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Horny Goat Weed Darrell Miller 12/6/08
Horny Goat Weed Darrell Miller 10/31/08
Supplements for Sexual health! Darrell Miller 4/17/07
Intimate Response - The Freedom to Change. Boost intimacy Darrell Miller 6/2/05




Horny Goat Weed
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Date: December 06, 2008 10:05 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Horny Goat Weed

Horny Goat weed, correctly named Epimedium, or Yin Yang Huo in Chinese, is one of over 60 herbaceous plants of the Berberdaceae family. It grows naturally in Southern China, and also in Korea, Southeast Asia and some parts of Europe. Other names given to include Fairy Wings and Bishop's Hat.

Horny goat weed has been viewed as a natural alternative to Viagra, and many species of Epimedium are said to possess aphrodisiac properties, and is said to have got its name from a Chinese goat herder who notice that his goats became more 'frisky' with the lady goats after eating the plant. In fact studies have indicated to increase vitality, particularly the libido and male sexual vitality, although it also possesses some other health benefits in its effect on dementia and osteoporosis.

The term 'horny' is used in the colloquial sense, and has nothing to do with the shape of the plant, the flowers of which are star-shaped. In fact the Chinese name for it means 'licentious goat weed', making the English translation quite clear.

The main ingredient in horney goat weed is icariin, a flavonoid glycoside that acts as a PDE5 inhibitor. Others include the similarly named, but totally different chemical, icaritin, and also many other that will be discussed later. It is icariin on which we shall focus for the time being. Since this is central to its effect on erectile dysfunction, some time will be spent on explaining what PDE5 inhibitors do.

cGMP (Cyclic guanosine monophosphate) is a chemical that relaxes smooth muscle tissue, including the vascular smooth muscles in blood vessels. This can lead to the dilation, or increase in size, of blood vessels and increased blood flow. The corpus cavernosum of the penis is a spongy area that runs the full length of the penis, and contains many blood vessels that can be dilated through the action of cGMP and allow the increased blood flow to create an erection.

PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) is an enzyme that can degrade cGMP and prevent the relaxation of these blood vessels, and so prevent them from dilating. A PDE5 inhibitor, such as icariin, prevents the PDE5 from degrading cGMP, and so allow a normal erection. Sidenafil, commonly known as Viagra, is a similar PDE5 inhibitor and works in the same way as icariin. Hence, the effect of Viagra is not to create an unnatural erection, but in fact to allow the cGMP to do its natural work by preventing the phosphodiesterase from stopping it doing so.

This is just one of the effects of horny goat weed: it is a more natural PDE5 inhibitor than Viagra is. It is also more specific than Sidenfil, and does not interfere with any of the other phosphodiesterases that are essential for other purposes. However, its effects do not stop there, because icariin possesses other properties, and is also only one of the many components of Epimedium that can increase vitality.

Among these are a number of flavonoids in addition to icariin, sterols and the isoquinoline alkaloid magnaflorine, that possesses antioxidant properties and reduces LDL cholesterol. The exact mechanism by which horny goat weed works to increase sexual desire is unknown, but it is believed that it inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinetsrase (AChE). Cholinergic synapses are the spaces between brain cells that allow electrical impulses to be transmitted, and are an essential component of neuromuscular system response to stimulation.

AChE can stop these from working properly, and prevent neurotransmitters from effectively allowing sexual arousal. Horny goat weed can inhibit the activity of this enzyme and allow the neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine to do their proper job in allowing sexual arousal to occur. This, again, is a natural and not a chemical solution. It has also been found to reduce cortisol levels that cause stress which also reduces sexual desire.

The effect of Epimedium on smooth muscles can also aid those suffering from pulmonary hypertension, in which the small blood vessels in the lungs become too narrow to be effective in allowing the transfer between oxygen and carbon dioxide. PDE5 inhibitors can help these blood vessels to relax and so be more easily dilated in the same way as those in the corpus cavernosum. Once dilated, they are able to carry more blood to and from the lungs and allow the reoxygenation process to continue smoothly.

Research has also discovered the possibility of horny goat weed possessing monoamine-oxidase inhibition properties. Monoamine oxidase enzymes can deaminate hormones such as dopamine, and can significantly reduce the production of testosterone. The inhibitor prevents this happening, and leads to elevated levels of dopamine, and also of serotonin and noradrenaline. Dopamine encourages the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone that in turn promotes the production of testosterone by the testes.

Another property of horny goat weed is that it can protect against the toxin beta-Amyloid, a protein that damages DNA in the brain, causing the death of brain cells and the accumulation of dead cells in your brain. This in turn leads to dementia and potentially Alzheimer's disease. The use of Horny goat weed is being studied closely in relation to this property. The active ingredient here is icaritin (not to be confused with icariin)

Epimedium also has implications in the treatment of the cartilage and bone damage that occurs with arthritis and osteoporosis. It is possible that this is connected with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of magnaflorine, and icariin has been found to have bone-healing properties. It is known that damaged cartilage treated with horney goat weed displayed signs of growth and regeneration when compared to a placebo.

However, the most popular use of horny goat weed is in its effect on the libido and erectile dysfunction. The effect on the libido and sexual desire works equally well for men and women, and it is a preferred natural remedy to synthetic equivalents such as Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. The added benefits of the natural product render Epimedium the preferred and safest solution for many people.



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Horny Goat Weed
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Date: October 31, 2008 01:04 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Horny Goat Weed

Item: #4758, 90 Tabs

Product Categories: Hormonal and Vitality Support

Positioning Purpose: The vitality and hormonal support industry is one of the most lucrative in today’s health sector, as evidenced by record sales and an influx of new brands and product offerings. Amazingly, there are still people out there who do not realize that natural alternatives exist. Horny Goat Weed has been a staple in Eastern medicine for centuries, and continues to stand the test of time. Science advancement has helped us better understand its method of action, and we now know that it contains a number of compounds that help support energy, stamina and vitality.*

Product Details: NOW® Horny Goat Weed Extract contains 750 mg of horny goat weed extract (Epimedium grandiflorum, E. brevicorum), standardized to 10% Icariin. For increased support, we’ve added 150 mg of pure Maca Root per serving, another historically used herb that has been shown to support healthy hormones and vitality. Both compounds have a well-documented history of safety and effectiveness. Unlike other products within the hormonal vitality category, this formula can be used by both mean and women.

Nutrient Profile, per serving: Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium grandiflorum), 750 mg Maca Root (Lepidium meyenii), 150 mg

Ideal Users: NOW® Horny Goat Weed is ideal for healthy adults seeking additional hormonal and vitality support. It can be used safely by both men and women.

Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement, suggested use is 1 tablet taken daily, preferably with a meal. Complementary Products: Consider taking NOW® Horny Goat Weed with other NOW products, such as, TestoJack 100™, Tribulus, or ENERGY™

Other Ingredients: Cellulose, Croscarmellose sodium, Stearic acid, silica (vegetable source), magnesium stearate (vegetable source), and vegetable coating.

Supporting Science: Ning H, Xin ZC, Lin G et al. Effects of Icariin on phosphodiesterase-5 activity in vitro and cyclic guanosine monophosphate level in cavernous smooth muscle cells. Urology 2006;68:1350-4

Warning: Please consult a healthcare provider prior to use if you have any medical conditions, are taking medications, are pregnant, may become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease.

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Supplements for Sexual health!
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Date: April 17, 2007 02:35 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Supplements for Sexual health!

Improving Sexual Performance Naturally

Sex. It’s everywhere. It’s on TV (a lot!). It’s in the books we read and the movies we watch. Even the radio seems a veritable hot bed of sex. (what would hard rock, soft jazz, or Motown classics be without songs about sex?) Magazines are full of sex and it’s not just the “naughty” ones with glossy centerfolds. From Sports Illustrated to Good Housekeeping, sex makes for titillating headlines and cover stories. In fact, 21st Century America seems to be awash in sex, except where it counts – in the bedrooms and love lives of married Americans.

No one really knows for sure how many of the 113 million married Americans are living as couples with DINS (dual income, no sex). Estimates range from 15 to 50 percent. Even couples who have sex fairly often feel like they’re not having enough sex or that it’s not as enjoyable as it was in the past, or both. And while women are stereotyped as the sex refusers and avoiders, surveys show that both women and men decline spousal advances fairly equally.

What’s really interesting about this lack of sexual activity in America, is that the very same thing is happening to husbands and wives residing in Paris and London, as well as Lisbon and Madrid. Research has shown that married couples who reside within Western civilized countries are much more likely to have unhappy sex lives than their counterparts living elsewhere in the world. That’s because the married couples residing in the rainforests of Brazil, the streets of Beijing, and the mountains of Tibet have access to powerful plant medicines that keep their sexual relationships healthy and happy. In fact, in China and India alone, over one billion men and women routinely incorporate plant medicines for healthy and satisfying sex.

As a medicine hunter, I have discovered effective plants and herbs al over the planet that really do improve orgasms in women and erections in men. Now it’s your turn. I’m going to teach you how to enhance your sexuality and introduce you to an entire arsenal of libido lifting plants to help make sex fun, vibrant, and satisfying for both you and your partner.

 

Q. These plants sound too good to be true. Do they really work?

A. Yes, they do. Part of their success is their ability to work with your body’s innate mechanisms for healthy sex. Good sex is much more than just stimulated body parts. But it’s a good place to start!

A man needs an erect penis that remains firm past foreplay and on into intercourse. He also needs to sustain that erection and experience forceful and pleasurable ejaculation when he and his partner are both ready for his orgasm. A woman needs to feel desire and feel desired for her nipples to be aroused, her clitoris stimulated, and her vagina lubricated – the basics leading to her orgasm.

Plants that enhance sex can help men and women obtain these bare necessities of sex. And unlike other supplements, you’ll know if the medicinal plant you’ve purchased is actually doing what it promised to do. You can’t really tell if the calcium supplement you take each day is making your bones stronger. But you will be able to tell pretty soon if Catuaba, for example, is increasing your sexual desire.

Q. Night after night, my husband falls asleep on the sofa. And the honest to goodness truth is that I’m too tired for sex, too. I love my husband and once upon a time I loved sex. But my job, the kids, those never-ending errands, and trying to keep up with the laundry are too exhausting. Is there a plant that can rev us up?

A. Many women are in the same sexless boat you’re sailing around in and they don’t like it any more than you do. In fact, women all over the world put their family’s needs before their own, leading to some very tired moms and wives.

Life’s demands can also impair sexual performance in men. Work stressors, family demands, and home maintenance result in fatigue and lack of energy. Men find that they have no energy left to devote to to sex at the end of the day.

But, over 80 percent of married couples in the world have at their disposal a health care system that integrates sex into their personal health and well being. For centuries, millennia actually, practitioners of traditional medicine have prescribed Maca and Rhodiola to reduce “sexual fatigue” in women and men who are just too tired to make love.

 

Sex Enhancing Plants for Men and Women

How They Work

Maca (Lepidum meyenii)

For the past several years in Peru, where the Maca plant grows, physicians have prescribed extracts from this plant to men with low libido and diminished erectile function, which excellent results. Recently researchers studying Maca have discovered two compounds they think are responsible for improved sexual stamina, namely the macamides and macaenes. It is these same compounds that help men and women obtain more frequent and more powerful orgasms.

Rhodiola Rosea

This hardy plant grows high in the mountains of Europe and Asia, enduring cold and snow and lack of sunlight for much of the year. Hoping to gain some of Rhodiola’s energy and stamina for themselves, early Siberians used extracts of the plants to boost strength and stamina. Not only did they have more energy, they discovered they had more sexual stamina, too.

 

Rhodiola is an adaptogen, a plant that helps us adapt to changes in life and the stresses of everyday life. When we’re stressed, our bodies shift into high gear causing a cascade of hormones to prevent and reduce harm. In cases of trauma (like car accident or surgery (or simply nature at work (such as childbirth), these hormones are necessary. However, when we experience stress that’s caused by work (your boss), or family (your teen-aged children), or personal struggles (your weight), this hormonal cascade can do more harm than good –causing fatigue, added weight gain, poor metabolism, and impaired sexual function.

 

Rhodiola helps make sure the hormonal cascade occurs when it’s needed, to protect our health, not harm it. The result is better energy, better vitality, and better sex!

 

Q. Since I had a baby four months ago, I have no desire for sex. This is making my husband pretty frustrated and me too, actually. I’d love to want sex again.

A. A married woman with a baby and a toddler or two can feel that her body isn’t really hers. So much for feeling sexy! While this fact can be a source of great pride and joy, it can also drain desire.

As women enter perimenopause – those years when they are still menstruating despite fluctuating estrogen levels – they often have no desire for sex. Since estrogen is the engine that drives women’s reproductive function, when it starts to go, sex goes too. Women who have reached menopause may find their minds wandering during sex. Pondering the car’s need for an oil change or if the milk in the refrigerator has reached its expiration date makes for pretty blah sex. It also makes it nearly impossible to achieve orgasm.

Once more, traditional medicine has some answers:

Sex Plants for Women

How They Work

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

Just like Rhodiola, Ashwagandha is an adaptogen, possessing powerful sex-enhancing powers. And just like Rhodiola, Ashwagandha has been helping women boost their desire for sex. Long considered India’s most potent sex-enhancing plant, the country’s women have used Ashwagandha for years to rev up their sex drives.

Catuaba (Erythroxylum Catuaba)

Catuaba is a tree that grows in the dense, lush Brazilian Amazon, the largest tropical rainforest on Earth. For hundreds and hundreds of years, tribal peoples have used Catuaba bark to stimulate sexual desire. According to folk legend, the Tupi Indians discovered Catuaba bark’s sex-enhancing effects and passed the knowledge on to other rainforest tribes. Today, Catuaba is used worldwide by women desiring passionate sex.

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus) extract

Sometimes called Siberian ginseng, Eleuthero is actually not a ginseng at all, only a distant cousin. This leafy shrub is native to Eastern Russia and the mountains of China and has been used by tribal peoples for over 2,000 years to eliminate sexual fatigue. Eleuthero is another adaptogen, invigorating sexual function and restoring balance to all body functions.

Q. My husband has a desire for sex, but sometimes it’s not enough. Even if we’re both in the mood, he can’t maintain his erection very long. It’s very frustrating for us both.

A. For men it’s often their equipment that lets them down. As men age, they find they can’t get an erection hard enough or keep an erection long enough to satisfy their partners and themselves.

While women can fake an orgasm if they’re tired, men have to perform every single time they have sex. Luckily, Mother Nature can help:

Sex Plants for Men

How They Work

Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium species)

This aptly named sex plant has been in use for over two thousand years, restoring sexual fire, treating impotence, and increasing production of semen. The green leaves of Horny Goat Weed are filled with numerous natural compounds, responsible for these sexual effects. Research shows that horny goat weed has activities very similar to the androgens, sex hormones that stimulate desire in men.

Yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe)

Yohimbe is nature’s Viagra – it helps men attain firm erections. Not surprisingly, Yohimbe has been used for a long time as a fold medicine aphrodisiac. The bark contains Yohimbine, a compound known to stimulate engorged vessels within the penis and nerves of the lower spine. It’s no wonder Yohimbe has the well-deserved reputation as a superior sexual stimulant.

Panax ginseng

One of the most highly regarded plants in traditional Chinese medicine, Ginseng stimulates the central nervous system, invigorates the brain, increases resistance to stress and fatigue, and sharpens the mind. Ginseng is also used by millions of men to enhance libido and sexual vitality. In an erectile dysfunction study, men who took Ginseng had a 42% improvement in erectile function compared to placebo. Researchers theorize that ginseng increases nitric oxide in the penis, dilating the vessels of the corpus cavernosum - the very same mechanism that makes Viagra work.

Q. There are hundreds of supplements that claim to make men hard and women weak with desire. I’ve tried some of these, and they don’t do anything. When should I believe that the herbs and plan medicines you have discovered are nay better?

A. There are a lot of “snake oil” companies out there pitching products that promise to improve our sex lives but do absolutely nothing. One reason for this glut of useless supplements is simple demand. Men and women trying to make their sex lives better, are willing to give most products the benefit of the doubt and buy one or two. Sex sells – and even products that are purchased one time only will make big profits.

To get the most for your money, make sure the sexual supplement you are considering is from a well-respected manufacturer. Ask store staff, surf the Internet, and do some searching for the best nutraceutical companies. Make sure the herbs are standardized and that the extracts are concentrated fro optimal benefit.

Q. Are these sex-enhancing plants safe?

A. Despite years of use by practitioners of traditional medicine, significant adverse effects have not been reported for most sex-enhancing plants. However, men who have already been diagnosed with certain health conditions such as high blood pressure, thyroid disease, prostate problems, or other illnesses should use caution when selecting any health supplement. The same advice applies to women, especially women who are pregnant or nursing. And always remember to keep your doctor informed about the supplements you are using, especially if you are also taking prescription drugs. But the sex-enhancing plants have been traveling on planet Earth for a long, long time. And hopefully they’ll be here for lot longer, continuing to work effectively and go about their business of safely improving orgasms and erections and making sex great for men and women all over the world.

Q. OK, exactly how did early native healers figure out which plants improve sex? Was it just simple trial and error?

A. It does seem pretty remarkable that tribal peoples have discovered the right plants to treat diseases and improve health without modern day scientific advances.

From my many years as a “medicine hunter” in rainforests and grasslands and marshes and mountains, I’ve learned that healing plants exist for virtually every health need. It’s up to the medicine man or women to put the plant into practice. These healers have been able to do this successfully for thousands of people, by intensively studying and working with the plants. By putting themselves into the plant’s world, becoming part of the world around them, native healers have intuitively discovered which plant helps which disease. It wasn’t mere luck that brought all those plants and all those healers together. It was the natural and spiritual connection existing between the two.

Q. Are there other “natural” remedies we can use to improve our sex lives?

A. The easiest way to naturally enhance your sex life is to practice, practice, practice! Because if you don’t use it, you might lose it. Studies have shown that couples in the Amazon rainforest as well as couples in the concrete jungle of New York City have better sex lives if thy make sex a priority. All the sex-enhancing plants in the world are useless if the men and women taking them don’t put them to the test.

Men who smoke need to quit. Research has shown that cigarettes send men’s sex lives up in smoke. Men who smoke more than 20 cigarettes daily have a 60 percent higher risk of erectile dysfunction compared to men who never smoked. That’s because smoking decreases blood flow making it difficult for men to obtain an erection.

And finally, since sex is a visual and tactile endeavor, there are quite natural and creative ways to give it a boost. Visually stimulating images can arouse even the tiredest of the tired. Premiere Magazine recently compiled a list of the most erotic movie sex scenes ever. You don’t have to feel embarrassed when renting these movies (as you might with pornography) at the video store and they are guaranteed to light up your life:

1.      Diane Lane and Oliver Martinez making love in UNFAITHFUL (2002)

2.      Hilary Swank pleasuring Chloe Sevigny in BOYS DON’T CRY (1999)

3.      Brad Pitt and Claire Forlani making love in MEET JOE BLACK (1998)

4.      Leonardo DiCaprio drawing Kate Winslet in the nude in TITANIC (1997)

5.      Sharon Stone uncrossing her legs while she is being interrogated in a room full of en in BASIC INSTINCT (1992)

6.      Patrick Swazye and Demi Moore in the pottery secene early on in GHOST (1990)

7.      Michael Douglas and Glenn Close having sex in an elevator in FATAL A TTRACTION (1987)

8.      Mickey Rourke caressing Kim Basinger’s body with an ice cube in 9 1.2 WEEKS (1986)

9.      William Hurt and Kathleen Turner having sex in BODY HET (1981)

10.  Julie Christine and Donald Sutherland making love in DON’T LOOK NOW (1973)

11.  Rita Hayworth flipping back her hair and singing “Put The Blame on Mame” in FILDA (1946)

One Important Last Point

Sex always has consequences. And improving your sex life does not eliminate the requirement to practice it responsibly. Sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis, and HIV/AIDS must be prevented, pregnancy must be considered and consent between partners must exist.

Conclusion

Sexual activity keeps us connected – both tangibly and spiritually to our heart’s desire. It helps us feel secure and well loved and adds to our self esteem. In other words, good sex is important to good life.

But all of us need a little help now and then. Sex-enhancing plants that have been used for thousands of years by millions of people provide that help. You can have actual sexual healing with effective sexual supplements and maybe find out what you’ve been missing.

After all, 80 percent of the world’s married couples can’t be wrong!



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Intimate Response - The Freedom to Change. Boost intimacy
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Date: June 02, 2005 12:48 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Intimate Response - The Freedom to Change. Boost intimacy

SENSUALITY AND MENOPAUSE. FOR MANY WOMEN THIS apprehensive milestone is foreshadowed by disquieting physiological changes. Its debut marks a transition period that can actually begin at age 40. Called pre-menopause, it usually lasts 3 to 6 years and is characterized by powerful hormonal changes with wide-ranging effects on a woman’s body. Her level of romantic passion is often influenced by these changes. Source Naturals is proud to announce ETERNAL WOMAN™ INTIMATE RESPONSE™. This herbal-safe, natural formulation may support a woman’s healthy vitality and vigor during pre-menopause.

Healthy Circulation = Natural Vitality.

Most women experience decreases in desire at one time or another. Activity levels, monthly hormonal changes, circulatory status, drugs such as oral contraceptives and anti-depressants, alcohol and emotional factors all may contribute to a woman’s passion. However, premenopause is something more. Hormones stimulate, affect and balance hundreds of processes during a woman’s monthly cycle. When their levels begin to fluctuate and decline during premenopause, the body’s internal balancing act is acutely influenced. The bloodstream is our “river of life” as it delivers oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. Maintaining adequate blood circulation is necessary to our health and vitality. INTIMATE RESPONSE contains these supportive herbs and nutrients: yohimbe, Epimedium, Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and L-Arginine.

The Nitric Oxide Connection.

L-Arginine is the primary amino acid t hat the body uses to make nitric oxide. It is nitric oxide that helps the muscle tissues surrounding a blood vessel to relax, allowing more blood to flow to the organs. Panax ginseng is a highly valued botanical traditionally utilized as an energizing tonic. In use for thousands of years in China, its main active constituents are the ginsenosides. Ginkgo extract is traditionally the premier herb for supporting blood flow in the circulatory system. Pregnenolone is the starting point from which all sex hormones are produced internally. Yohimbe is an African herb that has traditionally been used for more than 100 years. It supports peripheral blood vessels. Epimedium and dong quai are highly valued blood tonic herbs in traditional Chinese medicine used to support circulation and “life essence.” Vitamin B6 and folic acid support proper blood flow and healthy arteries by reducing levels of homocysteine in the bloodstream.

The Healthy, Herbal-Safe Response.

INTIMATE RESPONSE is a remarkable combination of herbal-safe, gentle ingredients that may support healthy and normal circulation during pre-menopause. For the freedom to change™ naturally...choose INTIMATE RESPONSE by Source Naturals.

References:
Bush, P., et al. (1992). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 186(1), 308-314. Chatterjee, S.S. in: Effect of Ginkgo Biloba on Organic Cerebral Impairment (Agnoli, A, Rapin J.R., Scapagnini, V., Weitbrecht, W.V., eds) John Libbey, London, pp. 5-14 (1985). Chen, X. (1996). Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 23(8), 728-32. Davis, S.R., & Burger, H.G. (1996). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 81(8), 2759-2763. Franken, D.G., et al. (1994). Arterioscler Thromb., 14, 465-470. Huang, K.C. (1993). The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, CRC Press Inc: Boca Raton, 91-92. Marcocci, L., et al. (1994). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication, 201(2), 748-755. Paick, Jae-Seung, & Lee, J.H. (1996). The Journal of Urology, 156, 1876-1880. Riley, AJ. (1994, May/June). BJCP, 48(3), 133-136. Roberts, E. (1995). Biochemical Pharmacology, 49(1), 1-16. Stamler, J.S. et al. (1993). The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 91, 308-318. Zumoff, B., et al. (1995). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 80(4), 1429-1430.



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