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Anemia Causes, Prevention And Supplements.
August 07, 2014 05:22 PM
What is an anemia?
Causes of anemia
Causes include loss blood, unreasonable destruction of red platelets or inadequate creation of red platelets.
Insufficient creation of red platelets is the most widely recognized class of pallor, and poor sustenance is the most well-known reason. The most successive sorts of supplement inadequate sickness are those identified with an insufficiency of iron, folic corrosive (vitamin B9), copper or vitamin B12.
Iron insufficiency pallor is frequently seen in babies more youthful than two years of age, adolescent young ladies, pregnant ladies and the elderly. This kind of weakness incorporate elements connected with poor dietary admission of iron, an expanded requirement for iron, diminished iron assimilation, blood misfortune or a consolidation of these circumstances.
Folic corrosive is the most as often as possible discovered vitamin lack on earth. The gatherings of individuals well on the way to have folic corrosive insufficiency are dipsomaniacs, individuals with mal-ingestion conditions or perpetual loose bowels and pregnant ladies. A folic corrosive insufficiency can likewise cause despondency, the runs and a swollen, red tongue.
Copper inadequacy is exceptional, be that as it may, it can happen in individuals who take a zinc supplement without expanding their copper admission in light of the fact that zinc can meddle with copper ingestion.
How to prevent anemia?
To avoid you have to consume overall adjusted dinners including iron rich nourishment. In the event that you have weakness, keep away from refreshments and sustenance holding juice, it meddles with the body's capacity to ingest iron. Maintain a strategic distance from tannins, they additionally hinder iron ingestion and nourishment high in oxalic acids; which incorporate almonds, asparagus, beans, beets, cashews, chocolate, kale and rhubarb.
While most instances of pallor are created by straightforward nourishment lacks, it can additionally be an indication of a more genuine restorative issue. The best way to get a clear judgment of sickness is to get a blood test. In the event that you think you have iron deficiency, don't start a supplement program until you have a finding from your doctor.
Iron - helps avert iron insufficiency weakness. Take 30 milligrams fumarate, gluconate or Succinate press twice a day between dinners. In the event that this reasons stomach trouble, switch to 30 milligrams with suppers three times each day.
Folic corrosive (vitamin B9) - aides anticipate iron deficiency brought about by folic corrosive inadequacy. Take 800 to 1,200 micrograms three times every day.
Vitamin B12 - aides anticipate vitamin B12 inadequacy pallor. Take 2,000 micrograms sublingual (set under the tongue) three times every day for 30 days, then 1,000 micrograms methylcobalamin (the dynamic type of B12) once a day, in addition to folic corrosive.
Vitamin C - helps the body assimilate iron. Studies have demonstrated that you can almost twofold your ingestion of iron from plant sources by devouring vitamin C with the iron. Take 1,000 milligrams 3 times each day with dinners.
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic corrosive) - assists with the creation of red platelets. Take 100 milligrams every day.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) - assists with the creation of red platelets. Take 50 milligrams 3 times each day.
Can Glutamine Improve The Immune System, Lymphocites and Inetstinal cell Enterocytes?
May 07, 2014 11:29 AM
Glutamine is considered to be the most abundant natural amino acids which is a building block of proteins in the body. Although the body can already make enough glutamine on its own, extreme stress is the type you could experience after heavy exercise or from injuries can't naturally aid help those pains on its own. The body may need a bit more glutamine in order to truly eliminate those kinds of ailments. Most glutamine is naturally stored in the muscles and lungs.
The Krebs Cycle - Our Lifes Blood!
January 13, 2011 05:00 PM
The Krebs Cycle, also known as the Citric Acid Cycle, is an important series of biochemical reactions that are intrinsic to cellular respiration and the generation of energy from oxygen and glucose in aerobic organisms. Although humans can generate energy anaerobically, they cannot do so for long periods and oxygen is essential for life because it fuels the Krebs Cycle. Without this cycle, there would be no available energy to maintain our vital processes.
What is The Krebs Cycle
We shall first discuss exactly what the Krebs Cycle is and then its importance in the body. The process takes place within the mitochondria of the body cells.
A. The cycle begins with the ten-step pathway of glycolysis, during which glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvate: no oxygen is required for this step. Basically:
Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2P + 2ADP = 2Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2ATP
The pyruvate can then undergo aerobic or anaerobic respiration to generate energy. The Krebs Cycle is the aerobic route, and significantly more efficient that the alternative fermentation.
B. The two pyruvate molecules are then oxidized to two of Acetyl CoA with the release of carbon dioxide. The two acetyl groups of the Acetyl CoA are donated to Oxaloacetate in the presence of water to form Citrate.
C. Citrate then undergoes a number of chemical reactions to arrive back at Oxaloacetate again and the cycle starts all over again by reacting with more Acetyl CoA from Pyruvate and oxygen to form Citrate again. During the cycle more ATP is produced and electrons and other species are sent into the Electron Transfer Chain where most energy is generated.
During this cycle three major events occur:
1. During the various transformations of Citrate, specifically when Succinyl-CoA is converted to Succinate, one Guanosine Triphosphate group (GTP) is generated, which then donates a phosphate to Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) to create the energy molecule Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
2. Over the whole cycle, three molecules of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) are reduced to NADH that donates its electrons to the electron transport chain that is responsible for the generation of large quantities of ATP.
3. A molecule of Flavine Adenosine Dinucleotide (FAD) is reduced to FADH2, again donating its electrons to the electron transport system and the generation of energy.
Factor 2 and 3 are of more significance to energy generation than factor 1, and are the major means by which the Krebs Cycle generates energy.
Electron Transport Chain
The Krebs Cycle takes place within the mitochondria, structures that are contained in each of your body cells. Also within these mitochondria are a series of membranes that are very important in the generation of energy.
The major energy produced in your body cells comes from the Electron Transport Chain, a series of chemical reactions between an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Such reactions drive the transport of hydrogen ions (H+) across the membranes in the mitochondria.
The electron donors are species such as NADH, FADH2 and Succinate and the electron acceptors are oxygen molecules. Hence the importance of oxygen in the process of aerobic respiration. The H+ ions are driven across the membranes and result in the conversion of ADP to ATP energy. In essence, the hydrogen atoms and electrons take part in a progressive chain of redox reactions, and at the end react with oxygen molecules and change it to water.
The Ultimate Products
Ultimately, through the whole chain and cycles of:
Glucose to pyruvate (glycolysis) Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA + CO2 (oxidation) Acetyl CoA to Citrate and the entire Krebs Cycle (reduction and oxidation) Krebs Cycle products to the Electron Transfer Chain Electron Transfer Chain to Water and ATP (redox) Final oxidation of hydrogen atoms to water
Basically: Glucose + Oxygen + 30ADP = Carbon Dioxide + Water + 30ATP
This is not balanced of course, and the ATP could be anything from 29 to 38, though 29.85 is the most accurate calculation to date. The entire process of glycolysis, oxidation, Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain is powered by a series of enzymes and a small amount of ATP energy.
Glucose and oxygen are used up as the raw materials and ATP energy molecules are the product. It has been calculated that the total ATP yield obtained from one molecule of glucose lies between 29.5 and 30 molecules of ATP.
The Importance of the Krebs Cycle to Your Body
Were it not for the Krebs Cycle you would not be able to generate energy efficiently from your food. In particular, the carbohydrate content of your food. Carbohydrates are available in your diet from two sources: simple and complex carbohydrate foodstuffs such as cereals and grains, and fats and oils from animal and vegetable sources. They are also available from proteins, which are composed of amino acids at the head of the molecule with a carbohydrate tail.
Carbohydrates by definition contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecules, and can be converted to glucose within your body. Proteins can be deaminated and then the carbohydrate portion again converted to glucose. In fact, your body will initially use the carbohydrates in your diet as a source of glucose for its glycolysis to pyruvate, then the fatty tissue in your body, then the proteins will be deaminated so your body can get to the carbohydrate they contain.
Were it not for the Krebs Cycle, your body could not use the glucose as described above to generate energy. The only option open to it would be anaerobic respiration, or energy production in the absence of oxygen. ATP is still generated, but much less efficiently.
Anaerobic respiration is basically respiration without oxygen. If there was no Krebs Cycle, then this is the only way your body would have to create energy.
Because no oxygen is actually needed for glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle, anaerobic respiration can proceed right to the end of the Electron Transport Chain. Then instead of oxygen being used as the terminal electron donor, it has to be another species such as nitrate or sulfate. Because the Reduction Potential of these species is much lower than that of oxygen, the amount of ATP energy produced is also much lower.
Your body tries to compensate by producing even more pyruvate and the excess is removed through lactic acid fermentation. Although this also generates ATP energy enough for short-term use, it leads ultimately to lactic acidosis and a reduction in pH, causing pain and vomiting.
Ultimately, if oxygen is not forthcoming, the brain runs short of the energy needed for it to work and you die. There is insufficient ATP generated from anaerobic respiration to maintain human life.
The Krebs Cycle is of critical importance for the production of energy: not just the energy to enable you to run fast, but to enable your metabolic processes to continue. It is needed for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and while lactic acid fermentation can be used by your muscle cells as a brief but effective means of generating short-term energy, it is insufficient to maintain the needs of your metabolism.
Without the Krebs Cycle, mammalian and most other animal life would not be viable and the world would be populated by anaerobic bacteria.
May 07, 2009 05:45 PM
L-carnitine is amino acid essential for the metabolism of fats into a form of energy necessary for extended aerobic activity. Originally discovered in Russia, and Germany a year later, the structural formulation of carnitine, as it is correctly known, was determined in 1927, although it is physiological and biochemical activity was not understood until the 1960s.
The amino acid is biosynthesized in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine. The vitamins niacin, B6, C and iron are essential for this reaction to take place. However, the supply of L-carnitine has to be supplemented by the diet, good sources being dairy products, red meat, nuts and seeds, pulses and fruits such as apricots, bananas and avocado. Most of the L-carnitine supply of the body is stored within the muscle tissue. However, it is not unusual for conditions to arise making it difficult for the body to obtain all the carnitine required.
L-carnitine enables fatty acids to be transported into the mitochondria, where cell metabolism occurs. The biochemistry is discussed below, although in simple terms the amino acid allows body fats, in the form of triglycerides, to be made more readily available for the generation of energy required for extended exertion. In this way, body fats can be used for energy and the supplies of glycogen stored by the liver can be retained for emergency use.
By providing the energy for endurance and stamina in this way, carnitine makes use of an otherwise unavailable energy source, and has the added benefit of reducing body fat stores and reducing strain on the heart.
Although there is generally a plentiful supply of L-carnitine available in a healthy diet, supplementation can ensure that a deficiency does not occur. Supplements are available in the form of L-carnitine or its acetylated derivative, acetyl L-carnitine.
In order for fatty acids to be used in the production of energy, their long-chain acetyl groups have to get inside the mitochondria where they are oxidized to the acetate to be used for the production of energy via the Citric Acid or Krebs cycle.
In order for the biochemistry to take place, fatty acids must be rendered suitable for binding to the carnitine molecule. The chemical grouping with a good affinity for L-carnitine is the acetyl or acetyl group, available in the molecule acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). The free fatty acid, therefore, is attached to coenzyme-A by means of a thioester bond, catalyzed by means of the enzyme fatty acetyl-CoA synthetase. The reaction is then completed by means of in organic pyrophosphatase.
In this way, the fatty acid in the form of an acetyL-carnitine derivative can be transported through the mitochondrial wall. This transportation takes place by means of several steps. These are:
1. As explained, the acetyl-CoA is attached to L-carnitine by means of the enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase I. This enzyme is conveniently located on the outer mitochondrial membrane.
2. The enzyme carnitine-acetylcarnitine translocase helps the acetyL-carnitine through the membrane.
3. Another enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase II, located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, converts the acetyL-carnitine to acetyl-CoA, liberating the carnitine which returns to the muscle mass.
L-carnitine is the only known substance that allows fatty acids to cross the mitochondrial membrane, and therefore deficiencies must be avoided.
Another way in which carnitine is used in energy production is in the Krebs cycle itself. Part of this cycle involves the conversion of guanine diphosphate to the higher energy form guanine triphosphate. In this way energy can be stored in much the same way as it is in the conversion of ADP to ATP. Succinyl CoA is involved in this conversion, and one of the by-products of it is a corresponding Succinate, that is then converted to a fumarate by the action of L-carnitine fumarate. Carnitine, therefore, has two parts to play in the production of long-term energy from the fatty acids contained in body fats.
Since the fatty acid triglycerides contained in body fats are a major source of energy in the heart and skeletal muscles, it is easy to understand how L-carnitine is believed to lead to the increased energy levels required for stamina and staying power. A major reason for its effect on longer-term or extended energy requirements is that in enabling stored body fats to be used for immediate and longer-term energy requirements, L-carnitine allows emergency glycogen stores to be retained for use once immediate fatty acid supplies or those of carnitine have been depleted, and so allows the energy supply to be extended even farther. Research has also suggested that the amino acid can possibly be used to treat liver and kidney disease, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome.
As with many supplements, the question is often asked how does L-carnitine work in practice as opposed to the claims made for it by the supplement providers? Recent research indicates mixed results, but sufficient to justify its use. It is generally accepted that a supplement is necessary when there is a deficiency, but once that deficiency has been corrected further intake is unnecessary. However, it is also believed that during long and extended periods of exercise a carnitine deficiency does occur as L-carnitine is used up, and the supplement is necessary to ensure sufficient energy supply throughout the period of exercise.
There has also been a case reported in the Journal of Clinical Neurology (Negoro, Tsuda, Kato & Morimatsu, 1995) where a deficiency, caused by anorexia nervosa damaging the liver to the extent that it was unable to synthesize L-carnitine, was remedied by means of an oral supplement. Studies on endurance athletes have been mixed, ranging from no effect to L-carnitine being found to promote weight loss.
Carnitine has no unknown harmful side effects, and has been studied for medical applications other than as an energy supplement. For example it possesses extensive antioxidant properties, and can be used as a supplement against oxidative stress and the prevention of the lipid peroxidation that is a precursor to atherosclerosis.
Its use in osteoporosis and reducing bone mass is also being studied. The concentration of L-carnitine diminishes with age, and affects fatty acid metabolism in a number of tissues. Bones are particularly affected since they require continuous reconstruction. Without detailing the biochemistry involved in this, administration of carnitine helps to reduce the speed by which this occurs. Trials are so far been carried out only on animals.
In studies on both healthy volunteers and patients with type II diabetes, L-carnitine was found to improve storage of glucose in both groups, although its oxidation increased only in the group with diabetes. Other studies carried out include improving the function of neurotransmitters in the brains of elderly patients and in the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and other neurological disorders.
In conclusion then, although the jury is out on the use of L-carnitine is an energy-giving or weight-loss supplement, it appears to be effective where the body's stores of carnitine could be depleted such as with long-term exercise, natural deficiencies or deficiencies caused through age. It is also under study in the treatment of various medical conditions. On balance, it would appear that the prospective benefits of L-carnitine render it worthy of use.
Supports Healthy Blood Pressure
April 18, 2008 03:59 PM
3 tablets contain:
Suggested Use: 3 tablets mid-morning and 2 tabs mid-afternoon between meals on an empty stomach.
The Fizzy Comparison (Airborne Vs Wellness Fizz)
February 26, 2007 03:02 PM
The Fizzy Comparison
(Lonicera, Forsythia, Schizonepeta, Ginger, Chinese Vitex, IsatisRoot, Echinacea)
(L-Glutamine, L-Lysine HCL)
Also Contains: Sorbitol, Mineral Oil, Sucraloseand Acesulfamepotassium (artificial sweetener)
Wellness Fizz Ingredients
Vitamin A (as beta carotene) 5000 I.U.
(Forsythia, Japanese honeysuckle, Platycodon, Chinese Mint, Lophatherum, Chinese Licorice, Schizonepeta, Soy bean, Burdock, Phragmites)
Also Contains:Stevialeaf, natural flavors, honey
Wellness Fizz - Fast-Acting Immune Defense
February 26, 2007 02:15 PM
Ideal Vision from Thompson Nutritional
November 18, 2005 01:30 PM
Ideal Vision Dietary Supplement is a powerful blend of antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and herbs formulated to provide nutritive support for healthy eyesite. Recent research suggests that supplementing with antioxidants such as zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E and betaCarotene may have potential beneficial effects on eye health in certain population groups.
- 15mg Lutein
NEW PRODUCT ANNOUNCEMENT
July 05, 2005 06:29 PM
The Most Comprehensive Antioxidant Formula Available!
Four tablets contain: Vitamin A (as beta-carotene 8,500 IU & palmitate 4,000 IU) 12,500 IU
gamma-Vitamin E Complex 500 mg
Quercetin 100 mg
Holy Basil - For Natural Stress Reduction and COX-2 Inhibition
June 29, 2005 01:02 PM
Skyrocketing stress is one of our nation’s most pervasive public health problems. Daily stress can cause imbalances in inflammatory COX-2 production and cortisol levels, which can influence blood sugar changes and, ultimately, result in challenges to our health. To regain balance, Source Naturals introduces HOLY BASIL, a legendary Ayurvedic herb that is making news for its ability to inhibit the inflammatory COX-2 enzyme, balance cortisol levels and normalize blood sugar. HOLY BASIL is rich in beneficial compounds—such as rosmarinic acid and eugenol—which work together to reduce stress. This herb also typically contains ursolic acid, shown to inhibit COX-2 in in vitro research. As a result, HOLY BASIL has a positive effect on mental well-being, and can support minor pain relief from everyday activities. Source Naturals brings you this special herb, used daily in India by millions, in a high-potency, 450 mg extract tablet.
Stress, Blood Sugar and Nervous System Protection
For over five millennia, Tulsi (holy basil) has been used to improve digestion and restore imbalances of the body and mind. Now research has documented that HOLY BASIL may do this by decreasing levels of cortisol, a hormone produced and secreted by the adrenal glands. Nicknamed the “stress hormone,” cortisol production increases in response to chronic stress. Cortisol triggers the body to make glucose from amino acids, which causes blood sugar to rise. Through normalizing cortisol levels in times of stress, holy basil may prevent not only the mood changes associated with stress, but also prevent the increases in blood sugar that researchers say can contribute to numerous health imbalances affecting more than half of all Americans. HOLY BASIL has also been found to normalize neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Researchers found in animal studies that HOLY BASIL counteracted stress-induced changes in neurotransmitters and enzymes. Stress leads to a positive increase in brain serotonin levels, increases in dopamine levels and increases in SDH (Succinate dehydrogenase) levels, while holy basil may help people maintain normal levels of these brain chemicals in times of stress. Another study found that animals that received the extract showed significant normalization of epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, MAO, and SDH. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are used in coping with stress. The researchers suggest that when dopamine levels rise, these two neurotransmitters may be replenished since dopamine is a precursor for their synthesis. This may be the mechanism by which holy basil assists with stress adaptation.
A Powerful Adaptogen
HOLY BASIL is classified as a premier “adaptogen,” an herb that can normalize body processes and restore overall health by maintaining body systems. Adaptogens support our systemic response to stress and give us stamina. HOLY BASIL is not to be used if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or if you may become pregnant. Taking personal responsibility for your health and exploring safe natural alternatives to support prevention is the basis for the current revolution in health care. And health food outlets are the center of this wellness revolution. It is here that Source Naturals HOLY BASIL and hundreds of other advances in nutritional science and natural health can be found.
Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ...
June 02, 2005 12:07 PM
Your heart is crucial to every function of your body. It is the sole organ which pumps oxygen-rich blood through the entire circulatory system, feeding your cells and making life possible. Only recently are Americans realizing the importance of a proper low-fat diet, regular exercise, giving up cigarette smoking, and cutting down alcohol consumption to maintaining a healthy heart. Unfortunately, there has been a huge gap in the number of nutritional supplements which provide nutrients and herbs to support normal heart function. That’s where Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE comes in. Two years in the making, and backed by numerous scientific studies, the nutrients in HEART SCIENCE are some of the most soundly researched of all. Combining high potencies of these super-nutrients, HEART SCIENCE is the most comprehensive, cutting edge nutritional approach to proper heart care available.
Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE— The Five Tiered Approach to Heart Health
Your heart never rests. Even while you sleep, your heart must keep working, relying on the constant generation of energy by the body for its very survival. If this vital organ stops beating for even a short amount of time, all bodily functions cease and life ends. Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE helps support heart function on the chemical, cellular, structural, and energetic levels. This broad spectrum formula includes ingredients specifically geared for
Energy Generators for An Energetic Organ
Every day, the human heart beats about 104,000 times, pumping over 8,000 liters of blood through the body! Because it requires so much energy to perform efficiently, the experts at Source Naturals included specialty nutrients in HEART SCIENCE such as Coenzyme Q10 and L-Carnitine — integral factors in the body’s energy production cycles — to enhance the body’s energy supply.
There are three main interconnected energy generating cycles in our cells — the Glycolytic (sugar-burning) cycle, the Krebs’ (citric acid) cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain. Together they supply about 90 to 95% of our body’s entire energy supply, using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the non-vitamin nutrients needed to maximally convert food into ATP (the energy producing molecule). It is the vital connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport Chain, the next step in energy generation after the Krebs’ cycle. Using the raw materials generated by the Krebs’ cycle, the Electron Transport Chain produces most of the body’s total energy! The heart is one of the bodily organs which contains the highest levels of CoQ10, precisely because it needs so much energy to function efficiently.
CoQ10 is one of the most promising nutrients for the heart under investigation today. It has been postulated that as a result of its participation in energy production, CoQ10 improves heart muscle metabolism and the electrical functioning of the heart by enhancing its pumping capacity.8 Many factors such as a high fat diet, lack of exercise, and cigarette smoking can lead to suboptimal functioning of the heart, and therefore failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood. Interestingly, people whose lifestyles reflect the above factors also tend to have depleted levels of CoQ10 in the heart muscle.10
Researchers suggest taking between 10-100 mg per day of CoQ10;18,29 HEART SCIENCE provides an impressive 60 mg of CoQ10 per 6 tablets. Similar to CoQ10, L-Carnitine is important for energy production in heart cells. It is a natural amino acid-like substance which plays a key role in transporting fatty acids, the heart’s main source of energy, to the mitochondria, the “power plants” of each cell, where they are utilized for the production of ATP. Heart and skeletal muscles are particularly vulnerable to L-Carnitine deficiency. Studies have shown that supplementation with LCarnitine improves exercise tolerance in individuals with suboptimal heart and circulatory function, and seems to lower blood lipid status and increase HDL (good) cholesterol.16, 22 Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE contains 500 mg of this extremely important compound.
Like CoQ10 and L-Carnitine, B Vitamins help improve the ability of the heart muscle to function optimally. Each B Vitamin, after being converted to its active coenzyme form, acts as a catalytic “spark plug” for the body’s production of energy. Vitamin B-1, for example, is converted to Cocarboxylase, which serves as a critical link between the Glycolytic and Krebs’ Cycles, and also participates in the conversion of amino acids into energy. A deficiency of B coenzymes within contracting muscle cells can lead to a weakened pumping of the heart.21
HEART SCIENCE is formulated with high quantities of the most absorbable forms of B Vitamins providing maximum nutrition for the high energy demands of heart cells.
B Vitamins also play a crucial role in the conversion of homocysteine, a group of potentially harmful amino acids produced by the body, to methionine, another more beneficial amino acid. While it is normal for the body to produce some homocysteine, even a small elevation in homocysteine levels can have negative implications. It is well documented that individuals who are genetically predisposed to having elevated homocysteine levels (homocysteinemics) tend to have excessive plaque accumulation in the arteries and premature damage to endothelial cells (cells lining the blood vessels and heart).26 Researchers have found that even those without this genetic abnormality, whose homocysteine levels are much lower than those of homocysteinemics, still have an increased risk for premature endothelial damage and the development of plaque in the arteries.24, 26 One study conducted among normal men and women found that those with the highest levels of homocysteine were twice as likely to have clogged arteries as were those with the lowest levels.24 Furthermore, it was found that the lower the research subjects’ blood levels of folate and B-6, the higher their homocysteine levels.24 Another study found that Folic Acid administered to normal men and women who were not even deficient in folate caused a significant reduction in plasma concentrations of homocysteine!3 In order to regulate homocysteine levels, it is critical to provide the body with sufficient amounts of B-6, B-12, and Folate, whether through the diet or through supplementation. HEART SCIENCE includes high levels of these three nutrients, providing B-6 in the regular and coenzyme form for maximum utilization.
The Dangers of Oxidized LDL Cholesterol
While many people have heard that high cholesterol levels may negatively affect normal heart function, few people understand exactly what cholesterol is, or how it can become harmful. Cholesterol is a white, waxy substance produced in the liver by all animals, and used for a variety of necessary activities in the body. Your liver also manufactures two main kinds of carrier molecules which transport cholesterol throughout the system: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Cholesterol is either carried out by LDL from the liver to all tissues in the body where it is deposited, or carried back by HDLs which remove cholesterol deposits from the arteries and carry them to the liver for disposal. Because of this, LDL cholesterol is considered damaging, while HDL is considered protective. Problems occur when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the body and not enough HDL.
When the body becomes overloaded with fat, an over-abundance of LDL particles are manufactured to process it, and they in turn become elevated in the body to a degree that the liver cannot handle. Rich in fatty acids and cholesterol, these particles are highly susceptible to free radical attack (oxidation). Once oxidized, LDL particles are no longer recognized by the body, which attacks them with immune cells. Immune cells which are bloated by oxidized lipids (called foam cells) are a key factor in the development of “fatty streaks” — the first sign of excess arterial fat accumulation. The bloated immune cells accumulate in artery lesions and create plaque in blood vessels, leading to obstruction and constriction of the vessels. Plus, these lodged foam cells continue to secrete free radicals into the bloodstream, making the problem worse.
The development of lesions in the arteries is not an uncommon problem. Arterial (and all blood vessel) walls are composed of a chemical matrix which holds the endothelial cells in place. That endothelial layer is the first and most important line of defense in preventing large molecules, such as cholesterol and fat, from entering the vessel wall. This matrix is composed of proteins, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans (amino sugars). Arterial lesions can be caused by suboptimal collagen and elastin synthesis due to three factors: 1. Vitamin C deficiency (since Vitamin C is a key building block for collagen and elastin); 2. excessive consumption of rancid fats, or heavy usage of alcohol or cigarettes; and 3. free radical damage. Once these lesions are created, the body attempts to repair them by depositing LDL cholesterol — similar to the way one would patch a tire. If that cholesterol is not oxidized, i.e. chemically changed to a harmful, unstable molecule, then this process does not create a problem. But when arterial lesions are “patched” with foam cells, arterial walls suffer page 3 page 4 even more damage, because those foam cells release free radicals which can further damage cell membranes.
Unfortunately, most people have a lot of oxidized cholesterol floating through the bloodstream. The typical American diet, with its low antioxidant intake and overconsumption of fried and overcooked foods, contributes to the overall levels of harmful oxidized cholesterol. In fact, the average American intake of antioxidants is low even by USRDA standards, making Americans particularly prone to having high levels of oxidized cholesterol.
Fortunately, there are concrete steps you can take to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol, and its subsequent ill effects on health. In addition to cutting out high-cholesterol and fatty foods, supplementation can protect existing cholesterol and all tissue cells — from oxidation. Antioxidants, substances which scavenge and neutralize free radicals, protect the cardiovascular system by halting the oxidation of cholesterol, and helping to prevent plaque accumulation in the arteries and the continual secretion of free radicals by foam cells. Supplementing the diet with high amounts of Vitamin C, a key antioxidant, also encourages a more healthy “patching” of existing lesions by using collagen (made from Vitamin C) instead of cholesterol. HEART SCIENCE contains generous amounts of the following antioxidants for their protective benefits:
The Regulating Trio
Three nutrients — Magnesium, Potassium, and Taurine — work closely together in the body to help maintain the normal electrical rhythm of the heart, promote proper fluid balance, and prevent excessive Calcium levels from building up in the heart and artery linings.
Artery Lining Protectors
Your arteries form an integral part of your cardiovascular system, carrying blood away from the heart to nourish other parts of the body. In a healthy heart, blood surges through the arteries with every beat of the heart. The arteries expand with each pulse to accommodate the flow of blood. When arteries become hardened and narrowed by the build-up of plaque, they can’t expand and are not able to transport blood efficiently throughout the body. This inability to open up increases blood pressure, putting a strain on the heart as well as the arteries. HEART SCIENCE includes ingredients specifically geared to protect against plaque formation within arteries and maintain the flexibility of these vital blood vessels. N-Acetyl Glucosamine (NAG) is a key amino sugar which forms the building blocks of mucopolysaccharides. Mucopolysaccharides, which are long chain sugars, are an integral component of connective tissue. They combine to form gel-like matrixes which are present throughout tissues in the body, helping to maintain the elasticity of blood vessels which must continually adapt to the changing pressures of blood flow. Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE provides 500 mg — a substantial amount — of this vital tissue building block. There is evidence indicating that Silicon, a natural mineral, may protect against plaque formation in the arteries. Silicon is found mainly in connective tissues, where it helps bind the body’s chemical matrix. Bound Silicon is found in high amounts in arterial walls. Researchers have found that there is a steady decline in the Silicon content of the aorta and other arteries as we age. This may be due to the low fiber content of the typical American diet, since fiber is a key dietary source of Silicon.23 HEART SCIENCE includes 400 mg of Horsetail herb extract, a natural source of Silicon. Hawthorn Berry is without question the herb most widely used to encourage normal heart function. The beneficial actions of Hawthorn Berry on cardiac function have been repeatedly demonstrated in experimental studies. Supplementation with Hawthorn Berry has been shown to improve both the blood supply to the heart by dilating coronary vessels, and the metabolic processes in the heart, resulting in normal, strong contractions of the heart muscle.34 Also, Hawthorn may inhibit the angiotensen converting enzyme, which is responsible for converting angiotensen I to angiotensen II, a powerful constrictor of blood vessels.34 Bromelain, a natural enzyme derived from pineapples, has become well-known for its neuromuscular relaxing properties. Researchers have reported favorable results when using Bromelain for soothing vascular linings. Initial research also indicates that Bromelain may break down fibrin, the glue which holds platelets together to form blood clots.6
Capillaries are the smallest, yet some of the most important, blood vessels. If you think of your cardiovascular system as a series of roads which transport blood and oxygen, then your arteries are akin to interstate highways, your arterioles are the main city boulevards, and your capillaries are local residential streets. Capillaries are so small, in fact, that single red blood cells actually have to fold up to fit through them. Because of their tiny size and the intricate nature of their network throughout the body, capillaries are responsible for actually nourishing each individual tissue cell! Along the length of the capillaries are small openings called slit pores through which oxygen, glucose, and nutrients leave the capillaries and enter the surrounding interstitial fluid. From there, they cross cell membranes and nourish the cells. Similarly, the waste products of cells enter the fluid and cross over into the capillaries, where they are then transported to the liver and kidneys for disposal. If the capillary slit pores are torn or have lesions, then blood proteins and Sodium will leak out and cause the interstitial fluid to take on a more gel-like nature. This makes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the cells more difficult, as well as the disposal of cell waste products, turning the fluid into a stagnant swamp instead of a flowing river. In addition to its powerful antioxidant actions, Proanthodyn also helps protect collagen and elastin, the main constituents of tissue in the capillaries, and throughout the body. It is absolutely essential for capillary walls — which are only one cell thick — to be strong and stable, so that they do not allow blood proteins to leak into the interstitial fluid. Once the interstitial fluid takes on a gel-like consistency, the surrounding cells literally become starved from lack of nutrition. The exciting news is that the proanthocyanidins contained in Proanthodyn are among the few substances yet discovered which can help strengthen capillary walls, ensuring the liquid nature of the interstitial fluid.2 Plus, proanthocyanidins help keep capillary and artery walls flexible, allowing for proper blood flow to the heart.
The 1990’s mark a decade of increased awareness among Americans of important health issues. Much of the discussion has revolved around protecting that precious center of life we call the heart. Simple lifestyle change is one of the most effective ways to maintain and protect the functioning of the cardiovascular system. In order to take a holistic approach to heart care, make sure you include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables (organic, if possible) in your diet, and cut down on fatty and cholesterol-forming foods. Reduce your salt and alcohol intake to a minimum. Try to get regular, sustained aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes three times a week. Don’t smoke – or if you do smoke, try to eat even more fresh fruits and antioxidant-rich vegetables to counter the amount of free radicals being produced in your body. Lastly, consider adding Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE to your health regimen. HEART SCIENCE, the most comprehensive formula of its kind, provides targeted protection to the entire cardiovascular system. By approaching the promotion of normal heart function on five different levels — through the inclusion of ingredients which supply energy, decrease harmful homocysteine levels, fight cholesterol build-up, help regulate electrical rhythm, and protect artery and capillary linings — HEART SCIENCE is the perfect addition to a holistic approach to heart care.
Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE™
Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement
June 01, 2005 01:13 PM
What makes ÉLAN VITÀL unique is its unprecedented range of nutriments in high potencies and superior forms. Quite simply, it stands alone among multiples: a quantum leap beyond maintenance...into excellence. Not only does it offer unparalleled antioxidant nutrition and a full-spectrum of essential vitamins and minerals, ÉLAN VITÀL is also formulated with specific nutrients that support:
Today’s inflated levels of stress and pollution give rise to harmful free radicals – unpaired electrons that can damage living cells and compromise the proper function of tissues and organs. Antioxidants serve to protect the body by neutralizing free radicals; in fact, many scientists believe that high levels of antioxidants may prolong the effective working life span of the body’s cells. The primary strategy of ÉLAN VITÀL is to provide a wide range of antioxidants at exceptional levels, from both botanical and biochemical sources.
ÉLAN VITÀL has the powerful advantage of Plantioxidants™, standardized botanical extracts with unparalleled free radical-scavenging properties. Plantioxidants have the unique quality of providing targeted protection because they tend to be attracted to different organs in the body. Grape Seed extract is rich in potent proanthocyanidins, a special class of highly bioavailable, water-soluble bioflavonoids that have the unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the health of brain cells. Proanthocyanidins have been shown to efficiently scavenge oxygen radicals, as well as optimize the transport of vitamin C. They also have an affinity for collagen and elastin, the structural proteins that are abundant in vessel linings and other connective tissue. ÉLAN VITÀL contains the most concentrated extract of Bilberry available, with at least 25% anthocyanosides – compounds which are similar to proanthocyanidins but with an unusually strong attraction to optical tissue. They have been shown to protect cellular integrity in the delicate structures of the eyes. Ginkgo biloba extract is a standardized concentration of prime quality ginkgo leaves, yielding 24% ginkgoflavoneglycosides. These active compounds are potent antioxidants that have been associated with superior oxygen transport throughout the body with a special affinity for brain capillaries. Silymarin is the name given to a complex of three bioflavonoid-like compounds — silybum, silycristin, and silymarin — extracted and concentrated from milk thistle seeds. Silymarin functions in the body as an antioxidant with a special attraction for the liver. It has been researched and used extensively in Europe, where it is prized for its unique ability to nourish the liver and support its natural regeneration process by speeding up DNA synthesis in liver cells. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid present in some foods, such as onions and blue-green algae. A cousin of rutin, quercetin has been shown to stabilize cell membranes and help prevent free radical damage to this vital but vulnerable part of cells. Bioflavonoids and related compounds do their best antioxidant work when in the presence of Vitamin C, the nutrient they are most often paired with in nature. The vitamin C provided in ÉLAN VITÀL is both water- and fat-soluble. This combination is crucial because the tissues and membranes richest in fatty acids are most at risk to free radical attack. Fat-soluble vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl palmitate has an affinity for these highly vulnerable structures.
ÉLAN VITÀL not only provides botanical defense plants to combat free radicals, but also contains tried-and-true antioxidant nutrients: Biochemicals known as vitamins, minerals, and amino acids work together for maximum protection to all the body’s cells. The amino acid, N-Acetyl Cysteine, is a powerful and highly versatile antioxidant that doubles as a precursor to glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, two of the most formidable cell-protective compounds manufactured by the body. Studies have shown that supplemental N-acetyl cysteine enhances internal levels of glutathione far better than supplements of glutathione itself. Methionine also contributes to the synthesis of glutathione, and is an efficient transporter of certain antioxidant minerals, magnifying their activity. Vitamin A is included in both its fat-soluble palmitate form and in its provitamin form, Beta Carotene. While preformed A has long been known to play a role in the body’s defenses, beta carotene itself has recently been shown to possess a powerful ability to scavenge free radicals and contribute to the youthful function of some tissues. Vitamin E is one of the most important antioxidant compounds in nature. It works to prevent harmful oxidation within each cell and is vital in the protection of red blood cells from free radical-induced rupture. Selenium is an extremely powerful antioxidant shown in studies to work synergistically with Vitamins A, C, and E. In combination with cysteine, selenium helps build the glutathione peroxidase molecule. ÉLAN VITÀL offers a 50/50 blend of the two most scientifically supported forms of selenium: L-selenomethionine and sodium selenite. In addition to being an antioxidant itself, Zinc works closely with fat-soluble vitamin A by facilitating its release from the liver to the rest of the body. In ÉLAN VITÀL, Zinc is synergistically bound to methionine for optimal bioavailability. Copper sebacate is a natural compound that can function as the copper-SOD antioxidant system in the body, one of the first lines of defense against free radical attack. Copper sebacate is a highly absorbable form that possesses significant free radical scavenging activity.
Supporting Structural Integrity
An important adjunct to antioxidant nutrition is the amino sugar N-Acetyl Glucosamine, or N-A-G™. Amino sugars are essential components of cell membranes and their surface structures, as well as of the “ground substance” that holds body tissues together. They are also a key constituent of the synovial fluid in the joints. Recent research has revealed that amino sugars play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the connective and structural tissues of the body, a property that complements perfectly the actions of antioxidants: where antioxidants may prevent damage from occurring, amino sugars may help the body repair and regenerate damaged tissue. N-A-G’s activity is supported in ÉLAN VITÀL by other nutrients helpful to structural tissue. The mineral Manganese is required for building amino sugars into mucopolysaccharides, the large molecules that make up the ground substance that holds cells together. Choline and Inositol are both components of phospholipids, principal constituents in cell membranes. Two B vitamins, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12, are important to cell regeneration and to the development of healthy red blood cells.
Enhanced Energy to Maximize Metabolism
ÉLAN VITÀL is a potent source of coenzymes, metalloenzymes, and metabolites involved in energy production in the body. There are two main energy production cycles in the cells: the glycolytic cycle and the Krebs’ cycle. Together, they generate about 90-95% of the body’s entire energy supply – using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel, with enzymes as facilitators. The enzymes which catalyze energy production function in combination with coenzymes made from vitamins such as B1, B2, B3, B5 and Biotin, plus metalloenzymes made from minerals, including Magnesium, Manganese, and Copper. Biotin, an often overlooked nutrient, may function to help the body maintain a youthful metabolism. The mineral Magnesium aids in energy production, not only by acting as a cofactor to some enzymes, but also as a stabilizer of ATP, the body’s primary energy molecule. Some of the key connecting enzymes in the energy production process require two additional non-vitamin coenzyme nutrients to maximally convert food into energy: Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10. Lipoic acid helps convert the end-product of the glycolytic cycle, pyruvate, into acetyl-CoA, a principal fuel for the higher energy Krebs’ cycle. Coenzyme Q10. is the connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport System, an off-shoot of the Krebs’ cycle, where ATP molecules are “cashed in” for energy. The muscle-supporting electrolyte mineral Potassium is in the form of Alpha- Ketoglutarate, a critical Krebs’ cycle metabolite that has additional benefits. It has long been used to improve the efficiency of ammonia-clearance from the body, an indispensable function, as ammonia is both exceedingly harmful and constantly produced through the natural metabolism of proteins. Because alpha-ketoglutarate is an organic compound well-recognized by the cells, it is an excellent transporter of potassium into the cells. Succinic Acid, or Succinate, is also a metabolite in the Krebs’ cycle. It not only boosts production of ATP energy potential, but also increases the muscle cells’ production of creatine phosphate, another high energy biochemical. Chromium is the essential mineral component of glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, which functions to help insulin (one of the two main blood sugar-controlling hormones in the body) draw sugar molecules from the bloodstream into the cells.
ÉLAN VITÀL contains natural substances that sharpen performance beyond just the physical. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is a highly stable and absorbable form of the conditionally essential amino acid L-tyrosine, a precursor to the major excitatory neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. DMAE is a precursor to one of the body’s main neurotransmitters, acetylcholine. From the Plantioxidants comes standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, whose compounds readily cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the integrity of the capillaries in the brain.
Guarding the Liver
ÉLAN VITÀL provides several nutrients which collectively support optimal liver function. This is an essential aspect of a multiple, because the liver is responsible for converting nutrients – from food as well as from supplements – into their usable forms. If liver function is compromised in any way, nutrient supplements may be rendered inert in the body. The liver is especially at risk because it must filter out ingested toxins and is continually exposed to chemicals that generate free radicals. N-Acetyl Cysteine and Silymarin have both demonstrated a strong affinity for the liver. Nacetyl cysteine contributes to increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, both of which the liver uses in its natural cleansing function. Silymarin provides unparalleled support to the liver’s natural regeneration process. Because of its many vital functions, the liver uses as much as 12% of the body’s energy supply, even though it represents only 3% of body weight. The liver therefore uses a greater proportion of energy nutrients, especially Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid. Both are highly concentrated in the liver; and lipoic acid in particular has been researched and used heavily in Europe where it is prized for its special protective actions in the liver. Ascorbyl Palmitate is a fat-soluble form of Vitamin C, meaning it can provide antioxidant protection for fatty tissue. This is especially valuable to the liver, which tends to develop fatty streaks that are most vulnerable to damage. Vitamin E has been researched extensively for its antioxidant properties with regard to the liver.
The Multiple for the 21st Century
ÉLAN VITÀL is truly a one-of-a-kind multinutrient supplement: one that leaves no nutritional stone unturned. Based on the biochemical principles of nutrition and metabolism – in context of today’s challenges to our health – ÉLAN VITÀL approaches optimal nutrition from several directions...all leading to a lifetime of health and vitality.