Natures Life: Zinc, 50 mg 100ct

Zinc, 50 mg - 100ct

by   Natures Life
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UPC: 040647002975
# 15297

Ingredients: Amount per serving: % Daily Value: +
Zinc (as Citrate, Gluconate, Picolinate) 50 mg 333%
Copper (as Gluconate) 2.5 mg 125%

Other Ingredients:
Cellulose, Stearic Acid, Silica, and Magnesium Stearate.

Zinc, 50 mg
Description: Intended to provide nutritive support for healthy protein synthesis, proper growth, and normal taste acuity. Zinc is required by over 70 enzymes as a cofactor. Intended to provide nutritive support for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Product #: 297
Size: 100ct 50mg
Directions: Take one (1) tablet daily, with food. Store in a cool, dry place. Keep out of the reach of children.

Serving Size: 1  ea    100 Servings per container
Ingredients: Amount per serving: % Daily Value: +
Zinc (as Citrate, Gluconate, Picolinate) 50 mg 333% 
Copper (as Gluconate) 2.5 mg 125% 
Key to Ingredients:
     ~ = Daily Value not established.
     + = Percent Daily Value is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
     ? = Values differ depending on age
     ? = Values differ depending on age
Other Ingredients: Cellulose, Stearic Acid, Silica, and Magnesium Stearate.

Minerals are inorganic substances mined from the earth, meaning they are not of plant or animal origin. They exist naturally on and in the earth and many are critical parts of human tissue and are termed “essential” nutrients. Of the 92 naturally occurring elements, the 14 minerals that have been shown by research to be essential to human health are: calcium, chromium, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc.*1 Essential macrominerals are those we need in significant quantities (such as calcium) – usually measured in milligrams, and essential trace minerals are those we need in minute quantities (such as selenium) – usually measured in micrograms (one microgram [mcg] equals 1/1,000th of a milligram [mg]).                      

These 14 essential minerals are crucial to the growth and production of bones, teeth, hair, blood, nerves, skin, vitamins, enzymes and hormones; and the healthy functioning of nerve transmission, blood circulation, fluid regulation, cellular integrity, energy production and muscle contraction.*

Minerals work in combination with each other and with other nutrients, so imbalances of any mineral can cause health problems – too little of any essential mineral can lead to deficiency diseases, and too much of any mineral can be toxic.2

We get these essential minerals primarily through the foods we eat.  Good sources of essential minerals include fruits, vegetables, meats, nuts, beans and dairy products.  Unfortunately, much of the soil in which food is grown has been depleted of these nutritive minerals, therefore the mineral content in food is reduced.3,4  We also obtain some minerals from the water we drink, but the amounts vary widely.

Mineral availability and absorption is also affected as foods are cooked, processed and refined, and many naturally occurring minerals in food are removed.5, 6 A daily mineral supplement is not a substitute for a healthy diet, but can ensure we get the minerals we need for optimal health.



Calcium is the most important, and most common, mineral we need. Please see Nature’s Life Calcium Facts brochure for more information (code #21040).


Iron carries oxygen to the cells and is necessary for the production of energy, the synthesis of collagen, and the functioning of the immune system.* Iron deficiency is common only among children and pre-menopausal women. Great care must be taken not to take too much iron, as excess amounts are stored in the body’s tissues and adversely affect the body’s immune function, cell growth and heart health.*7, 8, 9  A blood test is the most effective way to determine needs, and consultation with a trained health professional is strongly recommended.

Iron absorption can be blocked by calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, antacids and tetracycline (a common antibiotic).2

Iron is found in meat, fish, beans, spinach, molasses, kelp, brewer’s yeast, broccoli and seeds. Because iron from plant sources is not as well absorbed as that from animal sources, some experts recommend that vegetarians supplement with, or eat foods high in, vitamin C as it enhances iron absorption.10


Magnesium is essential to maintain both the acid-alkaline balance in the body and healthy functioning of nerves and muscles (including the heart), as well as to activate enzymes to metabolize blood sugars, proteins and carbohydrates.*2 

Magnesium is vital for proper bone growth and is indirectly related to adequate calcium absorption.*11  A 2:1 ratio of calcium to magnesium is essential to maintain strong bones.

Indications of a magnesium deficiency may be muscle twitches, nervousness, abnormal heart beat and disorientation.2

Good food sources of magnesium include seeds, unrefined grains, beans and other vegetables.


Most phosphorus in the body is found in bone, usually at a 1:2 ratio to calcium. In soft tissue and cells, phosphorus contributes to many natural chemical body processes.11 For example, phosphate bonds of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) provide the energy necessary for metabolism.11

Food sources of phosphorus include protein-rich foods such as meats and dairy products, although some is present in almost all foods. Due to the abundance available in the average diet, as well as its high absorption rate, most  supplements do not contain phosphorus. People taking aluminum hydroxide as an antacid for extended periods of time may develop a phosphorus deficiency since the aluminum prevents phosphorus absorption.11


Zinc supports the health of the immune system, normal synthesis of protein, and the health of reproductive organs (especially in men).*2 Zinc deficiency is common, and can adversely affect normal physical growth, skin and nerve health, natural healing ability, and immune function, especially in infants.*12 Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption adversely affect zinc levels.13  Meats, fish, beans, whole grains, pumpkin seeds, mushrooms and brewer’s yeast are good food sources of zinc.

Too much zinc can lower copper retention, lower HDL (“good”) cholesterol,14 and impair immune function at dosages of 100 mg/day or more.*15,16 Adverse effects may occur if the balance of zinc to other minerals is not maintained.*2 



Chromium functions as part of several enzyme systems, including the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), which works with insulin in the utilization of glucose (blood sugar).* Insulin helps to control metabolism of triglycerides (the main form of fat in the body), therefore chromium has a positive effect on triglycerides due to its influence over insulin.* Chromium deficiency has been linked to improper metabolism and imbalances of blood sugar.* 18, 19  While popularly used as a supplement to achieve weight loss and muscle gain, research is not consistent enough to validate chromium’s effect for those benefits.*20, 21

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture widespread chromium deficiency is due not only to inadequate food intake but also to excess sugar intake that increases chromium losses in the body.*22 The only common food source is brewer’s yeast.

Chromium should not be taken in excess however—there have been reported cases of toxicity when used in high doses (>800 mcg/day).1, 23


Blood, nerves, joints, heart, skin, liver and both the immune and nervous systems all need adequate amounts of copper, most of which is concentrated in the brain and liver.* Copper is critical to the absorption and utilization of both zinc and iron.*24, 25 A deficiency of copper has been linked to an inability to produce the important antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and to a shortage of red blood cells.*24, 25 

It is especially important to balance copper levels with those of zinc because an excess of either will depress retention and utilization of the other.* 26 Readily available through the diet, copper is commonly found in whole grains, nuts, shellfish, liver and dark green, leafy vegetables.


Elemental iodine is essential to the development and functioning of the thyroid gland, and a deficiency can cause an enlargement of the gland.*27 Deficiency of iodine during pregnancy and infancy may lead to abnormalities in brain development and in children’s growth.*28 Iodized salt is the most common source of this essential trace mineral. Those with thyroid abnormalities should consult a health care practitioner before taking more than 150 mcg of iodine per day. For most people, amounts up to 1,000 mcg per day are safe, although some may be sensitive to it (resulting in skin irritations or difficulty breathing).


The essential trace mineral manganese is necessary for normal bone metabolism and important enzyme reactions*28  It also helps maintain normal nerve, brain and thyroid function.2 While a deficiency of this mineral is uncommon, it is often lost in processed foods.29, 30 A deficiency of manganese may affect brain health, glucose tolerance, normal reproduction, and skeletal and cartilage formation.*31

Grains and cereal products are the best food sources of manganese, while animal products are the poorest. Toxicity from manganese is uncommon.11


Molybdenum is involved in the operation of several key enzymes in the body.* Readily available throughout the diet, deficiencies of this essential mineral are unusual, although rare deficiencies occur in people who suffer from malabsorption conditions.*32 

Milk, beans, cereals and bread are common food sources of molybdenum. Elevated levels of molybdenum can cause a loss of copper.* 11


This powerful antioxidant works closely with vitamin E and supports critical antioxidant enzyme functions.*2 As an antioxidant, selenium may reduce the risk of abnormal cell growth,*33 while supporting cardiovascular health.*34 Seafood and organ meats such as liver and kidney are high in selenium, whereas selenium levels in grains and vegetables vary widely, depending on local soil content.35

No more than 200 mcg of selenium daily is recommended for general use, because of possible toxicity. Excessive intakes of selenium can affect the functioning of enzymes and normal bone and cartilage development in fetuses, according to animal studies. In milligram amounts (75 mg/day), selenium can cause nausea, loss of hair and nails, skin abnormalities and nerve damage.1


Other trace minerals that have not yet been recognized by health authorities as essential to human nutrition, but have some valid health benefits are arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon and vanadium.*17

Boron — Valid clinical studies show that it is involved in the metabolism of other minerals, especially calcium and magnesium, that support bone health.*36  It may also be involved in the regulation and function of steroid hormones.*37 Readily available in prunes, soy, raisins, beans and nuts, boron’s benefits to human health are recent discoveries, just since the mid-1980s. Microgram amounts are not considered toxic.

Silicon — Silicon is important in the composition and calcification of cartilage to produce bone, and is common in unrefined foods of plant origin.*2

Vanadium — There is some scientific evidence that vanadium contributes to fat metabolism.*2, 38  Vanadium in microgram dosages has low potential for toxicity.39


     Electrolytes are the elements necessary for electrochemical activity in our body. Water (H20) – and the three minerals sodium, potassium and chloride are all necessary for the transmission of electrical impulses between cells. Sodium and potassium are cations (positively charged atoms), and chloride is an anion (negatively charged atom) – all are essential nutrients. These minerals are supplied by the typical diet in thousands of milligrams per day. Sodium and chloride are overabundant in the diet and are not generally added as a mineral supplement.


Potassium is the major mineral in, and primary regulator of, fluids inside cells – along with sodium.*11 Potassium is critical to the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractions and maintenance of normal blood pressure.*11 The kidneys control potassium levels, if adequate water is consumed.2

Potassium deficiency is rare in healthy people – but is a very common side effect of two widely abused modern drugs – chemical laxatives and diuretics. Potassium deficiency can also be caused by excessive vomiting, chronic diarrhea or kidney failure. Signs of deficiency may include muscle weakness, intestinal problems, heart abnormalities and respiratory weakness.2

Potassium is widely available in foods, but mostly in unprocessed fresh foods – especially fruits and vegetables. The estimated average adult intake of potassium varies widely between 1,000 and 10,000 mg daily, depending on diet (vegetarians get the most).40,41,42,43,44  Potassium is toxic for healthy adults if daily intakes exceed 18,000 mg.45 Pills with more than 100 mg, if taken on an empty stomach and without sufficient water, may cause ulcerations in the stomach or esophagus. Therefore Nature’s Life only offers potassium supplements in amounts of < 99 mg.

Nature’s Life-sustaining minerals are bonded to organic substances for maximum absorption. Different chelating and complexing agents are used to create the most bioavailable forms possible, and to offer people a choice. Nature’s Life offers single minerals as well as doctor-formulated combinations to help you stay as healthy as possible. Eat a healthy diet of minimally processed fresh foods but take Nature’s Life minerals to assure your optimal health.


  1. The Merck Manual®. Merck Research Laboratories:  Whitehouse Station, NJ, 1997.

  2. Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, et al. Modern nutrition in health and disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

  3. Wauchope RD. Selenium and arsenic levels in soybeans from different production regions of the United States. J Agric Food Chem 1978;26:226-8.

  4. Lappalainen R, et al. The concentration of zinc and Mg in human enamel and dentine related to age the their concentration in the soil. Arch Oral Biol 1981;26:1-6.

  5. Reddy MB, Love M The impact of food processing on the nutritional quality of vitamins and minerals. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;459:99-106.

  6. Schroeder HA. Losses of vitamins and trace minerals resulting from processing and preservation of foods. Am J Clin Nutr 1971;24:562-73.

  7. Tzonou A, et al. Dietary iron and coronary heart disease risk: a study from Greece. Am J Epidemiol, 1998;147:161-166.

  8. Fleming DJ. Dietary determinants of iron stores in a free-living elderly population: The Framingham Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:722-733.

  9. Halliday JW. Hemochromatosis and iron needs. Nutr Rev 1998;56:S30-S37.

  10. Craig WJ. Iron status of vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1233S-1237S.

  11. Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Wash. DC: National Academy Press, 1989.

  12. Sandstead HH. Understanding zinc: recent observations and interpretations. J Lab Clin Med 1994;124:322-327.

  13. Schauss A. (White Paper) Minerals, Trace Elements & Human Health. Life Sciences Press: Tacoma, WA, 1995;2-23.

  14. Hooper PL, Visconti L, Garry PJ, et al. Zinc lowers high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. JAMA 1980;244:1960-1.

  15. Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):621S–24S.

  16. Chandra RK. Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 1984;252:1443-6.

  17. Nielsen FH. Ultratrace minerals. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC. Modern nutrition in health and disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999:283-303.

  18. Anderson RA. Chromium metabolism and its role in disease processes in man. Clin Physiol Biochem 1986;4:31-41.)

  19. Davies S, McLaren Howard J, Hunnisett A, et al. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients—implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1997;46:469-73.

  20. Bahadori B, et al. Effect of chromium yeast and chromium picolinate on body composition of obese, non-diabetic patients during and after a formula diet.  Acta Med Austriaca 1997;24:185-187.

  21. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev 1998;56:266-70.

  22. Anderson RA. Recent advances in the clinical and biochemical effects of chromium deficiency. Prog Clin Biol Res 1993;380:221-234.

  23. Cerulli J, et al.  Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998 Apr;32:428-431.

  24. Danks DM. Copper deficiency in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 1988;8:235-57.

  25. Jones AA, DiSilvestro RA, Coleman M, et al. Copper supplementation of adult men: effects on blood copper enzyme activities and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. Metabolism 1997;46:1380-3.

  26. Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):62S–64S.

  27. Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company: Philadelphia, PA.

  28. Wasantwisut, E. Nutrition and development: other micronutrients’ effect on growth and cognition. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1997;28 Suppl 2:78-82.

  29. Kimura M, Itokawa Y. Cooking losses of minerals in foods and its nutritional significance. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1990;36:S25-33.

  30. Pennington JAT. Bowes and Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1997.

  31. Keen CL, Ensunsa JL, Watson MH, et al. Nutritional aspects of manganese from experimental studies. Neurotoxicology 1999;20:213-23.

  32. Sardesai VM. Molybdenum: an essential trace element. Nutr Clin Pract 1993;8:277-281.

  33. Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA 1996;276:1957–63.

  34. Korpela H, Kumpulainen J, Jussila E, et al. Effect of selenium supplementation after acute myocardial infarction. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1989;65:249-252.

  35. Wauchope RD. Selenium and arsenic levels in soybeans from different production regions of the United States. J Agric Food Chem 1978;26:226-8.

  36. Nielsen FH, Studies on the relationship between boron and magnesium which possibly affects the formation and maintenance of bones. Magnes Trace Elem 1990;9:61-69.

  37. Naghii MR, Samman S. The role of boron in nutrition and metabolism. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1993;17:331-49.

  38. Harland BF, Harden-Williams BA. Is vanadium of human nutritional importance yet? J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:891-4.

  39. Barceloux DG. Vanadium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37:265-78.

  40. National Research Council. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1989;750.

  41. Pennington JAT, Wilson DB, Newell RF, et al. Selected minerals in food surveys, 1974 to 1981/82. J Am Diet Assoc. 1984;84:771-780.

  42. Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality. A 12-year prospective population study. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:235-240.

  43. Grim CE, Luft FC, Miller JZ, et al. Racial differences in blood pressure in Evans County, Georgia: relationship to sodium and potassium intake and plasma renin activity. J Chronic Dis 1980;33:87-94.

  44. Langford HG. Dietary potassium and hypertension. In: Horan MJ, Blaustein M, Dunbar JB, Kachadorian W, Kaplan NM, and Simopoulos AP, eds. NIH Workshop on Nutrition and Hypertension: Proceedings from a Symposium. Biomedical Information Corp., New York 1985;147-53

  45. Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980:185.

Zinc Lozenges

...Both formulas soothe sore throats and support the immune system*

Features & Benefits

  • Zinc helps protect against harmful micro-organisms*1,2

  • Vitamin C and Zinc support a healthy immune system*1,2

  • Zinc is critical in support of lymph glands and white blood cells*1,2

  • Beta carotene nourishes the immune system,3,4 increasing levels of killer T-cells and macrophage killer cells*4,5

  • Echinacea has been used for immune support throughout history*

Facts About Zinc Lozenges

Zinc gluconate has been validated by numerous studies as an effective inhibitor of bacterial growth in the throat.*1,2  Zinc is required for a healthy immune system1,2 and as we age a marginal zinc deficiency may impair the immune system.* Zinc-containing enzymes are used to make immune cells which help protect against invading microbes and viruses as well as reduce discomfort and duration.*1,2,6

Vitamin C is also a powerful antioxidant nutrient and a cofactor in many metabolic reactions.* People with the highest vitamin C levels have significantly lower mortality rates from all causes.*7 Serum vitamin C enhances conventional antibiotic drug therapy and helps protect against harmful particle replication.*8

As a powerful antioxidant nutrient, Beta Carotene enhances immunity by helping to protect the immune system cells from singlet oxygen and free-radical damage.*3,4 Beta carotene increases the levels of killer T-cells and macrophage killer cells.*4,5

Echinacea has been used for centuries as an herbal support in the winter season.* Slippery Elm Bark and Goldenseal have been used traditionally for years to help soothe throats.* Fenugreek Seed contains a soothing mucilage that coats the throat.*9

Zinc Safety

                High potency zinc supplements should not be taken for more than three days without added copper supplementation since excess zinc intake may lead to a copper deficiency which suppresses immune function. These two minerals, much like other nutrient groups, work best when taken in proportionate amounts.10 Taking more than the recommended amount of zinc may also result in minor side effects such as nausea.11 The adult Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of zinc is 15 mg; copper is 2 mg.

Ingredient Highlights

    Nature’s Life uses zinc gluconate which has been used in studies that show its effectiveness in reducing the duration of wintertime discomfort.*2,11,12  In one study, 100 people with raw, irritated throats received either placebo or one zinc gluconate lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc every two hours while awake. In the zinc gluconate group, discomfort began to disappear in 4.4 days, while it took 7.6 days for the placebo group to experience relief.11 

    While severe zinc deficiency is rare in the U.S., marginal deficiencies are increasingly common. Studies of elderly populations have found that few get enough zinc in their diets (7-10 mg daily is typical) and low-income elderly are at real risk of consuming less than 50% of the RDI for zinc.

    Nature’s Life Zinkers are another way to soothe your irritated throat.* Zinc Gluconate and Vitamin C are a powerful combination during the winter season. Because we use natural citrus flavors, this sugar-free lozenge also tastes great!

    To ensure the highest quality, Nature’s Life uses certified organic Echinacea purpurea, carefully harvested and processed to retain all of the active phytonutrients*, including volatile oils, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, polyines, polyenes, and isobutylamides.

    With a touch of natural orange extract for zest, and cool and soothing natural peppermint extract, our tasty Zinc Lozenges are sweetened with low glycemic fructose and honey powder. Nature’s Life Herbal Zinc Lozenges comfort your throat while supporting your immune system.*


  1. DiSilvestro RA, Cousins RJ. Physiological Ligands for Copper and Zinc. Ann Rev Nutr 1983;3:261-288.

  2. Novick SG, Godfrey JC, Godfrey NJ, Wilder HR. How does zinc modify the common cold? Clinical observations and implications regarding mechanisms of action. Med Hypotheses 1996;46(3):295-302.

  3. Suda D, Schwartz J, Shklar G.  Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta carotene. Carcinogenesis 1986;7:711-15.

  4. Bendich A. Carotenoids and the immune response. J Nutr 1989;119:112-5.

  5. Bendich A. Effect of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin on the immune responses of the rat. J Nutr 1986;116:2254-62.

  6. Godfrey JC, Conant Sloan B, Smith DS, Turco JH, Mercer N, Godfrey NJ. Zinc Gluconate and the common cold: a controlled clinical study. J Int Med Res 1992;20(3):234-246.

  7. Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 1992; 3(3):194-202.

  8. Amabile-Cuevas C, et al. Decreased Resistance to Antibiotics and Plasmid Loss in Plasmid-carrying strains of Staphylococcus aureus Treated with Ascorbic Acid. Mut Res 1991;264:119-125.

  9. Hebel SK, et al, eds. Fenugreek, in The Lawrence Review of Natural Products. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons. July 1996;1-3.

  10. Sanstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):621S-4S.

  11. Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Mason P. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1996;125(2):81-8.

  12. Eby GA, Davis DR, Halcomb WW. Reduction in duration of common colds by zinc gluconate lozenges in a double-blind study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1984;25(1):20-24.

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