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Oxford University Launching World Class Cannabis Research Center Darrell Miller 4/28/17
Does Melatonin Decline As We Age? Darrell Miller 9/22/15
Vegetarians need more omega-3s Darrell Miller 10/25/05
Life Force - The Energy Activator Darrell Miller 6/29/05
REFERENCES Darrell Miller 6/22/05
Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplement Darrell Miller 6/21/05

Oxford University Launching World Class Cannabis Research Center

Date: April 28, 2017 10:44 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Oxford University Launching World Class Cannabis Research Center

Oxford University plans to open a world class cannabis research facility. This center would seek to research THC and CMD as potential therapies and treatments for a variety of illnesses. Despite the plant being illegal in the UK and in many other countries, Kingsley hopes to find ways to harness the healing properties of cannabis and put the UK on track as a leader in this rapidly growing field. The center also plans to host international conventions where researchers from across the globe can share their findings.

Read more: Oxford University Launching World Class Cannabis Research Center


Does Melatonin Decline As We Age?

Date: September 22, 2015 01:00 AM
Author: Darrell Miller
Subject: Does Melatonin Decline As We Age?

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal glands.  The circadian production of melatonin is tied to the day/night cycle. Light through the retina signals the pineal glands to suppress its production. Lack of light stimulation (at night) results to increased production of melatonin. The increased hormone production at night is associated with a good night’s sleep. According to a study, melatonin significantly reduces sleep latency and increases sleep efficiency. It has thus been used to treat insomnia.


Aging and Insomnia

Insomnia is commonplace among the elderly. As we age, sleep problems which include difficulty in falling asleep and maintaining the sleep are so rampant. This is so because melatonin production declines with age. With age comes the disruption of the circadian rhythms associated with the production of melatonin. To this end, melatonin supplements come handy to the elderly in maintaining a good night’s sleep.

Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

There is more to this hormone than a good night’s sleep and normal aging. There are evidences that melatonin suppresses Alzheimer’s disease. AD is the leading cause of dementia among individuals older than 65 years. Lack of sleep is a common symptom among AD patients and feels bad but sundowning (worsening of symptoms during evening hours) is worse. According to Netherlands Institute of Brain Research, the declining production of melatonin among the elderly not only affects the circadian rhythms but also enhances the development of Alzheimer.

Melatonin as an Antioxidant

Melatonin production starts to decline at age 60. This is the onset of diseases like AD which leads to increased production of free radicals in the brain. According to a review paper written in 2000, there is a lot of pathological changes among AD patients’ autopsied brains as a result of free radical activity. Melatonin carries antioxidant properties which fight the free radicals and protect the brain neurons.

Melatonin Supplements

Melatonin is a powerful hormone. Its function in sustaining optimal human health is crucial. New discoveries are being made on this versatile hormone. The fact that its production starts to decline at 60 only means that you need to use supplements and not fret over the onset of AD or insomnia. It is clear that besides being harmless and natural in treating insomnia, Melatonin is the most effective way of averting deleterious aging effects.



Vegetarians need more omega-3s

Date: October 25, 2005 03:31 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Vegetarians need more omega-3s

Vegetarians need more omega-3s

Remind your meat-shunning customers to stock up on vegan omega-3 supplements. A recent study done at England’s university of Oxford found that the level of omega-3 in the blood of vegans and vegetarians was significantly lower than in meat-eaters. However, the researchers also found that the levels of EPA and DHA—fatty acid components of omega-3—remained stable; no matter how many years’ people had gone without eating meat.

Flax Seed oil is high in Omega-3

Buy Flax seed oil at Vitanet ®


Life Force - The Energy Activator

Date: June 29, 2005 10:35 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Life Force - The Energy Activator

Don’t Be Confused About Multiples – Get the Top-Ranked Multiple That Scores 100%

We can help you decide how to pick the most advanced daily multiple for your wellness. Listen to the experts. Source Naturals LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE was honored as a leading formula in an independent scientific analysis of 500 multiples, ranking higher than any other national brand. Lyle MacWilliam, author of the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements ( ranked multiples based on criteria developed from the published recommendations of the most renowned nutritional authorities: Phyllis Balch, C.N.C.; Michael Colgan, Ph.D.; Earl Mindell, Ph.D.; Michael Murray, N.D.; Richard Passwater, Ph.D.; Ray Strand, M.D.; and Julian Whitaker, M.D. Source Naturals’ success in this rigorous scientific analysis reflects our Bio-Aligned™ formulation method. LIFE FORCE goes deep to the underlying cause of health imbalances by supporting multiple body systems. And now, based on the latest scientific research, we have improved the formula by adding even more antioxidants and other cutting-edge ingredients. According to Lyle MacWilliam, “Source Naturals made a top ranked multiple even better!” And based on Lyle’s analysis of the new formula, LIFE FORCE is now the highest rated multiple of any evaluated in the current edition of this guide, scoring a 100% rating.

Bio-Align™ Yourself with Life Force

LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE was chosen as one of America’s most elite and comprehensive multiples, as reported in the Comparative Guide to Dietary Supplements by Lyle MacWilliam, 3rd ed. LIFE FORCE received this acknowledgement by nutrition experts because it is uniquely effective. This Bio-Aligned Formula™ goes beyond ordinary multiples that simply replace nutrients missing from the diet. LIFE FORCE provides key organ-specific nutrients to support your body’s energy generation, heart, brain, immune system, musculoskeletal system, skin, liver, eyes, and more. When all your body systems function in harmony, everything in life comes together. Your mood is positive, your mind is clear, you’ve got energy in your step—that’s your LIFE FORCE working for you.

Get Ahead with Activated Energy and a Healthy Metabolism

Your metabolism determines how much you weigh, how energetic you feel, and the effective functioning of all your systems. LIFE FORCE is a rarity – a unique multiple containing an incredible number of nutrients at the potency levels that truly support your healthy metabolic function. For example, it contains coenzyme Q10, which plays a crucial role in cellular energy production. CoQ10 is a vital intermediate in the electron transport chain, one of the body’s energy production cycles, which converts glucose, or blood sugar, into ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), a high energy molecule that is the body’s “energy currency.” LIFE FORCE also supplies alpha-lipoic acid and the potent R-lipoic acid form of lipoic acid, which are both referred to as the universal antioxidants and important intermediaries in the Krebs cycle, another energy production cycle.

LIFE FORCE also contains tyrosine and iodine, both precursors to thyroid hormones. These hormones regulate key metabolic functions like heart rate, digestive function, weight management and energy levels. No discussion of metabolism would be complete without mentioning the B vitamins and their coenzymated forms, such as thiamin cocarboxylase, riboflavin mononucleotide, and the methylcobalamin form of vitamin B- 12. These critical vitamins and their immediately bioavailable coenzymated forms are formulated to play critical roles in thousands of enzyme reactions that promote carbohydrate metabolism, energy production, and the mental functions that invigorate and activate you as you move through your busy days. And now green tea extract with EGCG (Epigallocatechin Gallate) has been added to the formula for added metabolic support.

Protect Your Heart and Circulatory System

The amazing muscular organ that is your heart beats more than 100,000 times a day, 365 days a year, promoting vitality and alertness by constantly oxygenating our tissues. LIFE FORCE supports your cardiovascular system with antioxidant coenzyme Q10, which helps support heart muscle metabolism. LIFE FORCE also contains the minerals potassium and magnesium, electrolytes vital for healthy heartbeat and heart function, and the herb hawthorn, a rich source of antioxidant flavonoids, which has traditionally been used as a heart tonic. LIFE FORCE also supplies vitamins B-6, B-12 and folic acid to help maintain healthy homocysteine levels and vitamin K to support healthy circulation. Unlike common multiples, it supports cholesterol wellness, circulatory health and antioxidant cardiovascular protection, with both the typical d-alpha form of vitamin E but and the more potent and effective gamma-tocopherol and similarly structured tocotrienols.

Skin and Musculoskeletal Support

LIFE FORCE furnishes nutrients to build healthy bones, muscles and skin. We all know that calcium and magnesium are crucial for bone health, but many people don't know that there are a variety of nutritional cofactors that help build bone, such as vitamin D (which enhances calcium absorption and utilization), boron, manganese and copper. LIFE FORCE also supplies vitamin C and copper, necessary nutrients for collagen production (collagen is a key constituent of connective tissue in joints, skin and other areas), and the cutting-edge nutrient methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), an assimilable form of the mineral sulfur, used by the body to build and maintain connective tissues, including joint cartilage, hair, skin and nails. Additional nutraceuticals to support healthy skin include DMAE bitartrate, CoQ10, and alpha lipoic acid. LIFE FORCE also now includes rutin, quercetin, green tea extract and 65% more turmeric extract for your joint comfort.

Brain and Nerves Nutrition

The hectic pace and constant demands of life can keep our pulse racing, our nerves jangling and our temples throbbing. Our nervous systems are crying out, “Help!” LIFE FORCE provides that help. LIFE FORCE supplies the most highly bioavailable and bioactive forms of the amino acid tyrosine – the N-acetyl form and the acetyl-L form. Tyrosine is an important precursor to epinephrine and norepinephrine (collectively known as the catecholamines), which helps you respond to stress. It also contains high doses of vitamins C and B-6, required by the adrenal glands to produce the catecholamines. In addition, LIFE FORCE delivers the full spectrum of B vitamins, all important for healthy nervous system function. Now LIFE FORCE also contains a more bio-available form of tyrosine, acetyl-L-Tyrosine. And LIFE FORCE contains Neuroceutical® nutrients that support healthy brain function by furnishing DMAE and choline. Both are precursors to the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine and are important for memory focus and muscular movement. Choline is also a precursor to phosphatidylcholine, an important constituent of the cellular membranes that surround and protect our brain cells. In addition, LIFE FORCE contains the renowned herb Ginkgo biloba and now even more grape seed extract, both effective antioxidants that can prevent lipid peroxidation, which is critically important for the high amounts of fatty tissue in the brain. LIFE FORCE—good food for the brain.

Immune Defense

LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE supports your immune system, so you can feel your best through the seasons. LIFE FORCE contains the immunosupportive nutrient vitamin A, which fosters cell-mediated immunity and protects the epithelial linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Two forms of vitamin A are supplied: preformed vitamin A and its precursor, the potent antioxidant betacarotene. Other immuno-supportive nutrients in LIFE FORCE include vitamin B-6, vitamin C and zinc, which is fundamental for proper functioning of our T-cells, the “seek and destroy” cells of our immune system. LIFE FORCE also now includes 40% more lipoic acid, including the highly bioavailable alpha and R-isomer forms. Lipoic acid along with the B vitamins and CoQ10 promote building the energy reserves needed when the immune system needs to kick into high gear.

Powerful Liver Support

Your liver is responsible for converting many nutrients into their metabolically active forms before your body can use them. After activation, these nutrients travel through the blood stream to target organs where they perform their metabolic functions. Not only does the liver activate nutrients, but it also plays a crucial role in a variety of other metabolic functions, from fat digestion and cholesterol production to blood sugar regulation to the processing and elimination of toxins, an important role in today’s increasingly polluted world. For all these reasons, nourishing the liver is crucial. And LIFE FORCE does just that. LIFE FORCE contains alpha-lipoic acid, turmeric, silymarin and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) – all potent antioxidants that support healthy liver function. NAC and alpha-lipoic acid both help produce glutathione, one of the liver’s primary detoxifying molecules. Silymarin, the active flavonoid complex of the herb milk thistle, as well as coenzyme Q10, have been shown in vitro to inhibit lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. Turmeric extract promotes bile flow and is a rich source of the antioxidant, curcumin. LIFE FORCE also contains choline and inositol, vitamin- like molecules which act as lipotropics, unique substances that prevent the deposition of fat in the liver. Since the liver is naturally high in fats, LIFE FORCE is one of the only multiples that contains the fat-soluble form of vitamin C, ascorbyl palmitate, for antioxidant protection.

Complete Antioxidant Defense

Oxidative stress is the primary cause of accelerated aging. This and other forms of free radical damage are constantly threatening your body. Whether it is from pollution, ultraviolet light, food additives, or from other sources, it is more critical than ever to protect your body with antioxidants. LIFE FORCE contains 24 of the most powerful antioxidants known to science, including eight new antioxidants based on the latest research. It contains antioxidants that are water soluble, such as quercetin and rutin, and ones that are fat soluble, such as alpha-lipoic acid and lycopene. There are antioxidants that are especially protective of specific body systems, such as lutein to protect the macula in your eye, lycopene to protect your prostate gland, and tocotrienols to protect your arteries.

Cutting-Edge Vision Nutrition

The structure and functions of your eyes are very complex. LIFE FORCE contains nutrients to help support and maintain healthy eye tissue, which is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress from free radicals. To support your healthy macula, aqueous tissue and optical nerve signals, LIFE FORCE includes ingredients such as lutein, astaxanthin, beta carotene, bilberry, zinc, lipoic acid and quercetin.

Life Force Replenishes Essential Nutrients to Support Your Low Carb Lifestyle

LIFE FORCE contains optimal levels of many nutrients that might be deficient in low carb meals. Counting carbs can lead to restrictions of nutrient-dense foods, such as dairy products, grains, fruits and vegetables. LIFE FORCE contains many of the same protective antioxidants, vitamins and minerals as fruits and vegetables, including betacarotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, flavinols, magnesium and selenium. It also contains high levels of the same vitamins found in grains, including all of the B vitamins, to support your body’s healthy energy metabolism. And it contains nutrients found in dairy products, such as calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D.

Support Healthy Fat and Protein Consumption with Life Force

Low carb lifestyles mean higher consumption of proteins and fats. Unfortunately, there are artery, heart, colon and many other health concerns associated with meals that are high in fat and protein and low in fiber and produce. However, the nutrients in LIFE FORCE can help you better process these foods when eating this way. LIFE FORCE contains high levels of protective fat-soluble antioxidants such as alpha lipoic acid, ascorbyl palmitate (vitamin C ester) and vitamin E to protect your body from the free radicals generated by consuming more fats. It also contains many nutrients for liver health, such as silymarin, CoQ10, NAcetyl Cysteine and turmeric to help support the fat metabolism your liver is responsible for. LIFE FORCE also contains a high level of the B vitamin biotin, which aids in fat, protein and energy metabolism.

Complete Energizing Nutrition

LIFE FORCE is the only multiple to target organ systems with specific nutrients and bio-botanicals, antioxidants and Neuroceuticals® for total body harmony and energy activation, system by system. Only this dedication to going deep to the cellular root of system imbalances can produce a multiple so effective that it is acknowledged in a prestigious scientific review, the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. A nutritional program with LIFE FORCE at its center can be an easy first step in joining the Wellness Revolution. The goal of this revolution is a long, healthy and fulfilling life. Allow yourself to feel your best, to achieve mental and physical harmony, to radiate energy and vitality. Feel your LIFE FORCE!

Guyton, A. 1991. Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eighth Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. 1995. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Linder, M. 1991. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism, Second Ed. Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT. Mathews, C. and van Holde, K.E. 1990. Biochemistry. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. Shils, M. and Young, V. 1980. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Sixth Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.

Vitanet ®



Date: June 22, 2005 09:57 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (


1. Interview with Dr. Michael Pariza, July 3, 1997.
2. “Effects of Temperature and Time on Mutagen Formation in Pan-Fried Hamburger,” by M. Pariza, Samy Ashoor, Fun Chu and Daryl Lund, March 10, 1979, Cancer Letters, 7 (1979) 63-69.
3. “Anticarcinogens from fried ground beef: heat-altered derivatives of linoleic acid,” Y.L Ha, N.K. Grimm and M.W. Pariza, August 25, 1987. IRL Press limited, Oxford, England.
4. Interview with Dr. Mark Cook, July 3, 1997.
5. “Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Cancer Prevention Research: A Report of Current Status and Issues,” A special report prepared for the National Live Stock and Meat Board, Ip, Clement, Ph.D., May 1994. See also “Conjugated linoleic acid, a newly recognised nutrient” in the June 17, 1997, issue of Chemistry and Industry by M. Pariza, pp. 464-466.
6. Op.Cit. Pariza, Chemistry and Industry.
7. Op. Cit. Ip, National Live Stock and Meat Board. See also, “Conjugated Linoleic Acid (9,11 and 10,12-Octadecadienoic Acid) is Produced in Conventional by Not Germ-Free Rats Fed Linleic Acid,” Sou F. Chin, Et. Al, Dec. 16, 1993, Journal of Nutrition 124: 694-701 1994.
8. Ibid.
9. Interview with Cook. 10. Op. Cit. Ip, National Live Stock and Meat Board.
11. Ibid.
12. Op. Cit., interview with Pariza., and “Anticarcinogens from fried ground beef: heat-altered derivatives of linoleic acid,” Y.L. Ha, N.K. Grimm and M.W. Pariza, Aug. 25, 1987, IRL Press Limited, Oxford England.
13. “Conjugated linoleic acid: An anticarcinogenic fatty acid present in mile fat,” by Peter Parodi, Australian Journal of DairyTechnology. Nov. 1994, 49 p. 93-94.
14. The Washington Post “Now We’re a Nation of Lite Heavyweights,” Sept. 1, 1994, Sec. B. P. 10.
15. “A beef-derived mutagenesis modulator inhibits initiation of mouse epidermal tumors by 7, 12 dimethylbens[a]anthracene,” by M. Pariza and W. Hargraves, Jan. 2, 1985, Carcinogenesis, vol 6., no. 4 pp. 591-593, 1985, IRL Press, Limited, Oxford, England.
16. Op. Cit. Pariza, Chemistry and Industry.
17. “Anticarcinogens from fried ground beef: heat-altered derivatives of linoleic acid,” Y.L. Ha, N.K. Grimm and M.W. Pariza, Aug. 25, 1987, IRL Press Limited, Oxford England.
18. “Mammary Cancer Prevention by Conjugated Dienoic Derivative of Linoleic Acid,” Clement Ip, Sou Fe Chin, Joseph Scimeca and Michael Pariza, Cancer Research, 51, 6118-6124, Nov. 15, 1991.
19. “Refiguring the Odds: What’s a woman’s real chance of suffering breast cancer?” Facklemann, K.A., Science News 144 (1993) 76-77.
20. “Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia by conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid.” Ha, Y.L, Storkson, J., Pariza, M.W. Cancer Research 50: 1097-1101; 1990.
21. “Protection of Conjugated linoleic acid against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline-induced colon carcinogenesis in the f344 rat: a study of inhibitory mechanisims,” Liew, C.; Schut, H.A.J., chin, S.F., Pariza, M.W., and Dashwood, R.H. (1995), Carcinogenesis 16, 3037-3044.
22. Op. Cit., Ip, Cancer Research, 1991.
23. “Potential of Food Modification in Cancer Prevention,” Ip, C.; Lisk, Donald J. and J. Scimeca, Cancer Research, 54, 1957-1959, April 1, 1994.
24. “Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), A Newly Re c o g n i ze d Anitcarcinogenic Nutrient,” unpublished paper by Michael Pariza.
25. “Effects of conjugated dienoic linoleic acid on lipid metabolism in mouse liver,” Belury, M.A. and Vanden Heuvel, J.P. (1996), Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 37: 1918.
26. “Protection Against Cancer and Heart Disease by Dietary Fatty Acid, Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Potential Mechanisms of Action,” Belury, M.A.; Vanden Heuvel, J.P; Submitted to Nutrition and Disease Update Journal, Sept. 28, 1996.
27. Interveiw with Pariza.
28. Op. Cit., Pariza, Cancer Research, 1990.
29. “Fatty Acids that Inhibit Cancer,” unpublished paper by M. Pariza.
30. Op. Cit. Liew.
31. “Reinvestigation of the antioxidant properties of conjugated linoleic acid,” van den Berg J.J.; Cook, N.E.; Tribble D.L.; Lipids, 73, 1995, Jul 30 (7), 595-598.
32. “Furan Fatty acids detrmined as oxidation products of conjugated octadecadienoic acid,” Yurawecz, M.P., Hood, J.K., Mossoba, MM., Roach, J.A.G., and Ku, Y. Lipids 30, 595-598.
33. Interview with Pariza.
34. “Vital Statistics of the United States” from the Centers for Disease Control for 1989.
35. “Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits.” Lee, K.N., Kritchevsky, D. And Pariza, M.W.; Atherosclerosis 108, 19-25.
36. Interview with Pariza.
37. “Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces aortic fatty streak formation greater than linoleic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters,” Nicolosi, R.J., and Laitinen, L. (1996), FASEB J. 10 A477.
38. “Ionic Basis of Hypertension, Insulin in Resistance, Vascular Disease and Related Disorders. The Mechanism of ‘Syndrome X”, Resnick, LM, American Journal of Hypertension. 1993 (4Suppl) 123S-134S.
39. “Protection by coenzyme Q10 from myocardial reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass grafting,” Chello-M, et. Al, Ann-Thorac. Surg., 1994, Nov; 58(5): 1427-32.
40. “Immune Modulation by Altered Nutrient Metabolism: Nutritional Control of Immune-Induced Growth Depression,” M.E. Cook, C.C. Miller, Y. Park and Ma Pariza, Poultry Science 72: 1301-1305 (1993).
41. “Feeding Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Animals Partially Overcomes Catabolic Responses Due to Endotoxin Injection,” Miller, C.C., Park, Y., Pariza, M, and Cook, M. Feb. 15, 1994, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, pages 1107-1112.
42. Op. Cit. Cook, Poultry Science, 1993.
43. Interview with Cook.
44. Ibid.
45. Op. Cit. Washington Post.
46. “Obesity, Pathogenesis & Treatment, a series of reports on obesisy issues edited by G. Enzi, et. Al, 1981, Academic Press.
47. William Howard Taft: The President who became Chief Justice, by Severn, Bill 1970, David McKay company.
48. “Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Body Fat,” abstract only of a speech g i ven at En v i ronmental Bi o l o g y, 96. See also U.S. Patent Nu m b e r 5,554,646, dated Sep. 10, 1996.
49. Interveiw with Cook.
50. Information of Dr. Parizi provided to PharmaNutrients, Inc.
51. Interview with Cook.
52. Op. Cit. Parodi.
53. Obesity & Weight Control: The Health Pro f e s s i o n a l’s Guide to Understanding & Treatment. Edited by Frankle, R. T. 1988.
54. Ibid.
55. Op. Cit. The Washington Post.
56. Interview with Pariza.
57. Pariza in information to Pharmnutrients, Inc., indicates a Dr. Reid studied content in 1963 of milk fat.
58. Op Cit. Parodi.
59. Bill Phillips, Supplement Review, 3rd Edition.
60. Interview with Pariza.
61. Interview with Cook.
62. Interviews with Cook, Pariza.
63. Research conducted by Medstat Research Ltd., Lillestrom, Norway for the Herbal Marketing Group, HMG, Ltd., Oslo, Norway. “A pilot study with the aim of stydying the efficacy and tolerability of CLA (Tonalin) on the body composition in humans.) by Erling Thom Ph.D., Medstate Research Ltd., Liilestrom, Norway, July 1997.

Vitanet ®


Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplement

Date: June 21, 2005 05:10 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplement

Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplements

By Adina Licht, MS

Adina Licht, M.S. is a Nutritional Scientist and Science Writer who works as a Marketing Specialist for Source Naturals. She has a B.A. in Environmental Science from UC Berkeley, an M.S. in Nutrition and Food Science from San Jose State University, and training in Technical Communication from Cal State Hayward. Her work has appeared in publications such as Advances in Packaging and Development, Health Supplement Retailer and Delicious Living.

Americans Need More Nutrients

The U. S. population is drastically malnourished. According to the latest A. C. Nielsen survey, only 12% of Americans claim to eat the 5 recommended servings of fruits and vegetables each day (Warner, 2004). And approximately 1/3 of the calories that people do consume are from nutrient-poor foods such as alcohol and soda (Yang, 2004). This combination has led to a population that consumes too few nutrients, which according to an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Fletcher, 2002) puts people at risk for long-term health concerns. With Americans eating fewer healthy foods, taking a daily multiple is one way for people to increase their intake of nutrients. But the search for what defines a good multiple can be confusing, even to health care professionals.

The Confusing U.S. Government Standards

Scientists first recognized the need for vitamins in the early 1900s (Levenstein, 1993). But setting U. S. government standards for vitamins and minerals didn't start until healthy soldiers were needed to fight World War II. And when a committee of scientists was asked to determine the levels of nutrients needed to maintain good health they could only agree on "recommended allowances" to prevent deficiency with a wide margin of safety. In 1941, these allowances became the first Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the nation (Levenstein, 1993). In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used latest RDAs to set the new Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) standards, which included Adequate Intakes (AIs) for when there was insufficient evidence to determine an RDA, and Upper Intake Levels (ULs) as the safe daily upper limit. To simplify the information, food labels express nutrient information as a percentage of the Daily Value (DV), which includes RDA values for a healthy adult who consumes 2000 calories per day (Whitney, 2002). However, these values do not include AIs or ULs and many individuals need different levels of nutrients than these.

Confusing Standards equals Confusing Recommendations

The RDAs and subsequent DRIs are the basis of the nutrient standards for at least 40 different nations and many professional health organizations. Currently, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) recommends that people who cannot reach the DRIs through diet take a multiple with nutrient levels that do not exceed the RDAs (JADA, 2001). And in 2002, the American Medical Association (AMA) published a paper that included a recommendation for all adults to take RDA levels of vitamin supplements in their Journal of the American Medical Association (Fletcher, 2002). Despite the benefits of having guidelines, most people only hear about the RDAs and DVs, which may be too low for preventing deficiencies while the ULs and AIs, which can be much more beneficial are rarely discussed. For example, the Daily Value of Vitamin E to prevent deficiency is 30 IU while the daily Upper Intake Limit is 1,467 IU. But, according to the ADA, as many as 75% of cardiologists recommend vitamin E to their patients to promote heart health, usually at a dosage of 400 IU (ADA, 2001; Meydani, 2004; & Whitney, 1998). And the Daily Value for Vitamin C is 60 mg while the daily Upper Intake Limit is 2000 mg, but in clinical studies it took 500 mg per day to help maintain healthy blood pressure (Whitney, 1998, & Hendler, 2001).

Alternative Recommendations

Lyle MacWilliam is a biochemist and former health advisor to the Canadian Ministry of Health, who decided to research, analyze and publish the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. In this book, the individually published recommendations from seven nutrition experts (Phyllis Balch, CNC, Dr. Michael Colgan, Ph.D., Dr. Earl Mindell, Ph.D., Dr. Michael Murray, N.D., Dr. Richard Passwater, Ph.D., Dr. Ray Strand, M.D., and Dr. Julian Whitaker, M.D.) were combined to create an ultimate blended standard of recommended median intakes for 39 nutrients to promote health. Those nutrients include vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and other supplements, that span 14 different health categories and are much closer to the Upper Intake Limit government standards. The guide also includes information about recommended forms, safety, purity and quality (MacWilliam, 2003). One of the most profound differences between MacWilliam?s compiled recommendations and the DRIs is the difference in the number of supplements: 39 vs. 26 respectively. The Comparative Guide standard includes additional nutrients, including many more antioxidants, based on decades of clinical research about their benefits. For example, the fat-soluble antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 that your body manufactures less of as you age is included. So is the fat and water-soluble antioxidant alpha lipoic acid that helps recycle other antioxidants such as vitamins C and E (Hendler, 2001).

Top Ranked Multiples for Optimal Health

In the latter half of MacWilliam's book he uses this ultimate blended standard to rank and compare 500 manufactured multiples. Of the five top-ranked multiples, only the Source Naturals multiples, Life Force and Élan Vitàl, are widely available at natural product stores and health outlets. And the new and improved Life Force formulation now rates higher than any of the products evaluated in the current edition of this guide (MacWilliam, 2004; & Mac-William, 2003). The ingredients that can be found in today's multiple supplements can vary greatly. But multiple choices don't have to lead to confusion. Health professionals, such as Lyle MacWilliam, understand the importance of remaining curious, evaluating the available research, and conferring with other scientists to determine the nutrients that support optimal health.


American Dietetic Association. 2001. Vitamin E: Disease Prevention for your Good Health. American Dietetic Association Website. Available at: Public/Other/index_nfs1001.cfm Fletcher, R. H., & Fairfield, K. M. 2002. Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults. JAMA. (23)287:3116-3129. Hendler, S. S., et al. 2001. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Thomson Healthcare: Montvale. Pages 11-12, 17-21, 60-62, 103, 416-421, 486-498. JADA (Journal of the American Dietetic Association) 2001. Vitamin and mineral supplementation. J AM Diet Assoc.101: 115 Available at: Public/NutritionInformation/92_8343.cfm Levenstein, H. 1993. Paradox of Plenty: A Social History of Eating in Modern America. Oxford University Press: New York. Pages 13-15, 64-67. MacWilliam, L, et al. 2003. Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Northern Dimensions Publishing: Vernon. Pages 62-70. MacWilliam, L. 2004. Comparative Guide Individual Assessment of New Life Force Formulation. Warner, J. 2004. Few Follow '5 a Day' Fruit and Vegetable Rule. WebMD website. Available at: ent/Article/93/102158.htm Whitney, N. W., & Rolfes, S. R. (1998). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition, 5th ed. Page 358. Whitney, E. N., & Rolfes, S. R. 2002. Understanding Nutrition. 9th ed. Wadsworth Thomson Learning: Belmont. Pages A, B, Y, 13-20, 55-56, 307, 331, 335-341, 401. Yang, S. 2004. Nearly one-third of the calories in the US diet come from junk food, researcher finds.

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