Search Term: " SURGEONS "
Hair loss: THIS could be causing you to go bald - but there is a solution
May 30, 2017 11:14 AM
It is well studied that heading a football can cause brain damage and dementia, some new research has shown that it can also cause hair loss. This hair loss, also known as alopecia, can cause chronic inflammation in the scalp which leads to hair loss. There are other things we do that can also cause traumatic hair loss and there is no way to reverse it naturally. Fortunately skilled hair transplant surgeons can reverse the process and give people a full head of hair
Read more: Hair loss: THIS could be causing you to go bald - but there is a solution
Learn how iodide can fix hemorrhoids over night
Hemorrhoids, also popularly known as piles, is a condition characterized by enlarged veins in the lower rectum. This condition is majorly caused by blood blockage in the hemorrhoidal complex veins. The hemorrhoidal veins is located just above the internal opening of the anus and can enlarge enough to protrude and give subsequent disturbance and squeezing while setting causes pain.
Constipation and hardened stools due to lack of diet or fluids is the primary cause of hemorrhoids. People who are experiencing constipation have little or no peristalsis process (the process that cause wave-like motion in their bowel through their intestines), and when the bowel strain to have such movement, the result is hemorrhoids. Other causes of hemorrhoids include diarrhea, pregnancy, heavy lifting, and long periods of standing or sitting.
The standard conventional treatment includes lubrication of the surface of the veins with medication that reduce pain and help to shrink the hemorrhoid. Sitz baths and cold or hot packs are also used to soothe the irritated area. In conventional allopathic treatment, SURGEONS can operate the hemorrhoids and successfully remove it or may be even hardened through injection.
Iodine is popular for eliminating hemorrhoids. Iodine is used in a form called SSKI (Saturated Solution of Potassium Iodide). It should be clear that SSKI can easily cause burning sensation and should be used with a carrier such as flaxseed or olive. A mix of 20 drops of SSKI should be mixed with carrier oil and applied on the affected area at night just before going to bed. Note that iodine stains and it is recommended that you wear bedclothes that you don’t worry about.
How Iodide can fix Hemorrhoids over Night
Saturated solution of potassium iodine is close to 100 in inhibiting and killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses before causing serious infections. So when you apply a few drops of this product with carrier oil, you are sure of preventing any microorganism from affecting the protruded rectum. Taking an ounce of water with about 10 drops of water also results in rapid accumulation of SSKI in all secretions parts of the body and highly assists to eliminate hemorrhoids.
Applying SSKI on the hemorrhoids affected area ensure that it is soft and protected from all kind of germs and this alone enough to solve the problem overnight. A research done show that 6 to 8 drops of SSKI taken daily significantly reduce fibrocystic breast disease to insignificance within 3 to 6 months and when victims of hemorrhoids use apply SSKI or take some drops of the same with water, they get healed within a few weeks.
While using SSKI for treatment, it is vital to monitor the thyroid functions since there sometimes side effects of this treatment. One of the side effect although minimal is peyronie’s disease that results when the tissue along the shaft of the penis thickens and results in erections that increasingly curve and even painful.
Applying SSKI to thicken tissue twice a day over some weeks helps to soften it considerably and assist to prevent any micro-organism from investing in the affected area and eventually allow normal functioning. In fact, hemorrhoids, disappears sometimes literally overnight when a mixture of 20 drops of SSKI and an ounce of flaxseed oil is applied to them at night.
Can The Consumption of Collagen Help Hair, Skin, Nails, And Joints?
May 30, 2013 02:09 PM
Collagen is produced naturally by the body. It's a protein contained in connective tissues in the body. The benefits of collagen supplements are the most amazing fad on the market for health and beauty industry recently.
About 25% of proteins contained in our bodies are collagens. It is the second greatest substance in the body following water. Its production reduces as people get older. However, supplements are available in the market and help restore the quantity of collagen in the body. Collagen supplements are available in different forms such as gelatin and elastin. Gelatin has been used for a long time to strengthen nails and hair.
Collagen needs to be taken with water, 2 hours after taking a meal. It needs to pass through the stomach into the intestines and not get digested. In case it is broken down then it becomes ineffective so it is wise to take collagen on an empty stomach.
Below are some benefits of collagen;
Collagen for skin
It works to eliminate signs of old age by making skin firm, flexible and young because of the fibrous and steady structure of the substance. Several plastic SURGEONS use the substance to provide their customers a youthful look. Collagen is introduced directly to the skin on the parts with depressions formed by wrinkles. It makes the wrinkles less visible. The injection might last for about 6 months before you undergo another procedure to eliminate wrinkles. The time used to complete this procedure depends on the extent of wrinkles. Reduce occurrence of cellulite and works to restore the fibers that make cellulite to appear on skin. It is also used for artificial skin treatment for burn patients. Collagen applied in this process is usually acquired from bovine or equine to restore damaged skin as a result of burns.
Collagen supplements help reduce rheumatoid arthritis signs such as joint inflammation and lack of mobility. This might be because of collagen anti-inflammatory components and impacts on the body's immune system. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid patients use collagen supplements to treat joints. It offers a supportive structure for many body tissues, for instance, muscles or bones. It helps to rebuild cartilage material found in joints. Collagen reduces pain due to these conditions as well.
Collagen helps to strengthen nails and help to get rid of the white spots. Frequent use will help the nail-bed to maintain a healthy color.
Hair It's a key component in hair growth since it kills free radicals that can affect your hair texture, growth and thickness. Applying oils with collagen on the hair shaft could enhance hair growth. Taking collagen capsules reinforce hair and increase the thickness of a person's hair, providing your hair with an generally fuller look.
The suggested quantity for hair regrowth and thickness for aesthetic purposes is 4-6g. It also helps to decrease the appearance of grey hair by improving structure and health of hair follicle. Apply collagen creams directly on the scalp to make grey hair look darker and less dried out. Collagen is very efficient in treating dry brittle hair. It is useful in restoring and reversing split ends and also enhancing moisture levels in the hair.
If you are not currently taking collagen, whats stopping you?
What Makes CoQ10 So Good For Your Health?
February 14, 2012 07:51 AM
BENEFITS OF TAKING C0Q10
C0Q10 is a coenzyme that is produced naturally by the body or supplied by the various foods consumed such as oily fish, whole grains and liver. One of the functions of this chemical compound is to produce adenosine-50- triphosphate in the body cells that contributes to production of energy for the various metabolic and physical purposes. CoQ10 is very important in the body because it helps to maintain and improve the health in the human body. One of the benefits of taking it that it helps to solve obesity, reduce fatigue as well as improve the ability of the body to fight diseases.
Research has proved that the chemical compound helps to prevent accumulation of toxins in the gums that leads to swollen gums. Doctors also indicate that it has the ability to increase fertility through enhanced sperm motility. In the Sport persons it helps to increase and improve their athletic performance through enhanced energy production. However it is important to exercise in moderation to avoid a decline in the levels of this compound due to excessive exercise.
C0Q10 helps to prevent the occurrence of heart diseases in persons. Research shows that the levels of this compound are low in person suffering from heart diseases while persons with high levels of the chemical are less susceptible to heart diseases. Hence taking this health chemical compound daily can help to reduce the chances of one suffering from heart complications. Doctors also use it to treat patients who suffer from congestive heart failure.
High blood pressure is one of the causes of heart problems in most people. C0Q10 helps to lower the blood pressure in the body hence preventing damage of the heart. Before a heart surgery, SURGEONS introduce the compound into the patient so as to prevent irregular heart beat as well as strengthen heart functioning during the recovery period after the surgery. This is achieved through reduction of damage that may be caused by free radicals and oxidative damage.
Recent research has also shown that CoQ10 in diabetic patients helps to prevent them from experiencing hypoglycaemic response. However patients should consult a doctor before taking the drug so as to get advice on how to take the drugs safely. CoQ10 supplements achieve this through reduction of cholesterol levels in the blood which in turn maintains the level of blood sugar at the recommended level.
Presence of free radicals in the body results in health complications such as fast aging and destruction of the cell membrane. CoQ10 has some antioxidants that eliminate these free radicals from the body. It also prevents the radicals from causing oxidative damage to the DNA in the cells. Accumulation of free radicals in the tissues is usually as a result of certain behaviours such as cigarette smoking, UV light, pollution and also as from the various metabolic processes that take place in the body.
Due to the positive results of CoQ10 in preventing heart problems and maintain the body systems in the body, researchers and scientists hope that the drug can be used to treat Alzheimer disease and breast cancer in women.
In men under 65, prostate surgery can save lives.
July 27, 2005 03:32 PM
10. In men under 65, prostate surgery can save lives.
When it comes to treating prostate cancer, one question prevails: To have surgery or not to have surgery? Since many cancers are slow growing, doctors often suggest that patients take a wait-and-see approach, opting to monitor tumor growth instead. While this gamble can pay off, those with faster-growing cancers may not be so fortunate. A new study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, determined that when men under age 65 opt for surgery, the odds of surviving prostate cancer increase while chances of the cancer recurring decrease.
At a glance, the findings may seem to contradict research that urges men to watch and wait, but the study targeted patients with localized tumors large enough to be felt during a manual rectal exam. Following radical prostatectomy, when SURGEONS remove the prostate, surrounding tissue and lymph nodes, cancer was less likely to spread locally or to distant sites. After 10 years, 19.2% of the men in the surgery group had local progression, compared to 44.3% in the watchful waiting group. Among the surgery group, 15.2% experienced distant cancer progression, while 25.4% of those who eschewed surgery had their cancer spread.
Now that you know the ins and outs of this complex but treatable disease, there’s really no good excuse to avoid getting regular screenings and following prevention guidelines. Being proactive about your prostate could save your life.
Recognizing the Signs: Roadmap to a Healthy Heart
June 13, 2005 10:06 AM
Recognizing the Signs: Roadmap to a Healthy Heart by Louis McKinley Energy Times, January 2, 2004
From time immemorial, people have tuned into life's lessons that come from the heart. Sadly, times are changing: If you're like most inhabitants of today's harried world, you may be too distracted to detect important clues about your cardiovascular circumstances.
And while heart lessons may be more complicated than simply connecting the physiological dots, understanding those heart messages are imperative for improving and maintaining your heart health.
Every cell in your body relies on heart-powered blood flow to keep it supplied with nutrients, oxygen, hormones and other natural chemicals necessary for survival. Without that supply of life-giving substances, few cells in the body-including those within the heart itself-can survive very long.
And just as damage to a major roadway can cause mayhem with traffic patterns, damage to blood vessels and the heart can wreak a lumpy cardiovascular havoc that blocks the passage of blood and endangers your heart's well-being.
Your Heart Disease Chances
Within the last ten years, scientific research performed by investigators around the world has focused on the specific factors that most strongly influence your chances of developing heart disease and suffering either a heart attack or a stroke.
While much of your risk depends on your genetic inheritance and family history, several factors that determine your heart health are within your control.
The most important factors you can do something about include:
* Smoking: free radicals generated by burning tobacco causes significant damage to blood vessels and other cells
* Lack of exercise: the human body is designed for consistent, moderate physical activity; without exercise, the body slacks off in creating antioxidant protection for arteries
* Diabetes: when excess blood sugar persists, physiological processes begin that endanger the heart and arteries
* Cholesterol: when oxidized (a chemical process that has been compared to a kind of internal rusting), cholesterol can form artery-blocking plaque; antioxidant nutrients like vitamin C and natural vitamin E may help the body limit this process
* High blood pressure: excessive pressure within the blood vessels raises the risk of damage to the heart and arteries; a program of weight loss and exercise can help control blood pressure
* Being overweight: the extra body fat carried around your middle is linked to a greater risk of heart problems
Heart Attack Signs
Do you think you know what a heart attack feels like? Well, if you think it feels like a dramatic pain somewhere in your chest that knocks you to the floor, you're probably wrong. "Most heart attacks do not look at all like what one of my colleagues calls the 'Hollywood' attack-the heart attack you see on television or in the movies," warns Julie Zerwic, MD, professor of surgical nursing who has studied what happens when people develop heart disease and suffer damage to their hearts.
"The symptoms [of heart problems] are not necessarily dramatic. People don't fall down on the floor. They don't always experience a knife-like, very sharp pain. In fact, many people describe the sensation as heaviness and tightness in the chest rather than pain," she says. And, if you're a woman experiencing a heart attack, you may not even feel discomfort specifically in your chest. Instead you may experience a severe shortness of breath. The apparent ambiguity of the discomforts caused by a heart attack lead many people to either ignore them or take hours to realize they need to go to the emergency room at the hospital.
Consequently, much fewer than half of all individuals undergoing a heart attack actually go to a hospital within an hour of the start of the attack. That delay can be a fatal mistake.
"Timing is absolutely critical," laments Dr. Zerwic. "If treatment starts within a hour after the onset of symptoms, drugs that reestablish blood flow through the blocked coronary artery can reduce mortality by as much as 50%. That number drops to 23% if treatment begins three hours later. The goal is to introduce therapy within two hours."
However, in Dr. Zerwic's research, only 35% of non-Hispanic whites go to the hospital within an hour of the start of a heart attack. And among African-Americans, the number of people going to the hospital right away drops to a frighteningly low 13%.
Often, people will lie down or use a heating pad to relieve the tightness they feel in the chest," says Dr. Zerwic. "They may take some medicine and wait to see if that works. All these steps postpone needed treatment."
Signs of a possible heart attack include:
* Chest discomfort: Heart attacks most frequently cause discomfort in the center of the chest that can either go away after a couple of minutes (and come back) or persist. The discomfort may feel like strong pressure, fullness or pain.
* Upper body discomfort: An attack may set off pain or discomfort in either or both arms, and/or the back, neck, jaw or stomach.
* Shortness of breath: Chest discomfort is frequently accompanied by shortness of breath. But it's important to note that shortness of breath can take place even in the absence of chest discomfort.
* Other signs: You can also break out in a cold sweat, or feel nauseated or light-headed.
A Woman's Sleep Signs
If you are a woman who suddenly experiences a marked increase in insomnia and puzzling, intense fatigue, you may be in danger of an imminent heart attack.
In an attempt to understand how women's symptoms of heart problems differ from those of men, researchers talked to more than 500 women in Arkansas, North Carolina and Ohio who had suffered heart attacks. (Technically, what they had experienced is referred to as acute myocardial infarction.)
They found that chest pain prior to a heart attack was only reported by about 30% of the women surveyed.
More common were unusual fatigue, sleep disturbances and shortness of breath (Circulation Rapid Access, 11/3/01).
"Since women reported experiencing early warning signs more than a month prior to the heart attack, this [fatigue and sleep problems] could allow time to treat these symptoms and to possibly delay or prevent the heart attack," says researcher Jean C. McSweeney, PhD, RN, nursing professor at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock. In Dr. McSweeney's study, more than nine out of ten women who had heart attacks reported that they had had new, disturbing physical problems more than a month before they had infarctions.
Almost three in four suffered from unusual fatigue, about half had sleep disturbances, while two in five found themselves short of breath.
Other common signs included indigestion and anxiety.
"Women need to be educated that the appearance of new symptoms may be associated with heart disease and that they need to seek medical care to determine the cause of the symptoms, especially if they have known cardiovascular risks such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, overweight or a family history of heart diseases," says Dr. McSweeney.
Dr. McSweeney warns that, until now, little has been known about signs that women are having heart trouble or heart attacks. The fact that most of Western medicine's past attention has been on heart problems in men has obscured the warning signs in women. As part of Dr. McSweeney's studies, she and her fellow researchers have discovered that more than 40% of all women who suffer a heart attack never feel any chest discomfort before or during the attack.
"Lack of significant chest pain may be a major reason why women have more unrecognized heart attacks than men or are mistakenly diagnosed and discharged from emergency departments," she notes. "Many clinicians still consider chest pain as the primary symptom of a heart attack."
Vitamins for Diabetes and Heart Disease
Having diabetes significantly raises your chance of heart disease, which means that keeping your blood sugar levels under control can reduce your chances of suffering a heart attack.
Today, 17 million Americans have diabetes and, as the country's population in general gains weight and fails to exercise, the number of people suffering this problem continues to grow.
The first line of defense against diabetes consists of exercise and weight control. All you have to do is take a brisk walk for 30 minutes a day to drop your chances of diabetes (American Journal of Epidemiology 10/1/03).
"We have found that men and women who incorporate activity into their lifestyles are less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who are sedentary. This finding holds no matter what their initial weight," said Andrea Kriska, PhD, professor of epidemiology at University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.
To help your body fight the development of diabetes, researchers also recommend vitamin C and natural vitamin E.
Researchers working with lab animals at the University of California at Irvine have found that these antioxidant vitamins can help insulin (the hormone-like substance secreted by the pancreas) reduce harmful blood sugar. In addition, these vitamins shrink the chances of organ damage that can be caused by diabetes (Kidney International 1/03).
In this investigation, these vitamins also helped reduce blood pressure, another risk factor that raises heart disease risk.
"Blood pressure was lowered to normal, and free radicals were not in sufficient numbers to degrade the sugars, proteins and nitric oxide," notes Nick Vaziri, MD, professor of medicine at the University of California. "We think this shows that a diet rich in antioxidants may help diabetics prevent the devastating cardiovascular, kidney, neurological and other damage that are common complications of diabetes."
Free Radical Blues
Dr. Vaziri and his group of researchers found that untreated diabetes raised blood pressure and increased the production of free radicals, caustic molecules that can damage arteries and the heart. Free radicals can change blood sugar and other proteins into harmful substances, boosting tissue and heart destruction.
In Dr. Vaziri's work with lab animals, he found that treating diabetes with insulin lowered blood pressure and helped keep sugar and protein from changing into dangerous chemicals, but allowed the free radicals to subvert nitric oxide, a chemical the body uses to protect itself from free radicals.
In this investigation, adding vitamins C and E to insulin insulated the body's sugars, proteins and nitric oxide from oxidative assault. This produces a double advantage: Lowering the risk of heart disease and other damage to the body from diabetes.
Maitake, an Oriental mushroom that has been shown to have many health benefits, can also be useful for people with diabetes who are trying to avoid cardiovascular complications. Laboratory studies in Japan demonstrate that maitake may help lower blood pressure while reducing cholesterol (Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1997; 20(7):781-5). In producing these effects, the mushroom may also help the body reduce blood sugar levels and decrease the risk of tissue damage.
Tobacco smoke is one of the most notorious causes of heart problems. In the same way a hard frost exerts a death grip on a highway, the smoke from cigarettes can freeze up arteries and hamper their proper function. A healthy artery must stay flexible to comfortably allow adequate circulation.
But "...when blood vessels are exposed to cigarette smoke it causes the vessels to behave like a rigid pipe rather than a flexible tube, thus the vessels can't dilate in response to increased blood flow," says David J. Bouchier-Hayes, MD, professor of surgery at the Royal College of SURGEONS in Ireland, who has studied the deleterious effects of tobacco.
This rigidity is called endothelial dysfunction. When arteries are rigid, blockages gum up vessels, clots and other impediments to blood flow appear, and your risk of heart attack and stroke increases (Circulation 2001 Nov 27; 104(22):2673).
This condition can also cause chest pain (angina) similar to that caused by a heart attack, and should be evaluated by a knowledgeable health practitioner.
Although all experts recommend you stop smoking to lower your heart disease risk, some studies have found that Pycnogenol(r), a pine bark extract that helps the body fight inflammation, may ease some of smoking's ill effects.
In a study of platelets, special cells in the blood that can form dangerous blood clots, researchers found that Pycnogenol(r) discouraged platelets from sticking together (American Society for Biochemical and Molecular Biology 5/19/98). By keeping platelets flowing freely, this supplement may alleviate some of the heart-threatening clots that tobacco smoke can cause.
In Ayurvedic medicine, a traditional therapy from India, an herb called guggul has also been used to lower the risk of blockages in arteries. This herb, derived from the resin of the mukul tree, has been shown to reduce cholesterol by about 25%. People taking this herb have also reduced their triglycerides (harmful blood fats) by the same amount (Journal Postgraduate Medicine 1991 37(3):132).
The Female Version of Heart Disease
For one thing, women often don't suffer from the crushing chest pain that for most people characterizes a heart attack; instead, many women experience back pain, sweating, extreme fatigue, lightheadedness, anxiety or indigestion, signs that can be easily misread as digestive troubles, menopausal symptoms or indicators of aging.
The genders also differ in how heart disease poses a threat. While men seem most endangered by the buildup of blockages in arteries, women apparently are more at risk from endothelial dysfunction. But more study needs to be done since, in many cases, researchers have been unable to pin down the precise mechanism that causes many women to die of heart disease.
Scientists have found that the number of women in their 30s and 40s who are dying from sudden cardiac arrest is growing much faster than the number of men of the same age who die of this cause. But research by the Oregon Health & Sciences University and Jesse E. Edwards Cardiovascular Registry in St. Paul, Minnesota, shows that while doctors can pinpoint the coronary blockages that kill men, they can't find specific blockages in half of the female fatalities they have studied (American Heart Journal 10/03).
"This was an unexpected finding. However, the study underscores the need to focus on what is causing these younger women to die unexpectedly because the number of deaths continues to increase," says Sumeet Chugh, MD, a medical professor at Oregon.
Since the failure of arteries to relax probably contributes to heart disease in many women, eating red berries, or consuming supplements from berries such as chokeberry, bilberry or elderberry, may be important in lowering women's heart disease risk. These fruits help arteries expand and allow blood to flow freely.
Red berries are rich sources of flavonoids, polyphenols and anthocynanins. The anthocyanins are strong antioxidants that give the berries their color. Research at the Indiana University School of Medicine have found that these chemicals can interact with nitrous oxide, a chemical produced by the body, to relax blood vessels (Experimental Biology conference 5/20/02).
As researchers work to devise lifestyle roadmaps that can steer you around the perils of heart disease, they are finding that exercise is a key path to avoiding cardiovascular complications.
A 17-year study of about 10,000 Americans found that those who exercised and kept their weight down (or took weight off and kept it off) experienced a significantly lower risk of heart problems (Preventive Medicine 11/03).
"The fact is that those who both exercised more and ate more nevertheless had low cardiovascular mortality," says Jing Fang, MD, of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, New York. Burning calories in physical activity may be the secret to reducing heart disease risk and living longer, she says.
Dr. Fang's research used information collected from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1975 and then computed how much people exercised, how their body mass indices varied and which of these folks died of heart disease during the next two decades.
In the study, more than 1,500 people died of heart disease. Those who worked out and consumed more calories cut their risk of heart disease death in half.
Exercise Is Essential
"Subjects with the lowest caloric intake, least physical activity, and who were overweight or obese had significantly higher cardiovascular mortality rates than those with high caloric intake, most physical activity, and normal weight," Dr. Fang notes. The individuals in the study who were overweight and didn't exercise had a bigger risk of heart disease even if they tried (and succeeded) at eating less.
"This suggests that heart disease outcome was not determined by a single factor, but rather by a compound of behavioral, socioeconomic, genetic and clinical characteristics," according to Dr. Fang.
According to researchers, if your job requires a great deal of physical activity, your health will be better if you get another job. Exercise on the job not only doesn't decrease your risk of heart disease, it may actually raise it. The reason: On-the-job activity is linked to heart-endangering increases in job stress.
Research into this subject, performed at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, found that while recreational exercise slowed hardening of the arteries, workers who had to exert themselves during the workday had arteries that were blocked at a younger age (American Journal of Medicine 7/03).
In this study, researchers examined about 500 middle-aged employees as part of what is called the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study.
"We found that atherosclerosis progressed significantly faster in people with greater stress, and people who were under more stress also were the ones who exercised more in their jobs," says James Dwyer, PhD, professor of preventive medicine at the Keck School. According to Dr. Dwyer, "This suggests that the apparent harmful effect of physical activity at work on atherosclerosis-and heart disease risk-may be due to the tendency of high-activity jobs to be more stressful in modern workplaces.
"It appears from our findings that the psychological stresses associated with physically active jobs overcomes any biological benefit of the activity itself."
On the other hand, the scientists found that heart disease drops dramatically among those who exercise the most in their spare time. In the study, people who vigorously worked out at least three times a week had the lowest risk. But even those who just took walks enjoyed better heart health than people whose most strenuous activity was working the TV remote. Dr. Dwyer says, "These results are important because they demonstrate the very substantial and almost immediate-within one or two years-cardiovascular benefit of greater physical activity."
Lowering your risk of heart disease is substantially up to you. Listen to what your heart tells you it needs; then, exercise your right to fetch some cardiovascular necessities.