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Can I Increase Blood Oxygen With Periwinkle? Darrell Miller 9/14/11
What is Vinpocetine and How Does it Help with Memory? Darrell Miller 3/24/11
A Periwinkle Extract Vinpocetine May Promote Cerebral Blood Flow Darrell Miller 12/1/07
Mega Mind - re-align your body systems ... Darrell Miller 6/3/05
the effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) ... Darrell Miller 5/26/05



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Can I Increase Blood Oxygen With Periwinkle?
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Date: September 14, 2011 02:00 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can I Increase Blood Oxygen With Periwinkle?

Overview

The body is made of different cells and all of them depend on oxygen for them to keep on living. It does make sense doesn’t it? I mean, as human beings we live off oxygen, simply put, if we do not breathe in oxygen we die. We can find oxygen in the air around us and in fact that is the main source. Another thing that would tell you how important oxygen is to our body, just thinking requires us to have enough oxygen in the brain. That is why whenever someone is out of breath and unconscious for minutes the main concern is what damage will that time do to the brain when there is no oxygen travelling to it because the brain could not maintain its function without oxygen.

Blood Oxygen Levels

The levels of oxygen in our blood are related to how efficient our body is able to function. We have to understand that our cells run on oxygen and various health issues can arise with levels of blood oxygen being low. The good news though is that there are lot of different ways to build oxygen levels in the body. We have some natural ways that have been tested and proven to help. Firstly is to make sure we have foods high in antioxidants. These substances have been known for its health benefits and now we can also add to that list how it is able to initiate further release of oxygen from the blood.

Another one is by focusing on foods that are rich in Vitamin F because this vitamin helps the capacity of oxygen to hold haemoglobin which is important when trying to increase oxygen levels. Studies also have proven that constant exposure to fresh air and daily exercises are also beneficial as it aids in the increased capacity of our heart to pump blood which in turn will give more chances for your lungs to oxygenate blood, allowing once again for more oxygen to be used all throughout your body.

Perwinkle and blood oxygen levels

Periwinkle is primarily a ground hugging evergreen shrub and is known to be a native of Europe. It has shiny elliptical leaves and a five-petaled blue flower. Usually it is most abundant during spring and could be found in roadsides and is cultivated for use as a garden ornament all over Europe. The other variety is the Madagascar periwinkle which as its name suggest is a native of Madagascar. However in the modern world it is now common in the tropics and in many gardens around the world. Roots and the herbs are gathered in the summers.

Many studies have shown that periwinkle has the ability to increase blood flow and in turn aid in the increase of oxygen supply in the brain. In more severe scenarios it even has been used to aid in the relief of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore it has even been shown to be effective against brain function problems that are caused by lack of oxygen in the blood which impairs brain health.

Grab some Vinpocetine a periwinkle extract and increase brain blood flow today!

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What is Vinpocetine and How Does it Help with Memory?
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Date: March 24, 2011 02:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What is Vinpocetine and How Does it Help with Memory?

Vinpocetine And Brain Health

Vinpocetine is a derivative of an organic compound found in the plant species Vinca minor, or common periwinkle. It is best known for its neuroprotective effects and used in Europe and Japan in treatment of age-related cognitive decline. More often than not, its activities inside the human body are described as vasodilator, which means it increases blood flow. It has also seen a growing presence in the North American market as a dietary supplement.

Vinpocetine is available as a prescription drug in certain European countries and Japan and has shown to be speed up prognosis of patients who suffered cerebrovascular accident, or CVA, which is commonly referred to as stroke. Most cases of cerebrovascular accident are brought on by ischemia, or very poor circulation of blood to certain parts of the brain. This is exactly what Vinpocetine is beneficial for, and recommended dosages have so far yielded very encouraging results.

Improves Blood Circulation in the Brain

It has long been postulated that one of the mechanisms of action of Vinpocetine is limiting the effects of Na+ channels that are sensitive to voltage. This creates a neuroprotective effect believed to contribute to mental clarity and sustained attention. Striatal nerve endings produce extracellular Ca+ ions that induce neuronal damage through a phenomenon called excitotocity. High levels of Ca+ ions are now alleged to be correlated with voltage-sensitive Na+ channels. Striatal nerve endings see a decline in Ca+ ions when Na+ channels are influenced by Vinpocetine, and in the process lessen excitotoxicity.

Attenuates Ischemic Neuronal Damage

In addition to limiting neuronal damage induced by excitotoxicity, which in turn results from cerebral ischemia, Vinpocetine plays an active role in the upkeep of brain cells after being subjected to ischemic damage. As a vasodilator, it not only counters the effects of ischemia but also significantly increases the brain’s access to bioactive molecules like oxygen and other nutrients exclusively distributed by the circulatory system.

It also inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase, which is specialized for the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate, or cGMP. By so doing, Vinpocetine contributes to glucose metabolism and energy production in the brain, and at the same time, improves the distribution of bioactive compounds in the central nervous system.

Displays Neuroprotective Activities

Vinpocetine and its precursor belong to a group of indole alkaloids known as tryptomines, which are present in the human brain and the rest of the central nervous system in minute quantities. These organic compounds make up several psychoactive drugs and in the human body act as neuromodulators and neurotransmitters in the form of melatonin and serotonin.

Vinpocetine in particular displays activities that are primarily anti-inflammatory in nature. Several studies point to its effects on the enzyme complex called IkB kinase, which regulates cellular responses to inflammation, by preventing the translocation of a protein complex called responsible for the process of inflammation within cells.

In a Nutshell, Vinpocetine can help you think clearer and protect the brain from inflammation and free radical damage. Give Vinpocetine a try today!

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A Periwinkle Extract Vinpocetine May Promote Cerebral Blood Flow
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Date: December 01, 2007 09:05 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: A Periwinkle Extract Vinpocetine May Promote Cerebral Blood Flow

Periwinkles form the plant genus Vinca, of which the lesser periwinkle and the greater periwinkle are the two members. They are also a form of dogbane, known for its alkaloid properties. Periwinkles are of interest to the medical profession due to their biosynthesis of a number of alkaloids that are used to protect themselves from bacteria and are also toxic to the herbivores that would otherwise eat them.

Many other plants produce alkaloids, perhaps the best known being poppy, that produces the alkaloid opium that is the precursor to heroin. The alkaloids of the periwinkle, however, have a much more beneficial use for mankind in their action on certain types of cancer such as Hodgkin’s disease, and also on the flow of blood to the brain.

The components of the periwinkle include vinblastine, which is used in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and it is the only plant known to produce the alkaloid, although only in very small quantities after synthetic seeding. This involves introducing modified tryptamines to the plant so that they produce the desired alkaloid, although only in quantities of 0.002% of the weight of the plant. Although small, this is still less expensive that synthesizing the alkaloid in a chemical plant rather than a biological one!

Chemists are now seeking more readily synthesizable alternative forms of the alkaloid that have the same effect, again using the periwinkle as a botanical chemical factory to provide them with a lead as to possible synthetic routes. However, it is for the application of another alkaloid of this amazing little plant that we are more concerned with here.

In addition to vinblastine, the periwinkle produces the alkaloid vincamine, a type of tryptamine that can be extracted from the leaves of the lesser periwinkle, the Vinca minor. This periwinkle has been used through the ages as an invigorating tonic and as an astringent to treat bleeding gums and sores in the mouth. Vincamine promotes the aerobic glycolysis that is essential to cerebral health.

Normal glycolysis, or the conversion of glucose to energy in the mitochondria of the cells of the body, occurs best in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic glycolysis). However, the brain produces up to and over 90% more energy through aerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen than through anaerobic. Hence one of the needs for such a rich supply of oxygenated blood being needed by the brain. As people grow older, or their brain tissue becomes damaged, then the supply of blood can be reduced and more and more anaerobic glycolysis is switched on. This results in an increasing loss of brain energy and hence brain function. Vincamine can reverse this effect, or at least maintain the status quo, and so enable people to maintain their brain function for longer.

It is also what is known as a vasodilator, and dilates the blood vessels in the brain allowing a greater blood flow. It is known to be beneficial in relation to tasks requiring focused concentration such as mathematical problem solving, and has also been found effective in the treatment of people with poor memory.

Vinpocetine (ethyl apovincaminate) is a derivative of vincamine, obtained by slightly modifying the molecule to produce a commercial form of the alkaloid. This possesses all of the beneficial effects of its precursor, including its positive effects on memory, believed to be due to the stimulation of serotonin production that improves the rate at which the brain can process information. Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears that has severely reduced the quality of life of so many people, can also be treated with vinpotecine.

Its vascodilation effect is thought to be through its action as a phosphodeaterase 1 (PDE1) inhibitor that results in an improvement in the plasticity of neurons. The mechanism is complex, but the end result is an improvement in the cognitive abilities of the subject. This is supplemented by the effect of Vinpocetine on the calcium levels in the blood vessels. This renders them more plastic in much the same way that some anti-hypertension treatments work to reduce blood pressure by increasing the plasticity of the blood vessels by modification of their calcium levels. It can also reduce the viscosity of the blood through its action on the “stickiness” of leucocytes and so allow the blood to run more freely through the capillaries of the brain.

These effects have been demonstrated through double blind studies, and there is little doubt that Vinpocetine helps to maintain a healthy cerebral circulation. So let’s have a recap on its various effects, and then finish with a summary of the conditions that the alkaloid can be used to treat or improve. The theory and biochemistry behind these effects is known, but is complex, but here are the major actions:

a) It improves blood flow by modifying the calcium content of the blood vessels and so improves their elasticity, hence allowing a freer movement of blood. In effect it helps the blood vessels to dilate easier.

b) It inhibits the enzyme PDE1 and by doing so helps to restore the elasticity of neurons in aging brain cells, allowing them to relax more and operate more effectively.

c) It promotes aerobic glycolysis, and so the rate at which the mitochondria of brain cells produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that is the chemical manifestation of energy.

d) It helps to maintain a good supply of glucose and oxygen in the brain to allow (c) to occur.

Not all of these may be separate effects, but the outcome is an improvement in conditions such as short term memory loss, dementia and other conditions associated with a reduction in the blood supply to the brain including Menière’s syndrome and vertigo. There is also evidence that it helps with hearing problems, macular degeneration of the eye, and fatigue.

It is a supplement that should be taken by the elderly to help with age-related memory problems, but has also been found to be beneficial in normal healthy people. The periwinkle extract Vinpocetine has been shown to have benefits, largely through an increase in the blood flow to the brain, and will be of use to anybody suffering from conditions that can be related to a deficiency in their cerebral blood supply.



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Mega Mind - re-align your body systems ...
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Date: June 03, 2005 05:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Mega Mind - re-align your body systems ...

MegaMind

Aging and nutritional imbalances can disrupt the multiple body systems that affect healthy brain function. The result: cognitive symptoms* such as forgetfulness, inability to focus, and mental fatigue. MEGAMIND™ is a Bio-Aligned Formula™ that helps align multiple systems: neurotransmitter production, antioxidant defense, energy generation, circulation, and myelin sheath generation. Complementary Formulations Source Naturals can help keep your mind sharp and alert. Use MENTAL EDGE® Bio-Aligned Formula for foundational support, or MEGAMIND, when memory symptoms* are severe. HIGHER MINDTM is an additional Bio-Aligned choice. Take these formulas alone or as the core of a program that includes additional ingredients such as DHA (NEUROMINS®), GINKGO-24™, PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE, VINCAMINE, and Vinpocetine.

In today’s complex world, we are bombarded with information. Our ability to process this massive input depends on how well we nourish the multiple body systems related to brain health. In addition, normal aging is associated with impairment of certain mental functions, according to the National Institute on Aging. The brain undergoes changes including functional decline in neurons important to learning, memory, planning, and other complex mental activities, as well as increased oxidative stress. In healthy people, these changes may result in varying degrees of age-related memory decline. Source Naturals can help, with a full line of cognitive support products.

Mental Edge®: Bio-Aligned Formula

MENTAL EDGE is a literal multivitamin for your brain. MENTAL EDGE supports production of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, antioxidant defense, energy generation, stress response and myelin sheath generation. It features nutrients needed for production of neurotransmitters— chemical messengers in the brain’s communication system. One of the most important of these is acetylcholine, which is necessary for memory and muscle movement. MENTAL EDGE also contains antioxidants—vitamin C, ginkgo, DMAE, and zinc—to protect the neuron cell membranes where electrical signaling takes place. Adaptogenic herbs provide the brain with support and energy to deal with environmental stress. Energy-generating ingredients such as ginkgo and B-vitamins are vital to the high-powered functioning of your brain. Vitamins B-5 and B-12 are also important for formation of myelin, a substance that forms a protective insulating cover around certain nerve fibers and increases nerve impulse conduction.

MegaMind™: Bio-Aligned Formula When memory symptoms* are severe, you may need a formula with extraordinary cognitive support. MEGAMIND addresses many of the same body systems as MENTAL EDGE, but does so with megadoses of brain nutrients, such as L-pyroglutamic acid and vitamin B-1 for neurotransmitter production. It also adds bacopa and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to support neurotransmitter production, and higher potency vitamin B-12 for myelin sheath generation. Like MENTAL EDGE, MEGAMIND supports energy generation and antioxidant defense. MEGAMIND augments basic support for the brain’s immense energy requirements with higher potency vitamin B-1, and with one of nutritional science’s most advanced, high-tech nutrients, alpha-lipoic acid. Lipoic acid is also an antioxidant, as are gotu kola and grape seed. MEGAMIND also supports circulation with ginkgo and gotu kola.

Mega Mind: Bio-Aligned Formula HIGHER MIND is another multi-system support formula, which features phosphatidyl serine, a structural component of nerve cell membranes, and the botanical Vinpocetine. HIGHER MIND nourishes neurotransmitter production, cell membrane stability, energy generation, antioxidant defense and myelin sheath generation.

Neurotransmitter Production: Bacopa, GABA, L-Glutamine, L-Pyroglutamic Acid, Taurine, N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine, Manganese, Vitamins B-1 & B-6

Acetylcholine Production: Acetyl L-Carnitine, DMAE, Gotu Kola, L-Pyroglutamic Acid, Vitamin B-5

Myelin Sheath Generation: Vitamins B-5 & B-12

Energy Metabolism: Acetyl L-Carnitine, Ginkgo Biloba, L-Glutamine, alpha-Lipoic Acid, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, Zinc, Vitamins B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6 & B-12, Biotin,Folic Acid

Circulation: Ginkgo Biloba, Gotu Kola

Antioxidant Defense: DMAE, Ginkgo Biloba, Gotu Kola, Grape Seed, alpha-Lipoic Acid, Zinc, Vitamin C

Complementary Cognitive Support Products

For additional support, you can supplement Source Naturals Bio-Aligned formulas with these single ingredient products: ACETYL L-CARNITINE and DMAE are both important to the synthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter associated with higher cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. DHA (NEUROMINS®) is an omega-3 fatty acid that plays a significant role in cerebral development, especially during fetal development and infancy. GINKGO is renowned for promoting blood flow to the brain. Source Naturals GINKGO-24™ is a standardized concentration of Ginkgo biloba leaves, yielding 24% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpenes (the key constituents). PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE is necessary for the health of nerve cell membranes, where electrical signaling takes place. These membranes are critical to information processing. VINCAMINE, an alkaloid obtained from the periwinkle plant, supports cerebral metabolism by promoting blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization. Vinpocetine is a derivative of vincamine, shown in research studies to improve cognitive performance and alleviate the short-term memory loss that may accompany stress or aging.

Lifestyle Tips for Cognitive Health: A Strategy for Wellness SM

Eat Well: Recent research suggests that diets rich in beta-carotene and vitamins C and E help reduce memory problems, probably by lessening oxidative stress. And new animal research at the University of Toronto found that a high-fat diet slowed the ability of rats to learn new tasks. Use Your Brain: Learn a foreign language or new hobby, do crossword puzzles, read books, and cut back on TV. Scientists at Case Western found that people who were less mentally active in middle age were three times more likely to experience memory decline as they got older. Stay Active: Vigorous walking can improve mental processes in aging individuals, according to research. Aerobic exercise increases oxygenation and blood flow to the brain, resulting in improved memory, organization, and the ability to juggle intellectual tasks. Manage Stress: Longterm anxiety or depression can make a person more forgetful. Try to regulate stress, increase social contacts, and, if necessary, seek professional help. Get Organized: Make the most of your cognitive abilities, through the use of memory aids such as “to-do” lists, notes, or calendars.

References
Braquet, P. Ginkgolides-Chemistry, Biol., 1988. FAO/WHO Expert Committee (1994). Food and Nutrition Paper No. 57. FAO: Rome. 49-55. Heiss, W.D., et al. (1993). Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 695: 327-31. Passeri, M., et al. (1990). Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. X(1/2): 75-79. Simopoulos, Artemis P. (1991). Am J Clin Nutr: 54. 438-63. Vorberg, G., M.D. Clinical Trials Journal 22.2 (1985): 149-57.



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the effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) ...
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Date: May 26, 2005 10:37 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: the effect of Vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) ...

Abstract Objectie :To investigate the effect of Vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the compromised circulation of a stroke affected hemisphere using transcranial Doppler (TCD) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods. Methods : 43 patients with ischemic stroke were randomized into Vinpocetine (VP) and placebo group in a double blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of a single-dose i.v. infusion of Vinpocetine on cerebral blood perfusion and oxygenation. In the VP group 20 mg VP in 500 ml saline, in the placebo group 500 ml saline alone were administered. The concentrations of oxy-, reduced- and total hemoglobin were measured by NIRS frontolaterally on the side of lesion while the mean cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), the pulsatility index (PI) and Doppler spectral intensity (DSI) were monitored by TCD in the middle cerebral artery on the same side. Values were averaged for the first 5 min prior to the infusion and for the last 5 min of infusion and they were compared between groups. Results : The concentration of all three chromophores increased during infusion in the VP group (mean dHbT=1.03, CI95=0.84, P=0.058; mean dHbO=0.92, CI95=0.91, P=0.071; mean dHb=0.10, CI95=0.21, P=0.297). The HbT and HbO showed a substantially smaller increase in the placebo group (mean dHbT=0.31, CI95=0.74, P=0.22; mean dHbO=0.57, CI95=0.80, P=0.094) while the Hb decreased (mean dHb=-0.26, CI95=0.29, P=0.05). Comparing to the placebo group Hb increased significantly in the VP group (P=0.027) while the increase of HbO and HbT did not reach the level of significance (P=0.29 and 0.11). DSI showed a significantly larger increase in the VP than in placebo group (dDSI=25.8 CI95=8.8 [VP]; dDSI=3.3, CI95=3.7 [Placebo], P0.005). The CBFV and PI did not differ significantly between groups. (dVm=5.02.98 cm/s [VP], dVm=4.12.57 cm/s [Placebo], P=0.28; dPI=0.08 [VP], dPI=0.09 [Placebo]; P=0.47). Conclusion :VP increases cerebral perfusion and parenchymal oxygen extraction as well. The increased perfusion was indicated by NIRS and by TCD measurement of DSI while conventional velocity and pulsatility measurements failed to detect theses effects. NIRS is a sensitive, www.elsevier.com/locate/ejultrasou Abbreiations :BP, blood pressure; CI, confidence interval; CBFV, cerebral blood flow velocity; CT, computer tomography; CytO, cytochrome-oxydase; DSI, Doppler spectral intensity; Hb, deoxyhaemoglobin; HbO, oxyhaemoglobin; HbT, total haemoglobin; HR, heart rate; MAP, mean arterial pressure; MCA, middle cerebral artery; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NIRS, near infrared spectroscopy; PET, positron emission tomography; PI, pulsatility index; TCD, transcranial Doppler; US, ultrasonography; VP, Vinpocetine.

  • Doppler spectral intensity (DSI) - scans the brain and you can see blood flow.
  • DSI increased in both groups during infusion, however, the increase was significantly higher in the Vinpocetine group (dDSI=25.8, CI95=8.8 [VP]; dDSI=3.3, CI95=3.7 [placebo] -- Significant increase in blood flow 25.8 (VP) vs. 3.3 (Placebo)
  • NIRS monitoring is feasible to detect changes of regional blood flow and tissue oxygenation.
  • The observation reported VP to enhance cerebral oxygen extraction and utilisation


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