UPC: 753950000254
# DRB-00025

High Absorption Magnesium 120 and 240 Tablets Ingredients
per 2
tablets: Magnesium........................................200mg
...(Chelazome®, as magnesium bis-glycinate/lysinate*) Black
pepper extract (fruit) (Bioperine®)....4mg Excipients:
microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium
stearate, stearic acid Suggested Use: Two tablets two times
per day, between meals. Absorbability of Calcium (93k
.pdf) Ingredients High Absorption Magnesium contains
elemental magnesium chelated with the amino acids glycine and
lysine. It is a "di-peptide" chelate, which means that each
magnesium atom is chelated with two amino acid molecules. It has
a low molecular weight of 324 daltons, which is ideal for
optimum absorption. Bioperine® is a patented herbal extract that
enhances nutrient absorption. Benefits As an essential
dietary mineral, magnesium plays many important roles,
including: • Acts as a co-factor for metabolic enzymes.*
Assists energy production in cells.* • Supports nerve and
muscle function.* • Helps maintain a normal, regular
heartbeat.* • Supports bone density.* Magnesium is a dietary
mineral with a wide array of biological activities in the body.
Magnesium participates in numerous life-essential processes that
occur both inside and outside cells. Magnesium deficiency
impacts normal physiologic function on many levels. Adequate
magnesium is a fundamental requirement for optimum function of
the cardiovascular system, the nervous system and skeletal
muscle, as well as the uterus and GI tract. Magnesium deficiency
can affect health of the heart, bones and blood vessels and
alter blood sugar balance [1]. Magnesium–Important
for Everyone, Deficient in Many The average person living in a
modern country today very likely consumes less than the optimum
amount of magnesium [2]. An abundance of data collected over the
last two decades shows a consistent pattern of low magnesium
intake in the U.S. This pattern cuts a wide swath across various
age-sex groups. The USDA’s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey
found that a majority of Americans consumed less than the
recommended daily magnesium intake [3]. Twelve age-sex groups
were studied and this low magnesium intake was true for all
groups except 0 to 5 year olds. An analysis of the nutrient
content of the diets of 7,810 individuals age four and above
included magnesium among several nutrients where the amounts
supplied by the average diet "were not sufficient to meet
recommended standards" [4]. The FDA’s Total Diet study examined
the intakes of eleven minerals, including magnesium, among eight
age-sex groups. Data was collected four times yearly from 1982
to 1984. Levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc and copper
were low for most age-sex groups [5]. Surveys conducted in
Europe and in other parts of North America paint a similar
picture. Loss of magnesium during food processing is one
explanation for this global lack of adequate dietary magnesium
[6]. In particular, the elderly may be susceptible to
magnesium deficiency for a variety of reasons, including
inadequate magnesium intake, poor absorption due to impaired
gastrointestinal function and use of drugs such as diuretics
that deplete magnesium from the body [7]. It has recently been
theorized that magnesium deficiency may contribute to
accelerated aging, through effects on the cardiovascular and
nervous systems, as well as muscles and the kidneys
[8]. Women who take both synthetic estrogen and calcium
supplements may be at risk for low blood levels of magnesium
[9]. Estrogen promotes the transfer of magnesium from blood to
soft–tissues. Low blood magnesium may result if the ratio of
calcium to magnesium intake exceeds 4 to 1. Magnesium
supplementation is thus advisable for women taking estrogen and
calcium. Young adults are not immune to magnesium deficiency.
The University of California’s Bogalusa Heart Study collected
nutritional data from a cross-sectional sample of 504 young
adults between age 19 and 28 [10]. The reported intake of
magnesium, along with several other minerals and vitamins, was
below the RDA. Glycine is a highly effective mineral
chelator. This is because it is a low-molecular-weight amino
acid, hence is easily transported across the intestinal
membrane. A study conducted at Weber State University found this
particular magnesium glycinate was absorbed up to four times
more effectively than typical magnesium
supplements. Magnesium-the Versatile Mineral The average
adult body contains anywhere from about 21 to 28 grams of
magnesium. Approximately 60 percent of the body’s magnesium
supply is stored in bone. Soft tissue, such as skeletal muscle,
contains 38%, leaving only about 1 to 2% of the total body
magnesium content in blood plasma and red blood cells. Magnesium
in the body may be bound either to proteins or "anions"
(negatively charged substances.) About 55% of the body’s
magnesium content is in the "ionic" form, which means it carries
an electrical charge. Magnesium ions are "cations," ions that
carry a positive charge. In its charged state, magnesium
functions as one of the mineral "electrolytes." Magnesium
works as a "co-factor" for over 300 enzymatic reactions in the
body. Metabolism uses a phosphate containing molecule called
"ATP" as its energy source. Magnesium is required for all
reactions involving ATP [11]. ATP supplies the energy for
physical activity, by releasing energy stored in "phosphate
bonds". Skeletal and heart muscle use up large amounts of
ATP. The energy for muscle contraction is released when one of
ATP’s phosphate bonds is broken, in a reaction that produces
ADP. Phosphate is added back to ADP, re-forming ATP. ATP also
powers the cellular "calcium pump" which allows muscle cells to
relax. Because it participates in these ATP-controlled
processes, magnesium is vitally important for muscle contraction
and relaxation. By controlling the flow of sodium, potassium and
calcium in and out of cells, magnesium regulates the function of
nerves as well as muscles [12]. Magnesium’s importance for
heart health is widely recognized. The heart is the only muscle
in the body that generates its own electrical impulses. Through
its influence on the heart’s electrical conduction system,
magnesium is essential for maintenance of a smooth, regular
heartbeat [13]. Magnesium appears to help the heart resist the
effects of systemic stress. Magnesium deficiency aggravates
cardiac damage due to acute systemic stress (such as caused by
infection or trauma), while magnesium supplementation protects
the heart against stress [14]. This has been found true even in
the absence of an actual magnesium deficit in the
body. Evidence suggests that magnesium may help support
mineral bone density in elderly women. In a two-year open,
controlled trial, 22 out of a group of 31 postmenopausal women
who took daily magnesium supplements showed gains in bone
density. A control group of 23 women who declined taking the
supplements had decreases in bone density [15]. The dietary
intakes of magnesium, potassium, fruit and vegetables are
associated with increased bone density in elderly women and men
[16]. In an interesting animal study, rats were fed diets with
either high or low levels of magnesium. Compared to the high
magnesium-fed rats, bone strength and magnesium content of bone
decreased in the low-magnesium rats, even though these rats
showed no visible signs of magnesium deficiency [17]. While this
finding may or may not apply to humans, it raises the
possibility that diets supplying low magnesium intakes may
contribute to weakening of bone in the elderly. Maximizing
Absorption––Chelated Minerals Explained Mineral absorption
occurs mainly in the small intestine. Like any mineral,
magnesium may be absorbed as an "ion," a mineral in its
elemental state that carries an electric charge. Mineral ions
cross the intestinal membrane either through "active transport"
by a protein carrier imbedded in the cells lining the membrane
inner wall, or by simple diffusion. The magnesium in mineral
salts is absorbed in ionic form. However, absorption of ionic
minerals can be compromised by any number of factors, including:
1) Low solubility of the starting salt, which inhibits release
of the mineral ion, and 2) Binding of the released ion to
naturally occurring dietary factors such as phytates, fats and
other minerals that form indigestible mineral complexes
[18]. A second absorption mechanism has been discovered for
minerals. Experiments have shown that minerals chemically bonded
to amino acids (building blocks of protein) are absorbed
differently from mineral ions. This has given rise to the
introduction of "chelated" minerals as dietary supplements.
Mineral amino acid chelates consist of a single atom of
elemental mineral that is surrounded by two or more amino acid
molecules in a stable, ring-like structure. Unlike mineral
salts, which must be digested by stomach acid before the desired
mineral portion can be released and absorbed, mineral chelates
are not broken down in the stomach or intestines. Instead,
chelates cross the intestinal wall intact, carrying the mineral
tightly bound and hidden within the amino acid ring. The mineral
is then released into the bloodstream for use by the
body. Research by pioneers in the field of mineral chelation
and human nutrition indicates that the best-absorbed chelates
consist of one mineral atom chelated with two amino acids. This
form of chelate is called a "di-peptide." Compared to other
chelates, di-peptides have the ideal chemical attributes for
optimum absorption [19]. Dipeptide chelates demonstrate superior
absorption compared to mineral salts. For example, a magnesium
di-peptide chelate was shown to be four times better absorbed
than magnesium oxide [20]. Consumer Alert! Not all "amino
acid chelates" are true chelates. In order for a mineral
supplement to qualify as a genuine chelate, it must be carefully
processed to ensure the mineral is chemically bonded to the
amino acids in a stable molecule with the right characteristics.
The magnesium bis-glycinate/lysinate in High Absorption
Magnesium is a genuine di-peptide chelate ("bis" means "two").
It has a molecular weight of 324 daltons, considerably lower
than the upper limit of 800 daltons stated in the definition of
"mineral amino acid chelates" adopted by the National
Nutritional Foods Association in 1996 [21]. Bioperine® For
Enhanced Absorption Bioperine® is a natural extract derived
from black pepper that increases nutrient absorption.*
Preliminary trials on humans have shown significant increases in
the absorption of nutrients consumed along with Bioperine®
[22]. Scientific References 1. Abbott, L.R., R., Clinical
manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner electrolyte Metab,
1993. 19: p. 314-22. 2. Durlach, J., Recommended dietary
amounts of magnesium: Mg RDA. Magnesium Research, 1989. 2(3): p.
195-202. 3. Morgan, K.e.a., Magnesium and calcium dietary
intakes of the U.S. population. Journal of the American College
of Nutrition, 1985. 4: p. 195-206. 4. Windham, C., Wyse, B.,
Hurst, R. Hansen, R., Consistency of nutrient consumption
patterns in the United States. J AM Diet Assoc, 1981. 78(6): p.
587-95. 5. Pennington, J., Mineral content of foods and total
diets: the Selected Minerals in Food Survey, 1982 to 1984. J AM
Diet Assoc, 1986. 86(7): p. 876-91. 6. Marier, J., Magnesium
Content of the Food Supply in the Modern- Day World. Magnesium,
1986. 5: p. 1-8. 7. Costello, R., Moser-Veillon, P., A review
of magnesium intake in the elderly. A cause for concern?
Magnesium Research, 1992. 5(1): p. 61-67. 8. Durlach, J., et
al., Magnesium status and aging: An update. Magnesium Research,
1997. 11(1): p. 25-42. 9. Seelig, M., Increased need for
magnesium with the use of combined oestrogen and calcium for
osteoporosis treatment. Magnesium Research, 1990. 3(3): p.
197-215. 10. Zive, M., et al., Marginal vitamin and mineral
intakes of young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Adolesc,
1996. 19(1): p. 39-47. 11. McLean, R., Magnesium and its
therapeutic uses: A review. American Journal of Medicine, 1994.
96: p. 63-76. 12. Graber, T., Role of magnesium in health and
disease. Comprehensive Therapy, 1987. 13(1): p. 29-35. 13.
Sueta, C., Patterson, J., Adams, K., Antiarrhythmic action of
pharmacological administration of magnesium in heart failure: A
critical review of new data. Magnesium Research, 1995. 8(4): p.
389- 401. 14. Classen, H.-G., Systemic stress, magnesium
status and cardiovascular damage. Magnesium, 1986. 5: p.
105-110. 15. Stendig-Lindberg, G., Tepper, R., Leichter, I.,
Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of
peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnesium Research, 1993.
6(2): p. 155-63. 16. Tucker, K., et al., Potassium, magnesium,
and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone
mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr, 1999.
69(4): p. 727-736. 17. Heroux, O., Peter, D., Tanner, A.,
Effect of a chronic suboptimal intake of magnesium on magnesium
and calcium content of bone and bone strength of the rat. Can J.
Physiol. Pharmacol., 1975. 53: p. 304-310. 18. Pineda, O.,
Ashmead, H.D., Effectiveness of treatment of irondeficiency
anemia in infants and young children with ferrous bisglycinate
chelate. Nutrition, 2001. 17: p. 381-84. 19. Adibi, A.,
Intestinal transport of dipetides in man: Relative importance of
hydrolysis and intact absorption. J Clin Invest, 1971. 50: p.
2266-75. 20. Ashmead, H.D., Graff, D., Ashmead, H., Intestinal
Absorption of Metal Ions and Chelates. 1985, Springfield,
Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 21. NNFA definition of mineral
amino acid chlelates, in NNFA Today. 1996. p. 15. 22.
Bioperine-Nature's Bioavailability Enhancing Thermonutrient.
1996, Sabinsa Corporation: Piscataway, N.J. *This statement
has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This
product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any
disease. Doctor's Best•1120 Calle Cordillera•Suite 101, San
Clemente, CA 92673

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