Search Term: " hickener "
What is Guar Gum?
October 25, 2022 02:32 PM
Guar gum is a food additive that is derived from the guar bean. It is commonly used as a thickening agent, and can be found in a variety of products, such as frostings, ice cream, and sauces. Guar gum is also frequently used when baking with whole grain flours, as it helps to improve the texture and consistency of the finished product.
Guar Gum vs. Xanthan Gum
Guar gum and xanthan gum are both food additives that are derived from plant sources. They are both commonly used as thickeners, and can be found in a variety of foods, such as salad dressings, ice cream, and jams. Guar gum is made from the guar bean, while xanthan gum is made from fermented corn sugar. Both guar gum and xanthan gum are vegan-friendly and gluten-free.
Xanthan gum is a more versatile thickener than guar gum, as it can be used in both hot and cold dishes. Additionally, xanthan gum has a longer shelf life than guar gum. Xanthan gum is also more effective than guar gum at creating viscosity, or thickness, in liquids. However, guar gum is less expensive than xanthan gum, which makes it a more popular choice for many home cooks and bakers.
If you are looking for a thickening agent for your baking recipes that call for whole grain flour, then guar gum is a good option to consider. Guar gum will help to improve the texture of your baked goods, and can also be used in other dishes such as sauces and frostings. Keep in mind that xanthan gum is a more versatile thickener than guar gum, but it is also more expensive. Ultimately, the decision of which thickener to use will come down to personal preference and budget.
The Many Uses of Gelatin Powder
September 12, 2022 02:58 PM
NOW Real Food® Beef Gelatin Powder is a versatile thickener, stabilizer and texturizer that mixes instantly – no soaking necessary. Gelatin is commonly used in jams, jellies, desserts, marshmallows, and many other foods. It’s often used to create volume without adding a lot of calories. Let's explore some of the many uses of gelatin powder and the benefits it can have on your health.
One of the most common uses for gelatin powder is as a thickener for soups and sauces. If you've ever made homemade gravy or sauce and it's come out too thin, gelatin powder can help fix that. Simply mix a small amount of gelatin powder with an equal amount of cold water, then whisk it into your soup or sauce. The gelatin will help thicken it up without changing the flavor.
Gelatin powder is also commonly used in desserts such as pudding, pie filling, and ice cream. It helps give these desserts a silky smooth texture. Gelatin powder can also be used to make fruit snacks and jello. If you want to get really creative, you can even use gelatin powder to make homemade marshmallows!
In addition to its culinary uses, gelatin powder also has a number of health benefits. Gelatin is a great source of protein and amino acids, which are essential for muscle growth and repair. Gelatin also helps improve joint health by reducing inflammation and boosting collagen production. Collagen is the main structural protein found in connective tissue, so adequate collagen levels are necessary for keeping our joints healthy as we age.
As you can see, there are many uses for gelatin powder beyond just making JellO! Whether you're looking to add some protein to your diet or thicken up a soup or sauce, gelatin powder is a versatile kitchen staple that can do the job. So next time you're at the store, be sure to pick up some NOW Real Food® Beef Gelatin Powder. Your taste buds will thank you!
8 Great Reasons To Start Eating Okra
April 29, 2019 05:03 PM
Okra is a popular vegetable found in both African and Asian foods. Okra is used in both soups and stews because of its ability to thicken those meals. Okra is also a great source of fiber, antioxidants, folic acid, calcium, and also vitamins B and C. The antioxidants found in okra can fight off free radicals, which increase the chances to get cancer. The fiber in okra can help maintain a healthy digestive system and can also protect your heart.
"The antioxidants found in okra can fight off free radicals and thus reduce the risk of cancer. In fact, lectins (a form of protein) taken from the vegetable were found to have lowered the growth of breast cancer cells by over 50% (1)."
Read more: https://www.longevitylive.com/nutrition-body/healthy-eating/okra-health-benefits/
What is Okra Good For? 5 Wonderful Benefits of Okra
September 21, 2017 09:14 AM
Okra is a versatile plant that can provide both nutritional as well as health benefits. In terms of cooking, Okra can be prepared to your preference through roasting, boiling, frying or stewing. It can also be steamed to extract a gooey substance that can then be further utilized as a thickener in other recipes.
But Okra also has numerous health benefits as well. It is effective at filtering your blood, aiding in the treatment of kidney deisease. It acts as an antioxidant and is particularly useful in protecting you from liver diseases. It also helps regulate blood sugar levels leading to the belief that it is a viable alternative treatment for those affected by diabetes. It also has been shown to be an effective alternative for treating depression.
But perhaps the most exciting application is the possibility it presents in the treatment of breast cancer. This is currently being studied, but so far it seems that extracts gathered from Okra have shown promise in reducing the growth rate of cancer cells, and in eradicating some existing cancer cells. So this is an exciting development that bears further investigation.
Given the vast list of proven and potential benefits previously listed, Okra seems to be a vegetable that we should all be giving serious consideration to adding to our diets.
"Okra extracts were used in a study performed to treat human breast cancer cells due to its high lectin content. The treatment both reduced cancer cell growth by 63 percent and killed 72 percent of the cancer cells."
Read more: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgEOZOi-2Uo
What Are The Benefits Of Carob Powder?
September 20, 2014 02:50 AM
What is nourishment?
Nourishment is something that is inescapable for the supporting of life. Like air, water and asylum nourishment is likewise a fundamental necessity in our everyday life. In his occupied life, men have overlooked the criticalness of having solid nourishment. A man is approaching each part of his existence without any difficulty and has a state of mind that cares towards everything without exception. Engineering has progressed a great deal in the most recent decades, so do our dietary patterns. Bread has changed into burger; new chicken into KFC and god comprehends what else. There are wellbeing supplements, which help to keep up an adjusted eating methodology and stay solid.
What is Carob?
Have you ever become aware of carob? Then again, carob extricates. It is a nourishing supplement readied from carob plant and some different elements. It is a plant, which was first found in western Asia and the eastern piece of the Mediterranean area. Beetle bean gum is the name of the gum got from the carob seeds. They additionally find their application in natural pharmaceutical. The carob plants powdered units are dried and are then could be utilized as an element within natural solution.
Typically, carob is utilized as a thickener and is utilized in the production of sustenance, pharmaceuticals, beautifiers and a few pints. Because of its focal points carob has picked up much notoriety are late years. A percentage of the preferences of the carob that is the purpose behind its colossal prevalence are: they are low fat, low calorie and are a low perk option for chocolate. It is likewise utilized as the stimulant that we can discover in chocolates. Carob is acquired as carob powder and carob chips.
Some bad result about carob
There are a few myths about the carob, for example, carob contains cocaine and consequently it could be utilized as an option. The fact of the matter is the carob contains a few measures of the bromine not perk. The point of interest of carob is that it does not result in heart palpitations if expended in a little sum.
Benefits of carob
Dr. Subside D'adamo had formed carob Extract that has numerous profits. Carob concentrate could be utilized to keep glucose levels up. The carob concentrate is initially a mixture of 4 synergistic parts and it will help for keeping up solid intestinal vegetation and it will hinder dysbiotic bacterial over development.
Carob concentrate could be said as a low calorie, nutritious nourishment for everybody. It is assessed that the carob concentrate contains just 11 calorie for every teaspoon. Different elements contained in the carob concentrate are nectar and glycerin.
Here are 11 great profits of adding Carob to your eating methodology.
1- Contains Gallic Acid, which is utilized as an antibacterial, antiviral, against hypersensitive disinfectant.
2- Very high in Vitamin E
3- High in Calcium and Phosphorus
4- Caffeine substitute if utilized as an espresso substitute
5- Lowers Cholesterol
6- Non-Dairy substitute
7- High in Protein
8- Treats Diarrhea
9- High in Potassium
10- High in Calcium
11- Aids the Liver
Mending the Liver Using Carob
A considerable measure of the studies have been on the liver, and exactly how paramount they are to our bodies and great wellbeing. Our livers are in charge of so much that we completely must get to be more mindful of how to keep it solid. Our livers break down all our nourishments, scrubs the poisons in our bodies, forms the majority of our tangible data, and is our high temperature heater. It is the main organ in the body that can recover.
Our livers are greatly ill used in our public, and adding Carob to your eating methodology can assume a paramount part in serving to recuperate our livers. Having a solid liver is key to recuperating whatever remains of our bodies, I profoundly suggest any individual looking to mend themselves and have a healthier lifestyle, to first concentrate on mending their liver.
Now is the ideal time that we need to begin contemplating our nourishment propensities. In the event that you wish for a solid longer life, change your eating regimen. There are numerous nourishment things that are solid and wonderful in the meantime, so dear companion begins minding your well being, at last cash is not everything.
Health and industrial benefits of guar gum
January 29, 2014 05:02 PM
What is Guar Gum
The guar bean plant is well known for its guar gum. Its seeds usually undergo dehusking, milling and screening in order to obtain the gum. This powder is used in a number of foods and snacks and a lot of benefits are attributed to its intake. Most manufacturer of food stuffs use it as a fiber although this is not the only benefits the body can obtain from it.
Health benefits of guar gum
In most cases, the gum is used as a laxative. However, other advanced uses can be obtained from it. It is known to be able to effectively manage the body’s cholesterol level. When used together with a fiber called pectin, guar gum reduces the bad cholesterol in the body without having any effect on the good one. Other health related benefits are its ability to harden arteries in the body and also lead to weight loss for those people who need to shed a few pounds.
People who are experiencing bouts of diarrhea can also be given this gum to help with the condition. This is achieved by its ability to absorb excess moisture from stool and thus manage the diarrhea. Moreover, guar gum is taken by people suffering from diabetes to help in managing their blood sugar level. Its ability to reduce postprandial glucose as well as insulin level is usually exploited in this case. This is usually more effective when dietary proteins and fats in such individuals are under monitor.
Industrial uses of guar gum
Most of its industrial applications are based on properties such as solubility, crystallization and thickening ability. It is mainly used as a thickener in toothpaste and even ice cream. In ice cream, it also helps in crystal growth especially after the ice had melted and need to be frozen again. Additionally, it can also be used as a binder in various pharmaceutical products. The paper industry also makes use of this fiber in creating a denser surface on which printing is to take place.
What Is Agar Powder Used For?
January 27, 2014 09:44 AM
What Is Agar Powder Used For?
Agar, also known as agar agar or kanten, is a gelling agent that comes from a South East Asian seaweed. This natural additive has excellent gelling properties. It is often used by vegetarians as a vegetable gelatin as the true gelatin comes from calf’s feet.
For instance, biologists use it as filler in paper sizing fabric. Biologists also use it as a clarifying compound in brewing. Additionally, agar can be used as a laxative, thanks to its high fiber concentration. Better yet, the product can be used as an appetite suppressant.
People who desire to lose weight fast may find agar useful. It has no calories, no fat, no carbs, and no sugar and is loaded with fiber. As a matter of fact, 80 percent of agar is comprised of nothing but fiber.
Xanthan Gum Recipes
December 18, 2012 11:29 AM
Natural Healthy Thickener
Anyone who has wielded a ladle knows exactly what it means to get the right consistency in sauces and soups. Generally a flour, either cornstarch or arrowroot powder based additive, which is carbohydrate rich, make our soups and sauces thick, using conventional cooking methods. However, with growing concerns over carb -rich diets being linked to obesity and the recurring need for thickening required in cooking, has necessitated a switch without compromising on health.
Synthetic thickeners are not recommended though sometimes used commercially . Xanthun gum is a naturally derived form of a thickener made through the fermentation of glucose or sucrose using the harmless bacteria Xanthomonas campestris. Marketed from the 1960's, this harmless bacteria forms one of the most useful thickening agents that has been used commercially in the food industry. It has been used as an anti-settling agent, thickener and emulsifier for ice creams, smoothies, gums and confectioneries and even as a binding agent in creams ,lotions as well as other cosmetics including lipsticks.
Xanthan Gum Powder-Here are some benefits that one could look forward to:
This polysaccharide needs to be used in small quantities thus it is not only affordable but can get easily amalgamated into home cooked food recipes with absolute ease ending up providing the most mouth watering of recipes the respite from censure .
What Are The Health Benefits Of Flax Meal?
February 21, 2012 08:01 AM
Flax meal is obtained after the flax seeds (brown or yellow/golden) areground into flour/powder which can be made into porridge or added into other foods/drinks so that those who consume it will be able to derive the health benefits that accompany the meal. In some cases flax seed meal can be used as a thickener in many food preparations hence imparting into the foods its components which can be enjoyed by many people across the population thus derive the health benefits that are associated with the flax seed meal.
Flax meal is considered very useful because of the following:-
It is rich in omega-3-fatty acids; this is one of the essential nutrients that the body can not synthesize hence it must be supplied from the diet for example from flax seed meal. The fatty acids play a very important role in fighting inflammation in the body and also breaking down the excess fats that may be present in the body. This is important as it will prevent many chronic diseases such as asthma, arthritis, cardiovascular heart diseases among others which pose danger to the lives of many more especially those who are overweight and obese. Most of the fatty acids that are found in flax meal are unsaturated which makes it very important in reducing body fat.
Fiber: Soluble And Insoluble
Fiber; flax meal is rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber which is essential when one wants to reduce the level of low density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol) in the body as the level of high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol) is increased. This is possible as the fiber is able to initiate fat breakdown in various areas of the body which will finally help in stabilizing sugar levels in the body, promote the overall functioning of the intestines and more especially the colon.
Flax meal is rich in phytochemicals, ligans and antioxidants which play various roles in the body. For example ligans are very good in balancing female hormones which in the long run will help in fighting hot flashes. It is worthy to note that this fiber is important in women because it helps in preventing some forms of cancer in women. Flax meal is also important as it helps in boosting the immune system hence puts the body in a good position to fight ailments which may want to take advantage.
Applications of flax meal
As a food additive; flax meal can be added into other foods such as yogurt, ice cream among other foods thus making these foods more nutritious.
In baking; flax meal is usually incorporated in mixes that are used in making cookies and other baked products as it is able to withstand very high temperatures that are experienced in the oven. It improves on the consistence of the baked products and at the same time improving their nutritional content.
Other uses of flax meal include; use in recipes of food preparations and it can be used to replace fats and eggs which will make the food more healthier and nutritious unlike using shortenings and margarines which are unhealthy.
December 19, 2009 11:11 AM
Glucomannan is derived from the extracted mucilage of the konjac root. This plant is part of the same family as yams, but does not have the calories. Glucomannan is a 100 percent natural form of fiber. The principle use of this herb is as a bulking agent to promote the feeling of fullness.
Glucomannan is a water-soluble polysaccharide. This nutrient is considered to be a dietary fiber. Often, glucomannan is a food additive that is used as both an emulsifier and thickener. Products that contain glucomannan are marketed under a variety of brand names, but are also sold as nutritional supplements for constipation, obesity, high cholesterol, acne vulgaris, and type II diabetes. Glucomannan can be found making up about forty percent by dry weight of the roots of the konjac plant. This nutrient is also a hemicellulose, which can be found in large amounts in wood of conifer plants and in smaller amounts in the wood of dicotyledons.
Glucomannan helps to reduce cholesterol, maintain regularity, and promote intestinal health. The herb also aids in normalizing blood sugar levels, relieving stress on the pancreas, and discouraging blood sugar abnormalities such as hypoglycemia. Glucomannan also absorbs toxic substances that are produced during digestion and elimination. The herb binds toxic materials and eliminates them before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Research has determined that glucomannan and lecithin together reduce cholesterol levels. Lecithin is responsible for breaking down fat and cholesterol, and glucomannan eliminates those broken-down particles from the body. This herb expands to about fifty times its original volume when it is taken with a glass of water.
Diabetic patients have reported that they experienced benefits with glucomannan. One study, in which patients were given glucomannan daily for ninety days, found the mean fasting glucose levels to have fallen by 29 percent by the end of the ninety days. At the end of the period, the mean fasting glucose levels fell by 29 percent. Most participants in this study reduced their insulin requirements. Glucomannan may also help cholesterol levels. Animal studies have determined that there is a significant reduction in cholesterol levels when given this herb.
Before supplementing with glucomannan, it is important to speak with your health care provider. In the same sense, you should be sure to tell your health care provider about any complementary and alternative practices that you use. It is important to give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This ensures both coordinated and safe health care.
The root of the glucomannan plant is used to provide anorectic, antacid, cholagogue, digestive, nutritive, and purgative properties. The primary nutrients provided by this herb are calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, niacin, phosphorus, selenium, silicon, sodium, vitamins A, C, B1, and B2, and zinc. Primarily, glucomannan is extremely helpful in treating blood sugar disorders, high cholesterol, constipation, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, and obesity. Additionally, the herb is very beneficial in dealing with atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastric problems, hypoglycemia, and pancreatic problems.
November 18, 2005 05:45 PM
Not Just Good, WHEY GOOD.
Whey good gives you 23 grams of high quality protein in one serving. Mixes instantly—just stir and enjoy.
We didn’t add any thickeners or gums—whey good protein is simply a healthy blend of different whey proteins, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and arabinogalactan sweetned with xylitol.
FOS was added for nutritive support as a prebiotic nutrient to bifidobacteria and lactobacillus.
Arabinogalactan is a natural soluble fiber added for its reputed ability to provide nutritive support for healthy digestion and immune health. Xylitol is a sweetener which doesn’t promote cavities.
Feds Subsidized Poor Nutrition
October 29, 2005 01:54 PM
Feds Subsidized Poor Nutrition
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) this year issued a new food pyramid aimed at convincing Americans to eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins such as dairy, meat and beans. While the USDA publicizes its pyramid with much fanfare, the agency implements policies that subsidize the consumption of nutrition-poor, high fat and processed foods, while offering no incentive to farmers to grow healthful crops.
The Pyramid Versus Farm subsidies
A recent Associated Press (AP) article* contrasted the pyramid recommendations with a breakdown of this year’s $17 billion in direct subsidies to farmers.
Overproduction Leads to Lower Prices
U.S. farm policy leads to the overproduction of nutrition-poor, fat and starch-laden foods. As a result, the prices of these foods go down, while healthy food remains less affordable.
A related AP story describes the barriers faced by poor families who would prefer a more nutrition’s diet but end up eating cheap, unhealthy food. Adam Drewnowski, director of the University of Washington’s Center of public Health Nutrition is quoted: “Energy-dense foods rich in starch, sugar or fat are the cheapest option. As long as the healthier lean meats, fish and fresh produce are more expensive, obesity will continue to be a problem for the working poor.”
Food Policy and the wellness Revolution
With obesity and related health problems at a crisis point, some consumer advocates are trying to change our government’s food policies. An effective response to the current dietary crisis requires political charge as well as education about healthy lifestyles. Meanwhile, it is a wise strategy for individuals to develop a personal, nutritional supplement regimen. The centerpiece of this program should be a scientifically advanced and comprehensive multiple such as Source Naturals Life Force.
Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) and Mercury Cleansing Programs...
June 21, 2005 05:02 PM
by Isaac Eliaz, M.D., M.S., L.Ac.
Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) is a dietary supplement derived from the peel and pulp of citrus fruit. MCP is mostly known for its positive effects on cellular health. Recently, however, clinical research on MCP has produced exciting results for its use as a gentle chelator (eliminator) of mercury and other heavy metals. Some of the expanding clinical applications for MCP include:
The Problem with Mercury
Recent news on mercury is particularly concerning for the U.S. population. In March 2004 the EPA issued a press release reporting nearly all fish contained traces of mercury. Some samples contained levels high enough to harm an unborn baby or young child's developing nervous system. These findings prompted the EPA to issue a warning to women who may become pregnant, pregnant women and nursing mothers advising them to eat only two meals of fish per week that are thought to have lower levels of mercury.1 In their most recent update (August 2004), the EPA issued a warning that 1/3 of the nation's lakes and 1/4 of its river ways are contaminated with toxic levels of mercury and other contaminants, and warned pregnant women and children against consumption of fish from these sources. Additionally, a National Academy of Sciences panel definitively warned that some children who had been exposed to mercury while in the wombs of their mothers were at risk for becoming those children "who have to struggle to keep up in school and who might require remedial classes of special education." The risk of mercury toxicity from fish has reached epidemic levels. Two studies have further spurred on the concerns of mercury toxicity, as they both found women to have mercury levels that are 8-10% above what is considered safe.1,2 Furthermore, women who ate more fish were found to have higher levels of mercury. Another source of mercury toxicity may be amalgam dental fillings. Heavy metals, in conjunction with the abundant presence of environmental toxins and xenoestrogens, constitute a dangerous insult to the body through DNA damage, hormonal modulation, immune suppression, oxidative stress, and cellular irritation.
A New Application for MCP Use: Heavy Metal Detoxification
The standard western medical approach for removing mercury from the body to treat mercury toxicity is chelation. This procedure is performed with harsh chelators that can cause multiple side effects while potentially robbing the body of some of its essential nutrients. While this may be the routine and most beneficial procedure when facing a serious toxicity problem, are there other, gentler ways to reduce mercury levels? Two recent clinical studies have found that MCP may be a promising new dietary solution for reducing heavy metal load. In one recent clinical study, MCP was administered to a group of volunteers, and baseline levels of their total body mercury burden were measured and then compared against levels after treatment with MCP (15 grams of PectaSol® daily) for four months. The results showed a significant average decrease (over 60%; p=0.03) in the total body mercury burden after treatment with MCP3 In an earlier study, PectaSol® was given to patients and proven to increase urinary secretion of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic.4 Both studies concluded that MCP may be a promising alternative to the harsher intravenous chelating therapies as MCP was found to be both effective and free of any side effects.
How MCP Works as a Gentle Chelator
Pectins are natural gelling agents, binders, thickeners, and stabilizers in foods. They mostly consist of galacturonic acid and galacturonic-acid methyl esters with average molecular weights from 50,000 to 150,000 daltons. High-methoxy (HM) pectin has at least 50% DE (degree of esterification) or greater, while a low-methoxy (LM) pectin?s DE is 50% or less. For systemic chelation of heavy metals, pectin is modified to a low molecular weight, and low-methoxy content. My observation from using MCP as a detoxification agent in my clinic is that it works as a gentle chelator in the bloodstream and it is very useful for ongoing use. Because fish are still recommended as part of a healthy diet and an essential source of certain nutrients (essential fatty acids like DHA), mercury levels are also becoming a widespread health concern. It is a Catch-22 for dietary health. As the widespread environmental cleanup of mercury is unlikely in the short-term, the medical community should develop methods to treat toxicity or reduce high body levels of mercury body burden. One approach is the use of traditional and alternative medicine cleansing programs along with the use of dietary supplements such as MCP that may act as gentle chelators. For chelation purposes, 5-15 grams of MCP should be taken per day depending on mercury levels for one year. Maintenance at 2-5 grams per day thereafter is usually sufficient. In my practice, I use 15 grams per day or 15 grams per day in the first 3-5 days of the month and 5 grams per day for the remainder of the month. MCP is generally regarded as safe and is well tolerated. Reported side effects have been rare, but may include mild and transient gastrointestinal discomfort.
1-CDC Press Release: Blood and Hair Mercury Levels in Young Children and Women of Childbearing Age-United States, 1999 (see:/media/mmwrnews/n010302.htm#mmwr3) 2-Schober, SE, Sinks, TH, Jones, RL et al. (2003) Blood mercury levels in US children and women of childbearing age, 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association. 289(13) :1667-74. 3-Eliaz, I. (2004) Modified citrus pectin (MCP) in the treatment of cancer. Paper presented at: The American Chemical Society Annual Meeting; Philadelphia, PA. 4-Eliaz, I. and D. Rode (2003). The effect of modified citrus pectin on the urinary excretion of toxic elements. Fifth Annual Conference of Environmental Health Scientists: Nutritional Toxicology and Metabolomics, University of California, Davis.
Isaac Eliaz, M.D., M.S., L.Ac., is a pioneer in the field of integrative medicine and founder of Better Health Publishing®, an education-based company that provides health care professionals, consumers and other interested parties with scientific research on integrative medicine. He is a respected author, clinical practitioner and frequent guest lecturer on integrative medical approaches to health, immune enhancement and cancer prevention and treatment. Since 1991, Dr. Eliaz has maintained a busy private practice in Sebastopol, California, and is the current medical director of the Amitabha Medical Clinic and Healing Center (email:email@example.com) which focuses primarily on integrative and holistic protocols for cancer patients as well as those with chronic health challenges.