Search Term: " Offal "

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Offal: Are Organ Meats Healthy to Eat? Darrell Miller 6/17/17
Inosine Darrell Miller 12/19/08
Butcher's Broom Extract Darrell Miller 5/2/08
Alpha Lipoic Acid is a Powerful Antioxidant Darrell Miller 2/15/08
Staying Healthy Means Keeping Your Blood In The Proper PH Darrell Miller 10/21/07

Offal: Are Organ Meats Healthy to Eat?

Date: June 17, 2017 12:14 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Offal: Are Organ Meats Healthy to Eat?

People might question whether or not organ meat is actually healthy to consume. It has been a largely controversial topic as of late. People wonder if it is part of a super food group, or something to be avoided like the plague. Offal is another term for organ meat. Most of American's diets are about eating the muscles of other animals. There are a lot of beliefs on the subject and it's hard to discern the truth in this area by relying on what people say.

Key Takeaways:

  • Though not widely accepted, offal is a healthy, nutrient dense food.
  • Offal should be eaten from animals with a species appropriate diet.
  • Eating offal may help with various health conditions such as anemia and infertility.

"Liver is good for you, just like most organ meats for most people."

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Date: December 19, 2008 12:35 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Inosine

Inosine is a specific type of glycosylamine that consists of a base bound to a deoxyribose or ribose sugar. This type of glycosylamine is referred to as a nucleoside, others being adenosine, thymidine and cytidine.

It is available naturally in brewer’s yeast and major organ Offal such as liver and kidney. It’s function in animal biochemistry is in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), often known as the molecule of energy, that is essential for the generation of energy by the mitochondria in our body cells. It’s biochemistry is described below.

Inosine is synthesized as inosine monophosphate by means of a complex series of biochemical reactions. The inosine monophosphate is a precursor for adenine, a nucleotide and purine base that reacts with ribose to form adenosine. This is another nucleoside that can be phosphorylated to produce adenosine monophosphate (AMP), the diphosphate (ADP), the triphosphate (ATP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

Each of these is involved in the metabolism of energy in the mitochondria. Glucose undergoes a number of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the presence of oxygen that ultimately breaks it down to water and carbon dioxide, plus at least 36 molecules of ATP via glycolysis and then the Krebs cycle. The ATP reacts with water to release energy and form ADP. The ADP can then be phosphorylated to produce more ATP. The starting point of all of this is inosine, and it is little wonder this nucleoside is used by athletes to help boost their energy.

Not only that, however, but adenine is also the precursor of amino and nucleic acids responsible for the generation of RNA and DNA, and it is also responsible for the production of many coenzymes. These provide other opportunities for its use elsewhere in medicine, and it has also been found to possess other medical properties that will be discussed later.

It was in the 1970s that inosine was first used to boost athletic performance due to its part in the generation of the energy needed by every muscle in the body. Its use began in eastern countries, although evidence at the time did not support the theory. Nevertheless, this did not deter its advocates, and inosine continued to be used by athletes, a practice that has now spread world-wide.

It has been found to be a metabolic activator, in that it supports metabolism through the generation of energy. Inosine has been used by power lifters for heavy weight training to increase the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen, and strength athletes, particularly of the Eastern Bloc, used it from the mid 1970s onwards.

Inosine appears to increase the natural ability of the body to handle strenuous workouts, although there is no scientific proof of this. However, those that use it claim an increased ability to carry out intensive training workouts and an improvement in their competitive performance. The nucleotide can penetrate the cell walls and get to where it is needed to take part in the metabolism of energy through the production of ATP.

Now, however, inosine has an entirley different application in medicine. Studies have shown that it could support those suffering from MS (multiple sclerosis) and strokes through its pereceived neuroprotective properties. It appears to promote axonal rewiring, where undamaged neurons appear to grow new connections with damaged areas of the brain, and undamaged neurons seem to branch out to replace some of the damaged neurons.

Inosine is also an intermediate in the production of uric acid through purine and purine nucleoside degradation. Uric acid is a powerful antioxidant, particularly in respect of peroxynitrite, a nucleophile that causes the type of axonal degradation that is associated with multiple sclerosis. It thefore helps in two ways: through the production of uric acid, and in promoting axonal rewiring that can improve brain function in patients.

Another potential medical use for the substance is based upon the discovery that inosine and related compounds can act as powerful anti-inflammatories through their effect on inflammatory macrophage proteins. Certain conditions can cause the release of these macrohages, and where it is an undesirable side-effect, inosine can be administered to prevent it occuring.

Inosine appears to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines without inhibiting anti-inflammatory cytokines. It appears to do so extracellularly, although the effect can be reversed by the blockading of adenosine receptors. However, it is a convenient way of avoiding this sometimes serious condition, which is a natural function of the immune system, without affecting any other part of that system’s essential work.

It is not an essential nutrient, since it is synthesized biochemically, but a supplement of inosine is certainly worth taking if you want to increase your ability to carry out athetic exercise requiring a high energy output and increased blood oxygen availability. It also helps to reduce recovery time, and proponents of its use claim that it enables you to exercise at a higher level for longer.

Although the medical evidence for this is scant, not a lot of work has been done in trying to establish it, and those that use inosine in this way swear that it is effective. The theory certainly indicates that it should be effective in helping to produce more energy, and also that it should be able to make more oxygen available, and some athletes have been taking it for decades with excellent results.

There are no known side effects of its use, although pregnant women and nursing mothers are recommended not to use it, as with many other health supplements the pathology of which have not been closely studuied. As with any supplement, you are highly recommended to consult your own doctor or physician when taking any supplement, particular if you have a current medical condition or are taking prescriptive medicines.

If you are predisposed to gout, and some people are, the uric acid it produces can render inosine unsuitable. Uric acid reacts with calcium to produce the sodium urate that is deposited on the cartilage and tendons of the joints, particularly the big toe. It is a very painful condition, so those that have suffered gout in the past should not take inosine as a supplement.

Otherwise, its effect on your athletic performance might be academic!

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Butcher's Broom Extract

Date: May 02, 2008 11:04 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Butcher's Broom Extract

Butcher’s broom (Ruscus aculeatus) is a member of the lily family, and looks a bit like a holly bush with barbed evergreen leaves and bright red berries in the fall. At one time they were collected, tied together and sold to butchers as brooms to sweep out their shops.

The stiff leaves were particularly suitable for cleaning out Offal and other waste products from butchered animals and also for scrubbing butcher’s blocks. It was also used as a deterrent to rodents with their eyes on the meat! Alternative names are sweet broom, kneeholy and Jew’s myrtle, so named because it was used during the Feast of the Tabernacles as one of the ‘four species’ used in the lulav.

The herb was commonly used in Ancient Greece and Rome, the Greeks using it to reduce swellings of various kinds and the Romans using it to treat varicose veins. It has the same uses today, only the mechanisms are understood better. It has been used for centuries in the Mediterranean area for the treatment of inflammations and problems with the circulation, and the Romans used to mash up the leaves and berries to add to wine, and they also used the roots and rhizome as a medicine by soaking them in wine. Today, it is illegal to use holly as a decoration in Italy, so butcher’s broom is used instead.

All parts of the plant are used, including the rhizome, and although it is used as a diuretic, and to control a loss of blood pressure experience by some people on standing up, it is its effect on blood vessels where its main medical benefits lie. Butcher’s Broom can strengthen certain portions of blood vessels, and change the flexibility properties of the cell walls.

The result of this is that the vessels are tightened up, which helps to maintain the flow of blood throughout the body, but also renders the cell walls less likely to leak or crack under stress. The result is a reduction in blood leakage from stretched and weakened blood vessels such as those that result in hemorrhoids, and also of conditions caused by weakened valves in the veins such as varicose veins and spider veins.

The blood pressure in the veins is very weak since they are so far away from the heart, the blood having passed through the arteries, through the capillaries and into the veins on its way back to the heart before being pumped to the lungs. When the valves become weakened, particularly in the large veins in the leg, there is little to prevent the blood from coming under the influence of gravity and pooling back down the vein, causing distention and occasional ruptures.

A ruptured varicose vein can be very serious and cause significant blood loss. Weakened valves can also lead to the formation of blood clots, which is itself a very serious condition that eventually blocks the heart or causes a stroke. Not only can butcher’s broom strengthen the vein walls and prevent leakage, and also enable them to more easily resist the pressure that can cause them to rupture, but it can also be used to break down blood clots. In fact the herb is used in many European hospitals to prevent the formation of blood clots after surgery.

The active ingredients in the rhizome are saponins that contain the aglycones ruscogenin and neuroscogenin and the associated spirostanol and furostanol glycosides. The receptors that cause vasocontraction are known as adrenoreceptors, these receptors can be selectively stimulated by butcher’s broom extract to tighten the veins and improve the return of blood. When introduced intravenously, butcher’s broom was noted to constrict venules (small veins that feed the main veins but not arterioles (the small arteries than feed the capillaries). Hence blood vessels can be selectively treated, and the effect on isolated blood vessels was enhanced by heating. Many supplements include calcium that helps to strengthen the blood vessel walls.

It is possible, therefore, to target the blood vessels that require constrictive treatment in order that they are strong enough to return blood to the heart rather than leak or distend. However, that is not the only health benefit that butcher’s broom provides. It can also be used as a diuretic. It is not a strong diuretic, but is used to relief the swelling of bruises and PMS, the reason given being that since leakage from the blood vessels is lessened, then more fluid is available to pass through the kidneys. There might be other reasons.

It is also use for the treatment of ortho static hypotension, the reduction in blood pressure that some people experience. It is believed that butcher’s broom can control this condition without increasing blood pressure, as most other remedies do, and which is almost as undesirable as the condition they are treating.

There are few problems associated with the herb, although few studies have been carried out its use by pregnant women. Although the one test that was carried indicated no effect, it would be wise for pregnant or nursing women not to use it until further studies have been carried out. Due to its effect in tightening blood vessels, its use is not recommended by anybody suffering from high blood pressure (hypertension). Many hypertension treatments are designed to render the blood vessels more elastic rather than constrict them.

In one very small study of pregnant women who used a topical cream containing butcher's broom, no side effects were seen for either the mother or the baby. However, very little information is available on how oral butcher's broom might affect a developing fetus, an infant, or a small child. Therefore, its use is not recommended during pregnancy, while breast-feeding, or during early childhood.

Because it tightens blood vessels, butcher's broom may worsen high blood pressure or benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Individuals with either of these conditions should not use any form of butcher's broom without first consulting a doctor. The known side effects have already been stated, and they are fairly mild, but few studies have been made on the herb other than in Europe, and the side effects have not been fully explored. It is unlikely; however, that there are any as yet unknown serious side effects since butcher’s broom has been used now for a long time, particularly in Europe.

The term ‘ruscogenin’ is used for the collective mixture of active saponins in butcher’s broom, and many of the supplements are formulated to include from 5 to 15 mg of these. However, check the label, since standardization is not yet required in the USA, and in theory a preparation can include much more or much less ruscogenin. It is frequently supplied with other active ingredients, such as vitamin C or calcium, and perhaps even horse chestnut that affect blood vessels in a similar way. Always follow the instructions on the package, since these are designed for the specific strength of supplement you are using.

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Alpha Lipoic Acid is a Powerful Antioxidant

Date: February 15, 2008 02:55 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Alpha Lipoic Acid is a Powerful Antioxidant

The discovery of alpha lipoic acid at the University Of Texas Chemistry Department in 1951 was not heralded with trumpets of joy at the revelation of such a powerful antioxidant, but was instead largely ignored. This is largely due to the biochemistry involved not being fully understood at that time, but by the 1980s it was a commonly used supplement, recommended for several medical conditions.

Chemically, the substance is a 5-membered cyclic disulphide with a carboxylic acid grouping. Biochemically, it’s extremely powerful antioxidant properties are largely due to the fact that it one of those rare active molecules that are soluble in both water and fats, and in fact is the only such antioxidant currently know. One of the properties that this ability enables it to possess is to cross the blood-brain barrier, and apply antioxidant propertied to the brain.

Antioxidants are essential to human life in that they destroy free radicals. These are compounds with free unpaired electrons that destroy human body cells in their hunt for electrons to pair with. Electrons come in pairs in organic animal tissue, just as they do in organic compounds. However, under certain circumstances this pairing can become destroyed, leaving a molecule with one of its electrons without a partner.

The factors that lead to this situation are many and varied, and our own biochemistry can produce free radicals during the normal chemical processes of life. However, pollution can also lead to the oxidation processes that create free radicals, common such pollutants being cigarette smoke, vehicle exhaust fumes, pesticides and the like. Excessive exposure to the UV content of sunlight can also create free radicals as can eating barbecued and smoked foods, and exposure to carbon monoxide and peroxides. Even the biochemical conversion of glucose to energy in our bodies creates free radicals.

These free radicals can destroy body cells, including DNA, and can create conditions such as premature aging due to destruction of skin cells, destruction of brain cells, strokes, cancers, diabetes, atherosclerosis due to oxidation of LDL cholesterol that deposits in the main arteries of the body, stiffening of the joints and many other undesirable conditions.

Free radicals are destroyed rapidly by antioxidants: the reaction is very rapid and most are destroyed immediately they are formed before they can do harm. Fortunately, if your diet is well maintained, the body possesses many antioxidants such as vitamins A, C and E, and other substances such as Coenzyme Q10, flavanoids, xanthenes, polyphenols and carotenoids. Many of these are found in highly colored foods, and if your food is brightly colored, it should contain a good supply of antioxidants.

However, the problem with all of these is that they are either fat and oil soluble or water soluble, which means that they can either be freely carried round the body by the blood or have to be emulsified by the bile and transported via the lymphatic system that places restrictions on their effectiveness in certain organs of the body. The fact that alpha lipoic acid is soluble in both water and fats enables it to be carried to all parts of the body and to every organ, and can cross water/fat barriers that other antioxidants cannot do.

It can therefore be carried via the blood to the brain and carry out an essential antioxidant function within our brains. It took a long time for this property of ALA to be recognized and its consequent health benefits understood. It is, in fact, the ideal antioxidant. The substance provides many known benefits to the body due to its antioxidant properties and also helps the body to generate the maximum possible amount of energy from the blood glucose and thus improve the energy balance of your body.

However, it is with its antioxidant properties that we are most concerned here. One of the benefits of these properties is its effect in holding back the visible effects of aging on your body. Because it is both water and fat soluble, alpha lipoic acid can help destroy free radicals in every part of your skin; the areas served by the blood and the fatty and oily secretions are protected simultaneously by the same strong antioxidant. The end result is a reduction in the destruction of the cells through the dermis and epidermis and a reduction in the degree of wrinkling with age.

Its antioxidant effect in the brain renders ALA in great demand for reducing cognitive impairment with age. In fact studies have indicated that alpha lipoic acid can improve memory and brain function in the aging and the elderly. This effect appears to be increased by the synergistic combination of alpha lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine that work together to prevent cognitive decline in the brain through the effect of free radicals.

There is evidence that during a stroke, ALA works synergistically with vitamin E to reduce the effect of free radical damage on the vulnerable brain cells, and so reduce the longer term effects of the stroke. Together with ALC, it also reduces oxidative stress on the mitochondria of cells and in so doing helps once again to reduce the effects of aging, and maintain the body’s capacity to generate energy from blood glucose.

Cardiovascular disease is the main killer of the western world, largely due to our diets, and this is especially true of the USA. Although Americans appear unable to change their unhealthy diet, alpha lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine can be used to offset much of the damage done. ALA reduces the development of atherosclerosis through its antioxidant properties and the reduction of the adhesion of monocytes to the artery walls.

LDL trapped in the wall of the artery can be oxidized and enable monocytes to also enter under the surface of the arterial wall, where it changes into macrophages and ingests the oxidised LDL, causing the plaque that forms atherosclerosis. As the plaque thickens, the artery becomes increasingly restricted until the blood flow is significantly reduced or even stopped, causing cardiac failure or a stroke.

Alpha lipoic acid can prevent this free radical oxidation from occurring by destroying them before they act on the low density lipoprotein (LDL). Acetyl-L-carnitine works with the ALA to achieve this, as does another substance known as carnosine. Between them, these three musketeers work to keep your arteries clear and your brain functioning as it should, though it is the ALA that is most powerful due to its oil and water solubility properties.

Although alpha lipoic acid is available as a supplement, either alone or in combination with acetyl-l-carnitine, it is also available from natural food sources. It is particularly rich in Offal such as heart and kidney, and also in broccoli, spinach and brewer’s yeast. It is also available in beef, and it is here that burgers can perhaps repay some of the damage that it causes. However, it is not a recommended source since burgers still cause more damage to your health than any of their constituent nutrients can allay.

Like any other supplement, you should seek medical advice before taking any substance if you have a health condition. Nevertheless, the benefits of alpha lipoic acid are such that it is difficult to see it doing anything but good. However, please consult your physician if are taking other drugs.


Staying Healthy Means Keeping Your Blood In The Proper PH

Date: October 21, 2007 07:04 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Staying Healthy Means Keeping Your Blood In The Proper PH

The blood should be electrolytically neutral, or very slightly alkaline. The proper pH for blood should be 7 or just above it, and many claim that it should be 7.35. In fact the truth is that your blood pH should be between 7.2 and 7.6. Outside these limits and you could have serious health problems, with your brain particularly being affected.

For those who have forgotten their school chemistry, pH is a measurement of the level of acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. Anything over 7 is said to be alkaline, and below 7 is acidic. Where the pH has to be maintained at a certain level, a material called a buffer is used that counteracts the effects of other acids and alkalis to maintain the desired pH range. Buffers are very common in nature, as would be expected of life forms that depend upon water and aqueous solutions for their survival. Blood is an aqueous solution containing plasma, blood cells, nutrients and various other ingredients in both solution and dispersed solid form.

The human body possesses a very effective pH maintenance system that depends on various buffers, the kidneys and the lungs. Lets have a closer look at buffers and how they work. pH is, in fact, a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. The way a buffer works is to absorb or release H+ ions to keep the hydrogen ion concentration at a specific level. If there are too many H+ ions present in the blood, and it becomes too acidic, then the buffer will mop up the excess. If there are too few, and the blood becomes too alkaline, then the buffer will release more hydrogen ions into the blood. In this way the pH is maintained at the limits mentioned above.

Buffers in the human body include some forms of protein, phosphates and also hemoglobin. However, if the pH variations are more than just occasional, the buffers have a limited capability, and a more permanent solution is needed. If the blood is continually becoming too acidic, the bicarbonate ion is used to clear them up. Just as bicarbonate of soda is used to clear up excess acidity in your stomach that causes indigestion, so it can be used to clear up excess acidity in the blood. But how do we get the bicarbonate into the blood?

When the lungs inhale oxygen, they then exhale carbon dioxide. The bicarbonate ion, also called the hydrogen carbonate ion, is formed in the blood by dissolved carbon dioxide. The faster we breathe the more carbon dioxide we exhale and the less is left in the blood to form bicarbonate. The slower we breathe, the more carbon dioxide is available in the blood for bicarbonate. Thus, when our blood acidity increases we breathe slower, and when it decreases we breathe faster since less carbon dioxide is needed in the blood to form bicarbonate to neutralize the acid.

The kidneys also help to regulate the pH of the blood, although the biochemistry involved is fairly complex, and will not be covered here. It is enough to state that the body has a number of routes by which it can control the pH of the blood.

Current thinking is that alkaline and acidic foods should be balanced in your diet in order to place less of a strain on the body’s pH control systems. Since the blood pH must be slightly alkaline, then it might make sense to eat a slightly alkaline diet. However, it is not the actual food that matters, but what happens when the food is digested. Hence, orange juice is classed as an alkaline food even though it is high in citric acid and itself has a low pH. The same is true of lemons. They taste very sour, yet the result after digestion is alkaline. It is the end result that counts. After all, the stomach acid is very strong and very highly acidic, and eating slightly alkaline foods is not going to alter that. The digestive juices have to be highly acidic to break down the organic matter.

It had been calculated that a mix of around d 75% alkaline and 25% acidic food is a good combination of the two types to provide approximately the desired blood pH. Among the common acidic foods are meat, fish, poultry, plums, grains, eggs, wine, cheese and Offal. The alkaline foods are most fruits and vegetables, orange and lemon juice, melons, potatoes and chocolate. Hence, it is possible to eat beef and chicken, and have the odd glass of wine so long as we eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. There is nothing at all unusual with that diet, and it underlines the importance of eating a healthy balanced diet. While more greens and whole foods are definitely healthier for you, you should not eat exclusively an alkaline diet.

If your blood pH is on the high side of the limit, then you can eat a bit more meat or fish, and if on the low side eat a more vegetarian style diet. It is important, however, that you eat healthily, irrespective of whether you are eating alkaline or acidic foods. Through history, the human race has adopted a more acidic diet than the ancient hunter gatherers. Grains are a relatively recent invention, introduced after the invention of stone tools to mill them, and dairy products are also relatively recent in terms of the whole of human history. Even the consumption of meat only began after mankind learned first how to trap and then developed tools to enable them to kill their prey.

Human biochemistry, then, has developed from a predominantly vegetarian diet. However, protein is still very important, and while protein intake is necessary, should comprise no more than 20% - 25% of your total food intake. The rest should comprise of mainly fruits and vegetables, with whole rather than refined or processes foods predominating. Sugar was not eaten in quantity until the industrial revolution.

Measuring the pH of your blood is easy to do. It is simply a matter of using pH paper strips and checking the color change with your blood. They are available at most pharmacies and health food stores. If your pH level varies from 7.4 or 7.5, then you should change your diet accordingly. Higher than this, then eat more acidic foods, and if lower you should eat more alkaline food. It is simple equation, and the changes you will have to make to your diet will be minimal. Some of these changes can be made by the use of supplements that are carefully balanced to maintain your blood in the proper pH.

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