Search Term: " Malate "

  Messages 1-7 from 7 matching the search criteria.
L-Leucine as an essential Amino Acid Darrell Miller 5/31/14
What Are The Magnesium Malate Benefits? Darrell Miller 5/17/13
Magnesium Malate Benefits Darrell Miller 1/30/13
How Does Malic Acid Help With Fibromyalgia? Darrell Miller 8/22/11
Benefits of Total Daily Formula Darrell Miller 10/13/05
Magnesium Malate - Fight Aluminum Build-Up ... Darrell Miller 6/3/05
Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime... Darrell Miller 6/2/05

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L-Leucine as an essential Amino Acid

Date: May 31, 2014 06:54 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: L-Leucine as an essential Amino Acid

amino acidIntroduction

L-Leucine is a a-amino acid with the chemical formulae HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH(CH3)2. It is a hydrophopic amino acid to its aliphatic isobutyl side chain. L-Leucine is an essential amino acid since the human body can’t synthesize it, and it therefore must be ingested.

What is an essential amino acid

These are the amino acids that can’t be synthesized by the body of the organism hence it must be supplied in the diet. These amino acids is important not because they are important than others, but simply because the body can’t synthesize them.

Phenylalanine, L- Leucine, Valine, Tryptophan, Threonine, meyhionine, iso - Leucine, lysine and histidine are some of amino acids regarded as essential for humans beings.

The main difference between essential and non-essential amino acids is somehow since some proteins can be synthesized from others. The sulfur containing amino acids such as L-Leucine may sometimes be referred to as an essential amino acid.

Effects of L-Leucine deficiency

Majority of amino acids are important in the human diet. An experiment carried out by William Cummings Rose showed that lack of L-Leucine results to symptoms of exhaustion, nervousness and dizziness. Results further showed that these symptoms were encountered to lesser extent whenever human subjects were deprived of an essential amino acid.

In plants and other micro-organisms, L-Leucine is synthesized from pruvic acid by several enzymes. These enzymes include:

· a-IsopropylMalate synthase

· L-Leucineaminotransferase

· a-IsopropylMalate isomerase

· Acetolactate synthase

· Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase

· Dihydroxyacid dehydratase

Importance of L- Leucine

L-Leucine is used by the adipose tissue, liver and the muscle. In muscle tissue and adipose L-Leucine is used in the formation of sterols. Ironically the combined usage of L-Leucine in the muscle and adipose is seven times greater than its use in the liver.

L-Leucine is also used in stimulation of the muscle protein synthesis. In dietary , L-Leucine is used in to slow down the degradation of muscle tissue by increasing the synthesis of muscle proteins in aged rats however this does not work in elderly men. L-Leucine helps you lose weight and spare muscle when dieting.

However L-Leucine can’t be associated as the main reason in muscular growth for the entire populatin. L-Leucine activates the mammalian target that regulates the growth cells in rats.

Negative effects of L- Leucine

L-Leucine cause neurologic complications which may be fatal if not control in time.

Studies also show that over activity of the liver is caused by taking L-Leucine supplement, excess L-Leucine may also cause pellagra, whose symptoms include dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death.


What Are The Magnesium Malate Benefits?

Date: May 17, 2013 10:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: What Are The Magnesium Malate Benefits?


A combo Mineral:

Magnesium Malate is a combination of Malic acid and magnesium. Both compounds come together to form a powerful supplement that is crucial for the body. Magnesium is used in more than 300 processes in the body making it one of the most needed minerals in the body. It is also found in the bones mostly and is synthesized from the locations to aid in optimizing many bodily functions.

Malic acid is an organic ingredient mostly found in the fruits. The compound combines with compounds forming salts known as Malates. The combination of Malic acid and magnesium forms magnesium Malate which is an important compound when it comes to the generation cellular energy. It is also important when it comes to a variety of physical and muscular conditions. The compound also comes in handy to treat a number of conditions in the body when used as a supplement.

These include;


If you are suffering from constipation, this is one to go. It is commonly used to loosen stools and induce laxative actions to clean the system. It is a perfect detox agent and is famously used in colonoscopy and bowel surgery. The Malic part of the compound is ideal for the laxative action giving relief to anyone suffering from constipation. The combination of the two compounds enhances these effects making them more potent in effectiveness.

Fibromyalgia Pain Relief

This compound is used to induce relief on patients suffering fro fibromyalgia. This condition will often cause muscle stiffness, muscoskeletal pain and chronic severe pains. These supplements are used to exponentially reduce the effects that come with the disorder. A study was done and published in the Journal of Nutritional Medicine where 15 patients were placed under observation with the treatment. All patients reported increased comfort when using the supplements in relation to fibromyalgia symptoms.

Solving Syndromes of chronic fatigue

Magnesium Malate enhances the production of energy at a cellular level increasing the condition of the individual using it. The process eliminates the chronic Fatigue syndrome and its effects allowing the individual to enjoy a wholesome life. This also deals with any accumulated stress and distraction factors that come with a tired out body. A rejuvenated body enhances performance in all aspects of life making this product one major energy and performance booster in the long run.

Other ailments

The combination can also be used to target heart related disease reducing the risk of experiencing closed valves and blood vessels. It is used to treat heart related diseases in the hospitals. Magnesium is also ideal when it comes to dealing with skin breakouts ranging from boils to skin ulcers. The compound will target many functions of the body through a domino effect. No matter how minute the effect may be on a general sense, it is important for the running of the boy functions such as the heart, nervous system and the epidermal system. The compound is one of the most widely used supplements from a varied number of conditions producing great results.


Magnesium Malate Benefits

Date: January 30, 2013 12:54 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Magnesium Malate Benefits

The compound Magnesium Malate was discovered by combining malic acid with magnesium. Malic acid is a naturally occurring element that aids in the generation of energy during aerobic as well as anaerobic activities while, magnesium is the fifth most abundant mineral found in the human body, which is vital for the health of the kidneys, bones and heart.

Malic acid and magnesium together offers several health related benefits. It helps to control numerous essential biological functions in the body such as the formation of nerves and muscle. It is naturally found in bananas, yogurt, fish, artichokes, almonds, grains, black beans, cashews and other nuts.

Health Benefits Of Magnesium Malate:

The malic acid present in magnesium Malate attaches itself to the aluminum content of the body and helps to eliminate it. This allows the growth and detoxification of healthy nerve cells. Magnesium Malate also assists in loosening stools due to its laxative properties so; it is used to treat constipation effectively. Physicians or technicians also use it as a cleansing agent prior to a bowel surgery or colonoscopy. This vital compound is known to relax muscles therefore; it is often utilized to treat uterine cramping, headaches and several other general muscle discomforts.

As per medical research, people who do not receive adequate magnesium through their diet usually stand the risk of kidney stone formation however; they can prevent this condition by consuming magnesium Malate. This important compound also aids to synthesize adenosine triphosphate or ATP - a nucleotide that aids to store energy in the tissues of muscles and converts it into cellular energy source. This energy generating properties are useful in treating chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia.

Magnesium Malate also encourages the production of saliva, which in turn controls oral bacteria. Moreover, due to its antiseptic properties, it is also used in mouthwash and toothpaste.

Studies have found that 70% or more of the American population is deficient in magnesium, magnesium Malate taken daily is a good way for anybody to get more dietary magnesium. Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzyme processes in the body, if you are deficient in magnesium, these enzyme processes that maintain the body will fail and your health can decline. Consider taking magnesium in the form of magnesium Malate. Have you had your magnesium today?


How Does Malic Acid Help With Fibromyalgia?

Date: August 22, 2011 12:37 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: How Does Malic Acid Help With Fibromyalgia?

Solaray - Malic Acid with Magnesium 90ct 133mgFibromyalgia(FM) is a condition affecting primarily middle-aged women and is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood as an ailment which has a diverse set of symptoms, in which none are pleasant. It basically is a medical disorder defined by chronic and widespread pain, a heightened response to pressure and often time painful as well. No one really knows what the exact causes are. There are a number of studies taking place and done by reputable medical organisations (such as the Nation Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - NIAMS) which are geared towards the establishment, once and for all, of the route cause of Fibromyalgia. A part of the current scientific theories is the inherent genetic factor, but even in this it seems that geneticists are not clear as to which genes exactly may be the culprit. What has been concretely established and clarified though is that not just because your mom or dad has it you’ll have it. Stress in some studies has also been found as a contributor but may not be the main cause though.

Malic acid is an organic compound and also a carboxylic diacid and is an active ingredient in many sour or tart foods. It is mostly in unripe fruits and it has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. The salts and esters of this diacid are called Malates. The Malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. However it was not until 1785 that Carl Wilhelm Scheele first isolated it from apple juice. It is formed in metabolic cycles within the cells of plants animals and humans. A somewhat large amount of Malic Acid is produced and broken down in the body each day. Malic acid also provides stamina and endurance within the muscle cells. It is particularly useful in the blocking of aluminum toxics, which has been found to possibly be one contributing factors to fibromyalgia.

Energy Production

Compelling evidence has surfaced that malic acid may plays a central role in energy production, especially during hypoxic conditions. In some experiments that have been done, the improvement that came about when malic acid was administered to the subject was gone after discontinuing for 48 hours. The theory behind this is in the relative association of hypoxia to FM, if it will improve hypoxic conditions then it will be beneficial for FM sufferers as well just as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has also been associated with FM. Additionally, many hypoxia related conditions, like respiratory and circulatory insufficiency, are related to deficiency in energy production as well. Therefore, malic acid may be of benefit in these conditions.

The mitochondria are the energy furnaces in cells which metabolize food for energy. Some findings suggest that this structure does not operate efficiently in those with FM. So, for the mitochondria to produce ample amounts of ATP, several nutrients are essential and Malic Acid is one of them. Imbalances in the mitochondria’s process can cause the body to switch from oxygen-based metabolism to the less efficient anaerobic metabolism and this would contribute to an abnormal buildup of lactic acid following even light exertion. This lactic acid buildup results in fatigue, weakness, pain and muscle spasms.


Benefits of Total Daily Formula

Date: October 13, 2005 04:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Benefits of Total Daily Formula

Benefits of Total Daily Formula

Mixed Carotenoids

All fruits and vegetables contain carotenes, the plant pigments responsible for the rich variety of colors we enjoy in the natural world. Beta carotene is the most familiar member of the carotene family. But beta carotene never exists by itself; it is always found with other carotenes in foods. We need more than just beta carotene alone. Carotenes are powerful antioxidants, which means they help reduce the body's free radical burden. Research suggests that carotenes work as a team to keep us healthy.5 Total Daily Formula provides beta carotene, alpha carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin from natural sources such as algal extracts, carrot oil, marigold and tomatoes (Caromix®).

Corn-Free Vitamin C

Total Daily Formula uses only corn-free vitamin C (ascorbic acid). The full daily intake of 6 tablets provides an exceptionally generous 800 mg of vitamin C.

Optimum B Vitamin Servings

Total Daily Formula supplies ample amounts of all essential B vitamins. Vitamin B3 is given as niacin plus an extra helping of niacinamide, the non-flush form of this important vitamin. The body uses pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) to deal with stress, so the formula provides 150 mg, which is 15 times the RDA. Vitamin B6 is another B vitamin people may run short of, so 60 mg -- 30 times the RDA -- is supplied. The formula contains 800 mcg of folic acid, the vitamin now recognized by the FDA as essential for prevention of neural tube defects in unborn babies. Folic acid also helps prevent accumulation in the body of homocysteine, a metabolite of the amino acid methionine.6 A high blood homocysteine level is now considered to be a risk factor for heart disease.7


Flavonoids, also known as "bioflavonoids." are plant pigments widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom.8 Previously known as "Vitamin P," because they help reduce capillary permeability (leakiness) flavonoids are now regarded as "semi-essential" non-vitamin nutrients that benefit health in a variety of ways.9 In addition to maintaining the structure of blood vessels, flavonoids function as versatile antioxidants. Flavonoids protect vitamin C from destruction by free-radicals, helping to preserve the body's vitamin C supply.10 Total Daily Formula provides 100 mg of pure flavonoids from 112 mg of citrus extract.

Three superior sources of Calcium

Total Daily Formula contains three of the best absorbed and most effective forms of calcium available. MCHC (microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate) is a naturally-derived compound composed of calcium, plus all the minerals and organic factors in living bone tissue. MCHC has been clinically shown to benefit bone health.11 Calcium citrate Malate is a very well-absorbed form of supplemental calcium shown in recent research to be helpful for postmenopausal women.12,13 Calcium glycinate is chelated with the amino acid glycine, one of the most efficient mineral carriers for effective absorption.14,15

Magnesium glycinate

Magnesium is essential for strong bones and healthy hearts. This versatile mineral also regulates nerve function, keeps muscles relaxed and coordinates activity of over 300 enzymes in the body.16 Total Daily Formula contains 100 percent magnesium glycinate for exceptional absorption and gentleness on the intestinal tract.17 Magnesium glycinate has been clinically tested on people with severe malabsorption with excellent results.18

Trace Minerals

Total Daily Formula provides - in addition to zinc, chromium, selenium and iodine - vanadium and molybdenum. Vanadium helps maintain normal blood sugar.19 Molybdenum works as a co-factor for enzymes that help detoxify and eliminate foreign substances from the body.20

Bioperine® for Enhanced Absorption

Bioperine® is a natural extract derived from black pepper that enhances nutrient absorption. Preliminary trials on humans have shown significant increases in the absorption of nutrients consumed along with Bioperine®. 21 Betaine HCL - supplies HCL (hydrochloric acid) to assist digestion. All natural tablet coating made of vegetable concentrate and beta carotene.

Scientific References
1. Cheraskin, E. Ringsdorf, W.M., Clark, J.W. 1968. Diet and Disease. (p. 16). New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.

2. Morgan, K.J. et. al. Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the U.S. population. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 1985;4:195-206.

3. Lakschmanan, F.L., Rao, R.B., Kim, W.W., Kelsay, J.L. Magnesium intakes, balances and blood levels of adults consuming self-selected diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984;40:1380-89.

4. Mertz, W. The Essential Trace Elements. Fed. Proc. 1970;29:1482.

5. Perry, G. Byers, T. Dietary carotenes, vitamin C and vitamin E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1992;12:139-59.

6. Landgren, F., et. al. Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: Homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Int Med 1995;237:381-88.

7. Clarke, R., et. al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: an independent risk factor for vascular disease. New Eng J Med 1991;324:1149-55. 8. Havsteen, B. Flavonoids, a class of natural compounds of high pharmacological potency. Biochemical Pharmacology 32(7):1141-48.

9. Middleton, E. The flavonoids. TIPS 1984; 5:335-38.

10. Roger, C.R. The nutritional incidence of flavonoids: some physiological and metabolic considerations. Experientia 44(9):725-804.

11. Dixon, A. St. J. Non-hormonal treatment of osteoporosis. British Medical Journal 1983;286(6370):999-1000.

12. Smith, K.T. et. al. Calcium Absorption from a new calcium delivery system (CCM). Calcif Tissue Int 1987;41:351-352.

13. Dawson-Hughes, B. et. al. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 1990 Sep 27;323(13):878-883.

14. Albion Research Notes Vol. 4, No. 1, ©Albion Laboratories Jan,1995.

15. Ashmead, H.D. Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions and Chelate, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, ©1985.

16. Wester, P.O., Dyckner, T. The importance of the magnesium ion. Magnesium deficiency-symptomatology and occurrence. Acta Med Scand 1992; (Suppl) 661:3-4.

17. Albion Research Notes Vol. 3, No. 1, ©Albion Laboratories, Feb 1994.

18. Schutte, S., et. al. Bioavailability of Mg diglycinate vs MgO in patients with ileal resections. Abstract 115, AJCN 1992;56(4).

19. Cohen, N. et. al. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin Invest 1995; 95:2501-09.

20. Sardesi, V.M. Molybdenum: An essential trace mineral element. Nutr Clin Pract 1993; 8:277-81.

21. Bioperine® - Nature's Bioavailability Enhancing Thermo-nutrient. Executive Summary' 1996; Sabinsa Corporation, Piscataway, N.J.

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Magnesium Malate - Fight Aluminum Build-Up ...

Date: June 03, 2005 11:44 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Magnesium Malate - Fight Aluminum Build-Up ...

Magnesium Malate

ALUMINUM has been the focus of much negative attention lately– numerous studies have indicated that aluminum accumulates in the body, especially in nerve tissues, potentially causing harm. Recently, scientific researchers have discovered that one compound may have the powerful effect of diminishing this unwanted aluminum accumulation. On the cutting edge of nutrition science, Source Naturals is one of the first companies to introduce this powerfully protective compound: MAGNESIUM Malate.


Aluminum is a naturally occurring metal. It has been the subject of recent studies on aging, and some scientists consider it to be harmful. It may come as a surprise that aluminum can be found in a wide variety of foods and manufactured products, such as baking powder, non-dairy creamers, antacids, deodorants, cookware, and food containers. Even tap water contains aluminum. With so many possible avenues for ingesting aluminum, we may be consuming more than nature originally intended. Mounting evidence that aluminum tends to accumulate in the body is even more cause for alarm. Unfortunately, there are no overt warning signs of excess aluminum accumulation, until levels become high enough to have adverse effects on health.


Researchers have suggested that aluminum may be more likely to accumulate in the brains of persons whose diets are Magnesium-deficient — which, unfortunately, includes 90% of Americans! Several studies have shown that animals fed diets low in Magnesium accumulate high concentrations of aluminum in the Central Nervous System. One of Magnesium’s many functions is to activate the enzyme tubulin involved in the maintenance of nerve tissue cells. It has been suggested that when there is not enough Magnesium in the body to plug into the appropriate receptor site on the tubulin enzyme, aluminum takes its place instead. This leads to the inactivation of tubulin and, consequently, inadequate nerve function. Because a Magnesium-deficient diet may increase the amount of aluminum taken up and stored by the body, it is vitally important that we take in sufficient amounts.


MAGNESIUM Malate supplies a one-two punch in combating excess aluminum accumulation. In addition to providing 45% of the U.S. R.D.A. for Magnesium, MAGNESIUM Malate also supplies Malic Acid. Found abundantly in fruits such as apples, Malic Acid is also produced in the human body. It is a metabolite of the Krebs cycle, the set of biochemical reactions used to produce 90% of all energy in the cells of the body. Malic Acid readily crosses the Blood-Brain-Barrier and has been shown to bind to aluminum. It functions in the body by drawing aluminum away from the tubulin enzyme, so that Magnesium can plug into the receptor sites instead. Malic Acid’s unique ability to bind with aluminum means it can be flushed out of the body, preventing unwanted build-up.


With all of the negative evidence mounting against aluminum, educated consumers will want to take precautions in order to maintain their health and well being. Of course, the best way to avoid excess aluminum is to cut back on aluminum intake from known sources. Use only stainless steel or cast iron cookware, and look for aluminum- free deodorants and antacids. Always use filtered or spring water for drinking and cooking. And for those who want to take a pro-active approach, adding MAGNESIUM Malate to your supplement regimen may be your best bet in depleting unwanted aluminum build-up in the body.


1. Mitani, K. 1992 “Relationship between...aluminum load...and magnesium status.”Magnesium Research 5(3):203-13
2. Yoshida, S. 1991 “Environmental factors in western Pacific foci...role of Aluminum(Al)...” Rinsho Shinkeigaku 31(12):1310-2
3. Costello, RB.; Moser-Veillon, PB. 1992 “A review of magnesium intake...” Magnesium Research 5(1):61-7
4. Yasui, M; Yase, Y; Ota, K; Garruto, RM. 1991 “Aluminum deposition... from the Kii Peninsula of Japan.” Neurotoxicology 12(3):615-20

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Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...

Date: June 02, 2005 12:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...

Our adult years are the time to reap the fruit of an active, meaningful life – appreciated by family and friends who value our experience and knowledge. For some, however, their later years are clouded by a mental decline that erodes their capacity to enjoy life. More of us are becoming apprehensive about the future health of our minds. Will we still be able to communicate our needs as well as our wisdom? As science focuses its investigative might on the workings of the human brain, new findings suggest that it is possible to enjoy a vital, healthy brain and mind – well into old age. Based on compelling research, Source Naturals formulated HIGHER MIND. It contains the most important Neuroceuticals™ now recognized by nutrition scientists – including phosphatidyl serine, a natural nutrient that promotes cognitive function. The connection is clear: nourish your brain; enrich your life.

To have a healthy, well-functioning brain and nervous system, we need the correct nutrients. Our diets must provide the necessary raw materials for nerve cells to grow, for the synthesis of neurochemicals, and for the maintenance of nerve cell membranes. Nutritional deficiencies can alter the brain’s metabolism, which is expressed by changes in perception and thinking, behavior and mood.

Brain Cells – Issued at Birth

Before birth, neurons (nerve cells) are created at the amazing rate of 15 million per hour. As infants, we have over 100 billion neurons, but this is the most we will ever have because – unlike most other cells in our body – nerve cells do not reproduce. A different strategy is used to replace the neurons that are naturally lost throughout life: nerve cells repair themselves and grow by extending branches of nerve fibers called dendrites (from the Latin word for tree). These are the communication links with other neurons that form the circuitry of the brain. A single neuron may be in contact with up to a hundred thousand others! When the density of this fragile organic communication network decreases, we experience a corresponding decline in mental acuity.

Brain Cell Membranes

The membrane is the working surface of a cell. It needs to be strong yet flexible, so the cell can maintain its integrity and be able to move and change shape. The membrane regulates the flow of nutrients into the cell and the removal of waste, plus controls the passage of molecular messages from outside the cell to its interior. Membrane ion pumps use a third of the cell’s energy just to maintain the correct ratio of sodium to potassium. In neurons, a rapid exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the nerve membrane is responsible for their unique ability to generate the electrical impulses that are the basis of all communication in the nervous system. As cells age, their membranes become less fluid and more rigid. Key membrane molecules called phospholipids are crucial to the health of neuron membranes, allowing the brain to maintain its youthful quality. The phospholipids in HIGHER MIND – especially phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl choline – are essential nutritional supplements for the aging brain.

Phosphatidyl Serine – Key to Cognition

For the past decade, researchers have been investigating the role in brain health of a remarkable neuroceutical, phosphatidyl serine (PS). This key structural molecule is integral to the matrix of fats and proteins that compose cell membranes. Although PS is found in all the cells of the body, its highest concentration is in nerve cell membranes. PS is rarely found in the foods we eat, so the body has to synthesize it, but the process is energy- intensive and becomes less efficient with age. Consequently, our levels of PS tend to decline as we get older. PS taken as a dietary supplement is well-absorbed, readily reaching the brain, where it helps create more effective, well-structured nerve cell membranes. The positive effects of PS supplementation have been demonstrated by 23 clinical studies with over 1200 human subjects, ages 43 to 90. Consistent and statistically significant results have confirmed the value of PS in improving age-related cognitive decline, as well as in improving behavioral aspects such as apathy and withdrawal.1 A major study concluded that for one particular measurable parameter of higher mental functions, PS recipients achieved scores of persons roughly 12 years younger.2 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is one of the most important proteins the body makes. It enables neurons to extend dendrites out to other neurons, allowing the brain to maintain an effective communication network. In experiments, PS enhanced the production and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age.3 The effects of PS at the cellular level are manifest in the performance of the brain as a whole. Subjects taking PS showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism. This enhancement corresponded to higher performances on cognitive tests.4

The Chemistry of Thought

Science now understands the role of neurotransmitters in regulating the body’s complex network of behavior. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals used by neurons to communicate with each other. Activated by a neuron’s electrical impulse, neurotransmitters travel between nerve cells, where they excite or inhibit (in various degrees) the electrical impulse in neighboring cells. One of HIGHER MIND’S key strategies is to improve the brain’s ability to produce and use acetylcholine, a key excitatory neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is essential for both the storage and recall of memory, and partly responsible for concentration and focus. It also plays a significant role in muscular coordination. Patients showing cognitive decline may exhibit reduced ability to synthesize and utilize acetylcholine.5 The chemical building blocks of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters are called precursors. The most important one for acetylcholine is DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol). This natural substance is found in various fish, such as anchovies and sardines. Supplements of DMAE (and phosphatidyl choline) promote increased levels of choline in the brain. Acetylcholine is created when an acetyl group is attached to the choline molecule, with the help of choline acetyl transferase (CAT), a key brain enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine is an amino acid that activates this enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine may also help reduce lipofuscin deposits in the brain because of its involvement in the metabolism of fatty acids.6 Lipofuscin is composed of oxidized fats and proteins; the brown “age spots” on the back of an elderly person’s hand are made of lipofuscin. The amino acid L-pyroglutamic acid sensitizes the acetylcholine receptor sites on a neuron membrane. A given amount of acetylcholine will then have a larger, more powerful effect. Studies have shown that supplements of L-pyroglutamic acid seem to enhance the ability to focus, remember, and learn.

Total Nutrition for the Brain

The neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenalin are critical to motor coordination, motivation, concentration, and alertness. Like acetylcholine, their production tends to decline with age. The precursors and activators of dopamine and noradrenalin included in HIGHER MIND are the amino acids N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine and DL-phenylalanine (DLPA), plus folic acid, vitamins B-3, B-6, and C. DLPA is also a precursor to PEA, a neuroamine that has a stimulating effect on the brain. Glutamine is an amino acid precursor to glutamic acid, a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in mental activity and learning. Glutamine acts as an alternative fuel source for the brain when blood sugar levels are low. It also helps the brain dispose of waste ammonia, which is a natural result of protein breakdown but is irritating to neurons even at low levels. GABA is a dietary amino acid which is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA works to calm and balance the mind, enhancing mental focus. Along with taurine, these two relaxing neurotransmitters provide a balancing influence to the other, excitatory neurotransmitters. Taurine is found in brain tissue more than anywhere else in the body. It has antioxidant properties and serves as a nerve cell membrane stabilizer, preventing excessive or erratic electrical activity in the brain.

The Importance of Magnesium

Magnesium must be present in adequate amounts in the synaptic gaps between neurons or the neurons become hyper-reactive: causing noises to sound excessively loud and emotional reactions to be extreme. Magnesium also activates a key enzyme responsible for maintaining cellular sodium- potassium balance, which is absolutely essential to the electrical activity of nerve cells, as well as to the existence of the cell itself. (Cells would burst if the sodium-potassium ratio were wrong.) Magnesium also helps relax cerebral blood vessels and is important to the manufacture of ATP, the chief energy molecule of the brain. A buildup of aluminum has been found in the brains of some elderly. In 1989, the British medical journal Lancet published a study showing that drinking water with aluminum can increase the risk of damage by up to 50%. An abundant natural element, aluminum is now a common feature in our culture. It’s found in tap water, cookware, deodorants, beverage containers, baked goods, and of course as aluminum foil. In the brain, aluminum breaks down the structure of neurons – causing them to starve – by displacing magnesium from tubulin, a glycoprotein responsible for making microtubules. These tiny pipe-like structures within a neuron provide needed rigidity, as well as transport nutrients from the nucleus down the dendrites to the ends of the nerve cell. Magnesium Malate is an excellent form of magnesium that ensures neurons receive this vital mineral.

B is for Brain Vitamins

HIGHER MIND also contains a high profile of B vitamins and other key nutrients that are often N A T U R A L S S O U R C E Strategies for Wellness SM ¤ lacking in older individuals. A deficiency in any of the B vitamins can alter nerve function and psychological well-being. Thiamine (B-1), known as the “nerve vitamin,” was first recognized because its deficiency caused beriberi, a degenerative nerve disease. Thiamine is part of the structure of nerve cell membranes and is important to the reparative process that neurons need to offset the stress of continual firing of the electrical impulse. Low amounts of thiamine can cause cell malnutrition in the hypothalamus, the brain’s memory center. 7 NAD and NADH, two coenzyme forms of Niacin (B-3), are the most plentiful coenzymes in the brain. They are essential to hundreds of enzymatic reactions, including ones that produce energy. NADH can stimulate the synthesis of key mood-elevating neurotransmitters. It is also one of the body’s most potent antioxidants. Pantothenic acid (B-5), cyanocobalamin (B-12), and folic acid are required to form the myelin sheath – the insulating covering of nerve fibers. A diet low in pantothenic acid has been shown to make test subjects emotionally upset, irritable, and depressed.7 A lack of B-12 can result in poor concentration and, in severe deficiencies, hallucinations. Pyridoxine (B-6) is precursor to over 60 enzymatic reactions and is involved in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters.

Brain Power

Brain cells almost exclusively burn glucose for their energy (other cells can also burn fat), and typically require 50% of all the glucose in the blood. Two B-like vitamins help in the utilization of glucose: PAK (pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate) may potentiate the effects of insulin and improve glucose utilization to the cells;8 Biotin is important for the transformation of glucose into energy in the brain. Lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 are metabolic energizers that help produce ATP, the primary energy molecule in the body. Since the brain uses 20% of the body’s total energy supply, efficient ATP production is vital. Lipoic acid and CoQ10 are also powerful antioxidants that help regenerate other antioxidants in the body. The blood vessels feeding the brain become less efficient as we pass middle age. Since the brain depends on the bloodstream to deliver nutrients and oxygen and to remove waste, the quality of this blood flow is paramount to proper brain nutrition. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown in scientific studies to increase blood flow to the brain by helping vessels to dilate. It also promotes the smoothness and healthy integrity of blood vessel linings.

For the Life of Your Mind Without proper nutrition, the brain will deteriorate; therefore strategies are needed to both enhance current brain function and protect it throughout life. Based on the latest scientific findings, Source Naturals HIGHER MIND is formulated with neuroceuticals that support the mental functions that tend to decline with age. They give your brain the nourishment it needs to integrate perception, memory, and learning into a more comprehensive awareness – so you can excel for a lifetime.

1. Palmieri, G., et al. (1987). Clin. Trials J. 24: 73- 83.
2. Crook, T.H., et al. (1991). Neurol. 41: 644-49.
3. Nunzi, M.G., et al. In Phospholipids: Biochemical, Pharmaceutical and Analytical Considerations (ed. I. Hanin and G. Pepeu).
New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
4. Heiss, W.D., et al. (1993). Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 695: 327-31.
5. Passeri, M., et al. (1990). Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. X(1/2): 75-79.
6. Kohjimoto, Y., et al. (1988). Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 48(3): 365-71.
7. Philpott, William H. Brain Allergies: the Psychonutrient Connection. New Canaan: Keats, 1987.
8. Passariello, N., et al. (1983). Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 21: 252-56.

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