance with one another. But aging, stress and environmental factors can contribute to hormonal imbalances, with serious impact on our well-being. Today, science has rediscovered a beneficial hormone with the capacity to reduce stress, fatigue and support mental alertness. This hormone is broad – spectrum in its influences - with the ability to balance the levels of other hormones in our bodies. Unfortunately, our production of this hormone declines as we grow older - suggesting the desirability of supplementation. Introducing: Source Naturals PREGNENOLONE.

A Wide Range of Beneficial Properties

PREGNENOLONE - a hormone produced from cholesterol in our adrenal glands, liver, skin, testicles, ovaries, and brain - was the subject of intense interest in the 1940’s. Some of the earliest studies, performed by well-known researcher Hans Selye, found it to be helpful in reducing stress and fatigue. Additional studies were conducted throughout the decade, with positive results. PREGNENOLONE supplementation was found to benefit people who were under excessive stress. It also was reported to support joint and tissue function and to contribute to skin elasticity. PREGNENOLONE is believed to affect stress levels through its influence on the adrenal glands, which produce more steroid hormones when people are under stress. PREGNENOLONE may also affect brain chemistry in beneficial ways. It has been found to inhibit the GABA receptors in brain cells - which may result in increased mental alertness. It may also stimulate the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors, which play an important role in regulating synapses, thus influencing learning and memory.

PREGNENOLONE: The Unique Hormone

Much of the current interest in PREGNENOLONE is related to its role as “the grandmother of all steroid hormones.” PREGNENOLONE is the starting point from which all steroid hormones are manufactured in our bodies. As a “hormone balancer,” it has the capacity to increase the levels of steroid hormones that are deficient in our bodies and to reduce the levels of excess circulating hormones. Some scientists believe PREGNENOLONE is converted into other hormones only as they are needed by our bodies. The conversion of PREGNENOLONE follows different pathways, depending upon cellular requirements. PREGNENOLONE may be converted into DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), which in turn can be changed into androgens (including testosterone), estrogens and other steroids; or, it may be converted into any or all of a chain of hormones including progesterone, corticosterone, and aldosterone. These characteristics make PREGNENOLONE unique. Because cells may only convert PREGNENOLONE into other hormones on an “as needed” basis, PREGNENOLONE may correct imbalances in the levels of some hormones, without affecting others. This is a great advantage over steroid hormones like DHEA, which may create excess estrogen and testosterone. PREGNENOLONE is also distinctive because of the innumerable bodily activities it can influence. As a steroid hormone precursor, it is believed to be involved in every biochemical action exhibited by any steroid hormone. This means it may impact memory, mental alertness, stress responses, female reproductive cycles, the body’s natural defenses, and joint and tissue function. With such a wide spectrum of involvement, the potential uses of PREGNENOLONE could be boundless. Source Naturals PREGNENOLONE is available in 10 mg sublinguals and tablets, as well as in 25 mg tablets. All potencies are sold in 60 and 120 tablet bottles.

References
1. Akwa, Y., et al. J. Cell Biology, (1993). 121(1), 135-143. 2. Flood, J.F., et al. (1995, Apr.). Physiology and Behavior, 57(4), 669-73. 3. Flood, J.F., et al. (1995). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 92, 10806-10810. 4. Flood, J.F., et al. (1992). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 89, 1567-1571. 5. Henderson, E., et al. (1950). J Clin Endocrinology, 10, 455-474. 6. Hoagland H. (1944). Science, 100(2587), 63-67. 7. Jung-Testas, Z.Y., et al. (1989). Endocrinology, 125(4), 2083-2091. 8. Mayo, W., et al. (1993). Brain Research, 607, 324-328. 9. Pincus, G., et al. (1945). Psychosom. Med., 7, 347-352. 10. Pincus, G. & Hoagland, H. (1944, Apr.). Aviation Medicine, 98-115. 11. Pincus, G. & Hoagland, H. (1945). Psychosom. Med., 7, 342-346. 12. Roberts, E. (1995). Biochemical Pharmacology, 49(1), 1-16. 13. Roy, R., & Bélanger, A. (1992). Endocrinology, 131(3), 1390-1396.



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Intimate Response - The Freedom to Change. Boost intimacy
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Date: June 02, 2005 12:48 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Intimate Response - The Freedom to Change. Boost intimacy

SENSUALITY AND MENOPAUSE. FOR MANY WOMEN THIS apprehensive milestone is foreshadowed by disquieting physiological changes. Its debut marks a transition period that can actually begin at age 40. Called pre-menopause, it usually lasts 3 to 6 years and is characterized by powerful hormonal changes with wide-ranging effects on a woman’s body. Her level of romantic passion is often influenced by these changes. Source Naturals is proud to announce ETERNAL WOMAN™ INTIMATE RESPONSE™. This herbal-safe, natural formulation may support a woman’s healthy vitality and vigor during pre-menopause.

Healthy Circulation = Natural Vitality.

Most women experience decreases in desire at one time or another. Activity levels, monthly hormonal changes, circulatory status, drugs such as oral contraceptives and anti-depressants, alcohol and emotional factors all may contribute to a woman’s passion. However, premenopause is something more. Hormones stimulate, affect and balance hundreds of processes during a woman’s monthly cycle. When their levels begin to fluctuate and decline during premenopause, the body’s internal balancing act is acutely influenced. The bloodstream is our “river of life” as it delivers oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. Maintaining adequate blood circulation is necessary to our health and vitality. INTIMATE RESPONSE contains these supportive herbs and nutrients: yohimbe, epimedium, Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and L-Arginine.

The Nitric Oxide Connection.

L-Arginine is the primary amino acid t hat the body uses to make nitric oxide. It is nitric oxide that helps the muscle tissues surrounding a blood vessel to relax, allowing more blood to flow to the organs. Panax ginseng is a highly valued botanical traditionally utilized as an energizing tonic. In use for thousands of years in China, its main active constituents are the ginsenosides. Ginkgo extract is traditionally the premier herb for supporting blood flow in the circulatory system. PREGNENOLONE is the starting point from which all sex hormones are produced internally. Yohimbe is an African herb that has traditionally been used for more than 100 years. It supports peripheral blood vessels. Epimedium and dong quai are highly valued blood tonic herbs in traditional Chinese medicine used to support circulation and “life essence.” Vitamin B6 and folic acid support proper blood flow and healthy arteries by reducing levels of homocysteine in the bloodstream.

The Healthy, Herbal-Safe Response.

INTIMATE RESPONSE is a remarkable combination of herbal-safe, gentle ingredients that may support healthy and normal circulation during pre-menopause. For the freedom to change™ naturally...choose INTIMATE RESPONSE by Source Naturals.

References:
Bush, P., et al. (1992). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 186(1), 308-314. Chatterjee, S.S. in: Effect of Ginkgo Biloba on Organic Cerebral Impairment (Agnoli, A, Rapin J.R., Scapagnini, V., Weitbrecht, W.V., eds) John Libbey, London, pp. 5-14 (1985). Chen, X. (1996). Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 23(8), 728-32. Davis, S.R., & Burger, H.G. (1996). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 81(8), 2759-2763. Franken, D.G., et al. (1994). Arterioscler Thromb., 14, 465-470. Huang, K.C. (1993). The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, CRC Press Inc: Boca Raton, 91-92. Marcocci, L., et al. (1994). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication, 201(2), 748-755. Paick, Jae-Seung, & Lee, J.H. (1996). The Journal of Urology, 156, 1876-1880. Riley, AJ. (1994, May/June). BJCP, 48(3), 133-136. Roberts, E. (1995). Biochemical Pharmacology, 49(1), 1-16. Stamler, J.S. et al. (1993). The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 91, 308-318. Zumoff, B., et al. (1995). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 80(4), 1429-1430.



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Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone...
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Date: May 17, 2005 04:47 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone...

The androgens 4-androstenediol and 4-androstenedione are natural testosterone precursors. The biosynthesis of testosterone takes place within the testicular Leydig cells in two metabolic pathways. During the progesterone-pathway (.delta.-4 pathway), PREGNENOLONE is metabolized to progesterone by the 3-.beta.-hydroxy-steroid deydrogenase and an isomerase. Progesterone is then changed to 17-.alpha.-hydroxyprogesterone by the 17-.alpha.-hydroxylase and C.sub.17C.sub.21-lyase to androstenedione, then to testosterone by reduction of the 17-keto-group by 17-.beta.-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase. The DHEA-pathway (.delta.-5 pathway) leads from pregenolone to 17-.alpha.-hydroxyPREGNENOLONE to dehyroepiandrosterone (C.sub.17C.sub.21-lyase), to 5-.delta.-androstenediol. See FIG. 4; Wichmann et al., 83(3) EXP. CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. 283-290 (1984).

As a testosterone pro-hormone and metabolite, 4-androstenedione may be used by athletes and bodybuilders to improve muscle mass. Levels of .delta. 4-androstenedione increase significantly with moderate exercise in healthy men. Velardo et al., 97(1) EXP. & CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. 99-101 (1991). Additionally, supplementation with 4-androstenedione has been known to produced elevations in serum testosterone. Mahesh et al., 41(3-8) J. STEROID BIOCHEM. MOL. BIOL. 495-513 (1992).

4-androstenediol is also metabolized into testosterone and is produced by conversion of dehyroepiandrosterone. Inaba et al., 13(2) ENDOCRINOLOGIA JAPONICA 160-72 (1966). It was first shown to produce elevations in human serum testosterone levels in 1965, and this was also demonstrated in in vitro studies in animals (Kundu, 6(5) STEROIDS 543-51 (1965) and human fibroblast cultures. Faredin et al. 32(2) ACTA MEDICA ACADEMIAE SCIENTIARUM HUNGARICAE 139-52 (1975). Supplementation with 4-androstenedione, 4-androstenediol, and 19-nor-4-androstenedione has been studied to determine whether a rise in testosterone is produced. Uralets et al., 23 ANAL. TOXICOL. 357-366 (1999). Testosterone is excreted in the urine unchanged and is metablized through 5.alpha.- and .beta.-DHT as 5.alpha.- and .beta.-androstanediol, while androstenedione is similarly excreted as androsterone and etiocholanolone. Both the final excreted steroid and the intermediaries stanediones and DHT intraconvert so that androsterone, 5.alpha.- and .beta.-androstanediol and etiocholanolone are seen in urine. Supplementation with 4-androstenediol produced a 10-fold greater urine testosterone concentration than 4androstenedione. (Uralets, 1999)



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