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Some useful information about Vitamin E
January 13, 2014 05:10 PM
Vitamin E is a group of eight different fat soluble compounds that comes from plants. This vitamin was the fifth discovered vitamin and it was discovered by Katherine S. Bishop and Herbert McLean Evans in year 1922.
Types of Vitamin E
If we talk about all the components of Vitamin E it include eight different type of homologues molecules that get synthesized by plants in a natural manner. These eight homologues are also differentiated in two different groups known as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Both the groups have four different homologues named as alpha, beta gamma & Delta. In these two group tocopherols homologues are natural saturated substances while tocotrienols are unsaturated and collectively all these substance form Vitamin E.
Health Benefits of Vitamin E
Talking about all the health benefits of Vitamin E, it is the one of the best antioxidant that can help you to reduce your aging process and it can also help you to stay energetic. Other than this, it s also very helpful in protecting your body from free radicals that can cause many cardiovascular diseases and different type of cancer. Also, it is known to improve the immunity system of the body and that’s why doctors prescribe the vitamin C to those people that have poor immunity system.
However, it is very important that you should consume only the mixed for vitamin E that is completely obtained from natural substance. Doctors recommend natural form of mixed Vitamin E because if it is not balanced then it can create some problem to your body as well.
So, in conclusion it is suggested that if you are having any immunity deficiency or you just want to get some good antioxidants, you can take Vitamin E for that. However, you need to make sure that you take only naturally obtained Vitamin E so you can stay away from all kind of health problem.
Effects of Pumpkin Seed Oil on Prostate Health
February 07, 2012 11:46 AM
Pumpkin Seed Oil
Pumpkin seed oil is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its healing and therapeutic effects to the human body. Pumpkin seeds actually contain a number of valuable nutrients and microelements that enhances the health being of the users. Pumpkin seeds are actually rich sources of phytonutrients, carotenoids, antioxidants, vitamins, proteins, phytosterols and essential fatty acids that bring about a number of beneficial effects to the human body.
Pumpkin seed oil is known for its anti-parasitic, anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, the oil is known for its capacity to lower the cholesterol level of an individual and optimize kidney function. The oil is even used to treat skin irritations and minor skin infections. In fact, pumpkin seed oil is used to achieve a healthier and smoother skin. The oil is even capable of improving sexual health, treating minor depression and provide ample amount of energy to the user.
Pumpkin seed oil actually contains ample amount of antioxidants such as Vitamins A, E and C that help the body fight against damaging free radicals. The oil also contains significant amounts of Vitamins B1, B2 and B6. The oil is fortified with adequate amount of Vitamin Kand D, magnesium, omega 6, omega 3, phosphorus, iron, zinc, calcium and trace minerals.
Pumpkin seed oil is a rich source of omega 6, omega 9, zinc and carotenoids that significantly reduce the risk of developing prostate problems in the future. The zinc content of pumpkin seed oil makes this natural product effective in treating prostate enlargement. Zinc is an essential mineral that shrinks any inflammation or enlargement of the organs or tissues. Pumpkin seed oil actually contains a number of potent elements that inhibit androgen receptors which can trigger the multiplication of cancerous prostate cells.
Pumpkin seed oil was initially used to treat prostate problems and infertility. A number of scientific studies revealed that pumpkin seed oil contains essential elements that increases the libido and optimizes bladder and prostate functions.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy is one of the most common prostate problems of men who are over 50 years old. The condition is mainly characterized by the inflammation of the prostate gland. High levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body can trigger the onset of prostate problems. DHT is known for its capacity to promote the multiplication of cells in the prostate which leads lead to the enlargement of the gland.
Pumpkin seed oil is believed to be efficient in protecting the prostate against the damaging effects of DHT. Pumpkin seed oil contains huge quantities of phytosterol beta-sitosterol that prevents the conversion of hormone testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase which converts testosterone to DHT. In effect, the level of DHT in the body is managed at an optimum level. Pumpkin seed oil also contains Delta-7-sterine that acts as DHT blocker and prevents the damaging effects of DHT on the cell. Delta-7-sterine also aids in preventing the multiplication of cancerous prostate cells in the body. Inhibiting the activity of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase can lead help the prostate shrink back to its normal size because of a controlled production of DHT in the body.
October 15, 2008 09:46 AM
To fight off aging you have to understand what causes it, and the take steps to avoid these causes. It is fairly obvious that all causes of aging cannot be circumvented, but there are things that can be done to keep some of them at bay. Here, we are specifically concerned with the aging of your skin, which is the most visible form of aging. The first aspect of aging to understand is that there are two types: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic aging is natural aging, and is largely genetic. Starting when you are fairly young, normally in the early to mid 20s, intrinsic aging is typified by wrinkling, hair loss or graying of the hair, hollowing of cheeks and other areas where the fat underneath the skin that normally contributes to your physical appearance is lost, and also bone loss that causes your skin to sag due a gradual loss of the structure that sculpts your physical appearance.
The age at which this occurs, and its speed is determined by your genes; although the process generally begins around the mid 20s, the speed with which it progresses is genetically controlled.
This is where grape seed extract can help. Extrinsic aging is not genetic, but environmental. Ten majority of this type of aging is due to exposure to the damaging UV light of the sun, which cause the typical 'leathery' look of the skin of people raised in areas such locations as the hotter parts of Australia and the USA, without the benefit of the native skin pigmentation that filters out these harmful ultra-violet rays.
Other factors that can cause the same degradation of your skin cells are smoking, the way you sleep and gravity. The sun generates free radicals (more on these later) that can destroy skin cells, cause freckles, leathery skin and a blotched complexion and also skin cancer. Smokers are more likely to develop leathery and wrinkled skin than non-smokers, and as the elasticity of your skin reduces, gravity cause jowls to develop and also a more pronounced lower lip.
Even your sleeping position can make you appear to age quicker, particularly using the same sleeping position on your pillow each night that cause what are known as sleep lines, that are really wrinkles that are difficult, if not impossible to remove. However, one of the most relevant factors is pollution, and the effects of car emissions, pesticides and other agricultural chemicals, paint fumes and 1001 other forms of chemical pollution that produce free radicals.
Where grape seed extract is involved in fighting off aging is in extrinsic aging is by destroying the free radicals. All substances, from the air to the oceans, are formed of atoms that contain electrons. Stable molecules contain an even number of electrons, or what are known as 'electron pairs'. When a molecule loses one electron it is known as a free radical, whose prime purpose in its very short life is to steal an electron from the nearest molecule. This 'short' lifetime can as long as a day or as short as thousandth of a second: it depends on is size and the degree of steric hindrance to the reaction with the spare electron.
Now that the reasons for aging and the nature of free radicals are better understood it is easier for you understand why grape seed extract can help to fight aging caused by the effects of free radicals on your skin.
Grape seed is a waste product of the wine industry. You cannot make wine from grape seeds, so they are removed from the final product by filtration or sedimentation. It contains a large number of phytonutrients, the most important being polyphenols in the form of flavanoids, lipids and carbohydrates. It also contains proteins that don't have much of an effect on aging. Flavonoids (also spelled flavanoids) are powerful antioxidants that destroy free radicals; they are twenty times as powerful as Vitamin E and over fifty times more powerful an antioxidant than Vitamin C.
Both of these vitamins are regarded as strong antioxidants in their own right, which is an indication of how good grape seed extract is at killing free radicals. It's like a combination of Harry Callahan, Paul Kersey, John McClane and the whole of the Magnificent Seven after the scavengers in your body cells. They succeed, and do it in spades!
Not only do the ingredients of grape seed extract kill off free radicals with the efficiency of a Delta Task Force, but are also anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti just about anything else you can think of. However, let's have an even closer look and find out exactly what polyphenols are present in this so-called wonder juice.
Procyanadin was originally named Vitamin P in 1936 by its discoverer, Prof. Jacques Masquelier, and is believed to bond with collagen to protect you from premature aging by retaining and even improving the elasticity of your skin. An added benefit is that it also improves the elasticity of your blood vessels, and so helps to fight off the effects of high blood pressure and places less strain on your heart. The overall effect on your face is to practically give you a chemical face lift and also provide protection from the damaging effect of the UV component of sunlight through its lethal attitude towards the free radicals that UV radiation generates.
Another component of grape seed extract particularly that of muscadine grapes is resveratrol; a phytoalexin that has strong anti-inflammatory properties and can also fight off the effects of aging. Phytoalexins are antibiotics produced by plants that are under attack, and, in addition to helping you age slower, confers other benefits to your body including helping your brain to carry out its work more efficiently.
All in all, grape seed extract confers many benefits to your health and is also believed to possess powerful anti-cancer properties. However, it is for its ability to fight off aging that most people use it as a supplement, and in this respect it has been found to be extremely effective. Any antioxidant is of benefit to your body, but grape seed extract is of particular benefit due its high antioxidant potency.
June 11, 2008 04:51 PM
Multiple vitamins should be designed with one purpose in mind. They should provide you the ability to properly balance your regular diet with the additional vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants needed to make your diet nutritionally complete.
It is rare that people follow the recommended daily allowances in their regular diets. For this reason, multi-vitamins were developed to provide the missing nutrients to your daily diet. Vitamins designed with this purpose will automatically provide you with the essential additional nutrition you need to boost your health and wellness.
The Correct Multi-vitamin Make-Up:
A good multivitamin supplement will contain all of the following ingredients. It is designed to balance an average diet and boost health and wellness.
* Major vitamins * Minerals * Amino acids * Carotenoids * Tocopherols * Tocotrienols * Antioxidants
Antioxidants are an important part of any diet because they attack and neutralize free radicals. These fragments of chemicals are caused by:
* Normal metabolism * Pollution * Ultraviolet radiation * Rancid oil * Other toxins
Scientists believe that free radicals are one of the elements responsible for aging and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, arthritis and cancer. It is because of the nutrient deficiencies in our regular diets that we have become more susceptible to degenerative diseases.
Mixed Tocopherols and Tocotrienols:
Vitamin E is a series of related compounds. The four main forms are alpha, beta, Delta and gamma. Most multi-vitamin supplements only contain large amounts of alpha tocopherol. A healthy diet needs a mixture of them all.
When too much alpha tocopherol is induced, gamma tocopherol is depleted. This causes deficiencies because gamma tocopherol is crucial to good health as well. For this reason, it is important that your tocopherol intake is balanced. A mixed intake of all tocopherols is more effective in preventing cardiovascular disease.
Tocotrienols are potent antioxidants that complement the alpha tocopherol. The combined nutrients are much more effective at preventing oxidation. This is why you must have a balanced combination of tocopherols and tocotrienols to maintain a healthy diet and a healthy body. To accomplish this you must have a balance of all of the compounds that make up vitamin E.
These are the red, orange and yellow plant pigments that are found in all of our fruits and vegetables. All of these contain different amounts of carotenoids, but the colors are often hidden by the plant's chlorophyll content. Examples of foods containing large amounts of carotenoids include:
* Kale * Collard greens * Swiss chard * Broccoli
Tomatoes contain Lycopene, which is a red carotenoid found in tomatoes. It is a potent antioxidant that reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Unfortunately, carotenoids are better absorbed through the ingestion of supplements than from foods. Multi-vitamins usually only contain beta carotene. It is important to find one that contains beta carotene, alpha carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin.
The Bottom Line:
A complete multiple vitamin supplement is necessary as a part of a daily health and wellness regimen. The best multi-vitamin contains a healthy balance of everything listed above in the correct dosages. It is important to do your homework and be sure the multi-vitamin you choose will do its job correctly.
Learn as much as you can about your own body's individual nutritional needs. By giving your body proper nutrition, you help it to fight off illness and diseases much more efficiently. A complete multi-vitamin will:
* Strengthen your immune system * Decrease your risk of cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis * Increase your level of energy * Elevate your moods * Help you to enjoy a healthier, more productive life
Choose a multi-vitamin that has been developed based on the latest science and technology. You will be taking a well-rounded supplement that was designed to properly complement a typical daily diet.
The Healing Power Of Borage Oil’s GLA
November 13, 2007 10:22 AM
Borage is otherwise called the starflower, and the borage oil extracted from its seeds is very rich in GLA, gamma linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid also obtainable from evening primrose oil. Borage, however, is richer in GLA, and is therefore a more economical source that the evening primrose.
A shrub, frequently seen in gardens, borage has historically been used as a salad food, and also in soups, and borage honey is prized in many quarters. Now, however, its main use is for the GLA extracted from the seed, which provides a higher yield of GLA than any other source. Borage seed oil contains up to 25% GLA, compared to the 17% from blackcurrant oil and 9% from evening primrose oil.
The importance of GLA to the body’s biochemistry is inestimable, and cannot be overstated. It is not so much the GLA that is so important, but the prostaglandin to which it is converted in the body. Prostaglandin E1 is a hormone-like substance that plays a part in many of the biochemical and metabolic processes of the body. Examples include the control of the immune system and inflammatory response, some kidney functions, and the tone of the arterial muscles, so important in the health of the cardiovascular system.
A good fatty acid metabolism benefits some very important aspects of our health such as maintaining a good blood pressure, low cholesterol levels, preventing inflammatory and immune system conditions such as arthritis, allergies and some skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis, and also improving the strength of the keratin-dependent tissues such as our nails and hair.
A deficiency in essential fatty acids also seems to stimulate the overproduction of a hormone in women called prolactin that can lead to the severe mood changes commonly referred to as pre-menstrual syndrome, or PMS. GLA appears to have a beneficial effect in the treatment of PMS, and some other conditions such as breast discomfort.
Gamma linolenic acid is created in the body from linoleic acid, of which there is a plentiful supply in margarine, vegetable oils and many processed foods, but there is a problem. Fatty acid molecules come in different isomeric forms, in which although the chemical is the same, the geometry or ‘stereochemistry’ is different. The healthy form is the ‘cis’ formation, and the other is the ‘trans’ stereoisomer. The trans fatty acids are formed by hydrogenation of oils to make them semi-solid, and more suitable for spreading. This hydrogenation process causes an irreversible change in the geometry of the fatty acid that can block the conversion of linoleic acid to GLA in the body.
Hence, although most of the western population has more than sufficient linoleic acid in their diets, many who eat an excess of trans fats have a deficiency of GLA. Some B vitamin deficiencies and a deficiency in certain minerals exacerbate this situation, and a gamma linolenic acid supplement is needed. Additional to this, the enzyme responsible for the conversion, Delta-6-desaturase (D6D) can be affected by many modern environmental factors such as smoking, stress, alcohol, excessive animal fat consumption and even excessive linoleic acid consumption. The solution to all of this is GLA which does not require any enzymes for its creation, and supplemental GLA from any source can immediately take part in the biochemical pathway to the creation of the prostaglandin eicosanoids.
GLA provides the means and the resultant prostaglandins carry out the job of regulating the hormonal activity within human biochemistry. Prostaglandins help to regulate the function of many of the cells in the body, such as the smooth muscle cells of the arteries and veins that cause constriction or dilation, and on the stickiness of blood platelets causing their aggregation. They are important in the regulation of such functions as blood clotting, fluid balance and the production and balance of hormones. The anti-inflammatory properties of prostaglandin E1 are very important to the way that the body reacts to breaches by foreign invaders, and it is also thought to act to thin the blood and cause dilation of blood vessels, hence its effect in lowering the blood pressure.
So what does this mean to you, apart from the effects of the fatty acid on PMS? Borage oil can be used to treat a large number of different symptoms associated with a shortage of GLA and prostaglandin E1, and here are a few of the conditions for which a GLA supplement has been found beneficial.
A deficiency in GLA and other essential fatty acids can lead to loss of bone mass and subsequent osteoporosis and it is thought that fatty acids help the absorption of calcium by the digestive system, and to increase its deposit in bones. It can be used to increase bone mass and density and therefore strengthen the bones of those affected by osteoporosis. This is partially due to the hormone regulatory effect GLA has on the body.
Allergies appear to be very personal responses by the immune system to specific substances, and while borage oil has proved beneficial in a few allergies, and prostaglandins are known to regulate the activity of the immune response, the effectiveness of GLA treatment for allergies has been mixed. There is evidence that it can affect some cases, but not most.
GLA from borage oil can reduce the swelling and pain of rheumatoid arthritis, and helps to ease morning stiffness. Its effectiveness seems mixed, and you should try it for two or three months to determine if it helps you personally. Be careful, however, since some believe that it might react with some of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) used to treat this condition. Ibuprofen is one, so check with your physician before trying it.
If you suffer from high blood pressure, borage oil used in conjunction with Omega-3 fish oils might lower it, though more research is needed. There is a belief that the GLA is not the active agent here since Omega-3 oils are known to help to reduce hypertension, though the effect of prostaglandins on the factors that can reduce blood pressure is inarguable.
The healing power of borage oil should not be underestimated, and it has been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat many conditions, especially those that science has found to be caused by the immune system and the inflammatory response. Borage oil can be found at any Health Food Store.
Pumpkin Seed Oil is good for your health
October 14, 2007 05:34 PM
Pumpkin seed oil, as the name suggests, is obtained from pumpkin seeds, which can also be eaten roasted in the same way that people eat sunflower seeds. When roasted, they are coated in a sauce such as Worcester sauce and then heated in low oven for a long period of time. The secret of roasting them to maintain their nutritional value is to keep the temperature low and the cooking time high.
The seeds are regarded as a ‘superfood’ that is rich in vitamins A and E, the essential fatty acids known as Omega 3 and Omega 6, zinc, iron, magnesium and potassium. The seed is known as a pepita in North and South America.
The oil is reddish green and many people find it delicious. It is best when used raw, and can be drunk in the form of smoothies or shakes, or used as a salad dressing. Some also enjoy drinking it raw, and using it as a spread instead of butter or margarine. The benefits it provides to the human body are a healthy brain function, increased energy and it has a special use in maintaining a healthy prostate gland.
The vitamin E content is high, especially gamma-tocopherol, and it has a high antioxidant effect with consequent anti-inflammatory properties. Its effect on arthritis, and inflammatory disease, has been investigated and the inclusion of pumpkin seeds in the diet has been found to reduce the inflammatory symptoms of the condition with a consequent reduction in pain. In fact, in a comparison test with indomethacin, a common arthritis treatment, pumpkin seeds compared very well and in fact had a more positive effect on the damage to the fats in the joint linings than did indomethacin, which tends to increase the concentration of lipid peroxides rather than reduce them.
Its effect on the prostate gland is partially due to its high zinc content that is present in a higher concentration in the prostate than in any other gland in the body, and also to its effect on the hormones that cause the gland to grow and swell to the extent that it constricts or completely blocks the urethra, the tube connecting the bladder to the outside of the body. This is caused by an enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT causes the over-proliferation of the prostate cells.
The reason for the effect of pumpkin seed oil on DHT is still under discussion, but some believe that it is connected with the zinc content and others with the high level of Delta-7-sterine in the seed. The sterine appears to neutralize the effect of the DHt on the growth of prostate cells.
In addition to prostate enlargement, Osteoporosis is another problem associated with aging in men. It has been estimated that men over 50 have a 12.5% chance of suffering a fracture due to brittle bones, and it is though that this is connected with a deficiency of zinc. In fact a clear correlation has been established between osteoporosis in older men and low levels of zinc and the diet and in the blood. Pumpkins seeds, as already mentioned, are rich in zinc, and the benefits of their use as a supplement to avoid an enlarged prostate is reinforced by their effect in protecting against osteoporosis.
Pumpkin seeds contain a high concentration of the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin. These are specifically useful in protecting the cardiovascular system and prevent atherosclerosis. They also contain plant sterols known as phytosterols that are believed to help reduce the blood concentration of cholesterol. This types of sterols are the basis of the ‘cholesterol busting’ drinks that are sold in supermarkets. They also help to strengthen the immune system and are believe to help reduce the risk of contracting some types of cancer.
Pumpkin seed oil is a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, an important unsaturated fatty acid that some studies have indicated can be used to prevent metastaes (the spread of the disease) development in patients with breast cancer. The most prized type of oil is that from Syrian oil, from the province of Steiermark in Austria. Such pumpkins are also grown in parts of North America, and the best oil is said to come from the first pressing, the so-called ‘virgin’ oil. If used in cooking, the temperature must be kept low, since many of the nutrients are destroyed much over 100 Celsius.
A little known use for pumpkin seed oil is in eradicating intestinal parasites. Many people are embarrassed at requesting professional help for worms, and pumpkin seeds are the ideal home remedy. The act almost immediately, and two or three hours after taking them, or the oil, then you should take a laxative. You should the parasites being removed with the bowel motions.
The worms are not actually killed, but are paralyzed, and cannot prevent themselves being removed with the bowel movement. If a laxative is not taken, however, they will recover and there will be no effect. As with any remedy for a health condition, therefore, it is necessary to understand how the seeds or oil work to help to remove the horrible parasites from your body. They are very common, and any self-help or natural remedy that actually works will undoubtedly be very popular, but if it is not understood that these creatures must be expelled from your body while paralyzed, then pumpkin seeds or oil will not work.
Those that failed to understand the process would then complain that the treatment does not work. In fact, it does work, and if the worms are expelled when they are unable to remain in your intestines then they will be removed. You must “read the instructions on the bottle” for the contents to work.
Pumpkin seed oil is a very potent mixture of chemicals that can cure or control a large number of conditions, and it is essential that you understand why you are using them. They can be used as a supplement to your diet, though it is easy to wonder why you should take this antioxidant rather than another.
Find out what pumpkin seed oil can do for you, and if it applies to you then use it. There are stronger antioxidants, and better foods to take in an attempt to protect from certain conditions. However, there are certain circumstances when pumpkin seeds will do the job better than most other supplements, and if you can fit them into your regular diet then they will not only do you ‘no harm’, as they say, but will do you a great deal of good. Look for organic pumpkin seeds or pumpkin seed oil at your local health food store.
Cholesterol Support FAQ's
January 06, 2006 12:15 PM
Tru-E Bio Complex
December 08, 2005 04:58 PM
Tru-E Bio Complex TMNeil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 7/27/05
LIKELY USERS: Most Americans are deficient in Vitamin E 8,9,10; People needing superior antioxidant protection3,5,6; People needing cardiovascular or cholesterol support27,30,31; People needing nervous system support7; Those wanting healthier skin6; Diabetics may need additional Vitamin E24 KEY INGREDIENTS: Tocopherols from IP-Preserved, non-GMO Soy; Tocotrienols and tocopherols from non-GMO virgin palm; Tocotrienols from non-GMO annatto seed
MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: NOW Tru-E Bio ComplexTM is a unique biologically balanced, patent-pending formula designed to provide optimal Vitamin E activity. This product features 100% natural, Non-Genetically Modified sources of all 8 isomers (forms) of the Vitamin E “family” in ratios similar to what is found in a healthy diet. It provides the superior benefits of foodsource Vitamin E versus those obtained from traditional E supplements.
NOW® Tru-E Bio ComplexTM has been carefully blended to supply high levels of the natural gamma and Delta “desmethyl” forms of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. This is important because recent research indicates that these isomers work best as a team to quench the lipid and nitrogen free radicals known to cause injury to cells and tissues. This product supports a healthy cardiovascular system, youthful skin and nervous system function with potent antioxidants. This science-based natural Vitamin E supplement is unlike any other and the first to combine all of these benefits in one convenient non-GMO formula! 25-32
Recent research indicates that these isomers work best as a team to quench the lipid and nitrogen free radicals known to cause injury to cells and tissues.1-4, 25-32
This product supports a healthy cardiovascular system, youthful skin and nervous system function with potent antioxidants.1,4-7
Levels of Vitamin E above 100 IU daily are associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and certain types of cellular disorders, as well as enhancement of immune function. These vitamin E intakes are considerably above levels obtainable from diet alone. 11,12,13
ADDITIONAL PRODUCT USE INFORMATION & QUALITY ISSUES:
This is a product that is Patent Pending, based on months of research into optimal forms, potencies and ratios of the 8 isomers of natural Vitamin E. All of the Vitamin E formulas currently on the market use potencies of tocopherols that are very dissimilar to what is found in a healthy diet, with either too low or too high amounts of gamma and alpha tocopherols for a good balance. Some do not even include tocotrienols.
All of the Vitamin E formulas on the market that do contain a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols tend to use either 400 IU or 100 IU of alpha tocopherol, some as little as 50-60 IU, combined with varying doses of gamma tocopherol. We have reduced the alpha tocopherol from the standard 400 IU per capsule to 200 IU, allowing more gamma tocopherol in the capsule to follow the typical ratio in a healthy diet. Other brands either cut the alpha tocopherol too low (to keep the gamma tocopherol at a good level) or else cut the gamma and other tocopherols too low (to keep the alpha tocopherol at 400 IU).
Special care was used to maintain a certain ratio of tocopherols and of tocotrienols that is unique and from natural sources. Our formula is also unique in mixing sources of tocotrienols to achieve our desired balance, whereas other formulas include only one source, despite the dissimilarity of the mixture to what is found in a healthy, varied diet.
Other formulas use either Vitamin E derived from genetically engineered soybeans and/or add soybean oil from similar sources as a base. NOW uses expensive non-GMO sources, the first formula to do so, with no soybean oil added. This enhances the quality of our product compared to every other formula on the market.
We use the expensive virgin palm oil rather than the cheap palm distillates because it is un-denatured and contributes additional, valuable oil nutrients such as CoQ10, Squalene and Sterols. Also, much of the clinical research done on tocotrienols was done using virgin palm oil sources 32
Natural Vitamin E is more effective than synthetic Vitamin E.14 - 23
SERVING SIZE & HOW TO TAKE IT: One or two capsules per day, preferably with meal(s). Oils enhance the absorption of Vitamin E. Concentrated fiber supplements may decrease the absorption of Vitamin E, so it is best not to take both at the same meal.
SYNERGISTS: Antioxidants (Alpha Lipoic Acid, Vitamin C Complex, Pine or Grapeseed Extracts, VitaBerry Plus+, CoQ10, etc.), Plant Sterols, Fish Oil, Flaxseed Oil, GliSODin, EGCg Green Tea Extract, Lecithin, Nuts and Seeds
SPECIFIC: Aspirin and blood thinners should not be taken with Vitamin E without physician’s approval. Many other pharmaceutical drugs deplete Vitamin E, adding to the likelihood that a person will be deficient.
GENERAL: Pregnant and lactating women and people using prescription drugs should consult their physician before taking any dietary supplement. This information is based on my own knowledge and references, and should not be used as diagnosis, prescription or as a specific product claim. This document has not been reviewed by the FDA or by the company posting it. Information given here may vary from what is shown on the product label because this represents my own professional experience and understanding of the science underlying the formula and ingredients. When taking any new formula, use common sense and cautiously increase to the full dose over time.
1. Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN (2001) g-Tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr 74:714-722.
CLA Extreme Fact Sheet
December 07, 2005 12:59 PM
CLA Extreme Fact Sheet Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 01/31/05
LIKELY USERS: People wanting to control body fat; People wanting to increase their body’s lean mass (muscle tissue); People wanting an oil that helps to reduce pro-inflammatory body chemicals; Those wanting to prevent undesirable cellular changes through diet KEY INGREDIENT (S): CLA from safflower oil, L-Carnitine amino acid, Guarana Seed extract (20% naturally occurring caffeine), Green Tea extract (40% polyphenols), Chromium Picolinate
MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a derivative of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid. The softgel is formulated with CLA (derived from safflower oil), Green Tea extract (polyphenols), Guarana extract (caffeine), L-Carnitine, and Chromium (III) Picolinate for synergistic effects of reducing body fat and increasing lean muscle mass.
OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES: One study, titled "Efficacy and Safety of One-Year Supplementation with Conjugated linoleic Acid in Moderate Overweight," found that compared to placebo, CLA-supplemented subjects had Body Fat Mass index scores averaging 9% lower than the placebo group and had Lean Body Mass results showing lean muscle mass averaging 2% more than the placebo group. Analyses of blood tests showed no side effects over this one-year period. CLA plus Guarana reportedly reduces the size and number of fat cells in another report. CLA may also reduce insulin resistance and prevent undesirable cellular changes.
AMOUNT and HOW TO USE: One to five capsules a day, preferably with meals.
COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS: Alpha Lipoic Acid, Vitamin E, other Antioxidants
CAUTIONS: CLA may reduce insulin resistance, so people on blood sugar medications may not need as much of their drugs. Use with caution to avoid an overdose of your blood sugar medication when using this oil. Please notify your physician about your supplement use if you are using any drugs!
Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoye K, Kristiansen K, Fagertun H, Vik H, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(6):1118–1125 (2004).
Tricon S, Burdge GC, Kew S, Banerjee T, Russell JJ, Grimble RF, Williams CM, Calder PC, Yaqoob P. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-1 0,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on immune cell function in healthy humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(6):1626–1633 (2004).
Aminot-Gilchrist DV, Anderson HDI. Insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular disease: potential benefits of conjugated linoleic acid. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(6):1159S–1163S Suppl. S (2004).
Bassaganya-Riera J, Reynolds K, Martino-Catt S, Cui YZ, Hennighausen L, Gonzalez F, Rohrer J, Benninghoff AU, Hontecillas R. Activation of PPAR gamma and Delta by conjugated linoleic acid mediates protection from experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 127(3):777–791 (2004).
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Ochoa JJ, Farquharson AJ, Grant I, Moffat LE, Heys SD, Wahle KWJ. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) decrease prostate cancer cell proliferation: different molecular mechanisms for cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers. Carcinogenesis 25(7):1185–1191 (2004).
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VITAMIN E OIL 32,000 IU PER OUNCE - Source Naturals
September 30, 2005 09:29 AM
NEW PRODUCT ANNOUNCEMENT
VITAMIN E OIL 32,000 IU PER OUNCE
Gamma E 400 Complex - Vitamin E with Powerful Tocotrienols
June 29, 2005 10:50 AM
Source Naturals brings you a better way of life with breakthrough research in vitamin E, the second most-recommended daily supplement today after multivitamins. No doubt you’ve heard how important vitamin E is to your health, but did you know that all vitamin E supplements are not alike? The bottle many people grab is usually a type of vitamin E chemically known as d-alpha tocopherol. Yet vitamin E is actually a general name for a whole family of compounds—and gamma E is gaining attention as a highly significant and potent form. Only Source Naturals GAMMA E 400 COMPLEX contains all four natural tocopherol forms, supplying 400 mg of gamma E tocopherol, 200 IU of alpha tocopherol, plus 5 mg of all four tocotrienols. And it takes the whole family together as they naturally occur, to derive the synergistic benefits of this remarkable vitamin.
Vitamin E refers to eight related, lipidsoluble antioxidant compounds widely distributed in plants and especially in vegetable oils: the tocopherol sub-family (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and Delta-) and tocotrienol sub-family (alpha-tocotrienol, beta-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol and Delta-tocotrienol). These vital antioxidants are effective against free radicals inside the cell because they are fat-soluble and can pass through the lipid layer of the cell membrane. The American diet is naturally high in gamma E tocopherol compared to alpha—and research now indicates there may be a good reason for this.
The Missing Link?
Since alpha tocopherol has historically been the major form sold, gamma tocopherol received little attention. But new research demonstrates that gamma-tocopherol may be the missing link to advanced cardiovascular protection. The combination of vitamin E tocopherols— particularly those with a high gamma-toalpha ratio—is a more potent antioxidant than alpha-tocopherol alone. Gamma-tocopherol protects against peroxynitrite free radicals and lipid peroxidative damage. Research has shown that gamma can inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX-2) activity, the production of irritating prostaglandin E2, and protect against nitrogen-based free radicals as well as afford improved cardiovascular support. Gamma has also been shown to support the activity of the alpha form as well as offer activity of its own—gamma supplementation results in an increase in alpha tocopherol concentrations in the body, whereas taking alpha only may suppress or decrease tissue gamma tocopherol. The eight forms of E are wisely delivered in a base of sesame oil, which is naturally high in gamma tocopherol and other components, including restorative lignans.
Your Source of Advanced Nutrition
Epidemiological research and clinical trials have suggested that vitamin E can help maintain healthy blood sugar levels, support healthy cholesterol levels, provide positive effects on the growth and regulation of cells and tissues and even nerve transmission. Source Naturals GAMMA E 400 COMPLEX is the most advanced form of this essential vitamin. We are dedicated to bringing you the finest nutrients modern research has to offer and a better way of life through optimal nutrition and a healthy lifestyle. Make GAMMA-E 400 COMPLEX part of your health plan for more complete nutrition.
GPC (GlyceroPhosphoCholine) Versatile Life Support Nutrient ....
June 21, 2005 05:25 PM
Parris Kidd, Ph.D.
GPC or GlyceroPhosphoCholine (pronounced gli-sero-fos-fo-ko-lean) is a nutrient with many different roles in human health. It reaches extremely high concentrations within our cells, and its abundance in mother's milk suggests it is crucial to life processes. Clinically, GPC has been most intensively researched for its brain benefits. Biologically, it has great importance for the skeletal "voluntary" muscles, the autonomic nervous system, kidneys, liver, and reproductive organs. GPC goes beyond being a brain nutrient; it is a nutrient for vitality and long life.
As a dietary supplement, GPC's brain benefits are unique. It boosts mental performance in healthy young people, as shown by three double-blind trials. In trials on middle aged subjects, GPC improved several physiologic measures of mental performance: reaction time, visual evoked potential, and EEG Delta slow waves. In the elderly, GPC improves mental performance and provides noticeable revitalisation. In 11 human trials with 1,799 patients, memory, attention, and other cognitive measures improved. So did mood (including irritability and emotional lability), and patients often developed renewed interest in relatives and friends. GPC was well tolerated, and generated no bad drug interactions. A large trial on elderly subjects with memory challenges published in 2003 concluded GPC had significant benefits for these individuals.
Circulatory deprivation or surgery can challenge healthy brain function. GPC can speed recovery and support improved quality of life. In four trials with GPC on 2,804 subjects who experienced difficulties under these circumstances, up to 95% showed good or excellent improvement. GPC consistently improved space-time orientation, degree of consciousness, language, motor capacity, and overall quality of life. The investigators concluded GPC offered marked benefits, with an excellent benefit-to-risk profile. Up to half of patients who survive bypass surgery experience problems with memory and other mental performance. A double-blind trial conducted with bypass survivors for six months determined that the GPC group had no remaining memory deterioration, while the placebo group failed to improve.
GPC supports human health through a variety of mechanisms:
1. It helps keep choline and acetylcholine available to the tissues. Choline is an essential nutrient and GPC appears to be the body's main choline reservoir. GPC in mother's milk represents the baby's main source of dietary choline. Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important substance employed extensively throughout the body. ACh is a major brain transmitter; the motor nerves use ACh to drive the skeletal ("voluntary") muscles; the autonomic nervous system uses it to pace all the organs. ACh is also central to mental and physical endurance, and mind-body coordination.
2. GPC is a major cell-level protectant, not as another antioxidant but in pivotal roles of osmotic pressure regulator and metabolic antitoxin. GPC for osmotic regulation can reach very high concentrations in the kidney, bladder, liver, brain, and other organs. As metabolic protectant, GPC shields proteins against urea buildup.
3. GPC is a major reservoir for cell membrane omega-3 phospholipids. These substances are the major building blocks for cell membranes. Enzymes couple GPC with the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, to make the phospholipid PC-DHA. This makes membranes especially fluid, enabling membrane proteins to perform with better efficiency. GPC produces PC-DHA in the skeletal muscles, wherein fluidity is essential for contraction. Muscles that function abnormally can show GPC deficiency.
4. GPC contributes to both male and female in reproduction. As spermatozoa mature, GPC is used to make PC-DHA that makes their membranes fluid to enable motility. With men, the lower their semen GPC the greater the likelihood of poor sperm motility and with it, infertility. Once semen is inserted into the female, an enzyme in uterine secretions breaks down the semen's GPC into substances that energize the sperm to achieve fertilization.
Oral intake of GPC in the clinical trials was usually 1,200 milligrams (mg) per day, taken early in the day on an empty stomach. A reasonable dietary supplementation regimen is 1200 mg/day, taken in divided doses (AM and PM) between meals for 15-30 days, and thereafter 600 mg/day for maintenance. Symptomatic subjects can take 1200 mg/day until adequate improvement is achieved. Young, healthy subjects may experience benefit from daily intakes as low as 300 milligrams. GPC is very safe, being compatible with vitamins and nutrients and with pharmaceuticals. In clinical trial comparisons, GPC's benefits surpassed the nutrients acetylcarnitine and CDP-choline.
GPC is unmatched for its support of active living and healthy aging. In some 23 clinical trials GPC improved mental performance in all functional categories. GPC can revitalize the aging brain, facilitating growth hormone (GH) release and boosting nerve growth factor actions. GPC's ample presence in human mother's milk suggests it could be conditionally essential. By supporting mental integrity, mind-body integration, the autonomic system, and the body's other organs, GPC enhances the active lifestyle. GPC is remarkable nutritional support for optimal health at any age.
Parris M. Kidd, PhD is a cell biologist trained at the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco. Since entering the dietary supplement field in 1983, he has published many in-depth reviews of integrative medicine in the journal Alternative Medicine Reviews, and is science columnist for totalhealth magazine. Dr. Kidd is internationally recognized for his accomplishments in dietary supplement product development, documentation and quality control.
Disclaimer: the above article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or treat a particular illness. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a holistically competent licensed professional health care provider.
Sytrinol - A Natural Solution for Addressing Cholesterol
June 21, 2005 05:16 PM
By Richard F. Staack, Ph.D., M.B.A.
Sytrinol™, a patented proprietary formula derived from natural citrus and palm fruit extracts, combines citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), palm tocotrienols and other proprietary constituents. This combination results in a synergistic effect for maintaining cholesterol levels in the normal range, including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as demonstrated by a long-term, three-phase clinical trial. This trial is extremely significant because it is a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, one of only a few in the dietary supplement industry. Sytrinol has also been shown to maintain normal levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the beneficial cholesterol. Additionally, Sytrinol is a powerful antioxidant with numerous heart health benefits and also plays a significant role in reducing cellular irritation.
What are polymethoxylated flavones?
Polymethoxylated flavones are a highly methoxylated sub-classification of citrus flavonoids. This process occurs naturally and results in a more biologically active molecule. This is especially true for tangeretin and nobiletin, two of the primary polymethoxylated flavones in Sytrinol. Tocotrienols, naturally occurring analogues of tocopherol (natural vitamin E), are the other proprietary ingredient in Sytrinol and are a group of minor dietary constituents that have been studied for their effect on heart health.
Sytrinol's Proven Benefits
Sytrinol is the result of over 12 years of research focusing on the relationship between polymethoxylated flavonoids, tocotrienols, and cardiovascular health. Sytrinol?s benefits have been shown in vitro, in vivo, and in multiple clinical studies. In these studies, subjects consumed 150 mg of Sytrinol twice per day (300 mg/day) and were instructed to keep the same dietary habits and maintain their caloric intake. Fasting blood samples were drawn at study onset, and at 4-weeks, 8-weeks, and 12-weeks. The results of the clinical studies were all similar in their effect, with a reduction of total cholesterol up to 30 percent, LDL cholesterol up to 27 percent, and total triglycerides up to 34 percent in twelve weeks compared to the placebo group. Additionally, the LDL/HDL ratio was significantly reduced in all clinical studies up to 30 percent. Another very important benefit of Sytrinol that cannot be claimed by other cholesterol-addressing supplements is its effect on C-reactive protein (CRP), which plays a role in cardiovascular challenges. Recent research has established that inflammation may cause C-reactive protein to be produced in the body. Specific PMFs, including nobiletin and tangeretin, have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that Sytrinol may have a positive effect on CRP Sytrinol has also been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. The polymethoxylated flavones have been researched for over 25 years demonstrating their antioxidant effects for heart health. Studies have shown that polymethoxylated flavonoids and their metabolites are excellent sources of dietary antioxidants that are able to suppress many of the events of free radical damage, including cellular irritation. The tocotrienols in Sytrinol have a higher antioxidant activity than tocopherols. Alpha-tocotrienol has been shown to be up to 60 times more potent than alpha-tocopherol in the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Other research has demonstrated that the Delta and gamma isomers of tocotrienols also have potent antioxidant activity.
Sytrinol has three complementary mechanisms of action in the body that delivers cardiovascular benefits. *Polymethoxylated flavones decrease apolipoprotein B, the structural protein needed for endogenous synthesis of LDL cholesterol. *Polymethoxylated flavones (tangeretin & nobiletin) decrease diacylglycerol acetyl transferase, a liver enzyme needed for endogenous synthesis of triglycerides. *Tocotrienols inhibit HMG CoA reductase, the liver enzyme responsible for endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. These mechanisms work synergistically to support normal total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, more significantly than other natural supplements on the market today. Sytrinol can also be combined with other ingredients such as phytosterols. Phytosterols help block cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract while Sytrinol helps block cholesterol synthesis in the body. This suggests that, when combined, a more pronounced effect on maintaining normal cholesterol levels would result.
The ease of compliance for consumers is a major consideration for a successful natural heart health product. Consumers do not have to take Sytrinol prior to, immediately following, or directly with their meals and, as a result, are more likely to take the correct dosage and continue using the product. Sytrinol can be taken in tablets, or softgels, which are easy to swallow because of the low dosage. Sytrinol will also be available in functional foods.
Dr. Richard Staack is the Vice President of Business Development, Technology, and Science at SourceOne™ Global Partners. He received his Master of Science and Doctorate in Nutritional and Biochemical Toxicology from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He received his Master of Business Administration with Distinction from DeVry University. Dr. Staack has received several awards and honors in the field of nutrition, is associated with numerous professional affiliations, and has published several articles on nutrition and toxicology in peer-reviewed journals.
Disclaimer: the above article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or treat a particular illness. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a holistically competent licensed professional health care provider.
Essential Fatty Acids - Lipids, Cell Memgranes & Eicosanoids
June 09, 2005 09:35 AM
Essential Fatty Acids and Phospholipids
Essential fatty acids & phospholipids are primary constituents of cell membranes, and as such they are vital to the makeup of the human body. Essential fatty acids are used to generate certain intra-cellular hormone-like substances, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are responsible for regulating key bodily processes. Source Naturals essential fatty acid supplements are potent, effective and chemical-free.
LIPIDS, CELL MEMBRANES & EICOSANOIDS
Almost by definition, life is composed of cells, and cells are defined by membranes. One theory suggests that, around four billion years ago, self-replicating molecules, similar to the ribonucleic acid or RNA in our own cells, were synthesized from organic molecules. These self-replicating molecules adapted to changes in their environment to increase their potential for survival. Thus began the process of evolution that has led, over the eons, to us. One turning point was when these molecules developed membranes - envelopes which could help concentrate chemicals needed for the cell's survival. There existed in the "primordial soup" substances uniquely suited to this purpose: a class of organic compounds we call lipids . Lipids are more commonly called fats, and in this health and image-conscious age people often think of them as something to be avoided. However, the word fat refers to a variety of substances with a diverse range of chemical properties, which are essential for survival and well-being . The simplest lipids, fatty acids such as palmitic acid, consist of a hydrocarbon "tail" connected to a carboxyl group (COOH). The majority of lipids in food and in the human body occur in the form of triglycerides - a molecular configuration in which three fatty acid chains are attached to a 'backbone' of glycerol (an organic alcohol composed of a 3-carbon chain with an alcohol group attached to each carbon). The major roles of lipids can be described as energy and storage, structural, and metabolic.
Energy and Storage
Molecules can contain more or less chemical energy. In living systems most of the energy needed to drive chemical reactions is derived from oxidation. Oxygen, the ultimate electron acceptor, is a strong oxidant: it has a marked tendency to attract electrons, becoming reduced in the process. When a molecule undergoes a chemical reaction from a high-energy reduced state to a low-energy oxidized state, energy is released. This is what happens in a fire: the high-energy carbohydrates in wood, such as glucose, react with oxygen, releasing heat and the low-energy molecules of carbon dioxide and water. This is similar to what happens in metabolism.
Most of the carbon in a fatty acid chain is highly reduced, which makes fats more energy-rich than the other organic molecules that can be burned as food. This is what we mean when we say fats are high in calories - a measure of the amount of energy released when a substance is oxidized. Fats contain more than twice as many calories as carbohydrates. This makes fats an important storage fuel for most of the body.
Another important class of lipids in the human body consists of the phospholipids. Like triglycerides, phospholipids contain fatty acid chains- in this case two, one saturated and one unsaturated, attached to a glycerol backbone. Unlike triglycerides, in phospholipids the third carbon of the glycerol molecule is attached to a phosphate (a molecular group that contains phosphorus and oxygen), which is in turn attached to either an amino acid or, in the case of phosphatidyl choline, a molecule of the B-vitamin - like substance, choline.
Their unique molecular structure makes phospholipids amphipathic, which means 'likes both':
Fats, being hydrophobic, tend to separate out from water. When fat is mixed with phospholipids in the presence of water, the phospholipid molecules attach themselves to the molecules of fat and bring them into the water solution, enabling the fats to dissolve in water.
Phospholipids form a structure called a lipid bilayer, a two-ply sheet of phospholipid molecules in which the hydrophilic head groups face outward and are in contact with the water, and the hydrophobic tails face each other on the inside of the bilayer. This structure is one of the key constituents of the cell membranes that surround every living cell.
The lipid bilayer of cell membranes is a fluid in which membrane-embedded proteins "float." These proteins serve a wide variety of different functions. Some are enzymes, serving to carry out chemical reactions in the adjacent solution. Some are involved in signaling, in which a biochemical action in a cell is 'commanded' by means of a hormone or some such other signaling molecule. Still others are involved in transporting substances across the membrane, into or out of the cell.
The functions of membrane-embedded proteins are dependent on a very precise balance of phospholipids for their function. Phosphatidyl serine, for instance, has a negatively-charged head group that associates preferentially with a class of membrane-bound proteins called ATPases. ATPases regulate, among other things, the balance of sodium and potassium in intra- and extracellular fluids, a balance that is necessary for the integrity of our cells and also for the electrochemical impulses that make up our thoughts and feelings. Without phosphatidyl serine, these vitally important membrane-embedded proteins could not function.
Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is essential to the structure of cell membranes, which depend for their function on a delicate balance between fluidity and solidity. Cholesterol provides a semifluid matrix, as well as enhancing membrane fluidity. About 80% of the cholesterol the body uses is manufactured by the liver; the other 20% is consumed in food. Elevated blood cholesterol levels are associated with heart disease. Saturated fats are converted into cholesterol more readily than unsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats usually depress blood cholesterol concentration to some degree. Researchers have thus recommended that people lower their consumption of saturated fats and increase their consumption of polyunsaturated fats. A process called hydrogenation , in which hydrogen molecules are added, is used to harden these unsaturated fats to create solid spreads, such as margarine. This process causes formation of altered fats called trans fatty acids. Although the results are not conclusive, human and animal studies have pointed to possible deleterious effects from consumption of trans - fatty acids, which are estimated to account for 5.5% of all fats consumed by Americans. These studies include one in men and women that showed harmful effects of trans - fatty acids on blood cholesterol ratios.
When each link of a fatty acid chain contains an atom of hydrogen, as in palmitic acid, that fatty acid is said to be saturated . If two carbon links are double bonded to each other, each has one less hydrogen atom, and the fatty acid chain is said to be unsaturated. If a fatty acid contains one double bond, it is said to be monounsaturated, and if it has two or more double bonds it is said to be polyunsaturated . Certain polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained from the diet. These nutrients are called essential fatty acids and are necessary for the normal function of all tissues. The essential fatty acids fall into two categories:
In addition to being phospholipid precursors, essential fatty acids can be converted to a class of hormone like intracellular messengers called eicosanoids. The physiologic effects of eicosanoids are potent in minute quantities. Their effects are so powerful that they need to be produced near the site of their action and are quickly inactivated. The important eicosanoids include the thromboxanes, leukotrienes and prostaglandins (PGs ). Prostaglandin molecules consist of a five-carbon ring with two side chains. They can be distinguished from each other by numbers that refer to the number of double bonds in their molecular side chains: 1-series PGs have one double bond, 2-series have two double bonds, and so on. Prostaglandins mediate a variety of bodily processes, including inflammatory reactions, blood vessel contraction and dilation, and platelet aggregation. The different PGs have different effects on the body, and different essential fatty acids act as precursors for different PGs.
Important essential fatty acids in humans are the omega-6 fatty acids, which include linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA). 1-series PGs are derived from GLA and tend to cause blood vessels to dilate and reduce the stickiness of platelets (cell fragments in the blood that help initiate blood clotting). 2-series PGs are derived from arachidonic acid and tend to increase platelet stickiness and cause blood vessels to constrict. Meat and dairy products are dietary sources of the PG2 precursor, arachidonic acid; American diets tend to be rich in these foods. The rate-limiting step for production of GLA in the human body is an enzyme called Delta-6-desaturase (D6D). The action of this important enzyme can be blocked by a number of different lifestyle factors, including a diet high in saturated or trans- fatty acids and chronic alcohol consumption. A modest increase in consumption of GLA will significantly increase the ratio of GLA to AA in the tissues, which may have a beneficial effect on the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, such as flaxseed oil or fish oil, is beneficial for similar reasons. Omega-3 fatty acids are precursors for 3-series PGs, which reduce platelet stickiness. Series-3 PGs also tend to inhibit conversion of AA into its metabolites, the 2-series PGs.
The lipid composition of our diets has changed radically in the 20th century. Our intake of saturated fats has increased dramatically, and trans fatty acids, which did not exist before the advent of modern food processing technology, now form a major part of our diets. We eat less fish and green leafy vegetables, important sources of omega-3 fatty acids, than our ancestors did. Far from being an inert, homogeneous substance, fat is dynamic and varied - a subtle and interactive matrix for many of the biological processes taking place in our bodies, minute by minute.
Ester E - Natural E for Cardiovascular and Antioxidant Support
June 02, 2005 09:38 AM
We’ve all heard of vitamin E but did you know there are many different forms of this essential nutrient? Ester-E® is a unique form of vitamin E that occurs when natural d-alpha tocopherol combines with a phosphate molecule. Vitamin E is one of the body’s chief antioxidants and the phosphate form, Ester-E®, offers advanced antioxidant protection to body cells. Vitamin E also helps maintain cardiovascular health, protects the liver from toxins, enhances circulation and supports healthy immune system function. Source Naturals ESTER-E® is a patent-protected, body-ready form of vitamin E. Make Ester-E® part of your health plan for more complete nutrition.
Vitamin E was named tocopherol, from Greek tocos meaning “offspring” and phero meaning “to bring forth,” because it was originally discovered as a nutrient essential for reproduction. Vitamin E became the name given to a group of eight fat-soluble compounds–four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, and Delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, and Delta). It is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that naturally occurs in many foods–especially vegetable oils. In 2003, the first report of naturally occurring vitamin E phosphate was published. ESTER-E® (vitamin E phosphate) occurs when a phosphate molecule combines with a natural tocopherol resulting in a unique form of vitamin E.
Vitamin E Deficiency
Researchers previously thought that deficiencies of vitamin E were rare but a large population- based study showed that sub-optimal levels might be quite common. According to this study, African-Americans feel most of the impact, with 41% having sub-optimal levels of vitamin E in their blood, compared with 28% of Mexican Americans and 26% of whites. Optimal level refers to levels in research studies associated with cardiovascular benefits. Many people, especially African- Americans, may benefit from the extra cardiovascular support offered by vitamin E.
Antioxidant and Cardiovascular Support
Vitamin E is referred to as an antioxidant even though some forms can change into celldamaging free radicals, creating a “pro-oxidant.” Free radicals are unpaired electrons that can damage living cells and compromise the proper function of tissues and organs. Vitamin E phosphate may be the previously unrecognized form of vitamin E that allows alpha-tocopherol to be stored and transported without generating free radicals. The phosphate form of vitamin E appears to have a detergent action within the cell membrane, which creates a barrier that may keep free radicals from transferring from one polyunsaturated fatty acid to another. Until its discovery, researchers wondered how vitamin E could be both an antioxidant and an oxidizer. Antioxidants neutralize destructive free radicals and support cardiovascular health by preventing the oxidation of cholesterol. Oxidized cholesterol is an unstable molecule that damages the integrity of arteries. Preliminary studies show that vitamin E phosphate may inhibit foam cell formation in in-vitro cell cultures. Foam cells are macrophages that pick up oxidized lipids and form fatty streaks in the artery walls, contributing to plaque formation.
Nutrition for Wellness
Taking personal responsibility for your health is at the heart of the wellness revolution. At Source Naturals we are committed to bringing you the finest nutrients modern research has to offer. ESTER-E® is the newest addition to our superior line of vitamin E products designed to help you live a longer, healthier life.
DHA Neuromins - Feed Your Brain!
June 01, 2005 11:59 AM
In today’s society, “fat” has become a bad word. Our quest for good health has influenced many of us to drastically reduce our intake of fatty foods. But this dietary change has brought unintended consequences. As we’ve cut back on unhealthy saturated fats, we’ve also reduced certain “good” fats essential to our well-being. Few people realize how important fats are to a healthy brain. In fact, our brains are primarily fat, 60% by dry weight! And DHA, the most plentiful fatty acid in the brain, is crucial to brain health, from infancy to old age. Now DHA is available in a vegetarian source compatible with today’s trimmed-down lifestyle. Introducing: Source Naturals NEUROMINS DHA.
The Building Block of the Brain
DHA is shorthand for docosahexaenoic acid. This omega-3 long chain fatty acid is the primary building block of the brain and retina of the eye. The brain is 60% fat, and DHA is the most abundant fatty acid in the brain, comprising 25-35%. DHA is found in even greater concentrations - 50- 60% - in the retina. DHA is critical for infant development. Compelling research links DHA to the rapid cerebral and eye development that occurs during pregnancy and in the first few months after birth. DHA passes through the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy, and to the nursing baby through breast milk. Optimal levels of DHA in the bloodstream of pregnant women and the breast milk of nursing mothers are crucial to babies. In fact, DHA’s presence in breast milk may explain why breast-fed babies have demonstrable IQ advantages over babies fed formula without DHA. An emerging body of research led an expert committee of the U.N.’s Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization to recommend that DHA be included in infant formulas at levels comparable to those of mothers’ milk. Yet DHA levels in the breast milk of American women rank among the lowest in the world, and DHA is still not available in U.S. infant formulas.
Supporting a Healthy Nervous System
DHA’s benefits are not limited to infant development. Supplementation may be helpful to anyone with a low DHA intake, especially for supporting a healthy nervous system. DHA has been associated with optimal memory function, visual acuity, and maintaining a positive mental state. DHA is an integral component of all membranes with electrical activity. The cells in our brain, retina and other parts of the nervous system have a complex network of connecting arms that transport electrical messages throughout the body. DHA’s presence in nerve cell membranes is critical because this is where messages are transmitted. It is at the membrane that nerve cells generate the electrical impulses that are the basis of all communication in the nervous system. Without the necessary fatty acids, this communication system can break down or become less effective. DHA supplementation may be especially important as we grow older. The body’s ability to synthesize DHA, which is very limited in all human beings, may decline even further with age. Research suggests that aging interferes with the activity of Delta-6-desaturase, the enzyme involved in the conversion of omega-3 fatty acids into DHA. Elderly people with inadequate or DHAdeficient diets may benefit from a supplementary source of DHA.
Insufficient in Today’s Diet
Because human beings cannot adequately synthesize DHA, most of it is obtained from our diets. The richest sources are red meats, animal organs and eggs - among the first foods to be eliminated by people concerned about fat intake. Today, the average American is getting less DHA from food, and vegetarians, vegans, and people on lowfat diets are especially at risk. Fish are a good dietary source, but must be eaten several times a week to provide enough DHA for optimal brain function. Fish obtain their DHA from microalgae – the nutritional basis of NEUROMINS.
Neuromins: a Pure, Safe Source Source Naturals DHA is obtained from NEUROMINS, a dietary supplement derived from algae in a base of sunflower oil. NEUROMINS DHA is a highly purified form of DHA, produced under tightly controlled manufacturing conditions. Unlike fish oil, which used to be the main supplemental source of DHA, NEUROMINS does not contain the fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is not recommended for infants or children. Source Naturals NEUROMINS DHA is available in bottles of 30, 60 and 120 softgels, in both 100 and 200 mg dosages. Pure, safe DHA in the 200 mg dosage may be especially beneficial for pregnant or nursing women.
Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone...
May 17, 2005 04:47 PM
The androgens 4-androstenediol and 4-androstenedione are natural testosterone precursors. The biosynthesis of testosterone takes place within the testicular Leydig cells in two metabolic pathways. During the progesterone-pathway (.Delta.-4 pathway), pregnenolone is metabolized to progesterone by the 3-.beta.-hydroxy-steroid deydrogenase and an isomerase. Progesterone is then changed to 17-.alpha.-hydroxyprogesterone by the 17-.alpha.-hydroxylase and C.sub.17C.sub.21-lyase to androstenedione, then to testosterone by reduction of the 17-keto-group by 17-.beta.-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase. The DHEA-pathway (.Delta.-5 pathway) leads from pregenolone to 17-.alpha.-hydroxypregnenolone to dehyroepiandrosterone (C.sub.17C.sub.21-lyase), to 5-.Delta.-androstenediol. See FIG. 4; Wichmann et al., 83(3) EXP. CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. 283-290 (1984).
As a testosterone pro-hormone and metabolite, 4-androstenedione may be used by athletes and bodybuilders to improve muscle mass. Levels of .Delta. 4-androstenedione increase significantly with moderate exercise in healthy men. Velardo et al., 97(1) EXP. & CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. 99-101 (1991). Additionally, supplementation with 4-androstenedione has been known to produced elevations in serum testosterone. Mahesh et al., 41(3-8) J. STEROID BIOCHEM. MOL. BIOL. 495-513 (1992).
4-androstenediol is also metabolized into testosterone and is produced by conversion of dehyroepiandrosterone. Inaba et al., 13(2) ENDOCRINOLOGIA JAPONICA 160-72 (1966). It was first shown to produce elevations in human serum testosterone levels in 1965, and this was also demonstrated in in vitro studies in animals (Kundu, 6(5) STEROIDS 543-51 (1965) and human fibroblast cultures. Faredin et al. 32(2) ACTA MEDICA ACADEMIAE SCIENTIARUM HUNGARICAE 139-52 (1975). Supplementation with 4-androstenedione, 4-androstenediol, and 19-nor-4-androstenedione has been studied to determine whether a rise in testosterone is produced. Uralets et al., 23 ANAL. TOXICOL. 357-366 (1999). Testosterone is excreted in the urine unchanged and is metablized through 5.alpha.- and .beta.-DHT as 5.alpha.- and .beta.-androstanediol, while androstenedione is similarly excreted as androsterone and etiocholanolone. Both the final excreted steroid and the intermediaries stanediones and DHT intraconvert so that androsterone, 5.alpha.- and .beta.-androstanediol and etiocholanolone are seen in urine. Supplementation with 4-androstenediol produced a 10-fold greater urine testosterone concentration than 4androstenedione. (Uralets, 1999)
DHEA and people with panhypopituitarism (lack of adrenal and ...
May 17, 2005 04:43 PM
The testosterone precursors are normally metabolized from dehydro-epiandrosterone (DHEA). This has been studied in people with panhypopituitarism (lack of adrenal and gonadal steroids) by administering 50 mg or 200 mg of DHEA. This induces an increase of both steroids to supraphysiological plasma levels and a small increase of Delta 5-androstenediol. In contrast, the increase of plasma Delta 4-androstenedione was significant and dose dependent. DHEA was also converted into testosterone. The administration of a 50 mg dose of DHEA restored plasma testosterone to levels similar to those observed in young women. The 200 mg dose induced an important increase of plasma testosterone, slightly below the levels observed in normal men. The increase of plasma dihydrotestosterone levels was small at both doses of DHEA, in contrast with the large conversion of DHEA into androsterone glucuronide and androstanediol glucuronide. Finally, DHEA administration induced a significant and dose dependent increase of plasma estrogens and particularly of estradiol. Young et al., 82(8) J. CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. & METABOL. 2578-85 (1997).