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Can Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health? Darrell Miller 4/2/19
Alfalfa as human food: A rich source of nutrients, it is consumedas a tea, herb, supplement and now as flour VitaNet, LLC Staff 8/27/18
CV Sciences, Inc. Announces Landmark Publication on the Toxicology and Safety Assessment of ... VitaNet, LLC Staff 8/9/18
Food with avocado extract could prevent bacterial illness Darrell Miller 12/9/16
Homeopathic Remedies Darrell Miller 6/30/14
Fruits and Vegetables for a Healthy Mind! Darrell Miller 4/23/08
California Proposition 65 (Prop 65) and Progesterone Cream Warnings Darrell Miller 2/17/06
Celadrin and MSM Fact Sheet Darrell Miller 12/7/05
Dr. Verghese, M.D. Liver Detoxifier & Regenerator Fact Sheet Darrell Miller 12/7/05
Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) Darrell Miller 8/2/05
Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids Darrell Miller 7/27/05
CHITOSAN: The Fiber that Binds Fat Darrell Miller 6/25/05
Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplement Darrell Miller 6/21/05
Glycerylphosphorylcholine -- Supports Cognitive Function in AD ... Darrell Miller 5/24/05
Nutritional Support for Prostate Health Darrell Miller 5/11/05

Can Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health?

Date: April 02, 2019 02:06 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Can Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health?

There are two different microbes called Coprococcus and Dialister that are now showing a correlation between depression and the absence of these two floras. A study was done in which 1,000 participants filled out assessments that analyzed their quality of life. Those who were shown to have significant signs of depression were more likely to have a deficiency in the two previously mentioned forms of gut flora. Since the microbes in our gut are responsible for other conditions such as childhood Leukemia and inflammatory diseases, their correlation to mental wellness is not a complete shock.

Key Takeaways:

  • Gut bacteria, or gut microbiome, are bacteria which can be found living in our digestive tracts and these bacteria have been the focus of many medical studies.
  • Gut microbiome significantly affects one’s physical health and it is known that each person has a different mix of this bacteria.
  • The work examining the relationship between gut bacteria and mental health is a large scale work that has never been undertaken in humans until now.

"Researchers from Belgium recruited more than 1,000 people in order to examine their gut microbiome. Of them, 173 participants were diagnosed with depression or fared poorly in a survey assessing their quality of life."

Read more:


Alfalfa as human food: A rich source of nutrients, it is consumedas a tea, herb, supplement and now as flour

Date: August 27, 2018 08:53 AM
Author: VitaNet, LLC Staff (
Subject: Alfalfa as human food: A rich source of nutrients, it is consumedas a tea, herb, supplement and now as flour

Alfalfa as human food: A rich source of nutrients, it is consumed as a tea, herb, supplement and now as flour

Some Romanian researchers have investigated the edible legume, alfalfa, and have made some assessments. The notable livestock feed makes an A-plus human food too. As a human food alfalfa makes the grade nutrition-wise, because it encompasses a wide array of vitamins and minerals.

Shaklee, an American company puts out a product called "Alfalfa Complex." A byproduct of the complex is an alfalfa flour, which was used as a testing source by the researchers. The researchers found the flour to be an ample source of protein and amino acids. Specific minerals found in the flour included, zinc, calcium and iron, magnesium and phosphorus. Alfalfa has also been found to ameliorate the risk for many diseases. It aids circulation and anemia, protects against arteriosclerosis, and strengthens overall immunity. Besides flour, supplementation with alfalfa is possible via powder, capsules and pills.

Key Takeaways:

  • Alfalfa can be consumed in the form of tablets, capsules, or even a powder.
  • The beneficial components of alfalfa are even more enriched when it is paired with vitamin C.
  • Alfalfa has the ability to help the body combat various digestive tract disorders.

"Far from just being a source of protein and amino acids, alfalfa concentrate flour can also be considered as a reliable supplier of minerals."

Read more:


CV Sciences, Inc. Announces Landmark Publication on the Toxicology and Safety Assessment of ...

Date: August 09, 2018 09:53 AM
Author: VitaNet, LLC Staff (
Subject: CV Sciences, Inc. Announces Landmark Publication on the Toxicology and Safety Assessment of ...

CV Sciences, Inc. Announces Landmark Publication on the Toxicology and Safety Assessment of ...

The scientific study of the analysis of CBD oil got a major push recently. It's been almost 40 years since the last thorough toxicological safety assessment was run on a CBD oil. However, recently CV sciences had AIBMR Life Sciences Inc. perform a complete array of toxicological studies on Plus CBD oil, the company's consumer-lauded hemp cannabidiol oil. The study attested to the safety of oral consumption of the product.

The study conclusions, which have been shared in a peer-reviewed journal, attest to the fact that the oil was discovered to be non-clastogenic, non-mutagenic and non-genotoxic. A spokesperson for CV Sciences noted that the company was "thrilled" and would encourage all CBD companies to allow such studies to be conducted for their own base materials.

Key Takeaways:

  • CV Sciences Inc hired AIBMR Lifesciences Inc. to perform a full toxicological screening of CV's consumer-lauded CBD oil, specifically an extract from the base raw materials comprising it.
  • A peer-reviewed journal has published the findings, which indicate that the extract tested is non-mutagenic, non-clastogenic and non-genotoxic.
  • A spokesperson for CV Sciences indicated that the company was "thrilled" and also urged other CBD companies to have their base materials tested too.

"The toxicological assessment is the first known published data of its kind since the 1980 Rosenkrantz et al.’s publication with respect to toxicology data on CBD, Cannabichromene and hashish oil."

Read more:


Food with avocado extract could prevent bacterial illness

Date: December 09, 2016 10:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Food with avocado extract could prevent bacterial illness

A recent study has found that extracts from avocado seeds can potentially be used as a natural additive incorporated into ready-to-eat foods to control microbes that cause Listeria. Listeria is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Researchers from Tecnologico de Monterrey in Mexico compared enriched acetogenin extract from avocado seeds with two name-brand synthetic antimicrobials. While humans already consume acetogenins from avocado pulp that are above antilisterial levels, bioavailability and safety of the extracts from avocado seeds need further Assessment.

Key Takeaways:

  • A study found that extracts from avocado seeds can potentially be used as a natural additive incorporated into ready-to-eat foods to control.
  • A recent study has found that extracts from avocado seeds can potentially be used as a natural additive incorporated into ready-to-eat foods to control microbes that cause Listeria.
  • Food products formulated without synthetic additives can be harmful for health therefore, food scientists are looking for ways to replace synthetic additives with natural ones.

"A recent study has found that extracts from avocado seeds can potentially be used as a natural additive incorporated into ready-to-eat foods to control microbes that cause Listeria."



Homeopathic Remedies

Date: June 30, 2014 09:54 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Homeopathic Remedies

Homeopathic remedies

The utilization of homeopathic remedies is an option to tried and true therapeutic medicine. A moderately new limb of solution, it utilizes a comprehensive methodology for treating side effects of a condition. Homeopathic remedies are developing in prominence, generally on the grounds that tried and true therapeutic medicine has been frequently unsuccessful the root issue of a condition, not simply side effects.

Homeopathy- -the act of homeopathic drug -was initially utilized by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in Germany in the eighteenth century. It utilizes the antiquated idea of "like cures like," an idea that is much the same as that of inoculation. Its reason is that if a substantial amount of a substance causes, manifestations in a sound individual, then a little measure of that same substance will cure an individual experiencing those indications.


The speculations about exactly how homeopathic remedies function are backed by real clinical trials and in practice. Professionals who use homeopathic remedies accept that that the human body is always striving to achieve a state of regularity. It responds to transform it deciphers as "fixable." Homeopathic remedies work by utilizing a little weakened measure of a substance to fortify the body's recuperating systems. The conviction is that this will trigger the invulnerable framework to assault the illness and the body will come back to an ordinary, sound condition.


Homeopathic meds are accessible over the counter, however an Assessment by a confirmed homeopathy specialist is prescribed before curing toward oneself. Throughout a homeopathic Assessment, side effects of an infection are deliberately watched and reported, alongside insights about the general conduct of the patient. Insights about the persistent's preferences and aversions, general demeanor and identity characteristics are contemplated. A homeopath utilizes these perceptions to guide the patient in picking the best cure and dose for his specific condition.


There is no genuine experimental confirmation that medication with homeopathic remedies is powerful. On the other hand, the therapeutic group recognizes that it is conceivable that some of these remedies may be useful and it is for the most part concurred that they are totally protected. Homeopathy is still an extremely youthful extension of the drug. Extra experimental study is required to keep in mind the end goal to accommodate clashing convictions concerning its adequacy.

Why use Homeopathics?

Homeopathy is the second most broadly utilized arrangement of pharmaceutical as a part of the world. Its development in ubiquity in the United States has been around 25 to 50 percent a year all through the most recent decade.

This achievement is powered by a few elements:

• Homeopathy is greatly powerful. At the point when the right cure is taken, results might be fast, finish and lasting.

• Homeopathy is totally protected. Indeed infants and pregnant ladies can utilize Homeopathy without the risk of symptoms. Homeopathic remedies can likewise be taken nearby other pharmaceutical without delivering unwanted reactions.

• Homeopathy is common. Homeopathic remedies are ordinarily focused around characteristic fixings.

• Homeopathy works in concordance with your insusceptible framework, dissimilar to some customary meds which stifle the invulnerable framework.

• Homeopathic remedies are not addictive - once alleviation is felt, you ought to quit taking them. On the off chance that no alleviation is felt, you are likely taking the wrong homeopathic cure.

• Homeopathy is comprehensive. It treats all the side effects as one, which in reasonable terms implies that it addresses the reason, not the indications. This frequently implies that side effects handled with Homeopathy don't repeat.

• Homeopathic remedies are sheltered items that create no reactions. The doses are so little and weakened that they are totally safe. Additionally, some feel that the significant serenity connected with utilizing regular substances helps a general feeling of prosperity that helps help the resistant framework and empowers the body to heal itself.


Fruits and Vegetables for a Healthy Mind!

Date: April 23, 2008 03:06 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Fruits and Vegetables for a Healthy Mind!

Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. A new study published in the Journal of School Health studied how good nutrition impacts children’s academic performance by identifying specific dietary factors that are associated with the academic performance. Using multilevel regression methods to examine the associated between indicators of diet quality and academic performance, researchers found that students reporting increased diet quality were significantly less likely to fail the literacy Assessment. In particular, students with an increased fruit and vegetable intake and lower caloric intake of fat were significantly less likely to fail the Assessment. In particular, students with an increased fruit and vegetable intake and lower caloric intake of fat were significantly less likely to fail a Assessment. Dietary fat intake was also demonstrated as important to academic performance. They surveyed 5,000 fifth grade students in Nova Scotia, Canada, gathering information on the dietary intake, height, and weight of each student, and examining socio-demographic variables. Using a food frequency questionnaire, researchers calculated each student’s intake of foods from recommended food groups as well as energy and nutrient intakes. They calculated the diet quality index-international (DQI-I), a composite measure of diet quality. The elementary literacy Assessment was used to assess academic performance, requiring students to read a variety of materials and answer written questions based on texts. (Journal of School Health, April 2008, volume 78, number 4, pages 209-2158)


California Proposition 65 (Prop 65) and Progesterone Cream Warnings

Date: February 17, 2006 06:29 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: California Proposition 65 (Prop 65) and Progesterone Cream Warnings

Scientific Safety Information on Progesterone

California Proposition 65 (Prop 65) and Progesterone Cream Warnings Amy Kosowski, M.S., LDN

Prop 65: What is it?

Proposition 65, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 , was enacted as a ballot initiative in the state of California in November of 1986. The Proposition was intended by its authors to protect California citizens and the State's drinking water sources from chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects or other reproductive harm, and to inform citizens about exposures to such chemicals 1.

Proposition 65 requires the Governor to publish, at least annually, a list of chemicals “known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity .” Progesterone, as well as other human hormones, appear on this list 1. Set forth below is the information that formed the bases for the addition of progesterone to the Prop 65 list by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (“OEHHA”).

Prop 65 and Progesterone - Perspective

In August of 2004, OEHHA published a document stating the rationale for the addition of Progesterone to the Prop 65 list 2. This document is a review of human, animal, and in vitro studies that used progesterone, synthetic progestins, and other progestagens (progesterone-like compounds). Experimental data from the use of all of these compounds were mixed together, along with data from studies using other steroid hormone derivatives (mainly synthetic estrogens) and many different methods of administration.

Although this review covered the existing scientific literature on progesterone and its many derivative compounds, there are many problems with the type of data analysis that was employed.

First, progesterone is endogenous to humans and necessary for bone and reproductive health while progestins and other synthetic progestagens are not. Progestins and progestagens are similar in molecular structure to progesterone, but when they bind to progesterone receptors, their effects are usually much stronger and more likely to cause abnormal physiologic responses 3, 4. Furthermore, the majority of the studies concerning the health effects of these progesterone derivatives involved combinations with synthetic estrogens 2-4.

There were very few studies mentioned in the 2004 document that used exclusively bio-identical progesterone (the kind found normally produced by humans as well as that used in progesterone creams), and those studies that did were at supra-physiologic doses (very high). The doses of progesterone ranged from 10-1000 times the dose usually recommended by manufacturers of progesterone creams 2, although in a few cases, the doses were closer to the recommended dosages.

The route of administration of progesterone is also at issue. All of the studies cited in the OEHHA document used either oral, injected, or suppository forms of hormones; none was conducted using transdermal creams. This is an important consideration because hormones absorbed through the skin are metabolized differently than hormones that are administered via other routes 5, 6.

Putting it Together

While the OEHHA Prop 65 reference document on progesterone 2 is a broad survey of the published scientific literature examining the potential effects of the pharmaceutical use of progesterone and its synthetic derivatives, it is not clear at all that these effects would be seen with the use of low-dose progesterone creams.

The OEHHA Prop 65 progesterone document evaluates a broad range of information regarding progesterone and synthetic materials that are not natural progesterone. The conclusion reached was not challenged, and it is on that basis that progesterone creams now carry the Prop 65 warning.


1 California OEHHA Web Site: // .

2 Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Section, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency (2004) Evidence on the developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Progesterone.

3 Campagnoli C, Abba C, Ambroggio S, Peris C (2005) Pregnancy, progesterone and progestin in relation to breast cancer risk. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97(5):441-450.

4 Campagnoli C , Clavel-Chapelon F , Kaaks R , Peris C , Berrino F (2005) Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer. Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005 96(2):95-108.

5 de Lignieres B, Dennerstein L, Backstrom T (1995) Influence of route of administration on progesterone metabolism. Maturitas 21:251-257.

6 Gompel A, et al. (2000) Progestins were also proapoptotic in normal as well as in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Steroids 65(10-11):593-598.

7 Bu SZ ( 1997) Progesterone induces apoptosis and up-regulation of p53 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cancer 79(10):1944-50.


Celadrin and MSM Fact Sheet

Date: December 07, 2005 01:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Celadrin and MSM Fact Sheet

Celadrin and MSM Fact Sheet

Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA Certified Clinical Nutritionist, Diplomate in Advanced Nutritional Laboratory Assessment Revised 11/10/05

LIKELY USERS: People lacking flexibility or mobility; People wanting temporary control of aches and pains; People wanting to reduce pro-inflammatory body chemicals. KEY INGREDIENT(S): Celadrin® powder 500 mg. Provides 350 mg. of actual EFAC (esterified fatty acid carbons). This is a proprietary blend of Esterified Fatty Acid Carbons of Myristate, Myristoleate, Laurate, Oleate, Palmitate and Palmitoleate in a base of tapioca and silica.

MSM 100 mg.

MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: CELADRIN® is an all-natural proprietary matrix of esterified (cetylated) fatty acid carbons (EFAC) derived from tallow of USA-raised cattle. This product is developed through a proprietary process of esterifying oil & has been clinically tested. Celadrin promotes joint health by improving flexibility, pain management and mobility. The myristoleic acids and the cetylated forms may alter the 5-LOX enzyme and change the leukotriene production, inhibiting inflammatory compounds.

Celadrin® may offer some noticeable benefits faster than other substances, like glucosamine and chondroitin. Though it is not a substitute for these important tissue-building nutrients. ADDITIONAL PRODUCT USE INFORMATION & QUALITY ISSUES: MSM has synergistic abilities to reduce certain substances in the body which may affect the inflammatory process.

Contains Cetyl Myristoleate (CM, CMO), but in a patented blend of other fatty acid carbons. This product (Celadrin ®) has its own clinical studies showing safety and efficacy.

Also will be available in a softgel of the same potency (350 mg. of EFAC) as of December 2005 (product 3017, 90 softgels)

SERVING SIZE & HOW TO TAKE IT: Three capsules a day, preferably with meals.

POSSIBLE SYNERGISTS: Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM, Joint Support Products, Manganese, Vitamin C, other Antioxidants



GENERAL: Pregnant and lactating women, and people using prescription drugs, should consult their physician before taking any dietary supplement.

This information is based on my own knowledge and references, and should not be used as diagnosis, prescription or as a specific product claim. This document has not been reviewed by the FDA or by the company posting it. Information given here may vary from what is shown on the product label because this represents my own professional experience and understanding of the science underlying the formula and ingredients.

When taking any new dietary supplement, use common sense and cautiously increase to the full-recommended dose over time, looking for possible side effects. Repeat this process for each new supplement that you start to use.

REFERENCES: 1. J Rheumatol. 2002 Aug;29(8):1708-12. Cetylated Fatty Acids Improve Knee Function in Patients with Osteoarthritis. Hesslink R Jr, Armstrong D 3rd, Nagendran MV, Sreevatsan S, Barathur R.
2. Anticancer Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):453-8. Aspirin and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM): A Search for Common Mechanisms, with Implications for Cancer Prevention. Ebisuzaki K.
3. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):167-73. A Multicentered, Open-Label Trial on the Safety and Efficacy of Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Barrager E, Veltmann JR Jr, Schauss AG, Schiller RN. (allergy related inflammation)

Vitanet ®


Dr. Verghese, M.D. Liver Detoxifier & Regenerator Fact Sheet

Date: December 07, 2005 12:16 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Dr. Verghese, M.D. Liver Detoxifier & Regenerator Fact Sheet

Dr. Verghese, M.D. Liver Detoxifier & Regenerator Fact Sheet Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 02/10/05

LIKELY USERS: People with exposure to toxins that stimulate liver activity; People with exposure to infections that may have damaged liver tissue

KEY INGREDIENT (S): Milk Thistle extract (Silymarin), Glutathione, NAC, Bupleurum extract, Grape Seed Extract, Dandelion Root extract, Artichoke Leaf, Schisandra and about a dozen additional herbs, along with synergistic ingredients

MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: This formula was developed by a physician based on his clinical experience.

Artichoke leaf has antioxidant properties and restores healthy growth to liver cells.

Bupleurum may promote normal cell growth, immune function and is a staple of Chinese liver formulas. Dandelion Root may serve as a natural down-regulator of inflammatory chemicals in the body. NAC supports liver Glutathionestores (antioxidant, detoxifier, heavy metal chelator). Schisandra protects liver cells from toxins and may help to regenerate damaged cells. Milk thistle’s antioxidant Silymarin improves liver function tests and protects liver cells against oxidative damage. It also protects liver cells by blocking and removing toxins from the liver. Silymarin aids in regenerating injured liver cells and blocks fibrosis.

OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES: Samuel Verghese, M.D. (AM), Ph.D., BCIA-EEG, DAAPM, holds a degree in Alternative Medicine and specializes in Nutritional, Ayurvedic and other Alternative Health Solutions. He is certified as a BCIA-EEG Associate Fellow.

AMOUNT TO USE: Three or more capsules a day, preferably with meals.

COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS: Antioxidants (supports liver detoxification), Alpha Lipoic Acid, EGCg Green Tea Extract, Astragalus, medicinal mushrooms (shiitake, reishi), SAM-e (may improve bile flow and promotes methylation to detoxify chemicals), TMG, lecithin, thymus glandular extract, Cordyceps.

AVOID: acetaminophen, alcohol, iron supplements (also red meat, fortified flour)

CAUTIONS: This formula should not be used by pregnant women, nursing mothers children or those with liver problems unless recommended under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Please notify your physician about your supplement use if you are using any drugs! Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


1. Salmi HA, Sarna S. Effect of silymarin on chemical, functional and morphological alterations of the liver. A double-blind controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982;17:517–21.
2. Feher J, Deak G, Muzes G, et al. Liver-protective action of silymarin therapy in chronic alcoholic liver diseases. Orv Hetil 1989;130:2723–7 [in Hungarian].
3. Muzes G, Deak G, Lang I, et al. Effect of silymarin (Legalon) therapy on the antioxidant defense mechanism and lipid peroxidation in alcoholic liver disease (double blind protocol.) Orv Hetil 1990:131:863–6 [in Hungarian].
4. Velussi M, Cernigoi AM, De Monte A, et al. Long-term (12 months) treatment with an anti-oxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia, exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde levels in cirrhotic diabetic patients. J Hepatol 1997;26:871–9.
5. Lieber CS. Nutrition in liver disorders. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC (eds). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1999, 1179–80.
6. Rodriguez-Moreno F, Gonzalez-Reimers E, Santolaria-Fernandez F, et al. Zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in chronic alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol 1997;14:39–44.
7. Gibbs K, Walshe JM. Studies with radioactive copper (64 Cu and 67 Cu); the incorporation of radioactive copper into caeruloplasmin in Wilson’s disease and in primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Sci 1971;41:189–202.
8. Lieber CS. Nutrition in liver disorders. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC (eds). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1999:1179–80.
9. Halsted CH. Alcohol: medical and nutritional effects. In Ziegler EE, Filer LJ (eds). Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 7th ed. ILSI Press, Washington, DC, 1996, 553.
10. Blum AL, Doelle W, Kortum K, et al. Treatment of acute viral hepatitis with (+)-cyanidanol-3. Lancet 1977;2:1153–5.
11. Suzuki H, Yamamoto S, Hirayama C, et al. Cianidanol therapy for HBs-antigen-positive chronic hepatitis: a multicentre, double-blind study. Liver 1986;6:35–44.
12. Tang W, Eisenbrand G. Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1992. (Astragalus)
13. Hobbs, C. Medicinal Mushrooms. Santa Cruz, CA: Botanica Press, 1995, 96–107.
14. Harada T, Kanetaka T, Suzuki H, Suzuki K. Therapeutic effect of LEM (extract of cultured Lentinus edodes mycelia) against HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterol Int 1988;1(suppl 1):abstract 719. 15. Kelly GS. Clinical applications of N-acetylcysteine. Altern Med Rev. Apr1998;3(2):114-27.
16. Montanini S, et al. Use of acetylcysteine as the life-saving antidote in Amanita phalloides (death cap) poisoning. Case report on 11 patients. Arzneimittelforschung. Dec1999;49(12):1044-7.
17. Buckley NA, et al. Oral or intravenous N-acetylcysteine: which is the treatment of choice for acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(6):759-67. 18. Girardi G, Elias MM. Effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity. Toxicology. Apr1991;67(2):155-64.
19. Berkson MB. Alpha-Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid): My Experience With This Outstanding Therapeutic Agent. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 1998;13(1):44-48.
20. Breithaupt-Grogler K, et al. Dose-proportionality of oral thioctic acid--coincidence of Assessments via pooled plasma and individual data. Eur J Pharm Sci. Apr1999;8(1):57-65.
21. Gebhardt R. Antioxidative and Protective Properties of Extracts from Leaves of the Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Against Hydroperoxide-induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Jun1997;144(2):279-86.
22. Adzet T, et al. Hepatoprotective Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds From Cynara scolymus Against CCl4 Toxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes. J Nat Prod. Jul1987;50(4):612-17.
23. Gebhardt R. Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Jun1997;144(2):279-86.
24. Khadzhai I, et al. Effect of Artichoke Extracts on the Liver. Farmakol Toksikol. Nov1971;34(6):685-87.
25. Newall CA, et al. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. Cambridge: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:36-37.
27. Newall CA, et al. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press;1996:96-97.
28. Bradley PR, ed. British Herbal Compendium. Vol.1. Bournemouth: British Herbal Medicine Association;1992:73-74.
29. Newall CA, et al. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press;1996:96-97.

Vitanet ®


Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)

Date: August 02, 2005 03:52 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)


Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the biologically active co-enzyme of thiamine.4

Thiamine and its Co-enzyme, TPP

Thiamine (vitamin B1) plays an essential part in the metabolism of glucose, through actions of it co-enzyme TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate). TPP is formed by the enzymatically-catalyzed addition of two phosphate groups donated by ATP to thiamine. TPP also goes by the name "thiamine diphosphate." In the cytoplasm of the cell, glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, is metabolized to pyruvic acid, which is converted into acetyl-CoA, otherwise known as "active acetate." Acetyl CoA enters the mitochondrion, where it serves as the starting substrate in the Kreb’s cycle (citric acid cycle). The Krebs cycle is the primary source of cellular metabolic energy. TPP, along with other co-enzymes, is essential for the removal of CO2 from pyruvic acid, which in turn is a key step in the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA. CO2 removal from pyruvic acid is called "oxidative decarboxylation," and for this reason, TPP was originally referred to as "cocarboxylase." TPP is thus vital to the cell’s energy supply. Benfotiamine helps maintain healthy cells in the presence of blood glucose. Acting as a biochemical "super-thiamin," it does this through several different cellular mechanisms, as discussed below.

Benfotiamine and Glucose Metabolism Benfotiamine normalizes cellular processes fueled by glucose metabolites.

As long as glucose remains at normal levels, excess glucose metabolites do not accumulate within the cell. The bulk of the cell’s glucose supply is converted to pyruvic acid, which serves as substrate for production of acetyl CoA, the primary fuel for the Krebs cycle. Of the total amount of metabolic energy (in the form of ATP) released from food, the Krebs cycle generates about 90 percent.5 In the presence of elevated glucose levels, the electron transport chain, the final ATP-generating system in the mitochondrion, produces larger than normal amounts of the oxygen free radical "superoxide." This excess superoxide inhibits glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as key enzyme in the conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid, resulting in an excess of intermediate metabolites known as "triosephosphates." Increase triosephophate levels trigger several cellular mechanisms that result in potential damage to vascular tissue. Cells particularly vulnerable to this biochemical dysfunction are found in the retina, kidneys and nerves.

Benfotiamine has been shown to block three of these mechanisms: the hexosamine pathway, the diaglycerol-protein kinease C pathway and the formation of Advanced Glycation End-poducts. As discussed below, benfotiamine does this by activating transketolase, a key thiamin-dependent enzyme.6 Benfotiamine stimulates tranketolase, a cellular enzyme essential for maintenance of normal glucose metabolic pathways.* Transketolase diverts the excess fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate, (formed by the inhibition of GAPDH, as mentioned above), into production of pentose-5-phosphates and erythrose-4-phosphate and away from the damaging pathways. Benfotiamine activates transketolase activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells incubated in glucose.6 To test benfotiamine’s ability to counteract these metabolic abnormalities caused by elevated blood glucose, studies have been done in diabetic rats. Benfotiamine increases transketolase activity in the retinas of diabetic rats, while concomitantly decreasing hexosamine pathway activity, protein kinase C activity and AGE formation.6

Benfotiamine and Protein glycation Benfotiamine controls formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs).

AGEs have an affinity for proteins such as collagen, the major structural protein in connective tissue. AGEs are formed through abnormal linkages between proteins and glucose. This occurs via a non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction similar to the "browning reaction" that takes place in stored food.7 At high glucose concentrations, glucose attaches to lysine, forming a Schiff base, which in turn forms "early glycosylation products." Once blood glucose levels return to normal levels, the amount of these early glycosylation products decreases, and they are not particularly harmful to most tissue proteins. On long-lived proteins such as collagen, however, early glycosylation products are chemically rearranged into the damaging Advanced Glycation End-products. AGE formation on the collagen in coronary arteries causes increased vascular permeability. This vessel "leakiness" allows for abnormal cross-linking between plasma proteins and other proteins in the vessel wall, comprising vascular function and potentially occluding the vessel lumen. A number of other potentially harmful events may also occur, including production of cytokines that further increase vascular permeability. Endothelin-1, a strong vasoconstrictor, is over produced, increasing the possibility of thrombosis and generation of oxygen free radicals is stimulated.8 It is vitally important to support normal glucose metabolic pathways so that formation of AGEs is minimized. Benfotiamine, in the test tube (in vitro) prevents AGE formation in endothelial cells cultured in high glucose by decreasing the glucose metabolites that produce AGEs.9 Endothelial cells make up the membranes that line the inner walls of organs and blood vessels. In a rat study comparing the effects of Benfotiamine with water-soluble thiamin, Benfotiamine inhibited AGE formation in diabetic rats while completely preventing formation of "glycooxidation products," which are toxic by products of chronic elevated blood glucose. AGE levels were not significantly altered by thiamin.10 Benfotiamine also normalized nerve function in the animals. After three months of administration, "nerve conduction velocity (NCV)," a measure of nerve function, was increased by both benfotiamine and thiamin; at six months, NCV was normalized by benfotiamine, whereas thiamin produced no further increases in this parameter.

Dysfunctional glucose metabolic pathways leading to AGE formation occurs in endothelial cells of the kidneys. In a recent animal study, benfotiamine was administered to rats with elevated glucose levels. Benfotiamine increased transketolase activity in the kidney filtration system of these rats, while at the same time shifting triosephophates into the pentose pathway and preventing protein leakage.11


Benfotiamine has an excellent tolerability profile and can be taken for long periods without adverse effects.3,12 The statements in this fact sheet have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Scientific References

1. Bitsch R, Wolf M, Möller J. Bioavailability Assessment of the lipophilic benfotiamine as compared to a water-soluble thiamin derivative. Ann Nutr Metab 1991;35(2):292-6.

2. Schreeb KH, Freudenthaler S, Vormfelde SV, et al. Comparative bioavailability of two vitamin B1 preparations: benfotiamine and thiamine mononitrate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 52(4):319-20.

3. Loew D. Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;34(2):47-50.

4. Frank T, Bitsch R, Maiwald J, Stein G. High thiamine diphosphate concentrations in erythrocytes can be achieved in dialysis patients by oral administration of benfontiamine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;56(3):251-7.

5. Pike RL, Brown ML. Nutrition, An Integrated Approach, 3rd Ed. New York:MacMillan; 1986:467.

6. Hammes H-P, Du X, Edlestein D, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic neuropathy. Nat Med 2003;9(3):294-99.

7. Monnier VM, Kohn RR, Cerami A. Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1984;81(2):583-7.

8. Brownlee M. The pathological implications of protein glycation. Clin Invest Med 1995;18(4):275-81.

9. Pomero F, Molinar Min A, La Selva M, et al. Benfotiamine is similar to thiamine in correcting endothelial cell defects induced by high glucose. Acta Diabetol 2001;38(3):135-8.

10. Stracke H, Hammes HP, Werkman D, et al. Efficacy of benfotiamine versus thiamine on function and glycation products of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2001;109(6):300-6.

11. Babaei-Jadidi R, Karachalias N, Ahmed N, et al. Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine. Diabetes 2003;52(8):2110-20.

12. Bergfeld R, MatsumaraT, Du X, Brownlee M. Benfotiamin prevents the consequences of hyperglycemia induced mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen specifies and experimental diabetic neuropathy (Abstract) Diabetologia 2001; 44(Suppl1):A39.

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Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids

Date: July 27, 2005 11:31 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids


• Defends Against Free Radicals*

The xanthone flavonoids and other compounds in mangosteen fruit are responsible for its high level of antioxidant activity. In vitro tests have been conducted on XanoMax? mangosteen 10% extract to determine the level of free radical scavenging ability in both watery and fatty environments. A major test recognized as the industry standard for measuring antioxidant activity is known as the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay.

The ORAC test is an in vitro assay that works by measuring the amount of free radical damage done to a fluorescent probe (measured by a change in probe intensity). Antioxidants lessen the damage to the probe fluorescence, which indicates a reduction in free radical damage. This measure is used to quantify the antioxidant’s (or combination of antioxidants) capacity to quench free radicals. This quantification is known as the total ORAC value. The total ORAC value provides a relative measure of total antioxidant strength of any substance, allowing for comparison of different mixtures. A high ORAC value corresponds to a high total in vitro antioxidant capacity.

The development of the ORAC test has led to a number of commonly eaten foods being assessed in terms of total ORAC scores per serving. Similarly, particular combinations of antioxidants, such as those in nutritional formulas, can also be assessed for their total ORAC scores. This has led to the ability to determine the potential usefulness of a particular supplement in increasing overall antioxidant capacity.

When XanoMax? mangosteen 10% extract was tested for ORAC value, the resulting antioxidant potential was over 3,500 ORAC units per gram of extract. This result is extremely high. ORAC values of compounds vary with their nutrient concentration, moisture content and other factors. For comparison purposes, whole blueberries, considered to be a rich source of antioxidants, had an ORAC value of 61 units per gram, while pomegranate tested at 105 ORAC units per gram.1 XanoMax? mangosteen extract is a potentially rich source of beneficial antioxidants*

• Maintains Healthy Immune Function*

Evidence from several animal and in vitro studies on various cell lines suggests that components of mangosteen fruit extract may play a role in modulating several factors important to healthy immune function. Of the active components, xanthone derivatives seem to play the major role in influencing parameters of immune function in animals and in vitro models. Mangostin is the xanthone derivative that most of these studies have focused on.

A study published in 2002 assessed the effects of mangosteen extracts on the release of histamine from rat cell lines. The comparison was made to extracts of a plant frequently used in Japan, Rubus suavissimus, which is a known inhibitor of IgE-mediated histamine release from these cells. The assay showed that the mangosteen extracts used inhibited the release of histamine from these cells more potently than the extract of Rubus suavissimus. In addition, the authors compared the two herbs for prostaglandin E2 synthesis in another rat cell line and found that the mangosteen extract potently inhibited prostaglandin E2 synthesis in this in vitro trial, whereas the other herb had no effect.2

An earlier study was performed in guinea pig tracheal and rabbit thoracic aortal tissue. In this study, alpha mangostin prevented histamine-induced contraction and was shown to be a competitive histamine receptor antagonist in the smooth muscle tissue of the trachea and aorta of the animals selected. The results seen in this laboratory study were determined to be concentration-dependent. The authors suggested that alpha mangostin should undergo further studies to determine its effects on the modulation of the histamine response.3

Further in vitro Assessments point to potential actions of mangosteen components in modulating effectors of occasional inflammation in the immune system. Studies in rat glioma cells suggest that mangostins inhibit enzymatic reactions that can lead to the production of specific prostaglandins.4,5 By inhibiting these reactions, mangostins may play a role in modulating overall immune function, promoting healthy immunity.

Mangosteen and its constituents hold much promise for their potential ability to enhance immune function and promote health. In addition to being a highly nutritious food, mangosteen extract is full of antioxidant activity. It has an extremely high ORAC value and a great potential for enhancing free radical defenses in the body. Best Mangosteen 10% extract contains XanoMax ™, which is standardized to a high level of active mangostin, the class of compounds shown in in vitro studies to benefit certain aspects of immune function. Safety Scientific References

1. XanoMax ™: High-potency extract of Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana. Renaissance Herbs. From
2. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1137-41.
3. Chairungsrilerd N, et al. Pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Oct 31;314(3):351-6.
4. Nakatani K, et al. Gamma-Mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Sep;66(3):667-74.
5. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9.


CHITOSAN: The Fiber that Binds Fat

Date: June 25, 2005 07:55 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: CHITOSAN: The Fiber that Binds Fat


Chitosan is a natural product that inhibits fat absorption. It has the potential to revolutionize the process of losing weight and by so doing, reduce the incidence of some of the most devastating Western diseases we face today. Chitosan is indigestable and non-absorbable. Fats bound to chitosan become nonabsorbable thereby negating their caloric value. Chitosan-bound fat leaves the intestinal tract having never entered the bloodstream. Chitosan is remarkable in that it has the abilty to absorb an average of 4 to 5 times its weight in fat.60

The same features that allow chitosan to bind fats endow it with many other valuable properties that work to promote health and prevent disease. Chitosan is a remarkable substance whose time has come.

Chitosan: A Brief History

Chitin, the precursor to Chitosan, was first discovered in mushrooms by the French professor Henri Braconnot in 1811.61 In the 1820’s chitin was also isolated from insects.62 Chitin is an extremely long chain of N-acetyl-D-glucoseamine

a) Chitosan full structure
b) Abbreviated Chitosan structure
c) Fanciful "crab oligomer" Chitosan structure showing functional claw

glucoseamine units. Chitin is the most abundant natural fiber next to cellulose and is similar to cellulose in many respects. The most abundant source of chitin is in the shells of shellfish such as crab and shrimp. The worldwide shellfish harvest is estimated to be able to supply 50,000 tons of chitin annually.63 The harvest in the United States alone could produce over 15,000 tons of chitin each year.64

Chitin has a wide range of uses but that is the subject of another book. Chitosan was discovered in 1859 by Professor C. Rouget.65 It is made by cooking chitin in alkali, much like the process for making natural soaps. After it

• Waste Water Purification • Stabilizing Oil Spills • Stabilizing Fats in Food Preparation • Antibacterial Protection for Seeds • Flavor Stabilizer • Stabilizes Perishable Fruits/Vegetables • Ion Exchange Media • Bacterial Immobilizer • Cosmetic and Shampoo Additive • Tableting Excipient • Absorbant for Heavy Metal Removal
Table 5. Industrial Uses of Chitosan 66-75

• Absorbs and Binds Fat • Promotes Weight Loss • Reduces LDL Cholesterol • Boosts HDL Cholesterol • Promotes Wound Healing • Antibacterial/Anticandida/Antiviral • Acts as Antacid • Inhibits the Formation of Plaque/Tooth Decay • Helps Control Blood Pressure • Helps Dental Restoration/Recovery • Helps to Speed Bone Repair • Improves Calcium Absorption • Reduces Levels of Uric Acid
Table 6. Health and Nutrition Uses of Chitosan 60,66,77-107

is cooked the links of the chitosan chain are made up of glucosamine units. Each glucosamine unit contains a free amino group. These groups can take on a positive charge which gives chitosan its amazing properties. The stucture of chitosan is represented schematically in Figure 2. Research on the uses of chitin and Chitosan flourished in the 1930s and early 1940s but the rise of synthetic fibers, like the rise of synthetic medicines, overshadowed the interest in natural products. Interest in natural products, including chitin and chitosan, gained a resurgence in the 1970s and has continued to expand ever since. Uses of Chit osan Some of Chitosan's major uses—both Industrial and Health and Nutritional—are listed in Tables 5 and 6.

Water Purification

Chitosan has been used for about three decades in water purification processes. 67 When chitosan is spread over oil spills it holds the oil mass together making it easier to clean up the spill. Water purification plants throughout the world use chitosan to remove oils, grease, heavy metals, and fine particulate matter that cause turbidity in waste water streams.

Fat Binding/ Weight Loss

Like some plant fibers, chitosan is not digestible; therefore it has no caloric value. No matter how much chitosan you ingest, its calorie count remains at

Dietary Fiber % Fat Excreted Dietary Fiber %Fat Excreted Chitosan 50.8 + 21.6 Carrageen 9.6 + 1.9 Kapok 8.3 + 1.1 Sodium Alginate 8.1 + 2.2 Pectin 7.4 + 1.9 Locust Bean 6.0 + 1.8 Guar 6.0 + 1.7 Konjak 5.2 + 0.6 Cellulose 5.1 + 2.1 Karaya 4.9 + 1.5 Acacia 4.6 + 0.9 Furcellaran 4.4 + 0.9 Chitin 4.3 + 1.0 Agar 2.8 + 0.4
TABLE 7. Effects of Dietary Fibers on Fecal Lipid Excretion 109,110

fibers, chitosan’s unique properties give it the ability to significantly bind fat, acting like a “fat sponge” in the digestive tract. Table 7 shows a comparison of chitosan and other natural fibers and their ability to inhibit fat absorption. Under optimal conditions, Chitosan can bind an average of 4 to 5 times its weight with all the lipid aggregates tested.60 (NOTE: This Assessment was made without the addition of ascorbic acid which potentiates this action even further.77 Studies in Helsinki have shown that individuals taking chitosan lost an average of 8 percent of their body weight in a 4-week period.76 Chitosan has increased oil-holding capacity over other fibers.108 Among the abundant natural fibers, chitosan is unique. This uniqueness is a result of chitosan’s amino groups which make it an acid absorbing (basic) fiber. Most natural fibers are neutral or acidic. Table 7 summarizes the in vivo effects in animals of various fibers on fecal lipid excretion. As can be seen from the results listed, ingestion of chitosan resulted in 5-10 times more fat excretion than any other fiber tested. D-Glucosamine, the building block of chitosan, is not able to increase fecal fat excretion. This is due to the fact that glucosamine is about 97 percent absorbed while chitosan is nonabsorbable. Fats bound to glucosamine would likely be readily absorbed along with the glucosamine. Chitosan, on the other hand, is not absorbed and therefore fats bound to chitosan can not be absorbed.

Cholesterol Control

Chitosan has the very unique ability to lower LDL cholesterol (the bad kind) while boosting HDL cholesterol (the good kind).78 Laboratory tests performed on rats showed that “chitosan depresses serum and liver cholesterol levels in cholesterol- fed rats without affecting performance, organ weight or the nature of the feces.”79 Japanese researchers have concluded that Chitosan “appears to be an effective hypocholesterolemic agent.”80 In other words, it can effectively lower blood serum cholesterol levels with no apparent side effects. A study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that Chitosan is as effective in mammals as cholestryramine (a cholesterol lowering drug) in controlling blood serum cholesterol without the deleterious side effects typical of cholestryramine. 81 Chitosan decreased blood cholesterol levels by 66.2 percent.82 It effectively lowered cholesterol absorption more than guar gum or cellulose.83 Laboratory test results indicated that a 7.5% chitosan formula maintained adequate cholesterol levels in rats, despite a dramatic increase in the intake of cholesterol. 84


Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplement

Date: June 21, 2005 05:10 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplement

Take Your Vitamins: Reviewing Scientific Approaches to Selecting Daily Multiple Supplements

By Adina Licht, MS

Adina Licht, M.S. is a Nutritional Scientist and Science Writer who works as a Marketing Specialist for Source Naturals. She has a B.A. in Environmental Science from UC Berkeley, an M.S. in Nutrition and Food Science from San Jose State University, and training in Technical Communication from Cal State Hayward. Her work has appeared in publications such as Advances in Packaging and Development, Health Supplement Retailer and Delicious Living.

Americans Need More Nutrients

The U. S. population is drastically malnourished. According to the latest A. C. Nielsen survey, only 12% of Americans claim to eat the 5 recommended servings of fruits and vegetables each day (Warner, 2004). And approximately 1/3 of the calories that people do consume are from nutrient-poor foods such as alcohol and soda (Yang, 2004). This combination has led to a population that consumes too few nutrients, which according to an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Fletcher, 2002) puts people at risk for long-term health concerns. With Americans eating fewer healthy foods, taking a daily multiple is one way for people to increase their intake of nutrients. But the search for what defines a good multiple can be confusing, even to health care professionals.

The Confusing U.S. Government Standards

Scientists first recognized the need for vitamins in the early 1900s (Levenstein, 1993). But setting U. S. government standards for vitamins and minerals didn't start until healthy soldiers were needed to fight World War II. And when a committee of scientists was asked to determine the levels of nutrients needed to maintain good health they could only agree on "recommended allowances" to prevent deficiency with a wide margin of safety. In 1941, these allowances became the first Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the nation (Levenstein, 1993). In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used latest RDAs to set the new Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) standards, which included Adequate Intakes (AIs) for when there was insufficient evidence to determine an RDA, and Upper Intake Levels (ULs) as the safe daily upper limit. To simplify the information, food labels express nutrient information as a percentage of the Daily Value (DV), which includes RDA values for a healthy adult who consumes 2000 calories per day (Whitney, 2002). However, these values do not include AIs or ULs and many individuals need different levels of nutrients than these.

Confusing Standards equals Confusing Recommendations

The RDAs and subsequent DRIs are the basis of the nutrient standards for at least 40 different nations and many professional health organizations. Currently, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) recommends that people who cannot reach the DRIs through diet take a multiple with nutrient levels that do not exceed the RDAs (JADA, 2001). And in 2002, the American Medical Association (AMA) published a paper that included a recommendation for all adults to take RDA levels of vitamin supplements in their Journal of the American Medical Association (Fletcher, 2002). Despite the benefits of having guidelines, most people only hear about the RDAs and DVs, which may be too low for preventing deficiencies while the ULs and AIs, which can be much more beneficial are rarely discussed. For example, the Daily Value of Vitamin E to prevent deficiency is 30 IU while the daily Upper Intake Limit is 1,467 IU. But, according to the ADA, as many as 75% of cardiologists recommend vitamin E to their patients to promote heart health, usually at a dosage of 400 IU (ADA, 2001; Meydani, 2004; & Whitney, 1998). And the Daily Value for Vitamin C is 60 mg while the daily Upper Intake Limit is 2000 mg, but in clinical studies it took 500 mg per day to help maintain healthy blood pressure (Whitney, 1998, & Hendler, 2001).

Alternative Recommendations

Lyle MacWilliam is a biochemist and former health advisor to the Canadian Ministry of Health, who decided to research, analyze and publish the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. In this book, the individually published recommendations from seven nutrition experts (Phyllis Balch, CNC, Dr. Michael Colgan, Ph.D., Dr. Earl Mindell, Ph.D., Dr. Michael Murray, N.D., Dr. Richard Passwater, Ph.D., Dr. Ray Strand, M.D., and Dr. Julian Whitaker, M.D.) were combined to create an ultimate blended standard of recommended median intakes for 39 nutrients to promote health. Those nutrients include vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and other supplements, that span 14 different health categories and are much closer to the Upper Intake Limit government standards. The guide also includes information about recommended forms, safety, purity and quality (MacWilliam, 2003). One of the most profound differences between MacWilliam?s compiled recommendations and the DRIs is the difference in the number of supplements: 39 vs. 26 respectively. The Comparative Guide standard includes additional nutrients, including many more antioxidants, based on decades of clinical research about their benefits. For example, the fat-soluble antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 that your body manufactures less of as you age is included. So is the fat and water-soluble antioxidant alpha lipoic acid that helps recycle other antioxidants such as vitamins C and E (Hendler, 2001).

Top Ranked Multiples for Optimal Health

In the latter half of MacWilliam's book he uses this ultimate blended standard to rank and compare 500 manufactured multiples. Of the five top-ranked multiples, only the Source Naturals multiples, Life Force and Élan Vitàl, are widely available at natural product stores and health outlets. And the new and improved Life Force formulation now rates higher than any of the products evaluated in the current edition of this guide (MacWilliam, 2004; & Mac-William, 2003). The ingredients that can be found in today's multiple supplements can vary greatly. But multiple choices don't have to lead to confusion. Health professionals, such as Lyle MacWilliam, understand the importance of remaining curious, evaluating the available research, and conferring with other scientists to determine the nutrients that support optimal health.


American Dietetic Association. 2001. Vitamin E: Disease Prevention for your Good Health. American Dietetic Association Website. Available at: Public/Other/index_nfs1001.cfm Fletcher, R. H., & Fairfield, K. M. 2002. Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults. JAMA. (23)287:3116-3129. Hendler, S. S., et al. 2001. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Thomson Healthcare: Montvale. Pages 11-12, 17-21, 60-62, 103, 416-421, 486-498. JADA (Journal of the American Dietetic Association) 2001. Vitamin and mineral supplementation. J AM Diet Assoc.101: 115 Available at: Public/NutritionInformation/92_8343.cfm Levenstein, H. 1993. Paradox of Plenty: A Social History of Eating in Modern America. Oxford University Press: New York. Pages 13-15, 64-67. MacWilliam, L, et al. 2003. Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Northern Dimensions Publishing: Vernon. Pages 62-70. MacWilliam, L. 2004. Comparative Guide Individual Assessment of New Life Force Formulation. Warner, J. 2004. Few Follow '5 a Day' Fruit and Vegetable Rule. WebMD website. Available at: ent/Article/93/102158.htm Whitney, N. W., & Rolfes, S. R. (1998). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition, 5th ed. Page 358. Whitney, E. N., & Rolfes, S. R. 2002. Understanding Nutrition. 9th ed. Wadsworth Thomson Learning: Belmont. Pages A, B, Y, 13-20, 55-56, 307, 331, 335-341, 401. Yang, S. 2004. Nearly one-third of the calories in the US diet come from junk food, researcher finds.

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Glycerylphosphorylcholine -- Supports Cognitive Function in AD ...

Date: May 24, 2005 09:52 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Glycerylphosphorylcholine -- Supports Cognitive Function in AD ...

Cognitive Improvement in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Dementia After Treatment with the Acetylcholine Precursor Choline Alfoscerate: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Maria De Jesus Moreno Moreno, MD Instituto Nacional de la Senectud, Mexico City, Mexico

This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of the cholinergic precursor choline alfoscerate (CA) in the treatment of cognitive impairment due to mild to moderate AD (Alzheimer's disease).

in both men and woman they consistently improved after 90 and 180 days versus baseline with adiministration of GPC three times a day, whereas in the placebo group they remained unchanged or worsened. Statistically significant differences were observed between treatments after 90 and 180 days.


  • improved cognition and global function
  • showed a statistically significant improvement after 90 and 180 days of treatment
  • Increased neurotransmission
  • With out treatment men and woman declined consistantly
  • references:

    Bartus RT, Dean RL III, Beer B, Lippa AS. The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, Science. 1982;217:408-414. 2. Larson EB, Kukull WA, Katzman RL. Cognitive impairment: Dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Annu Rev Public Health. 1992;13:431-449. 3. Hofman A, Rocca WA, Brayne C, et al, for the European Prevalence Research Group. The prevalence of dementia in Europe: A collaborative study of 1980-1990 findings. Int d Epidemiol. 1991;20:736-748. 4. Blackwood W, Corsellis JAN, eds. Greenfield's Neuropathology. 3rd ed. London: Arnold; 1976. 5. Geldmacher DS. Cost-effective recognition and diagnosis of dementia. 5emin Neurol. 2002;22:63-70. 6. Perry EK, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, et al. Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia. BMJ. 1978;2:1457-1459. 7. Perry EK. The cholinergic hypothesis--ten years on. Br Med Bull. 1986;42:63-69. 8. Giacobini E. From molecular structure to Alzheimer therapy. Jpn d Pharmacol. 1997;74:225-241. 9. Giacobini E. Invited review: Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease therapy: From tacrine to future applications. Neurochem Int. 1998;32:413-419. 10. Brinkman SD, Smith RC, Meyer JS, et al. Lecithin and memory training in suspected Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol. 1982;37:4-9. 11. Davis E, Emmerling MR, Jaen JC, et al. Therapeutic intervention in dementia. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1993;7:41-83. 12. Amenta E Parnetti L, Gallai V, Wallin A. Treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease with cholinergic precursors. Ineffective treatments or inappropiate approaches? Mech Ageing Dev. 2001;122:2025-2040. 13. Sigala S, Imperato A, Rizzonelli P, et al. k-Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine antagonizes scopolamine-induced amnesia and enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in the rat. Eurd Pharmacol. 1992;211:351-358. 14. Govoni S, Battaini E Lucchi L, et al. Effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine in counteracting drug-induced amnesia: Through cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms [in Italian]. Basi Raz Ter. 1991;21:75-78. 15. Canonico PL, Nicoletti F, Scapagnini U. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine [in Italian]. Basi Raz Te~ 1990;20: 53-54. 191 CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS ® 16. Parnetti L, Amenta E Gallai V. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: An analysis of published clinical data. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001;122:2041-2055. 17. Venn RD. The Sandoz Clinical Assessment-Geriatric (SCAG) scale. A general-purpose psychogeriatric rating scale. Gerontology. 1983;29:185-198. 18. Di Perri R, Coppola G, Ambrosio LA, et al. A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia. J Int Med Res. 1991;19:330-341. 19. Frattola L, Piolti R, Bassi S, et al. Multicenter clinical comparison of the effects of choline alphoscerate and cytidine diphosphocholine in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia. Curt Ther Res Clin Exp. 1991;49:683-693. 20. Muratorio A, Bonuccelli U, Nuti A, et al. A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using L-c~-glycerylphosphorylcholine. Curt Ther Res Clin Exp. 1992;52:741-75l. 21. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: APA; 1994. 22. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, et al. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology. 1984;34:939-944. 23. Folstein ME Folstein SE. "Mini-mental state": A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975; 12:189-198. 24. Loeb C, Gandolfo C. Diagnostic evaluation of degenerative and vascular dementia. Stroke. 1983;14:399-401. 25. Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:56-62. 26. Hamilton M. Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. BrJ Soc Clin Psych& 1967;6:278-296. 27. Rosen WG, Mohs RC, Davis KL. A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease. AmJ Psychiatry. 1984;141:1356-1364. 28. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, De Leon MJ, et al. The Global Deterioration Scale for Assessment of primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:1136-1139. 29. National Institute of Mental Health. Clinical global impressions. In: Guy W, ed. ECDEU Assessment for Psychopharmacology. Revised edition. Rockville, Md: National Institute of Mental Health; 1976:217-222. 30. Burns A, Russell E, Page S. New drugs for Alzheimer's disease. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;174:476-479. 31. Kumar V, Anand R, Messina J, et al. An efficacy and safety analysis of Exelon in Alzheimer's disease patients with concurrent vascular risk factors. Eur J Neurol. 2000;7:159-169. 32. Knapp MJ, Knopman DS, Solomon PR, et al, for the Tacrine Study Group. A 30-week randomized controlled trial of high-dose tacrine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. JAMA. 1994;271:985-991. 192 M. Moreno 33. Lindstrom MJ, Bates DM. Newton-Rapshon algorithms for linear-mixed effects models for repeated measure data. J Am Stat Assoc. 1998;83:1014-1022. 34. Thai LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1996;47:705-711. 35. Rogers SL, Friedhoff LT, for the Donepezil Study Group. The efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease: Results of a US multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dementia. 1996;7:293-303. 36. Rogers SL, Doody RS, Mohs RC, Friedhoff LT, for the Donepezil Study Group. Donepezil improves cognition and global function in Alzheimer disease: A 15-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158:1021-1031. 37. Corey-Bloom J, Anand R, Veach J, for the ENA 713 B352 Study Group. A randomized trial evaluating the efficacy and the safety of ENA 713 (rivastigmine tartrate), a new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychopharmacol. 1998;1:55-65. 38. Rosler M, Anand R, Cicin-Sain A, et al. Efficacy and safety of rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: International randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 1999;318: 633-638. 39. Amenta E Bronzetti E, Del Valle M, Vega JA. Effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine in neuroanatomy of aging brain in experimental animals [in Italian]. Basi Raz Te~: 1990;20:31-38. Address correspondence to: Scientific Department, Italfarmaco SpA, via dei Lavoratori 54, 20092 Cinisello Balsamo, Milan, Italy.


    Nutritional Support for Prostate Health

    Date: May 11, 2005 10:19 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Nutritional Support for Prostate Health

    Nutritional Support for Prostate Health

    By Steve Lankford

    Prostate problems are perhaps the most common problem that men will experience. As men age their hormonal production and metabolism changes and these changes can contribute to the prostate difficulties that men experience. The two major prostate problems are enlargement of the prostate gland known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. These two problems are unrelated except that they both affect the prostate gland and the scope of this article will focus on BPH.

    The prostate gland is a small gland located under the bladder. It is shaped like a donut and surrounds the neck of the bladder and a small portion of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries the urine out of the body. When the prostate gland enlarges it can constrict the urethra and the flow of urine. This contributes to the variety of symptoms of BPH. BPH affects over half of all men aged 50 and older.

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    BPH is related to the hormonal changes that men undergo as they age. Around age 40 men begin to produce more of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. 5-alpha-reductase converts the hormone testosterone into the less desirable hormone called dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is an important hormone and is not a problem until the levels begins to increase around mid-life. The increase in DHT results in BPH.

    The symptoms of BPH include hypersensitivity of the bladder to even small amount of urine. This results in an increase of both urgency and frequency. Men will often experience frequent nighttime urination. The urine stream may become weaker and include dribbling when men are unable to completely void the bladder. Serious BPH can cause a complete blockage of urine flow.

    Three stages of support

    There are three stages at which you may want or need to deal with BPH. The first stage is preventive. At this stage there are no symptoms and one may do something at this stage when trying to provide benefit and support to avoid or minimize future involvement. The ideal time to begin preventive support is between the ages of 40 and 50.

    The second stage is when there are emerging symptoms. This is when men first begin to experience the symptoms of BPH. The symptoms are mild and no too difficult to tolerate. This is also the best time to reverse the trend and provide effective nutritional therapy.

    The third stage is when the symptoms have progressed to the difficult and serious level. It often progresses to this point when men ignore the symptoms and treatments. Often men have tried traditional medical approaches with little satisfaction or results. Even at this stage of BPH, nutritional support is usually very effective.

    The challenge of creating an effective prostate support program begins with an Assessment of your current status and then making an informed choice of support options.

    The most successful natural approach to prostate health should involve a multiple approach that addresses the various systems in the body related to prostate health. The various nutrients that may be use can be taken separately or in combination. This approach can be beneficial both as a preventative approach as well therapeutic. You will generally have better results when you use a comprehensive approach.

    The Comprehensive Approach to BPH

    Prostate Support – Studies have show that dietary factors influence the overall health of the prostate. There are some nutrients that are found in higher amounts in the prostate. Nutrients such as zinc, lycopene and vitamin E provide prostate support.

    Hormonal Regulation – Hormones have a direct role in prostate function. Plant extracts inhibit testosterone uptake by the prostate as well as limiting its conversion into DHT and subsequent binding to receptor sites within the prostate. Herbs such as saw palmetto, pygeum, nettle, red clover and soy provide this benefit.

    Cellular Regeneration – Certain nutrients such as Swedish Flower Pollen, Quercetin and lycopene have demonstrated significant effects in maintaining proper prostate cell regeneration.

    Bladder and Urinary Tract Health – The integrity and health of the bladder and urinary tract supports the normal flow of urine and prostate function. Three amino acids alanine, glutamic acid, and glycine as well as the herbs goldenseal, marshmallow root, uva ursi and pumpkin seed are all beneficial to the health of the urinary tract.

    Soothing mechanisms – Certain plant compounds such as sterols and Swedish flower pollen as well as saw palmetto and pygeum and the bioflavonoid quercetin inhibit the metabolism of arachidonic acid. This influences prostaglandin synthesis, which is associated with prostate comfort.

    Antioxidant Defense - The final area that we look at is how to reduce oxidative stress (free radical damage) that can trigger a host of destructive processes. Antioxidants play an important role in prostate function including protection of cell membranes.

    Natural Is Better

    How good are natural alternatives for prostate health? There have been many studies on natural alternatives showing that the proper herbs in the proper form are at least as effective as prescription drugs with fewer side effects. The most common drug for BPH is Proscar (finasteride). Some of the adverse side effects associated with finasteride are decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. Natural saw palmetto extract is free of these unwanted effects and is equally effective.

    Choosing an Effective Product

    The effectiveness of a nutritional product has to do with several factors. The bottom line is that the most effective product is the one that works best for you. Be prepared to try several products to find the best potency and combination.

    There are many nutrients that provide prostate support. Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, Amino Acids and Nutraceuticals are all helpful and the most comprehensive products will provide supports in multiple ways.

    Vitamins – Vitamin D, Vitamin E

    Minerals – Zinc, Selenium, Copper

    Herbs – Saw Palmetto, Nettle Root, Marshmallow Root, Pygeum Bark, Pumpkin Seed Oil, Red Clover, Goldenseal Root, Gravel Root, Green Tea

    Amino Acids – Alanine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine

    Nutraceuticals – Soy Isoflavones, Quercetin, Swedish Flower Pollen, Phytosterols, Lycopene

    The first nutrient and herb to consider is saw palmetto extract. It is the phytosterols in saw palmetto (and other herbs) that are responsible for the beneficial results. It is important to make sure that the product that you use has the therapeutically effective dose. If you don’t know the proper dosage and how to calculate the proper concentration it is very easy to purchase a low potency formula that is less likely to be effective.

    In the clinical studies with saw palmetto extract, potencies of 320 mg. per day were used. However this only tell part of the story. The saw palmetto extract was composed of 85-95% sterols resulting in approximately 288 mg. (320 mg. times 90% equals 288 mg.) of sterols daily. Make sure your saw palmetto contains the correct amount of sterols.

    This process of analyzing herbal extracts will apply to any standardized herbal product. You want to know whether the product you are purchasing has the right amount of the right compounds.

    Search for the best products by trying different formulas. The proper nutrients taken consistently over time will provide long-lasting benefits. Stick with good companies with a history of providing quality nutritional products.


    The information provided is nutritional only and is intended to help you develop a nutritional program that can support the functions of the body. The information provided is not intended as medical advice. For medical advice always consult your physician.

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    VitaNet® Staff


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