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Oil Of Oregano & 6 Other Health Supplements That Can Help TreatDigestive Issues VitaNet, LLC Staff 9/1/18
Top reasons why gluten free diet is necessary Darrell Miller 1/27/14
What Causes Glycine Malabsorption? Darrell Miller 9/9/11
Can You Take fiber With Vitamins? Darrell Miller 9/6/11
How Does Pancreatin Help With Digestion? Darrell Miller 8/23/11
The Amino Acid Glycine Is A Component Of Collagen And Essential For Good Health? Darrell Miller 3/23/11
How can I Tell if I am Magnesium Deficient? Darrell Miller 2/9/11
How Does L-Lysine Help with Herpes? Darrell Miller 2/8/11
Potassium: An Overview Darrell Miller 1/14/11
Boost Absorption With Natural Vitamins Darrell Miller 4/17/09
Celiac disease Darrell Miller 4/8/08
Seniors Need More Than a Multiple with Only 100 Percent of the RDA Darrell Miller 1/21/08
Betaine HCI and Pepsin Darrell Miller 1/28/07
Hypoallergenic Free Form Amino Acids Darrell Miller 9/7/06
Digestive enzymes and Herbs Darrell Miller 8/25/06
Dramatic EPO Benefits for hyper active children Darrell Miller 6/3/06
B Vitamins Avert Stroke, Coronary Disease, Death Darrell Miller 1/25/06
Benefits of Total Daily Formula Darrell Miller 10/13/05




Oil Of Oregano & 6 Other Health Supplements That Can Help TreatDigestive Issues
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Date: September 01, 2018 05:53 PM
Author: VitaNet, LLC Staff (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Oil Of Oregano & 6 Other Health Supplements That Can Help TreatDigestive Issues





Oil Of Oregano & 6 Other Health Supplements That Can Help Treat Digestive Issues

In today's world, there are so many different options of foods and brands that claim to be healthier than the next. There are many supplements that people take and they all have different reasons for it. Now, the age of the bodybuilder has really increased and people are trying to achieve a certain look. Oil of oregano and other health supplements are more for the issues that involve being able to digest things more efficiently and safely.

Key Takeaways:

  • There are many things that can be taken nowadays that can help treat digestive problems.
  • People with digestive issues need to take care of it as soon as possible.
  • There are a bunch of different supplements out there that are useful for various things.

"Leaky gut is the cause for many malabsorption issues, which means even if you are eating a healthy diet and taking care of yourself your body may not be absorbing these nourishing nutrients."

Read more: https://sporteluxe.com/oil-of-oregano-6-other-supplements-that-can-help-treat-your-digestive-issues/

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Top reasons why gluten free diet is necessary
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Date: January 27, 2014 09:31 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Top reasons why gluten free diet is necessary

glutenWhat is Gluten

Gluten is a protein found mainly in grains, which include wheat, farro, durum, bulgur, spelt, semolina and many others. It is also found in other foods and is present in some toothpaste brands. Gluten is difficult to completely digest and can cause serious health problems for some people. It is for this reason that many people are increasingly consuming gluten free diet in an attempt at avoiding its negative health effects. The following is a look at the adverse effects of gluten in the human body.

What Gluten can Do

Some people’s bodies react to the presence of the protein by attacking it and the body tissue surrounding it, which results to numerous health problems in the body. Gluten is responsible for a condition referred to as celiac disease, which is a serious form of gluten sensitivity. This disease is considered an autoimmune disease because the body’s immune system attacks the protein and the cells of the digestive tract’s enzymes. This leads to bloating, gas, stomach pain, anemia, skin rashes, muscle cramps and bone pain. Other symptoms include missed periods in women, stunted growth in children, seizures, mouth sores, calcium deficiency, nerve damage and nutrient malabsorption.

Other serious effects of ingesting gluten

Include increased risk of developing some forms of cancer and chronic diarrhea. The protein has also been found to cause intestinal inflammation and degeneration of intestinal lining. Weakened intestines are dangerous because they can permit foreign substances into the blood stream, which is common in persons suffering from celiac disease.

Gluten is also associated with numerous disorders of the brain. Conclusive studies have associated the protein to a condition referred to as cerebellar ataxia. Its symptoms include difficulties in coordinating balance, problems with speech and movement. Gluten free diet results to significant improvement in health for persons suffering from autism, epilepsy and schizophrenia.

It has been observed that gluten may be addictive, which is why many people crave for meals made of wheat and other grains. This has not been conclusively proven but there are studies that suggest that traces of the protein’s exorphins can find their way into the human brain.

Gluten Free

Gluten free diet is healthy because it improves a person’s bone density, reducing the risk of osteoporosis. Any people experience significant benefits in their mental, emotional and physical health after eliminating the protein from their diets. It is, therefore, important that a gluten free diet be consumed especially by people who react negatively to it.

References:

  1. //www.mypassion4health.com/articles/gluten_sensitivity.html
  2. //www.cnn.com/2013/04/05/health/gluten-5-things/
  3. //www.care2.com/greenliving/6-shocking-reasons-why-gluten-is-bad-for-you.html

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What Causes Glycine Malabsorption?
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Date: September 09, 2011 04:33 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What Causes Glycine Malabsorption?

Glycine

Glycine is known to be the smallest amino acid in the human body and it is present in both water and fatty based environments. This has been one of the most researched amino acid to date and most results indicate that it has an important role in normal bodily function maintenance. It has the ability to supply collagen to the human body as one of its main functions. Studies have also found that glycine is also used to build both fibrous and muscle tissues which is why it has been used as a treatment for degenerative diseases. Aside from this main function glycine also plays such a wide range of roles in other bodily functions as it is playing a part in numerous system processes, from aiding in blood sugar conversion to affecting the nervous system it truly has made itself essential to the body.

That is why any malabsorption or lowering of glycine levels in the body can cause harmful and detrimental effects in any person’s well being. Furthermore, it also has been proven in many studies that glycine has an antioxidant effect which aids in the body’s war against free radicals. In recent years there has been an increase in the popularity of glycine, so much so that some food products have been fortified with it just to up their value in the consumer’s eyes as they know that America is getting more and more health conscious as the days go by. Since the body is capable of producing this substance it is considered as a non essential amino acid. It is seldom that the body will totally run out of this substance however lowered levels due to various reasons are absolutely possible. Which brings me back to how is malabsorption of Glycine caused.

Glucose and Galactose Presence

Studies have been done to show how glycine absorption can be impaired and what they were able to find out is that there is a competition between forms of sugar like glucose and galactose and glycine for intestinal transport. The results show that there was a decrease in absorption of both substances whenever the other is present. For glycine the drop in absorption was over 50 percent and for the sugars there was also significant decrease in uptake and absorption. What this entails in the real world is that regions with high carbohydrate diets maybe affected and may have cases of Glycine absorption impairment more so than other regions with lower carbohydrate diets however this is not taking into account any gastrointestinal damage that may also affect glycine absorption.

Anesthesia Administration

In cases that a person has gone through surgery they may suffer from Glycine malabsorption, this is not something to be that worried about as anesthesia is not consistently present in the body and realistically very few individuals have surgery often and surgery that requires anesthesia I might add. Studies have shown that local anesthesia is the one that is more harmful to glycine absorption compared to general anesthesia.

If you have a glycine malabsorption problem, supplementing with the amino acid will help restore these low levels. Grab some glycine and feel the difference it can make in your energy.

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Can You Take fiber With Vitamins?
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Date: September 06, 2011 03:10 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can You Take fiber With Vitamins?

Fiber Overview

Have you ever had a digestive problem, having hard time digesting food, feeling constipated or even constantly feeling bloated, if you have you probably have heard about fiber being possibly helpful to you, these days you are able to see lots of fiber enriched products in the market, it may be food in the grocery aisle or supplementation in the drug or health food store. Fiber has definitely reached a certain amount of popularity in mainstream natural remedies. It has shown great results in aiding in the relief of digestive tract problems through cleansing. And for many this is considered to be its main function, it allows in a way the purification of your digestive tract which leads to better health since toxins and harmful bacteria are flushed out from your system before it can make any damage. Now you may ask, what does this have to do with vitamin absorption?

Fiber and How it works

For us to understand what fiber’s relation is to vitamin absorption we need to look at first how it works. As mentioned above the key function of fiber is to cleanse the body and purify the digestive tract, in other words cleansing is the key when it comes to the relation of fiber to vitamin absorption. Looking into it with more detail, when fiber cleanses, it does take away toxins and harmful bacteria however with the same function or process it also may promote malabsorption as fiber does not have the ability to determine good from bad substances so in a way it will also flush out vitamins from the body before it can be absorbed. You see, the way fiber works is that it acts like a sponge absorbing substances around it, with water it is able to create that cleansing effect as it absorbs water to help stool move along as it is softened by the liquid.

Blocking certain vitamin absorption

With how fiber works, if we are not careful the vitamins that we take in from the food we eat or from supplementation may not be absorbed by the body. So the answer to the question, if fiber can block vitamin absorption is yes it can. Fiber itself will not be the blockade, rather it is the characteristic it has and since it is not specifically a blockade we can work around that issue. We simply need to avoid taking too much fiber especially at times when we are also taking in either food that are high in vitamin content or vitamin supplementation itself that way the vitamins will stay long enough in our stomach for it to be absorbed by the body. Another thing to consider is, before allowing yourself to be scared of taking fiber is how much is too much fiber? Most researches have proven that 50 grams of fiber is more than should be consumed, however with that said most Americans does not reach that amount with their regular diet, in fact a regular American diet not infused with fiber rich foods only yields about 5 to 10g of fiber.

The real question is, are you getting enough fiber to improve colon health because to much is impossible with out a fiber supplement.

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How Does Pancreatin Help With Digestion?
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Date: August 23, 2011 12:33 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How Does Pancreatin Help With Digestion?

Pancreas and Pancreatin

The pancreas is an organ in the abdomen that lies just below the stomach and is a vital part of the endocrine system. Its main responsibility is to produce enzymes needed for the digestion and absorption of food. It is both an endocrine gland making several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, as well as an exocrine gland. Most relative to our topic though is the function of secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes. These enzymes aid to further break down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Enzymes(Pancreatin) secreted include amylases which digest starch molecules, for fat its lipases, and proteases for digesting proteins.

Digestion Tidbits

Having a nice healthy digestive tract is more than just being free of discomforts, heartburn, gas, or constipation. We have to look at it at different perspective, like from “what happens to the food?” kind of perspective. When foods are not digested properly, its nutrients cannot and will not get to our body’s cells. Nutrients are captured within the food processing stages in our digestive system. The body requires a constant flow of nutrients to essentially for what it is suppose to do which is to grow, generate energy, and to repair tissue. A lack of digestive enzymes like pancreatin in the stomach and intestines may cause heartburn, bloating, indigestion and constipation. Sometimes without giving much thought to digestion, we think it’s as simple as food is placed in the mouth, chew, swallow, and digest. However nutrients are vital to every cell in the body, and even digestion requires the right balance of nutrients to signal the nerves to start gathering nutrients again.

Pancreatic Enzymes

Digestion processes all occurs in the gastrointestinal tracts. Whatever you eat flows through this system, but until absorption through the intestinal tract, the nutrients from your food are still physically outside of your body. Because the gastrointestinal tract functions like an internal skin and provides a barrier between whatever you ingest from the outside (external) and your internal bloodstream. Part of this process of digesting food is the selective transport of nutrients through the cell wall linings in your intestinal tract.

Once transported across the intestinal barrier to the inside of your body, that’s when the nutrients becomes part of our bloodstream and is rationed to all of your tissues via blood circulation to maintain organ function, aid in the need for energy, and mobilize growth and repair of new cells and tissues. Now for any mobilization of the nutrients to take place, food must first be broken down and this is where Pancreatin comes in along with other enzymes. On the other hand if pancreatin is insufficient it can lead to symptoms of malabsorption(abnormality in absorption of food nutrients), malnutrition(a state of lack of nutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and weight loss (or an inability to gain weight in children) and is often associated with steatorrhea (loose, fatty, foul-smelling stools), and is some select cases the lack of these enzymes can lead to type one diabetes.

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The Amino Acid Glycine Is A Component Of Collagen And Essential For Good Health?
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Date: March 23, 2011 03:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Amino Acid Glycine Is A Component Of Collagen And Essential For Good Health?

What Is The Amino Acid Glycine And How does it Work In the Body

Glycine is the smallest amino acid found in the human body. It is present not only in water-based environments but also in fatty tissues. Being one of the earliest amino acids to be discovered, it has been a subject of numerous studies in the last century. The abundance of data points to its indispensable role in maintaining the overall health of the body since it is quite ubiquitous at the cellular level.

Supplies Amino Acid Requirement of Proteins in Cells

It is a widely accepted fact that glycine is an amino acid necessitated for the production of proteins that the human body uses and accounts for more than 30 per cent of the protein group called collagen. Human cells in particular utilize glycine in manufacturing fibrous and muscle tissues, the reason why it has been in use in treatment of degenerative diseases. The total absence of glycine in the human body is impossible, given the role it plays in protein synthesis, but low levels of glycine can be harmful.

Converts into Glucose and Helps Regulate Blood Sugar

Glucogenic amino acids are a number of amino acids that can be converted into glucose. First on the list is glycine, which does not only aid against a sudden drop in blood sugar but also provides the body with enough glucose to support cellular functions. Feelings of weakness characteristic of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue are often attributable to an impaired capacity to produce enough energy. The process of gluconeogenesis converts non-carbohydrate compounds into glucose as a response.

Displays Inhibitory and Excitatory Neuronal Activities

While GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human beings, glycine is also known to display inhibitory activities in the central nervous system. The spinal cord, brainstem, and the forebrain have all been identified to employ this amino acid in gylcinergic neurotransmission, which may be inhibitory or excitatory. It is postulated that glycine plays a major role in various mental disorders, and several studies concerning its psychoactive potential are well underway.

Scavenges Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species

Although it is not considered an essential amino acid, which means the body produces quantities adequate to support physiological functions, depleting levels of glycine is not uncommon especially in individuals suffering from malnutrition and malabsorption. Glycine supplements have seen a surge in popularity in the latter half of the century as they are also known for their antioxidant activities. Enzymes responsible for antioxidant defenses necessitate glycine, which is an antioxidant in itself.

Supplementation of glycine has risen in the past few years especially when studies associating this amino acid to degenerative diseases have started to surface. A number of scientists believed that age-related and other degenerative diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis may be classified as deficiency diseases in that these diseases can easily be prevented or reversed with diet modifications. The incorporation of glycine in food products has also been reported to contribute to the upkeep of protein complexes needed by joints, muscles, and other parts of the body.

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How can I Tell if I am Magnesium Deficient?
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Date: February 09, 2011 01:25 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How can I Tell if I am Magnesium Deficient?

Magnesium The Essential Mineral

Magnesium is a dietary mineral that has established nutritional values in most countries. The presence of magnesium inside the human body involves many different chemical reactions, assisting more than 300 enzymes in their functional roles. That’s why we need to meet the daily recommended allowances for this dietary element, which has been calculated by the scientific community to supply the body with amounts adequate to support body functions.

An Essential Mineral

Not all enzymes are capable of producing the effects that they are programmed for on their own, and enzymes identified to rely on the presence of magnesium can be traced in almost all metabolic pathways. Molecules that comprise the structural units of RNA and DNA are extensively used as a source of energy of all cells, such as adenosine triphosphate or ATP. When enzymes utilize ATP for energy, they require another molecule that secures their binding to ATP, which is magnesium. In addition, ATP being the main source of energy that powers the functional roles of cells more often than not necessitates that it be bound to a magnesium ion to be fully activated.

Absorption Problems

Magnesium is ubiquitous in nature, and green leafy vegetables are ideal sources of this dietary element as well as nuts, wheat, seafood, and meat. In spite of that, it has been reported that in the US alone more than 60 per cent of the population does not meet the recommended daily intake for magnesium. The availability of magnesium in our diet does not ensure absorption of this essential mineral, and a significant fraction is in fact excreted along with other waste products in the urine or feces. Interestingly, diet high in protein or fat actually interferes with the absorption of magnesium.Solaray - Magnesium Asporotate 180 ct

Magnesium Deficiency

A general feeling of malaise must not be taken lightly, for it is key indicator of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is indispensable at the cellular level, and insufficient amounts of this element will certainly affect the way you feel, bringing about the perception of fatigue. If you feel weak all the time for no known reason, then it is recommendable to visit your doctor and find out if you have an alarming case of magnesium deficiency.

Keep in mind that high concentrations of protein and fat in the foods that you eat contribute to malabsorption of magnesium, and subsequently malnutrition. Certain medical conditions are known to deplete your reserves of elemental magnesium present in your body, notably diabetes mellitus. Drugs and medications also washes away the magnesium found in your diet and your body especially osmotic diuretics, cisplatin, ciclosporin, amphetamines, and possibly proton pump inhibitors.

Continued exposure to stress and excessive intake of alcohol both result in the unhealthy drop of magnesium levels in the blood. While there are environmental settings that we may not be able to alter, we can certainly control what we ingest. Supplementation is the only surefire remedy for magnesium deficiency, but the best way to combat whatever symptoms you are experiencing is to seek medical advice.

It is Essential You Get Your Magnesium Daily!

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How Does L-Lysine Help with Herpes?
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Date: February 08, 2011 01:36 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How Does L-Lysine Help with Herpes?

L-lysine has been proven effective in the reduction of herpes outbreaks. The viruses that cause herpes simplex successfully multiply at an exponential rate during symptomatic shedding, but their capacity to sustain replication is challenged in the presence of L-lysine, which at very high concentrations has shown to damage progeny of herpes virus. Hence, the severity and duration of outbreaks are curbed.

One of the limiting resources of protein synthesis in human beings and most other vertebrates is the availability of L-lysine in the body. Some of the amino acids implicated in protein synthesis can be manufactured inside the body from their substrates, but this amino acid does not belong to this group. The amounts of L-lysine in our body systems are completely dependent on its presence in our diet, thus dubbed essential amino acid.SOURCE NATURALS - L-lysine 500 mg 100 caps

Limiting Factor to Growth

L-lysine plays a variety of important roles in the human body, and a shortfall of this amino acid has been reported to limit growth, resulting in malabsorption or even malnutrition. It is a building block of all types of proteins in humans, including the visible mass that makes up a muscular physique. It is central to the absorption of calcium, the production of enzymes, and the regulation of hormones. In addition, it is greatly involved in functions that lead to recovery following physical trauma or surgery.

More importantly, L-lysine is a focal constituent in the manufacture of immunoglobulins, the front-liners against diseases. Immunoglobulins are a class of proteins in the blood that we commonly refer to as antibodies, which neutralize pathogenic microbes invading the cells and tissues of the body. In fact, L-lysine is one of the protein bases in use to monitor the activities of antibodies, detecting abnormalities at the molecular level and paving the way for future developments of drugs with medicinal potential.

Boosting the Body’s Defenses

While L-lysine is important to the overall production of antibodies, it has also been observed that very low levels of this essential amino acid in the body compromises the ability of the immune system to fight off infectious diseases. The incidence of symptomatic herpes in individuals known to consume L-lysine supplements are relatively low than those who don’t. Symptomatic herpes manifest in the form of painful skin lesions called fever blisters, also known as cold sores, around the mouth, but may appear and spread anywhere in the body, such as the eyes, the fingers, and the genitals.

When taken at recommended dosages, L-lysine in itself combats the replication process of herpes virus in the body, not only ending outbreaks promptly but also speeding up the healing process in the area of damaged tissues with very little scarring. Herpes virus has been noted to feed on another amino acid identified as L-arginine, and consumptions of sources of this amino acid like nuts and chocolates have been reported to give rise to symptomatic herpes. This is one of the things taken care of by L-lysine, since it out competes the effects of L-arginine to herpes viruses.

L-lysine is available in capsule, tablet, and powder forms at your local or internet vitamin store. Always choose name brands like Source Naturals to ensure quality and purity of the product you by for better health.

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Potassium: An Overview
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Date: January 14, 2011 03:49 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Potassium: An Overview

Potassium is what is known as an electrolyte: it is a substance that can conduct electricity and is an essential substance in this respect with regard to almost all organs and structures within your body. Your heart function depends on specific electrical impulses that contract the muscles in a very specific fashion.

Potassium and sodium together are largely responsible for these electrical impulses, and much the same holds true for all of the muscular contractions within your body that control skeletal movements, digestion and breathing. That is how important potassium is - without it there would be no mammalian life.

You can get a good supply of potassium from bananas, fish and meat and also from dairy products. However, deficiencies are possible such as in times of illness, particularly of diarrhea and vomiting, and there are also malabsorption conditions such as Crohn's disease, all of which demand a potassium supplement in order to maintain a proper balance between potassium and other electrolytes.

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Boost Absorption With Natural Vitamins
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Date: April 17, 2009 11:20 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Boost Absorption With Natural Vitamins

Malabsorption occurs when the body fails to properly absorb vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from food. Even though a person’s diet is adequate, an individual with malabsorption develops various nutritional deficiencies. This problem is often the result of impaired digestion, impaired absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream from the digestive tract, or both.

Common symptoms of malabsorption syndrome include constipation or diarrhea, dry skin, fatigue, gas, mental difficulties such as depression or an inability to concentrate, muscle cramps and/or weakness, premenstrual syndrome, steatorrhea, a tendency to bruise easily, failure to grow normally, thinning hair, unexplained weight loss, and visual difficulties especially with night vision. Abdominal comfort may also be present and a combination of anemia, diarrhea, and weight loss is typical. However, in some individuals, obesity may result if fats are deposited in the tissues rather than being utilized properly by the body. Additionally, the body may begin to crave more and more food, which often leads to the consumption of many empty and/or fat calories.

Factors that can contribute to a malfunction of the absorption mechanism include digestive problems, poor diet, excess mucus covering the intestinal lining, an imbalance in intestinal bacterial flora, the use of certain medications, food allergies, and illnesses such as cancer and AIDS.

No matter how good your diet is or how many supplements you take, you will have nutritional deficiencies if you suffer from malabsorption syndrome. These deficiencies lead to other problems. The impaired absorption of protein can cause edema, while a lack of potassium can cause muscle weakness and cardiovascular problems. Anemia results for a lack of iron and folic acid, while bone loss and tetany can be caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D. Bruising easily results from a lack of vitamin K, while night blindness comes from a deficiency of vitamin A. The failure to absorb B vitamins and to transfer amino acids across the intestinal lining interferes with the production of needed digestive enzymes and causes further malabsorption, as these nutrients are essential in the absorption process itself. This causes a vicious cycle to be produced.

Malabsorption is a factor in other medical and physical problems, along with being a serious condition in itself. The body needs all nutrients in balance because they have to be able to work together. If there is a deficiency in even a single nutrient, the body no longer functions as it should, allowing all things to go awry. This results in disease. Malabsorption is a common contributing factor to a wide range of disorders, including cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and all types of infection.

People with malabsorption syndrome must take in more nutrients than the average person to compensate, and to treat and correct the problem. It is best to bypass the intestinal tract as much as possible when supplying these nutrients. As a result, choosing supplements that are sustained-release and large in size should be avoided. Many people with malabsorption problems can not break down supplements taken in hard pill form. Therefore, injections, powders, liquids, and lozenges provide nutrients in forms that are more easily assimilated.

The following nutrients are recommended for dealing with malabsorption syndrome: acidophilus, vitamin B complex, bioperine, calcium, free-form amino acid complex, garlic, magnesium, vitamin C with bioflavonoids, vitamin E, essential fatty acids, a multi-vitamin and mineral complex, proteolytic enzymes, and zinc lozenges. Additionally, the following herbs may be beneficial: alfalfa, dandelion root, fennel seed, ginger, nettle, aloe vera, peppermint, black pepper, buchu, goldenseal, irish moss, rhubarb, and yellow dock.



--
Buy Natural Vitamins at Vitanet ®, LLC

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Celiac disease
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Date: April 08, 2008 11:58 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Celiac disease

Celiac disease also known as sprue, is an autoimmune disorder that often goes un-detection. It mimics the symptoms of other conditions including: irritable bowel syndrome, gastric ulcers, Crohn’s Disease, diverticulitis, parasitic infections, skin disorders, iron-deficiency anemia caused by menstrual blood loss, and various nervous system conditions. All of which are very uncomfortable for anyone to experience.

To complicate matters, between fifty to sixty percent of celiac patients have no obvious symptoms, which makes this disease particularly difficult to diagnose. This has led to the assumption that the disease was uncommon in the United States. However, recent estimates suggest that one in one hundred and thirty three people have the disease. Do you know if you have it?

In the Year 2000, a paper published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that the incidence of Celiac disease among 1200 children and adolescents tested for the disorder ranged from one in fifty seven to one in thirty three. Symptoms in children differ somewhat from those of adults in that fatigue, irritability and behavior changes are more common in children with Celiac disease. Infants with Celiac disease may lose weight and "fail to thrive."

Older children may have delayed growth or unexplained anemia due to malabsorption. Like adults, Celiac disease children have abdominal gas, pain and foul smelling stools. Liquid Supplements are recommended for individuals with Celiac's Disease.

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Seniors Need More Than a Multiple with Only 100 Percent of the RDA
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Date: January 21, 2008 03:14 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Seniors Need More Than a Multiple with Only 100 Percent of the RDA

The aging process is a gradual one. That might seem obvious, and it is, but it is the fact that it is gradual that causes people not to notice the small but significant changes in their body that are taking place. Aging is more than just the oxidation of skin cells that cause them to wrinkle, but involves specific functional cell changes, such as their ability to multiply.

As this slows down the immune system is affected, and we find it more difficult to recover from injury and disease. Oxidation becomes more prevalent and free radicals become more common as the natural antioxidants of our bodies become overwhelmed. We are less able to recover from the effects of environmental stress, such as UV radiation from the sun, pollution and the effects of heat. We find it increasingly difficult to deal with a lack of nutrition or toxins in our food from pesticides. In short, we become less capable of dealing with attack by invaders, but do not notice this gradual lack of immune response.

Age also affects our joints from the vertebrae in the neck to the joints of our toes. The net result is a compression of the bones that causes a reduction in height. We also develop more body fat and less muscle tissue, which is a significant consideration in planning the nutritional needs of the elderly. However, of more critical importance when discussion the nutritional needs of our aging population is the possibility of malabsorption.

Malabsorption is an inability of the digestive system to absorb nutrients from food, and occurs in people of any age although it tends to be more prevalent in seniors. It is predominantly due to a dysfunction of the liver, the pancreas or the small intestine that are the three major physical components of the human digestive system.

The liver produces bile that is needed to process the fats in your food, and if the bile is not delivered to the small intestine, then malabsorption is possible. The same is true of the enzymes that are produced by the pancreas These enzymes are important components in the biochemistry that allow us to absorb nutrition from our food, and since most of this absorption occurs in the small intestine, this too is essential for proper absorption. When any of these three are reduced in efficiency, as they are with advancing years, then malabsorption will occur.

When this occurs in seniors, however, it is essential that a multiple supplement with more than 100% of the RDA (Rcommended Daily Allowance) is used. This type of nutritional deficiency can be very serious at an age when so many normal biochemical processes are slowing down, and it is important that steps are taken to avoid the serious problems that can arise.

The immediate symptoms of malabsorption are diarrhea and weight loss, although the more serious longer term effects are anemia due to a deficiency in folic acid and iron and a reduction in the blood’s ability to form clots due to a deficiency in vitamin K absorption. There are others, but not all problems associated with aging are actually due to malabsorption, or even with aging.

Many of the problems associated with aging are now believed to be connected with the patient’s lifestyle and diet. Heart disease such as atherosclerosis is now known to begin earlier in life, as are many other conditions once believed to be associated with age. A loss of cognitive ability can be age related, but also due to cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. However, irrespective of all this, it is essential that the aged are provided with vitamin and mineral supplements offering more than 100% RDA.

Calcium is of particular importance for older women who are particularly prone to osteoporosis due to malabsorption of calcium from their food. At least 1000mg daily should be taken, and extra magnesium and vitamins A and E will also be necessary since they are needed for the proper absorption of calcium. The extra does not infer that all of the supplement will be absorbed, but that enough should be to help reduce the possibility of bone density problems.

The elderly are particularly prone to vitamin B deficiencies, particularly of vitamin B12, due to absorption problems and a good vitamin B complex supplement is needed. Chromium too can be seriously depleted in the aged, and this mineral is necessary to enhance the activity of insulin. It is also believed to play a part in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. There are no known consequences of an excess of chromium so a good supplement can be provided. It is believed that vitamin B and chromium together are required for cardiovascular and neurological health that are so important as we age.

One important supplement for the elderly is Coenzyme Q10. Many older people are prescribed drugs such as statins for the treatment of high cholesterol levels. Statins work by depressing the biochemical synthesis of cholesterol by blocking the action of mevalonate, and this is known to interfere with the metabolism of Coenzyme Q10, otherwise known as ubiquinone.

CoQ10 is essential in allowing the production of energy within the cell mitochondria by allowing electron transfer back and forth between NAD and NADH to allow the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A supplement of this important enzyme is therefore essential in maintaining the energy levels of the aged who are being prescribed statins.

Almost 20% of the elderly on prescription drugs are also taking herbal remedies and supplements, and there could be an interaction between them. Anybody taking prescription drugs should consult their physicians before taking natural remedies or any form of supplement, and this is particularly true of the elderly.

However, where the elderly are safely taking a vitamin and mineral supplement, it is extremely important that this contains more than just the RDA. Absorption problems are very common in the elderly, and this excess can make sure that they receive more than they would otherwise, if not the whole recommended dosage of the particular substance involved. Better safe than sorry, especially where an excess is not known to cause harm.

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Betaine HCI and Pepsin
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Date: January 28, 2007 08:41 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Betaine HCI and Pepsin

Betaine HCI and Pepsin

Betaine HCl is a form of HCl used as a nutrient to supplement the stomach’s own production of HCl, or stomach acid. While occasional indigestion may be a result of acid irritating tissue in the structure above the stomach known as the esophagus, a line of research suggests that the cause of this irritation may actually be less than optimal stomach acid production. Stomach acid is normally produced by the parietal cells of the stomach and the function of stomach acid is to break down food that enters the stomach into smaller fragments and nutrient components. These components move through the stomach into the small intestine where they are further broken down by digestive enzymes in the upper part of the small intestine. The individual nutrients that result from the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates can then be absorbed and assimilated by the body and used for metabolism and growth. However, optimal stomach acid production is certainly a major step for the efficiency of the digestive process. Less than ideal stomach acid production prevents foods from being broken down properly and places an added burden on the remainder of the digestive process, including enzyme production from the pancreas.

As mentioned earlier, the presence of optimal stomach acid is necessary for the digestion and absorption of critical nutrients. Amino acids and other peptides from proteins, minerals, vitamin B12 and folic acid are examples of nutrients that require proper levels of stomach acid for their absorption and usage. The presence of adequate acid in the stomach is also required for the conversion of the digestive enzyme pepsin. Pepsin is produced in the stomach from its precursor pepsinogen, which is secreted by cells known as chief cells, and functions to help with the digestion of proteins. Pepsin breaks proteins down into their amino acid components. Since stomach acid is essential to the process of absorbing our nutrients from food, lack of sufficient acid production may lead to decreased health and general well-being.

Ideal stomach acid production is also essential for maintaining a healthy bacterial balance in the intestines. Firstly, acid production in the stomach itself provides a protective barrier that keeps the stomach environment safe. Secondarily, low levels of stomach acid can lead to improperly, incompletely, or poorly-digested food fragments that may cause an imbalance in the growth of normal bacterial flora in the intestines. Achieving the correct balance of flora is a key to maintaining proper digestive function and overall health.

Research also suggests that the body’s capacity to produce stomach acid normally declines as we age. Moreover, stress and other factors may impact proper stomach acid production. Occasional heartburn, bloating, belching, discomfort, and a "sour stomach" may often result from this. Food that we eat enters the stomach through the esophagus, or food pipe. At the junction of the esophagus with the stomach is a muscular structure known as the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). When food enters the stomach for digestion, the LES normally contracts, narrowing the passageway between the esophagus and the stomach and preventing the backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus. A major trigger for the process of tightening the sphincter is the presence of sufficient stomach acid.

When sufficient stomach acid is sensed, the LES will close. However, in conditions where there is a lack of stomach acid, the sphincter remains open, allowing stomach contents, including acid, to flow back through the opening, potentially creating a sense of irritation and discomfort. Adequate stomach acid production is an essential criterion for the sphincter to function properly and prevent the backflow of stomach contents.1

A recent study assessed the incidence and causes of low vitamin B12 levels in elderly patients. The researchers suggest that the incidence of decreased vitamin B12 in the elderly, based on results of some epidemiological studies, is as high as 30-40%. When they looked at the possible causes of low B12 levels in 200 individuals that they followed, they found that food-B12 malabsorption accounted for 60-70% of the cases.2 In other words dietary B12 is bound to foods, generally animal proteins. The protein is normally broken down in conjunction with acid and pepsin in the stomach. However, low production of stomach acid may decrease the efficiency of this process and vitamin B12 remains bound to the protein source, leaving it unavailable to be absorbed. The absorption of countless other nutrients may also be impacted by low stomach acid and pepsin levels.

Gentian Root

Gentian is an herb that is native to parts of Europe and Asia. The root has been used extensively by traditional herbalists to support digestive function due in large part to its bitter constituents. Its present day use as a therapeutic herb dates back to the Romans and Greeks, and related species have even been used in the Indian Ayurvedic system. Various traditional texts classify gentian as a bitter tonic and digestive stimulant, due to its ability to promote the secretion of digestive enzymes. The German Commission E has approved the use of gentian for digestive support, which leads to an increased secretion of saliva and digestive juices.3

Supplementation with the combination of nutrients and cofactors present in Betaine HCl Pepsin & Gentian supports the normal digestive function of the stomach and helps to ensure that the body maintains the efficiency of nutrient absorption from the foods that we eat. Gentian serves to stimulate digestive secretions in the stomach, priming it to digest the food that we eat, while supplemental Betaine HCl and pepsin provide support to the body’s innate production of these digestive factors.

Safety

Take 1 capsule with each meal, or as recommended by a healthcare professional.

Scientific References

1. Wright, Jonathan V., MD and Lane Lenard, PhD. Why Stomach Acid is Good For You. New York: Evans, 2001. 2. Andres E, et al. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. CMAJ 2004; 171(3): 251-259. 3. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A and J Brinckmann, eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.



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Hypoallergenic Free Form Amino Acids
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Date: September 07, 2006 01:29 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Hypoallergenic Free Form Amino Acids

Free form amino acids are hypoallergenic (extremely non-allergic). Many sources of animal and plant proteins cause allergic reactions. Amino acids are molecularly pure and appropriate for the lactose intolerant and those who suffer from a variety of food allergies. Protein toxicity is a common problem for athletes, especially bodybuilders who create serious liver and kidney conditions due to over consumption and malabsorption of protein. To protect against protein toxicity, free form amino acids are used instead of protein, or as a digestive aid to improve assimilation of food protein.

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Digestive enzymes and Herbs
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Date: August 25, 2006 02:26 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Digestive enzymes and Herbs

Digestive enzymes and Herbs

 

Raw food naturally contains the proper types and proportion of enzymes to assist in its own digestion.  Food enzymes are released by the action of chewing, which ruptures the foods cell membranes.  Like salivary enzymes, raw food enzymes play an important role in human digestion by predigesting food in the upper stomach, where contents may site for as long as an hour before gastric secretions deign their action.

 

Since enzymes are essentially destroyed at 118 degrees F, most forms of cooking and industrial food preparation render food devoid of enzyme activity.  This places the full burden of digestion on the body processes and reserves.  In time, this burden can weaken or overwhelm an individual’s ability to process and absorb vital food nutrients.  Many health professionals believe that the prevalence of cooked and processed foods in modern society makes supplementation with digestive enzymes essential.  Digestive enzymes also may be a benefit to those who suffer from clinical disorders of digestion and absorption.

 

Consider these advantages

 

  1. Comprehensive plant-source enzymes.  Unlike supplemental enzymes of animal origin, plant enzymes work at the pH found in the upper stomach.  Plant enzymes are active in the pH range of 3.0 to 9.0, facilitating early and more complete digestion to improve food nutrient utilization.
  2. Full Spectrum Activity. Buy digestive enzymes that act on all the food types.  Protease break long protein chains (polypeptides) into smaller amino acid chains and eventually into single amino acids.  Amylases reduce large carbohydrates (starches and other polysaccharides) into disaccharides such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose.  Lipases digest fats (triglycerides) into free fatty acids and glycerol.  Cellulases (not found in the human system) helps digest the fibrous cell walls of plants, exposing nutrients for use in the body and increasing their bioavailability.
  3. Enzymes for Lactose and Other Sugars.  Each class of carbohydrate-rich food requires a specific type of enzyme for its digestion.  When the body is unable to secrete sufficient levels of such enzymes, malabsorption and physical discomfort may result.
  4. Traditional Digestive Herbs.  Artichoke leaf, peppermint leaf, fennel seed, gentian root, ginger root, capsicum fruit (cayenne) all help with digestion.  Herbs can be carminatives (for gas and bloating), bitters (to stimulate digestive enzymes and secretions) and digestive tonifier (to help strengthen, soothe and normalize digestive membranes.) Ginger (a classic tonic bitter and digestant) and artichoke help to support the liver and gallbladder, as does Gentain, perhaps the most bitter of the herbal gastric stimulants.  Peppermint oil and fennel have been used for centuries to soothe digestion and reduce gas and bloating.  Capsicum (red pepper) augments the absorption of herbs and other nutrients.

 

 



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Dramatic EPO Benefits for hyper active children
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Date: June 03, 2006 01:12 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Dramatic EPO Benefits for hyper active children

The noted essential fatty acid researcher David Horrobin, M.D., has made an incredibly important contribution to our understanding of the role that GLA plays in all facets of health. He notes, “The level of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is of crucial importance to the body. A fall in the level of PGE (in the brain) will lead to a potentially catastrophic series of untoward consequences including increased vascular reactivity, elevated cholesterol production, diabetic like changes in insulin release, enhanced risk of auto-immune disease, enhanced risk of inflammatory disorders, and susceptibility to depression.”

Dr. Horrobin notes in one such study: “About 20 children were treated with substantial benefit in about two thirds of them. Some responses were dramatic! In one case a boy whom they threatened with expulsion from school because of his impossible behavior was put on gamma-linolenic acid without the knowledge of the school authorities. After two weeks on GLA, the teacher, who was unaware of the treatment, contacted the parents and said that in thirty years of experience she had never seen such a dramatic and abrupt change for the better in a child’s behavior. Some children do equally well no matter if the oil is given by mouth or by rubbing into the skin. In others, there is the distinct impression that skin absorption, which will bypass malabsorption problems, may have a better effect.”

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B Vitamins Avert Stroke, Coronary Disease, Death
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Date: January 25, 2006 04:30 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: B Vitamins Avert Stroke, Coronary Disease, Death

B Vitamins Avert Stroke, Coronary Disease, Death

London, Ontario--Taking B Vitamins may lower homocysteine levels, thereby reducing the risk of ischemic stroke, coronary disease and death, according to an efficacy analysis of the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention trial (VISP).

Published in Stroke (36, 11:2404-09, 2005) (//stroke.ahajournals.org), the analysis outlined researchers’ criticisms of VISP: Participants in VISP may have been administered folate-fortified grain products, the low-dose arm of the study may have been given the recommended daily intake for b12, low-b12 patients in both study arms may have been treated with parenteral b12, test subjects with malabsorption may have been administered an excessively low dose of b12, study participants may have been taking vitamins outside of the study, and patients with significant renal impairment may have failed to response to vitamin therapy.

In the efficacy analysis of VISP, researchers excluded patients with very low and very high b12 levels at baseline (less than 250 pmol/L and greater than 637 pmol/L, respectively, representing the 25th and 95th percentiles), in order to eliminate test subjects with b12 malabsorption, ongoing b12 supplementation outside the study and significant renal impairment. The resulting subgroup was comprised of 2,155 patients, 37 percent female, with a mean age of 66 plus or minus 10.7 years. There was a 21 percent reduction in ischemic stroke, coronary disease and death in the high-b12 dose group compared with the low-b12 does group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of the four groups indicated patients with b12 levels at the median or higher at baseline who were randomized to the high-b12 dose showed the best overall outcome, whereas those with baseline b12 levels lower than the median who were assigned the low-b12 dose had the worst general outcome.

In the era of folate fortification, b12 plays a key role in vitamin therapy for total homocysteine may be needed for some patients.



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Benefits of Total Daily Formula
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Date: October 13, 2005 04:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of Total Daily Formula

Benefits of Total Daily Formula

Mixed Carotenoids

All fruits and vegetables contain carotenes, the plant pigments responsible for the rich variety of colors we enjoy in the natural world. Beta carotene is the most familiar member of the carotene family. But beta carotene never exists by itself; it is always found with other carotenes in foods. We need more than just beta carotene alone. Carotenes are powerful antioxidants, which means they help reduce the body's free radical burden. Research suggests that carotenes work as a team to keep us healthy.5 Total Daily Formula provides beta carotene, alpha carotene, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin from natural sources such as algal extracts, carrot oil, marigold and tomatoes (Caromix®).

Corn-Free Vitamin C

Total Daily Formula uses only corn-free vitamin C (ascorbic acid). The full daily intake of 6 tablets provides an exceptionally generous 800 mg of vitamin C.

Optimum B Vitamin Servings

Total Daily Formula supplies ample amounts of all essential B vitamins. Vitamin B3 is given as niacin plus an extra helping of niacinamide, the non-flush form of this important vitamin. The body uses pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) to deal with stress, so the formula provides 150 mg, which is 15 times the RDA. Vitamin B6 is another B vitamin people may run short of, so 60 mg -- 30 times the RDA -- is supplied. The formula contains 800 mcg of folic acid, the vitamin now recognized by the FDA as essential for prevention of neural tube defects in unborn babies. Folic acid also helps prevent accumulation in the body of homocysteine, a metabolite of the amino acid methionine.6 A high blood homocysteine level is now considered to be a risk factor for heart disease.7

Flavonoids

Flavonoids, also known as "bioflavonoids." are plant pigments widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom.8 Previously known as "Vitamin P," because they help reduce capillary permeability (leakiness) flavonoids are now regarded as "semi-essential" non-vitamin nutrients that benefit health in a variety of ways.9 In addition to maintaining the structure of blood vessels, flavonoids function as versatile antioxidants. Flavonoids protect vitamin C from destruction by free-radicals, helping to preserve the body's vitamin C supply.10 Total Daily Formula provides 100 mg of pure flavonoids from 112 mg of citrus extract.

Three superior sources of Calcium

Total Daily Formula contains three of the best absorbed and most effective forms of calcium available. MCHC (microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate) is a naturally-derived compound composed of calcium, plus all the minerals and organic factors in living bone tissue. MCHC has been clinically shown to benefit bone health.11 Calcium citrate malate is a very well-absorbed form of supplemental calcium shown in recent research to be helpful for postmenopausal women.12,13 Calcium glycinate is chelated with the amino acid glycine, one of the most efficient mineral carriers for effective absorption.14,15

Magnesium glycinate

Magnesium is essential for strong bones and healthy hearts. This versatile mineral also regulates nerve function, keeps muscles relaxed and coordinates activity of over 300 enzymes in the body.16 Total Daily Formula contains 100 percent magnesium glycinate for exceptional absorption and gentleness on the intestinal tract.17 Magnesium glycinate has been clinically tested on people with severe malabsorption with excellent results.18

Trace Minerals

Total Daily Formula provides - in addition to zinc, chromium, selenium and iodine - vanadium and molybdenum. Vanadium helps maintain normal blood sugar.19 Molybdenum works as a co-factor for enzymes that help detoxify and eliminate foreign substances from the body.20

Bioperine® for Enhanced Absorption

Bioperine® is a natural extract derived from black pepper that enhances nutrient absorption. Preliminary trials on humans have shown significant increases in the absorption of nutrients consumed along with Bioperine®. 21 Betaine HCL - supplies HCL (hydrochloric acid) to assist digestion. All natural tablet coating made of vegetable concentrate and beta carotene.

Scientific References
1. Cheraskin, E. Ringsdorf, W.M., Clark, J.W. 1968. Diet and Disease. (p. 16). New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.

2. Morgan, K.J. et. al. Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the U.S. population. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 1985;4:195-206.

3. Lakschmanan, F.L., Rao, R.B., Kim, W.W., Kelsay, J.L. Magnesium intakes, balances and blood levels of adults consuming self-selected diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984;40:1380-89.

4. Mertz, W. The Essential Trace Elements. Fed. Proc. 1970;29:1482.

5. Perry, G. Byers, T. Dietary carotenes, vitamin C and vitamin E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1992;12:139-59.

6. Landgren, F., et. al. Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: Homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Int Med 1995;237:381-88.

7. Clarke, R., et. al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: an independent risk factor for vascular disease. New Eng J Med 1991;324:1149-55. 8. Havsteen, B. Flavonoids, a class of natural compounds of high pharmacological potency. Biochemical Pharmacology 32(7):1141-48.

9. Middleton, E. The flavonoids. TIPS 1984; 5:335-38.

10. Roger, C.R. The nutritional incidence of flavonoids: some physiological and metabolic considerations. Experientia 44(9):725-804.

11. Dixon, A. St. J. Non-hormonal treatment of osteoporosis. British Medical Journal 1983;286(6370):999-1000.

12. Smith, K.T. et. al. Calcium Absorption from a new calcium delivery system (CCM). Calcif Tissue Int 1987;41:351-352.

13. Dawson-Hughes, B. et. al. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 1990 Sep 27;323(13):878-883.

14. Albion Research Notes Vol. 4, No. 1, ©Albion Laboratories Jan,1995.

15. Ashmead, H.D. Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions and Chelate, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, ©1985.

16. Wester, P.O., Dyckner, T. The importance of the magnesium ion. Magnesium deficiency-symptomatology and occurrence. Acta Med Scand 1992; (Suppl) 661:3-4.

17. Albion Research Notes Vol. 3, No. 1, ©Albion Laboratories, Feb 1994.

18. Schutte, S., et. al. Bioavailability of Mg diglycinate vs MgO in patients with ileal resections. Abstract 115, AJCN 1992;56(4).

19. Cohen, N. et. al. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin Invest 1995; 95:2501-09.

20. Sardesi, V.M. Molybdenum: An essential trace mineral element. Nutr Clin Pract 1993; 8:277-81.

21. Bioperine® - Nature's Bioavailability Enhancing Thermo-nutrient. Executive Summary' 1996; Sabinsa Corporation, Piscataway, N.J.



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