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Anti-cancer breakthrough: 52 herbs were tested, and only these three were found to effectively fight cancer Darrell Miller 8/19/17
Vitamins A and C help erase cell memory - Knowridge Science Report Darrell Miller 12/9/16
L-Leucine as an essential Amino Acid Darrell Miller 5/31/14
Can Glutamine Improve The Immune System, Lymphocites and Inetstinal cell Enterocytes? Darrell Miller 5/7/14
What is Shea Butter Good for? Darrell Miller 2/24/12
Improve Your Memory Naturall, How Does Huperzine A Help Improve Memory? Darrell Miller 3/26/11
What is Vinpocetine and How Does it Help with Memory? Darrell Miller 3/24/11
L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 5/7/09
L-Methionine Darrell Miller 5/2/09
Detoxify With L-Citrulline Darrell Miller 4/13/09
Turmeric Extract (Curcumin) Darrell Miller 2/10/09
L-Alanine Non Essential Amino Acid Darrell Miller 1/5/09
Horny Goat Weed Darrell Miller 12/6/08
Huperzine And Memory Darrell Miller 12/4/08
Horny Goat Weed Darrell Miller 10/31/08
Glycine Darrell Miller 10/11/08
D-Ribose Darrell Miller 5/17/08
Curcumin, Curcuminoids, and Curamin Darrell Miller 4/30/08
A Periwinkle Extract Vinpocetine May Promote Cerebral Blood Flow Darrell Miller 12/1/07
Breast Cancer and Natural Supplements Darrell Miller 5/11/07
Memory And Focus Darrell Miller 5/8/07
Complete Liver Cleanse Darrell Miller 4/19/07
L-Citrulline 500mg capsules of powder Darrell Miller 9/1/06
Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 2/12/06
Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant Darrell Miller 12/7/05
TMG Fact Sheet Darrell Miller 12/7/05
Sytrinol can lower Cholesterol by 27% - 34% Darrell Miller 9/20/05
CHOLESTEROL RESCUE - Maintain Your Cholesterol Wellness Darrell Miller 6/29/05
SYTRINOL - For Heart Health, Don’t Be Confused About Cholesterol... Darrell Miller 6/29/05
Sytrinol - A Natural Solution for Addressing Cholesterol Darrell Miller 6/21/05
Nothing to Sneeze At Darrell Miller 6/18/05
Essential Beauty Serums Darrell Miller 6/16/05
Thanks for the Memory Darrell Miller 6/11/05
Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Ellagic Active - Raspberry Extract - Promotes Healthy Cells ... Darrell Miller 6/1/05
Chem-Defense - Fight Chemical sensitivity ... Darrell Miller 6/1/05
Re: Acetyl-L-Carnitine - Anti-Aging Brain Nutrient ... Darrell Miller 5/31/05
new treatment options for chronic hepatitis Darrell Miller 5/30/05
Glycerylphosphorylcholine -- Supports Cognitive Function in AD ... Darrell Miller 5/24/05
Milk Thistle and Liver Damage abstract ... Darrell Miller 5/22/05
Niacin and Cholesterol -- abstracts states blocks cholesterol absorption ... Darrell Miller 5/21/05
Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone... Darrell Miller 5/17/05
Composition and Method of increasing Testonsterone... Darrell Miller 5/17/05



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Anti-cancer breakthrough: 52 herbs were tested, and only these three were found to effectively fight cancer
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Date: August 19, 2017 12:14 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Anti-cancer breakthrough: 52 herbs were tested, and only these three were found to effectively fight cancer





Natural herbs have been used medicinally for centuries. Ancient civilizations have used them to cure many minor and major ailments. These herbs are now being studied to treat strains of cancer. Scientists from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology have reviewed the high contrast image screening of 52 herbs to test their properties that may affect cancer. In all of these 52 herbs three have showed promising results. They all originate in the middle east and include Citrullus colocynthis, Anastatica hierochuntica, and Juniperus phoenicea. More testing is necessary. With the discovery of these herbs' possible treatment powers, more people are hopeful to discover new herbs in such places as the Amazon Rainforest. Although recent deforestation is an issue.

Key Takeaways:

  • Researchers recently identified three plants that have properties that could help cure cancer.
  • The three plants identified by researchers had active compounds that could potentially be broken down to create anti-cancer chemicals.
  • Many other plants, such as some growing in the diverse Amazon rainforest, should be investigated in the search for anti-cancer medicines, but many of these plants are threatened by human activity.

"The three plants that showed a lot of promise were Anastatica hierochuntica, Citrullus colocynthis, and Juniperus phoenicea. All of these had potent anti-cancer substances known as topoisomerase inhibitors that could potentially be used to develop anti-cancer inhibitors."

Read more: http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-08-15-anti-cancer-breakthrough-52-herbs-were-tested-and-only-these-three-were-found-to-effectively-fight-cancer.html

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=5149)


Vitamins A and C help erase cell memory - Knowridge Science Report
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Date: December 09, 2016 07:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Vitamins A and C help Erase cell memory - Knowridge Science Report





Vitamins A and C aren't just good for your health, they affect your DNA too. Researchers at the Babraham Institute and their international collaborators have discovered how vitamins A and C act to modify the epigenetic 'memory' held by cells; insight which is significant for regenerative medicine and our ability to reprogramme cells from one identity to another.

Key Takeaways:

  • For regenerative medicine, the holy grail is to be able to generate a cell that can be directed to become any other cell, such as brain cells, heart cells and lung cells.
  • Cells with this ability are present in the early embryo (embryonic stem cells, ESC) and give rise to the many different cell types in the body.
  • Every different cell type has a unique epigenetic fingerprint, enforcing and maintaining specific patterns of gene expression appropriate to the cell type.

"Vitamins A and C aren’t just good for your health, they affect your DNA too."



Reference:

https://knowridge.com/2016/11/vitamins-a-and-c-help-Erase-cell-memory/

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=3603)


L-Leucine as an essential Amino Acid
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Date: May 31, 2014 06:54 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Leucine as an essential Amino Acid

amino acidIntroduction

L-Leucine is a a-amino acid with the chemical formulae HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH(CH3)2. It is a hydrophopic amino acid to its aliphatic isobutyl side chain. L-Leucine is an essential amino acid since the human body can’t synthesize it, and it therefore must be ingested.

What is an essential amino acid

These are the amino acids that can’t be synthesized by the body of the organism hence it must be supplied in the diet. These amino acids is important not because they are important than others, but simply because the body can’t synthesize them.

Phenylalanine, L- Leucine, Valine, Tryptophan, Threonine, meyhionine, iso - Leucine, lysine and histidine are some of amino acids regarded as essential for humans beings.

The main difference between essential and non-essential amino acids is somehow since some proteins can be synthesized from others. The sulfur containing amino acids such as L-Leucine may sometimes be referred to as an essential amino acid.

Effects of L-Leucine deficiency

Majority of amino acids are important in the human diet. An experiment carried out by William Cummings Rose showed that lack of L-Leucine results to symptoms of exhaustion, nervousness and dizziness. Results further showed that these symptoms were encountered to lesser extent whenever human subjects were deprived of an essential amino acid.

In plants and other micro-organisms, L-Leucine is synthesized from pruvic acid by several enzymes. These enzymes include:

· a-Isopropylmalate synthase

· L-LeucineaminotransfErase

· a-Isopropylmalate isomErase

· Acetolactate synthase

· Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase

· Dihydroxyacid dehydratase

Importance of L- Leucine

L-Leucine is used by the adipose tissue, liver and the muscle. In muscle tissue and adipose L-Leucine is used in the formation of sterols. Ironically the combined usage of L-Leucine in the muscle and adipose is seven times greater than its use in the liver.

L-Leucine is also used in stimulation of the muscle protein synthesis. In dietary , L-Leucine is used in to slow down the degradation of muscle tissue by increasing the synthesis of muscle proteins in aged rats however this does not work in elderly men. L-Leucine helps you lose weight and spare muscle when dieting.

However L-Leucine can’t be associated as the main reason in muscular growth for the entire populatin. L-Leucine activates the mammalian target that regulates the growth cells in rats.

Negative effects of L- Leucine

L-Leucine cause neurologic complications which may be fatal if not control in time.

Studies also show that over activity of the liver is caused by taking L-Leucine supplement, excess L-Leucine may also cause pellagra, whose symptoms include dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and eventually death.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=3130)


Can Glutamine Improve The Immune System, Lymphocites and Inetstinal cell Enterocytes?
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Date: May 07, 2014 11:29 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can Glutamine Improve The Immune System, Lymphocites and Inetstinal cell Enterocytes?

Glutamine

muscle glutamineGlutamine is considered to be the most abundant natural amino acids which is a building block of proteins in the body. Although the body can already make enough glutamine on its own, extreme stress is the type you could experience after heavy exercise or from injuries can't naturally aid help those pains on its own. The body may need a bit more glutamine in order to truly eliminate those kinds of ailments. Most glutamine is naturally stored in the muscles and lungs.

Can Glutamine Improve The Immune System, Lymphocites and Inetstinal cell Enterocytes?

Glutamine is also very important when it comes to removing excess ammonia which is a common waste that grows in the body. It has also been shown to help your immune system to function more normally to create proper brain function and bowel movements. Glutamine is naturally utilized at high rates by the isolated incubated lymphocytes that produces glutamate, lactate, and aspartate. The pathways for glutamine metabolism can include reactions catalysed by aspartate aminotransfErase, glutaminase, succinate dehydrogenase, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Having high levels of glutamine in the body has been claimed to help improve the body's lymphocites and intestinal cell enterocytes in the body.

This is why numerous product contains a high levels of glutamine to help with imbalanced areas in the body. Purchasing the purest of glutamine products is the best way to get the most benefits out of it. Glutamine can also help increase the metabolism promoting a much easier time maintaining your weight. Increasing your glutamine can definitely do wonders for your daily life, as it will improve numerous aspects in your body.

In conclusion, be sure to boost your glutamine while your young so that when you get older, you body has a great storage of it when it may need the most.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=3114)


What is Shea Butter Good for?
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Date: February 24, 2012 08:12 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What is Shea Butter Good for?

Shea butter

Shea butter is an all natural creamy fatty substance with exceptional moisturizing properties. It is made from the nuts of karite or shea tree that grows in the savannah regions of East and West Africa. Shea nuts are cracked, grilled, pound and boiled in water to extract the butter. Africans called it the women's gold because most of young women in Africa make a living in shea butter production.

Shea butter is so rich in antioxidants that it has the ability to heal skin diseases such as eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis and skin rashes. It gives relief from skin itch and flaking. It is rich in Vitamins A and E that hastens the healing process of such skin diseases. Vitamins A and E are powerful antioxidants that eliminate skin toxicity and shield the skin from irritants. They also prevent the skin from getting damaged. Vitamin A prevents pimples and other skin blemishes. While vitamin E keeps the skin radiantly glowing and repairs damaged skin cells.

Anti-Aging

She butter is an excellent anti stretch mark cream. The human skin is naturally elastic. However, pregnancy and weight gain cause the skin to rapidly stretched. This process affects collagen production and causes stretch marks. Collagen is glue like substance that firmly holds the cells together to prevent skin to sag. Shea butter aids in increasing collagen production to cope up with rapidly stretching skin during pregnancy and weight gain. This keeps the skin's elasticity and prevents stretch marks. Its ability to increase collagen production Erases, if not reduces the appearance of stretch marks and scars. Increased collagen production firms and tones the skin and prevents it from sagging.

Shea butter and Skin Health

Shea butter is an intensive moisturizer for severe dry, flaky, rough and sunburned skin. It softens rough knees and elbows, cracked heel and calloused hands and feet.

Shea butter delays skin aging. As people age, fine lines and wrinkles start to develop. Shea butter deeply moisturizes and rejuvenates the skin thus, prevents wrinkles and early signs of aging. It is easily absorbed by the skin as it penetrates deep into the skin making it more hydrated from the inside. It hastens skin cell regeneration and allows new skin cells to grow. This process peels away old skin, revealing younger looking skin. Skin cell regeneration repairs damaged skin caused by ultra violet rays, radiation, wind and pollution. It also aids in fast healing of wounds, insect bites and burns without leaving scar or marks. It evens out skin tone, removes dark spots and other skin blemishes by continuously renewing skin cells.

Skin Irritations

Shea butter soothes skin from irritation and stress caused by hair removal. Razor shaving, waxing and plucking leave the skin stressed and irritated. They also leave red bumps that lead to roughness and dark spots. The conditioning effect of shea butter calms red bumps and skin irritation when used as shaving cream.

Shea butter and Hair / Scalp

Shea butter works amazingly on hair and scalp, too. Dry scalp causes the it to flake. Shea butter conditions the scalp and hair follicles thus, prevents flaking and dandruf. It brings back hair's lost moisture due to frequent washing, hair styling and blow drying.

Shea butter is an excellent massage cream that treats arthritis, stiff joints and inflamed muscles. It has an anti inflammatory property relaxes swollen and stiff joints and aching muscles. It also relieves nasal congestion and inflammation when applied topically.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2592)


Improve Your Memory Naturall, How Does Huperzine A Help Improve Memory?
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Date: March 26, 2011 10:47 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Improve Your Memory Naturall, How Does Huperzine A Help Improve Memory?

Huperzine A and The Brain

Huperzine A is an organic compound naturally occurring in a plant species believed to be one of the oldest vascular plants still in existence. It is derived entirely from the firmoss Huperzia serrata, which is reputed for its memory-enhancing effects in China for the most part of its history. It has gained the attention of researchers and health professionals in the West owing to its purported role as a cholinestErase inhibitor, which delays cognitive decline and brain shrinkage tied to Alzheimer’s disease. It has become popular to people seeking other forms of cholinestErase inhibitors apart from those commonly available in the market, and anecdotal evidence points to its noticeable effects on symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Increases Quantities of Neurotransmitters

Cholinergic neurotransmission makes use of a system of nerve cells that participate in anti-excitatory activities in the central nervous system. These neurons rely on an endogenous compound called acetylcholine, which acts as the primary neurotransmitter in the brain, the brain stem, and the spinal cord. Acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is synthesized from esterified acetic acid and choline, but its lifespan is cut short by the enzyme cholinestErase.

This enzyme induces the hydrolysis of this neurotransmitter back into choline and acetic acid. Huperzine A works on the principle of inhibiting the enzyme cholinestErase, resulting in a longer acetylcholine lifespan especially those in the brain. By doing so, it also raises the levels of other neurotransmitters that are in the employ of nerve cells.

Affects Chemical Compounds in the Brain

Nerve cells constantly respond to many chemical brains that may induce more neuronal activities that affect cognitive function. The busier nerve cells become, the sooner the brain is able to sustain concentration. An increase in neurotransmitters has been tied to greater neuronal activities. Also, there are exogenous chemical compounds that when ingested pass the blood-brain barrier and act as stimulants to nerve cells, such as caffeine.

It has been postulated that Huperzine A provides a nootropic effects by influencing endogenous brain chemicals and consequently stimulating neuronal activities in a similar way caffeine does. However, unlike caffeine, it is not considered a psychoactive drug. More importantly, a more recent study points to its effects on nerve growth factor, or NGF, a protein responsible for the growth and upkeep of nerve cells. This means Huperzine A not only influences brain chemicals, but also makes sure that nerve cells survive.

Creates Positive Effects on Neuroplasticity

In contrary to former claims that the brain does not change after early developments during infancy, recent studies point to changes in both chemical makeup and cellular structure as we age. These changes are a response to both physiological stimulus and learning experience. New nerve cells are created as we spend more time sharpening our mental skills, much like how the muscles respond to continuous exercise and body toning. This process of change in the brain is called neuroplasticity, which Huperzine A supports by acting as a vitamin-like nutrient to nerve cells and neurotransmitters.

If you want to improve brain function and memory, give Huperzine A a try today!

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2259)


What is Vinpocetine and How Does it Help with Memory?
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Date: March 24, 2011 02:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What is Vinpocetine and How Does it Help with Memory?

Vinpocetine And Brain Health

Vinpocetine is a derivative of an organic compound found in the plant species Vinca minor, or common periwinkle. It is best known for its neuroprotective effects and used in Europe and Japan in treatment of age-related cognitive decline. More often than not, its activities inside the human body are described as vasodilator, which means it increases blood flow. It has also seen a growing presence in the North American market as a dietary supplement.

Vinpocetine is available as a prescription drug in certain European countries and Japan and has shown to be speed up prognosis of patients who suffered cerebrovascular accident, or CVA, which is commonly referred to as stroke. Most cases of cerebrovascular accident are brought on by ischemia, or very poor circulation of blood to certain parts of the brain. This is exactly what vinpocetine is beneficial for, and recommended dosages have so far yielded very encouraging results.

Improves Blood Circulation in the Brain

It has long been postulated that one of the mechanisms of action of vinpocetine is limiting the effects of Na+ channels that are sensitive to voltage. This creates a neuroprotective effect believed to contribute to mental clarity and sustained attention. Striatal nerve endings produce extracellular Ca+ ions that induce neuronal damage through a phenomenon called excitotocity. High levels of Ca+ ions are now alleged to be correlated with voltage-sensitive Na+ channels. Striatal nerve endings see a decline in Ca+ ions when Na+ channels are influenced by vinpocetine, and in the process lessen excitotoxicity.

Attenuates Ischemic Neuronal Damage

In addition to limiting neuronal damage induced by excitotoxicity, which in turn results from cerebral ischemia, vinpocetine plays an active role in the upkeep of brain cells after being subjected to ischemic damage. As a vasodilator, it not only counters the effects of ischemia but also significantly increases the brain’s access to bioactive molecules like oxygen and other nutrients exclusively distributed by the circulatory system.

It also inhibits the enzyme phosphodiestErase, which is specialized for the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate, or cGMP. By so doing, vinpocetine contributes to glucose metabolism and energy production in the brain, and at the same time, improves the distribution of bioactive compounds in the central nervous system.

Displays Neuroprotective Activities

Vinpocetine and its precursor belong to a group of indole alkaloids known as tryptomines, which are present in the human brain and the rest of the central nervous system in minute quantities. These organic compounds make up several psychoactive drugs and in the human body act as neuromodulators and neurotransmitters in the form of melatonin and serotonin.

Vinpocetine in particular displays activities that are primarily anti-inflammatory in nature. Several studies point to its effects on the enzyme complex called IkB kinase, which regulates cellular responses to inflammation, by preventing the translocation of a protein complex called responsible for the process of inflammation within cells.

In a Nutshell, vinpocetine can help you think clearer and protect the brain from inflammation and free radical damage. Give vinpocetine a try today!

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2257)


L-Carnitine
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Date: May 07, 2009 05:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Carnitine

L-carnitine is amino acid essential for the metabolism of fats into a form of energy necessary for extended aerobic activity. Originally discovered in Russia, and Germany a year later, the structural formulation of carnitine, as it is correctly known, was determined in 1927, although it is physiological and biochemical activity was not understood until the 1960s.

The amino acid is biosynthesized in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine. The vitamins niacin, B6, C and iron are essential for this reaction to take place. However, the supply of L-carnitine has to be supplemented by the diet, good sources being dairy products, red meat, nuts and seeds, pulses and fruits such as apricots, bananas and avocado. Most of the L-carnitine supply of the body is stored within the muscle tissue. However, it is not unusual for conditions to arise making it difficult for the body to obtain all the carnitine required.

L-carnitine enables fatty acids to be transported into the mitochondria, where cell metabolism occurs. The biochemistry is discussed below, although in simple terms the amino acid allows body fats, in the form of triglycerides, to be made more readily available for the generation of energy required for extended exertion. In this way, body fats can be used for energy and the supplies of glycogen stored by the liver can be retained for emergency use.

By providing the energy for endurance and stamina in this way, carnitine makes use of an otherwise unavailable energy source, and has the added benefit of reducing body fat stores and reducing strain on the heart.

Although there is generally a plentiful supply of L-carnitine available in a healthy diet, supplementation can ensure that a deficiency does not occur. Supplements are available in the form of L-carnitine or its acetylated derivative, acetyl L-carnitine.

In order for fatty acids to be used in the production of energy, their long-chain acetyl groups have to get inside the mitochondria where they are oxidized to the acetate to be used for the production of energy via the Citric Acid or Krebs cycle.

In order for the biochemistry to take place, fatty acids must be rendered suitable for binding to the carnitine molecule. The chemical grouping with a good affinity for L-carnitine is the acetyl or acetyl group, available in the molecule acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). The free fatty acid, therefore, is attached to coenzyme-A by means of a thioester bond, catalyzed by means of the enzyme fatty acetyl-CoA synthetase. The reaction is then completed by means of in organic pyrophosphatase.

In this way, the fatty acid in the form of an acetyL-carnitine derivative can be transported through the mitochondrial wall. This transportation takes place by means of several steps. These are:

1. As explained, the acetyl-CoA is attached to L-carnitine by means of the enzyme carnitine acetyltransfErase I. This enzyme is conveniently located on the outer mitochondrial membrane.

2. The enzyme carnitine-acetylcarnitine translocase helps the acetyL-carnitine through the membrane.

3. Another enzyme, carnitine acetyltransfErase II, located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, converts the acetyL-carnitine to acetyl-CoA, liberating the carnitine which returns to the muscle mass.

L-carnitine is the only known substance that allows fatty acids to cross the mitochondrial membrane, and therefore deficiencies must be avoided.

Another way in which carnitine is used in energy production is in the Krebs cycle itself. Part of this cycle involves the conversion of guanine diphosphate to the higher energy form guanine triphosphate. In this way energy can be stored in much the same way as it is in the conversion of ADP to ATP. Succinyl CoA is involved in this conversion, and one of the by-products of it is a corresponding succinate, that is then converted to a fumarate by the action of L-carnitine fumarate. Carnitine, therefore, has two parts to play in the production of long-term energy from the fatty acids contained in body fats.

Since the fatty acid triglycerides contained in body fats are a major source of energy in the heart and skeletal muscles, it is easy to understand how L-carnitine is believed to lead to the increased energy levels required for stamina and staying power. A major reason for its effect on longer-term or extended energy requirements is that in enabling stored body fats to be used for immediate and longer-term energy requirements, L-carnitine allows emergency glycogen stores to be retained for use once immediate fatty acid supplies or those of carnitine have been depleted, and so allows the energy supply to be extended even farther. Research has also suggested that the amino acid can possibly be used to treat liver and kidney disease, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome.

As with many supplements, the question is often asked how does L-carnitine work in practice as opposed to the claims made for it by the supplement providers? Recent research indicates mixed results, but sufficient to justify its use. It is generally accepted that a supplement is necessary when there is a deficiency, but once that deficiency has been corrected further intake is unnecessary. However, it is also believed that during long and extended periods of exercise a carnitine deficiency does occur as L-carnitine is used up, and the supplement is necessary to ensure sufficient energy supply throughout the period of exercise.

There has also been a case reported in the Journal of Clinical Neurology (Negoro, Tsuda, Kato & Morimatsu, 1995) where a deficiency, caused by anorexia nervosa damaging the liver to the extent that it was unable to synthesize L-carnitine, was remedied by means of an oral supplement. Studies on endurance athletes have been mixed, ranging from no effect to L-carnitine being found to promote weight loss.

Carnitine has no unknown harmful side effects, and has been studied for medical applications other than as an energy supplement. For example it possesses extensive antioxidant properties, and can be used as a supplement against oxidative stress and the prevention of the lipid peroxidation that is a precursor to atherosclerosis.

Its use in osteoporosis and reducing bone mass is also being studied. The concentration of L-carnitine diminishes with age, and affects fatty acid metabolism in a number of tissues. Bones are particularly affected since they require continuous reconstruction. Without detailing the biochemistry involved in this, administration of carnitine helps to reduce the speed by which this occurs. Trials are so far been carried out only on animals.

In studies on both healthy volunteers and patients with type II diabetes, L-carnitine was found to improve storage of glucose in both groups, although its oxidation increased only in the group with diabetes. Other studies carried out include improving the function of neurotransmitters in the brains of elderly patients and in the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and other neurological disorders.

In conclusion then, although the jury is out on the use of L-carnitine is an energy-giving or weight-loss supplement, it appears to be effective where the body's stores of carnitine could be depleted such as with long-term exercise, natural deficiencies or deficiencies caused through age. It is also under study in the treatment of various medical conditions. On balance, it would appear that the prospective benefits of L-carnitine render it worthy of use.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2004)


L-Methionine
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Date: May 02, 2009 11:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Methionine

Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning that it is not synthesized by the body, and so has to be taken as part of your diet. It also contains sulfur, one of two sulfur-containing amino acids that can form proteins, the other being cysteine. It is a precursor for taurine, which is an aminosulphonic acid, and not strictly an amino acid, which together with cysteine supports the health of your cardiovascular system and helps to eliminate toxins from the body.

Maintenance of Cell Membranes

It is also an important intermediary in the maintenance of cell membranes. Phospholipids are fat-soluble components of the cell membrane, phosphatidylcholine being a very important example. Also known as lecithin, this substance is derived from choline, itself biosynthesized in a chemical pathway involving S-adenosylmethionine.

This substance is made in the body from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and methionine with the help of the enzyme methionine adensosyltransfErase. Known as SAM (or SAM-e), S-adenosylmethionine employs a number of metabolic pathways in its reaction, though generally aminopropylation, transmethylation and transsulfuration. These add aminopropyl, sulfo and methyl groups to a number of substances, the most common being the methylation of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.

Phosphatidylcholine is produced by the enzyme-catalyzed sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, SAM donating the methyl groups. The maintenance of the integrity of the cellular membrane by phosphatidylcholine is critical to all of the basic processes in human biology, including communication between cells, flow of information and bioenergetics.

A by-product of this reaction is homocysteine, formed in the liver from the S-adenosylhomocysteine that SAM is changed to after donating methyl groups. Excess homocysteine in the blood can create the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. SAM is also of use in the treatment of depression and of arthritis.

Muscle Development

Creatine is a substance well known to athletes as being useful in provide short-term energy for high-intensity training. Although available in the diet, about 50% creatine used by the body is biosynthesized from methionine and two other amino acids, glycine and arginine. It allows a burst of energy lasting about 10 seconds, carried out without the use of glycogen reserves or fatty tissue.

Glycine and arginine combine to release ornithine as a by-product, and form guanidino acetate. SAM donates a methyl group to the latter to form creatine, about 95% of which is then stored in the skeletal muscle tissue. The stored creatine phosphate has the effect of allowing the muscle cells to hold more water, which also enables an enhanced level of protein synthesis, and hence an increase in muscle bulk, which also results from the increased blood flow resulting from the short-term high-intensity exercise that creatine allows.

Creatine can also increase the levels of MRF4 (myogenic transcription factor), resulting in an increasing in the myonuclei provided by satellite cells to damaged muscle tissue, that not only repair damaged muscle fibers, but also increase their ability to grow.

Detoxification of the Liver

Substances that help the liver to process fats, or lipids, are known as lipotropic, and the important lipotropics in human biochemistry are imositol, betaine, choline and methionine. They prevent fat from accumulating in the liver, and methionine is also useful in its effect of glutathione. This is a substance that helps the liver to neutralize toxins, such as excessive doses of acetaminophen, and its supplies are regulated by methionine.

Methionine and Autism

Research into autism is closely studying the Methionine/Glutathione Transsulfuration Pathway. This pathway is a very important biochemical means of detoxification, whereby toxins are methylated and then excreted. This pathway seems to be disrupted in autistic individuals.

Not only that, but disruption can lead to oxidative stress which results in many health problems. An example of this is the build-up of the oxidant homocysteine when there is insufficient Vitamin B6 to convert it into cysteine. This has been discussed previously, and is discussed again below.

Miscellaneous Benefits

Although research is in its infancy, it appears that AIDS sufferers also have decreased levels of methionine in their blood. It is believed that the process of AIDS could be linked to this, particularly the dementia that can occur as a result of the deterioration of the nervous system.

It is also hoped that it can help with some symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and pancreatitis. Initial research into this use of methionine has been very promising, as are studies into its use for urinary tract infections. It appears to operate like cranberry in this respect, preventing bacteria from attaching to the cell walls and multiplying in the urinary tract.

Methionine is believed to be essential for the formation of collagen, and for healthy pliable skin, hair, nails and other forms of connective tissue. For this reason it is often used as a supplement for the treatment of arthritis, although an excess should be avoided for reasons discussed above. S-Adenosylmethionine generates homocysteine during the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, and this can cause cardiovascular problems.

So stick to the recommended doses when you use methionine as a supplement. Used properly, and according to instructions, it offers many health benefits, and can also be used to bulk up your muscle tissue and give increased energy when you need it most.

Dietary sources include fish, eggs, lentils, onions, garlic, meat, seeds, spinach and yoghurt. A good supplement would be from 800mg - 1000mg per day, and is best taken along with a B vitamin complex, or at least folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12, in order to prevent the increased generation of homocysteine.

Methionine also promotes the excretion of estrogen, so is a possible supplement for women on oral contraceptives that lower the production of this hormone. The elderly might also benefit from a supplement although, if taken for any specific condition, your health professional should be consulted first, as they should be for any supplement.

Nevertheless, methionine is a very useful supplement, and can be taken to prevent a large number of conditions. Research is continuing on its effect on AIDS patients, and Parkinson's, and it is hopeful that it will one day be recommended to help people suffering from these conditions.

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Detoxify With L-Citrulline
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Date: April 13, 2009 03:51 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Detoxify With L-Citrulline

L-citrulline is an alpha-amino acid, first isolated from the watermelon in 1930: hence the name, citrullis being Latin for that fruit, the skin of which is rich in the substance. It is used to enhance performance in sports, particularly through aiding recovery after exercise, and also helps the liver to detoxify the blood.

It is not an essential amino acid in that it is produced by the body and need not be part of your diet. It is a precursor to arginine, which involves the sustained release of nitric oxide in the endothelium that promotes increased flow of blood and the blood vessels as described further below. One of the biochemical pathways for its biosynthesis involves the urea cycle, whereby the toxic ammonia is detoxified into an easily excreted form through its conversion to urea.

The urea cycle consists of five reactions, and citrulline is formed in the second of these. In the first of these, ammonia reacts with bicarbonate to form carbamoyl phosphate, the phosphate coming from the two molecule of ATP used to energize the reaction. These are converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and the carbamoyl phosphate then reacts with ornithine to form citrulline, which takes part in step three that eventually leads to the formation of urea.

The second way in which L-citrulline can be biosynthesized is from the oxidation of arginine, a natural amino acid. Arginine is oxidized into N-hydroxyarginine, and then into L-citrulline with the release of nitric oxide.

So that's how it is produced in the body, but how does it help sportsmen, and what part does it play in detoxification? Its effect on recovery after exercise is connected with blood flow. Energy is created in the mitochondria that are contained in every cell off the body. Among the raw materials needed for the production of energy are glucose and oxygen: glucose obtained from the carbohydrates in your diet, and oxygen transported by the hemoglobin or red blood cells.

Both of these rely on blood flow: greater the volume of blood transported to the cells then the greater the ability of these cells to produce energy. During periods of exercise, a good supply of blood is required to provide the raw materials needed for the energy demand of the muscles involved in the exercise. Not only that however, but recovery after exercise involves the replacement of electrolytes, the glycogen used in extensive aerobic and anaerobic exercise and protein replacement, particularly where catabolism has occurred.

In order to supply these raw materials at an adequate rate, it is necessary for the flow of blood to the appropriate muscles to be sufficient. A major restriction to increase blood flow is elasticity of the blood vessels and cells. Although a healthy heart is capable of providing the necessary quantities of blood, and hence of nutrients, any restriction to the flow could cause dangerously high blood pressure.

Nitric oxide plays a signaling role in enlarging blood vessels to allow an increased blood flow when it is needed by the body. It can provide more blood to the stomach during digestion and to the muscles during exercise and recovery.

During hard exercise, nitric oxide can act as a pump that provides blood during exercise and also during recovery. It can therefore provide more rapid gains in lean mass, increased endurance and faster muscle recovery. The way it does this is to send a signal to the smooth muscles to relax; smooth muscles such as those found in veins and arteries, so resulting in vasodilation therefore allowing increased blood flow.

It is the endothelium, the inner lining of blood vessels, which uses the nitric oxide to provide the relaxation signal to the smooth muscles surrounding it. In fact, it is the effect of nitric oxide that enables those living at high altitudes to develop increased stamina and speed over those at lower altitudes, and find more world records seem to be broken during athletics meetings, such as Olympic Games, held at high altitudes. This is because the production of nitric acid is increased at higher altitudes with slightly lower oxygen levels. This is the same effect that is used by vasodilators such as amyl nitrite and Viagra that work by increasing nitric oxide levels in the smooth muscle wall of the blood vessels.

It should not be surprising therefore, that L-citrulline should work in a similar way, since it is intimately involved in the production of nitric oxide. Although this is now generally understood, what part does supplemental citrulline play in the body if it is a non-essential amino acid?

Supplemental L-citrulline is useful in supporting the detoxification of ammonia in the liver when supplies of ornithine carbamoyl transfErase is naturally in short supply. This is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to form citrulline. Supplements can then help in the removal of ammonia from the blood, and also provide material for the continued production of nitric oxide support muscular activity and its recovery after exercise.

Ammonia itself is a by-product of intensive exercise, and without the urea cycle the body would rapidly become polluted. It is a very toxic product, and causes the death of thousands of people each year. This is generally in people who suffer liver and kidney disease, and the ammonia can be broken down and excreted.

Your brain cells are particularly sensitive to ammonia, and as levels increase the effect progressively ranges from drowsiness thru tremors to coma and eventual death. Any condition, therefore, that reduces the body's capability of metabolizing ammonia is potentially very serious, and any supplement that can help prevent this is valuable.

L-citrulline is believed to help in such situations, although any condition affecting the efficiency of the kidneys or liver and that can cause toxicity due to ammonia or any other toxic substance, should be referred to your physician. It is for its effect in increasing blood flow to provide sufficient raw material, for both the energy needed for high levels of exercise and for muscle recovery, that citrulline is predominantly used as a supplement.

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Turmeric Extract (Curcumin)
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Date: February 10, 2009 01:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Turmeric Extract (Curcumin)

Curcumin is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that has the potential to provide far-reaching health benefits. It has been shown to be helpful in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. All of these diseases share underlying inflammation that curcumin may help to diminish.

If you have ever eaten curry or cooked with the spice turmeric, you’ve consumed curcumin. It is obtained from the roots of Curcuma longa and consists of several curcuminoids. Turmeric is biologically related to ginger. Curcumin works as an antioxidant, boosting levels of glutathione S-transfErase, which is one of the body’s principal antioxidants. This antioxidant blocks the formation of prostaglandin E2, which is a compound that promotes inflammation within the body. Curcumin also inhibits two inflammation-promoting enzymes: COX-2 and 5-LOX. Additionally, curcumin is able to prevent mutations to DNA, which is an effect that helps to maintain younger, healthier cells.

A study conducted at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in Tucson had researchers using a curcumin rich turmeric extract to treat rheumatoid arthritis in laboratory animals. The extract blocked joint inflammation as well as the breakdown of joint cartilage and bone. It did this by inhibiting the genes that are involved in inflammation. Curcumin also holds tremendous promise in preventing cancer, as well as an adjunct treatment. Studies on animals have found that curcumin can protect against colon, intestinal, oral, and skin cancers. Its benefits come from several mechanisms. First of all, it blocks the cell-growth cycle in cancer cells, which eventually leads to destruction. It also reduces free radicals and inflammation, both of which can lead to cancer-causing cell mutations.

Many studies have found that curcumin can protect the liver against a variety of toxic compounds, which is important news for those people who are suffering from liver diseases like hepatitis or cirrhosis. In a recent study, researchers reported that curcumin increased the clearance of creatinine and urea, which are signs of improved kidney function. Additionally, curcumin reduced liver damage from toxic chemicals and excess iron.

Another study found that curcumin has the ability to inhibit the activation and spread of the liver cells that play a role in the development of cirrhosis. Japanese doctors have recently used curcumin, drugs, or placebos to treat 89 patients that have ulcerative colitis. These doctors found that a combination of curcumin and conventional medications resulted in the greatest benefits over six months of treatment. Patients in this study took 1,000 mg of curcumin after breakfast and again after dinner.

Inflammation is the underpinning of all chronic degenerative diseases, making curcumin likely to be beneficial for many different conditions. So far, research has identified curcumin’s benefits for diabetic retinopathy, lung disorders, and skin problems such as psoriasis. A dose of 3.6 g of curcumin reduced PGE2 levels by two-thirds in only one hour. After consuming curcumin daily for one month, PGE2 levels were 57 percent lower than before supplementation began.

Turmeric has been used as a culinary spice for at least 2,000 years. It was listed in an Assyrian herbal in 600 BC, used by ancient Greeks, and widely recommended in Ayurvedic medicine. Native to India and other regions of South Asia, it may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and help maintain mental function. Curcumin is safe in amounts of 500 to 8,000 mg daily, with most supplements providing 500 mg of curcumin.

Turmeric has been proven safe in larger amounts, but is usually limited by taste as a spice. One should look for a standardized supplement that contains at least 90 percent curcumin. Standardized Turmeric can be found at your local or internet health food store.

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L-Alanine Non Essential Amino Acid
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Date: January 05, 2009 04:31 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Alanine Non Essential Amino Acid

L-Alanine is one of 20 amino acids that are used by the body to manufacture the proteins essential for life. Each protein possesses specific biological properties that are imparted by the sequence of amino acids it contains. Proteins control the chemistry that takes place within the cells of our body, and comprise all of the enzymes that catalyze the body's biochemistry.

Amino acids are also the building blocks of DNA that determines the genetic make-up of individuals, and that also provides recipes or templates for the production of proteins from amino acid sequences. There is a different DNA template for every protein required by the body that determines which of the 20 amino acids are needed, and in what order they are to be combined with one another to manufacture the desired protein.

10 of these 20 amino acids can be synthesized by your body's biochemistry, the other 10 being essential parts of your diet. If you fail to include just of these 10, then your body will break down its proteins until it has obtained a sufficient supply of that amino acids for its needs. That involves muscle and other tissue degradation, and is one of the symptoms of malnutrition. Amino acids are not stored, and a daily supply is essential to avoid these symptoms.

L-Alanine is one of the ten that the body can manufacture, and used by the body to help build protein and also to enable the body to make use of glucose to generate energy. It does so as part of what is known as the glucose-alanine cycle. During anaerobic exercise, such as in weightlifting and sustained running, muscles produce lactate and also alanine.

The alanine is passed on to the liver where it is converted to energy via its conversion to glucose. This is not a particularly efficient means of creating energy because a byproduct of the process is urea, the removal of which in turn requires energy. However, it serves its purpose as an energy source once the liver is depleted of glycogen. In fact that is the major use to which alanine appears to be put by the body: the conversion of glucose to energy.

The way the glucose-alanine cycle works is that a process known as transamination produces glutamate from the amino groups of amino acids that are degraded during exercise. Glutamate is then converted to pyruvate by means of the enzyme alanine aminotransfErase, with the production of alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate. This is a reversible reaction, and after the alanine has been carried by the bloodstream to the liver, the reaction reverses with the regeneration of pyruvate that undergoes gluconeogenesis (generation of glucose).

The result of this is glucose that returns to the muscle tissue to provide more energy. The glutamate is broken down to the ammonium ion in the mitochondria, which in turn enters the urea cycle with the production of urea.

In a nutshell, then, the glucose-alanine cycle removes glutamate and pyruvate from muscle tissue to the liver where glucose is generated from the pyruvate and returned to the muscle. Since gluconeogenesis involves the expenditure of energy, and this occurs in the liver rather than in the muscle, all the energy in the muscle can be used for muscle contraction.

L-Alanine possesses other properties, among them the ability to help maintain the health of the prostate. A study of benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) indicated that treatment with L-alanine, glutamic acid and glycine over a period of three months reduced the symptoms. However, make sure that you consult your physician before using alanine in this way. This is not because there are any known adverse side effects, because there are not, but because it I always wise to so with any supplement taken with a view to treating any medical condition.

A less obvious application derives from the fact that it forms a stable free radical when deaminated. Deamination can be initiated by radiation, and so the concentration of this free radical can be measured to ensure that the correct dose of radiation is being given in dosimetric radiotherapy. It is not always easy to control the dose accurately, and this property of alanine allows it to monitored and to ensure that it is neither too low to have the desired effect, nor dangerously high.

Although it is a non-essential amino acid, and can be produced by the body, a dietary supply or supplement is advantageous if extra energy is required. Good dietary sources of L-alanine include meats, seafood, eggs, nuts, beans, seeds, brewer's yeast, corn and legumes among others. Supplements are also available, and useful for body-builders, weightlifters and others involved in anaerobic exercise. Due to the glucose-alanine cycle, it can possibly provide energy when lactate build-up would otherwise lead to muscle cramps.

Those for whom a supplement could be useful are athletes and others who are trying to build muscle and stamina, or reduce their body fat and also the obese and overweight for the same reason. There is also evidence that a combination of the amino acids alanine, glycine and arginine can help to reduce arterial plaque from oxidized low density lipoproteins, and can also help to reduce high blood pressure.

Deficiencies are rare, although groups that do not eat meat should be careful to eat foods with a good alanine content. There are no known side effects of a deficiency since the body will generate what is needed for normal purposes, and while the supplement appears to have no side effects, it is advisable that pregnant and lactating women should first seek medical advice. The same applies if you suffer from hypertension or diabetes. High doses of alanine might also affect those with kidney or liver disease.

Although the benefits of supplementation of L-alanine might not be immediately obvious, the results and the science indicate that it is effective in making better use of blood glucose in that the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) created in the muscle tissue is allowed to be expended on muscle contraction while the glucose-alanine cycle provides the energy needed for gluconeogenesis.

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Horny Goat Weed
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Date: December 06, 2008 10:05 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Horny Goat Weed

Horny Goat weed, correctly named Epimedium, or Yin Yang Huo in Chinese, is one of over 60 herbaceous plants of the Berberdaceae family. It grows naturally in Southern China, and also in Korea, Southeast Asia and some parts of Europe. Other names given to include Fairy Wings and Bishop's Hat.

Horny goat weed has been viewed as a natural alternative to Viagra, and many species of Epimedium are said to possess aphrodisiac properties, and is said to have got its name from a Chinese goat herder who notice that his goats became more 'frisky' with the lady goats after eating the plant. In fact studies have indicated to increase vitality, particularly the libido and male sexual vitality, although it also possesses some other health benefits in its effect on dementia and osteoporosis.

The term 'horny' is used in the colloquial sense, and has nothing to do with the shape of the plant, the flowers of which are star-shaped. In fact the Chinese name for it means 'licentious goat weed', making the English translation quite clear.

The main ingredient in horney goat weed is icariin, a flavonoid glycoside that acts as a PDE5 inhibitor. Others include the similarly named, but totally different chemical, icaritin, and also many other that will be discussed later. It is icariin on which we shall focus for the time being. Since this is central to its effect on erectile dysfunction, some time will be spent on explaining what PDE5 inhibitors do.

cGMP (Cyclic guanosine monophosphate) is a chemical that relaxes smooth muscle tissue, including the vascular smooth muscles in blood vessels. This can lead to the dilation, or increase in size, of blood vessels and increased blood flow. The corpus cavernosum of the penis is a spongy area that runs the full length of the penis, and contains many blood vessels that can be dilated through the action of cGMP and allow the increased blood flow to create an erection.

PDE5 (phosphodiestErase type 5) is an enzyme that can degrade cGMP and prevent the relaxation of these blood vessels, and so prevent them from dilating. A PDE5 inhibitor, such as icariin, prevents the PDE5 from degrading cGMP, and so allow a normal erection. Sidenafil, commonly known as Viagra, is a similar PDE5 inhibitor and works in the same way as icariin. Hence, the effect of Viagra is not to create an unnatural erection, but in fact to allow the cGMP to do its natural work by preventing the phosphodiestErase from stopping it doing so.

This is just one of the effects of horny goat weed: it is a more natural PDE5 inhibitor than Viagra is. It is also more specific than Sidenfil, and does not interfere with any of the other phosphodiestErases that are essential for other purposes. However, its effects do not stop there, because icariin possesses other properties, and is also only one of the many components of epimedium that can increase vitality.

Among these are a number of flavonoids in addition to icariin, sterols and the isoquinoline alkaloid magnaflorine, that possesses antioxidant properties and reduces LDL cholesterol. The exact mechanism by which horny goat weed works to increase sexual desire is unknown, but it is believed that it inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinetsrase (AChE). Cholinergic synapses are the spaces between brain cells that allow electrical impulses to be transmitted, and are an essential component of neuromuscular system response to stimulation.

AChE can stop these from working properly, and prevent neurotransmitters from effectively allowing sexual arousal. Horny goat weed can inhibit the activity of this enzyme and allow the neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine to do their proper job in allowing sexual arousal to occur. This, again, is a natural and not a chemical solution. It has also been found to reduce cortisol levels that cause stress which also reduces sexual desire.

The effect of Epimedium on smooth muscles can also aid those suffering from pulmonary hypertension, in which the small blood vessels in the lungs become too narrow to be effective in allowing the transfer between oxygen and carbon dioxide. PDE5 inhibitors can help these blood vessels to relax and so be more easily dilated in the same way as those in the corpus cavernosum. Once dilated, they are able to carry more blood to and from the lungs and allow the reoxygenation process to continue smoothly.

Research has also discovered the possibility of horny goat weed possessing monoamine-oxidase inhibition properties. Monoamine oxidase enzymes can deaminate hormones such as dopamine, and can significantly reduce the production of testosterone. The inhibitor prevents this happening, and leads to elevated levels of dopamine, and also of serotonin and noradrenaline. Dopamine encourages the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone that in turn promotes the production of testosterone by the testes.

Another property of horny goat weed is that it can protect against the toxin beta-Amyloid, a protein that damages DNA in the brain, causing the death of brain cells and the accumulation of dead cells in your brain. This in turn leads to dementia and potentially Alzheimer's disease. The use of Horny goat weed is being studied closely in relation to this property. The active ingredient here is icaritin (not to be confused with icariin)

Epimedium also has implications in the treatment of the cartilage and bone damage that occurs with arthritis and osteoporosis. It is possible that this is connected with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of magnaflorine, and icariin has been found to have bone-healing properties. It is known that damaged cartilage treated with horney goat weed displayed signs of growth and regeneration when compared to a placebo.

However, the most popular use of horny goat weed is in its effect on the libido and erectile dysfunction. The effect on the libido and sexual desire works equally well for men and women, and it is a preferred natural remedy to synthetic equivalents such as Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. The added benefits of the natural product render epimedium the preferred and safest solution for many people.



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Huperzine And Memory
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Date: December 04, 2008 01:20 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Huperzine And Memory

Chinese club moss goes by the name Huperzia serrata, and gives its name to the sesquiterpene alkaloid it contains: huperzine A. This alkaloid has been found to be a superstar in the arena of brain-saving treatments for conditions such as Alzheimer's and age-related senility. Studies in China have found up to 60% improvements in the cognitive functions of such patients, and its potential has been recorded in the Journal of the American Medical Association. This is no mere folk remedy, and is the subject of serious study.

Known as Qian Ceng Ta, Chinese club moss has been a part of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries for the treatment of fever and inflammation, which is not surprising considering that most plants contain antioxidants and anti-inflammatories. However, what is unusual is the fact that it has also been found effective in treating some forms of dementia and depression, and also helps to reduce the incidence of panic attacks in those susceptible to them.

Not only that, but the plant has been found to possess diuretic properties, and a reduction in the swelling associated with water retention could also help to reduce the pain and other effects of swelling and inflammation. However, for now it is its effect on the brain that we are concerned, and research has indicated the likely mechanism by which huperzine A works.

Huperzine is an enzyme inhibitor - specifically inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinestErase that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in the processes of memory, learning and mood. Outside the brain, it is involved in the movement of skeletal muscle tissue as well as in the regulation of cardiac and other smooth muscles such as those of the blood vessels.

When acetylcholinestErase (AChE) attacks acetylcholine (ACh), the latter attaches to a chemical site on the enzyme where it is then destroyed. It is a deliberate function of the body, designed to terminate a synaptic transmission. The purpose of a neurotransmitter is to allow the transmission of an electrical impulse form one nerve cell to another over a gap between them known as a synapse. Once the transmission has been completed, the enzyme can destroy the neurotransmitter, and then another takes its place. In fact one molecule of AChE can destroy around 5,000 molecules of ACh.

However, with age and for other reasons, these neurotransmitters can become depleted so that it becomes increasingly more difficult for brain cells to communicate with each other, and their destruction becomes undesirable. There are drugs available to help prevent this happening (e.g. donepezil, galantamine and tacrine), and so help to improve the memory and mental function of people as they grow older or contract conditions such as Alzheimer's disease.

Huperzine A has been found to take up the site in the acetylcholinestErase molecule that would normally have been used by the acetylcholine, and so save it from destruction. The more Huperzine A molecules present, the more acetylcholine available to pass messages between brain cells, and the stronger the cognitive function of the subject or patient. The pharmaceutical drugs mentioned in the previous paragraph work in exactly the same way.

This is a very specific reaction, one molecule adopting exactly the same space as the other, and has been proved scientifically by comparing the physical shapes of the two molecules. It's just like a jigsaw puzzle, where only one piece can fit into each position. Except here there are two: Huperzine A and acetylcholine both fit into the exact same place in the chemical structure of the acetylcholinestErase molecule.

The biochemistry of the reactions involved is very complex, and shall not be discussed here, but the upshot is that Huperzine A can do exactly the same job as modern drugs to avoid this hydroxylation of the ACh needed for the proper functioning of your brain.

In fact, clinical trials have indicated Huperzine A not only to be comparable in effect to the drugs current used, but also likely safer with respect to the possible side effects. This has still to be confirmed, but the National Institute on Aging is currently carrying out a trial to evaluate this claim in tandem with its effect on Alzheimer's disease. It has also been examined at Harvard University for its effect on epilepsy on patients with whom alternative pharmaceutical treatments have been unsuccessful.

Another suggested benefit of Huperzine A is that it is an NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor antagonist that provides protection against damage to the brain by an excess of glutamates, and that it can also help to protect nerve cells from damage. Since NDMA is responsible for the transmission of some types of pain, the antagonist can also act as an analgesic.

There are other benefits that Chinese club moss can provide, and myasthenia gravis is one of them. Although relatively rare, this is a serious condition in which acetylcholine receptors are deactivated on muscle cells. This is achieved through the autoimmune system malfunctioning and creating antibodies against the receptors, and the end result is paralysis and respiratory failure.

Huperzine A reduces the AChE available and so might possibly enable the acetylcholine to work more effectively and delay or even stop the deterioration of muscle function. When people hear of muscle paralysis they frequently forget that breathing requires muscle function, as indeed does your heartbeat. This is currently surmise, and studies are being carried out to determine whether or not this usage of Huperzine A is viable.

Another promising application of Chinese club moss extract is in preventing organophosphate poisoning. These pesticides permanently suppress acetylcholine. This results in seizures due to a lack of interruption of the signals from nerves to muscles. The seizures can result in rapid death from uncontrollable seizures, or from permanent contraction of the diaphragm muscle that allows breathing. Although no human studies have yet been carried out, animals given Huperzine A prior to organophosphate exposure have survived without seizures.

There are no doubts that Chinese club moss and the Huperzine A extracted from it are effective in preventing the suppression of acetylcholine, and in permitting the proper activity of this important neurotransmitter. It is finding an increasing number of potential uses beneficial to the human body, not the least of which would be a partial remedy for some of the effects of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.



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Horny Goat Weed
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Date: October 31, 2008 01:04 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Horny Goat Weed

Item: #4758, 90 Tabs

Product Categories: Hormonal and Vitality Support

Positioning Purpose: The vitality and hormonal support industry is one of the most lucrative in today’s health sector, as evidenced by record sales and an influx of new brands and product offerings. Amazingly, there are still people out there who do not realize that natural alternatives exist. Horny Goat Weed has been a staple in Eastern medicine for centuries, and continues to stand the test of time. Science advancement has helped us better understand its method of action, and we now know that it contains a number of compounds that help support energy, stamina and vitality.*

Product Details: NOW® Horny Goat Weed Extract contains 750 mg of horny goat weed extract (Epimedium grandiflorum, E. brevicorum), standardized to 10% Icariin. For increased support, we’ve added 150 mg of pure Maca Root per serving, another historically used herb that has been shown to support healthy hormones and vitality. Both compounds have a well-documented history of safety and effectiveness. Unlike other products within the hormonal vitality category, this formula can be used by both mean and women.

Nutrient Profile, per serving: Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium grandiflorum), 750 mg Maca Root (Lepidium meyenii), 150 mg

Ideal Users: NOW® Horny Goat Weed is ideal for healthy adults seeking additional hormonal and vitality support. It can be used safely by both men and women.

Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement, suggested use is 1 tablet taken daily, preferably with a meal. Complementary Products: Consider taking NOW® Horny Goat Weed with other NOW products, such as, TestoJack 100™, Tribulus, or ENERGY™

Other Ingredients: Cellulose, Croscarmellose sodium, Stearic acid, silica (vegetable source), magnesium stearate (vegetable source), and vegetable coating.

Supporting Science: Ning H, Xin ZC, Lin G et al. Effects of Icariin on phosphodiestErase-5 activity in vitro and cyclic guanosine monophosphate level in cavernous smooth muscle cells. Urology 2006;68:1350-4

Warning: Please consult a healthcare provider prior to use if you have any medical conditions, are taking medications, are pregnant, may become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat or cure any disease.

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Glycine
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Date: October 11, 2008 10:26 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Glycine


The non-essential amino acid glycine is needed to generate muscle tissue and also for the conversion of blood glucose into energy. It is referred to as being ‘non-essential’ because the body can manufacture its own glycine, and is therefore not an essential component of your diet. Other uses to which glycine is put by the body includes the maintenance of a healthy nervous system, and is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system.

Amino acids play three essential roles in the human body:

1. They are the building blocks of proteins: proteins comprise about half of the dry weight of the majority of your body cells, and without them there would be no life. They are produced using monomers known as amino acids, and there are about 20 different amino acids used to make the vast variety of proteins that make up the human body. Proteins are needed to form enzymes, the catalysts that permit the majority of chemical reactions within our bodies, and also genes, the building blocks of DNA.

2. More relevant here, amino acids play an important role in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) by phosphorylation with creatine phosphate. The more creatine phosphate available, the more ATP can be produced. Since ATP is the molecule responsible for the generation of energy, then the more ATP available the more energy is generated. Although creatine is available from many food sources, it is destroyed by cooking, and over half of what you use is made from the three amino acids, glycine, arginine and methionine. The energy produced in this way is very short-lived, and last only a few seconds - more on that later.

3. Glycine is heavily involved in the production of collagen, which is the substance that maintains the flexibility of your skin and other connective tissues while still maintaining their strength and firmness. Without glycine your skin would become slack due to the degrading effect of sunlight, free radicals and oxidation.

The non essential amino acid, glycine, is believed to offer other benefits to the human body, but it is the second of those above, the production of ATP, which interests us here. ATP is an extremely important nanomolecule, second in importance to the body only to DNA, and possibly also RNA since the two are linked. RNA makes copies of your DNA structure for use in cell division and growth.

When a cell expends energy for whatever reason, such as when I am typing this, or when your heart beats, or even when your liver synthesizes a protein, one of the phosphate groups is removed from the adenosine triphosphate molecule, and converts it to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The ATP is then said to be 'spent', just as your energy is spent when you are tired and can exercise no more.

The ADP is then immediately reconverted to ATP in the mitochondria, a part of every cell in your body. A cell can contain hundreds, or even thousands, of mitochondria, the number depending upon that particular cell's need for energy. Hence, cells in your muscles, or in your liver where most of the body's chemistry takes place, contain thousands of mitochondria whereas those in your scalp contain a lot less. Once changed to ATP, a phosphate is again lost when energy is expended, and so the cycle continues.

Glucose is needed allow the ADP to be converted to ATP, hence the need for sugars, or the carbohydrates from which they are manufactured in your body. Each cell can contain up to a billion molecules of ATP, although the couch potatoes among you probably have a lot less! Your store of ATP molecules last about 2 to 5 seconds before being changed to ADP although more rapidly for athletes that expend a lot of energy. Then the energy stored in the form of glycogen in the liver kicks in for another 4 - 6 seconds.

Additionally, you cannot expend more energy that the (eventual) sugars that you take in your diet, which can be in the form of ordinary 'sugar' (sucrose), fruit (fructose), glucose, carbohydrates that are metabolized into sugars, or any other member of the sugar family (e.g. lactose, maltose, etc.).

Glycine is one of what are called glucogenic amino acids, which refers to their ability to provide glucose to the blood. Because it helps to maintain proper blood glucose levels, it is often prescribed for conditions that are caused by low glucose levels, such as hypoglycemia that shows symptoms of fatigue and tiredness, and also anemia and what is known as CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome).

The one activity of the human body, in fact that of any mammal, for which ATP is essential, is the heartbeat. Without that no mammal could survive, or any other creature that relies on a circulation system for life. The only reason you heart has to beat is to pump your blood around your body, and it is your blood that contains the oxygen and nutrients needed to sustain life. Your cardiovascular health relies on lots of ATP being available to power each and every heartbeat.

Analysis of the heart during the final stages of heart failure has revealed that there is a general decrease in the myocardial arginine: glycine amidinotrafErase (AGAT) gene expression, which is indicative of the necessity of this enzyme for proper heart function. The enzyme is responsible for the first stage in the biosynthesis of creatine from glycine.

Creatine is well known to athletes, and while it is available naturally from some food sources, it can be destroyed during cooking, and at least 50% of the creatine needed by the body is produced in the liver, pancreas and kidneys. It is creatine phosphate that is broken down into creatine and phosphate, the latter of which is used by the mitochondria to regenerate ATP from ADP.

The study carried out on the reduced AGAT levels found in heart failure patients indicates the importance of glycine to heart health. Without a good supply of glycine, there will insufficient creatine produced biochemically to generate the phosphate needed to for the ATP to produce the energy required to keep the heart pumping with the required strength. The energy provided by the mitochondria is used locally by the cells in which it is produced, and within a few seconds of that production. As explained earlier, ATP stores are used up within 2 - 5 seconds, and glycogen stores within another 4 - 6 seconds.

That is why sprinters cannot keep running at maximum speed for more than around 10 seconds or so, because the immediate availability of glycine, and hence creatine, are insufficient to last longer than that. That is one reason why they have to finish those 100 meters as fast as possible, because otherwise they would run out of energy. Other than trying to win, of course!

However, when it comes to the heart, ATP stores are essential, and the cells in your heart require a constant supply of ATP from creatine, which itself depends upon your intake or biosynthesis of glycine. Since dietary sources are insufficient to meet all your needs, and destroyed by cooking, a glycine supplement is the only way to ensure a sufficient intake. You cannot undernourish your heart and remain healthy.

ATP biosynthesis is essential if that of glycine theoretically is not, but the fact that 50% of your glycine requirement has to be produced by your body and the other 50% is sensitive to heat during cooking, a supplement of glycine could be essential to many people.



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D-Ribose
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Date: May 17, 2008 10:07 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: D-Ribose

Discovered by Phoebus Levene in 1905, D-ribose is a monosaccharide, and is a component of RNA that is needed for genetic transcription. It is a stereoisomer of ribose, and although not regarded as an essential nutrient since it is synthesized in the body, it is essential for life. It also takes part in human metabolism, helping to generate energy from food, and is a component of all living cells – animal or vegetable. It is contained in ATP and NADH and we could not live without it.

Because it is contained in all living organisms, D-ribose is a common component of the human diet, and required as a supplement only for specific needs. It for this reason that the human species developed and survived: the chemicals needed for life are either commonly found in nature or are manufactured by the body itself from other raw materials which themselves are common in our diet. The other stereoisomer is L-ribose, and this plays no part in human metabolism.

Energy is needed not only to enable us to walk and to run, but also to drive every part of human physiological activity, and all of the physical and chemical processes of life. Because of its nature energy cannot travel round the body in our bloodstream as if were a chemical entity, but must be released or generated where and when it is needed. For that reason every cell in our body contains an area called the mitochondria in which energy is generated. The molecule of energy, if there is such a thing, is called ATP, or adenosine triphosphate.

ATP controls the production of energy everywhere in the body, and allows muscles to contract and relax. This muscular activity is responsible for all movement, including the circulation of our blood through heart contractions, the diaphragm movement that creates the vacuum that allows us to breathe, and the operation of the digestive system by means of the peristaltic motion of the esophagus and the intestines. Each of the two ways in which ATP is generated involves D-ribose.

One is by means of D-ribose being used to produce new ATP, and the other is the recycling of used ATP. In the latter, D-ribose and ATP react to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate and D-ribose-5-phosphate with the release of energy. This diphosphate then reacts again with the ADP to produce new ATP and D-ribose. The reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme known as a ribokinase, a phosphotransfErase that specifically catalyzes reactions involving phosphorus groups with an alcohol receptor group.

The heart muscle is operated by means of the calcium pump that depends upon both calcium and ATP for its operation. When ADP and phosphate are created by the effect of calcium and ATP coming together, then energy is provided to the muscle fibers of the heart. ADP then reacts with the phosphate and D-ribose in the presence of magnesium to reform the ATP. ATP is therefore essential for the continuation of the pumping action of the heart that maintains life in all mammals.

D-ribose is also part of the base of RNA and DNA, without which there could be no life. Because the cardiac muscle is easily depleted of ATP, the presence of D-ribose is of extreme importance and it has been proved that cardiac failure begins with the reduction in energy levels of the heart muscle that can be brought about by a lack of ATP in the muscle cells.

An important property of D-ribose is that it is unchanged by the liver, which is the chemical plant of your body in which a large part of the biochemistry needed for life takes place. This means that D-ribose can be taken in the diet and pass through the liver virtually unchanged, and then be transported in the bloodstream to where it is needed for the maintenance of ATP levels. That is why D-ribose is frequently given to treat heart attacks: because it can rapidly replace lost ATP and enable the calcium pump to get to work and keep the heart beating at its normal strength. Maintenance levels of this important sugar would not go amiss.

However, there are other uses to which the body can put this marvelous substance. Among these is the body’s ability to form Coenzyme A from it. This coenzyme is needed in the body for the breakdown of fatty acids, and many other chemical reactions, and also provides the raw material for many other necessary substances in human biochemistry.

Patients with low energy levels can frequently fail to be able to recover from illness. This is because that when illness stresses your body, your mitochondria become overwhelmed with work and begin to fail to produce sufficient ATP to keep the body going. Naturally, as your energy level drops, and your body cells are unable to respond to this, then the condition you are suffering from gets worse, and become stronger leading ultimately to possible death. Your immune system is put under a great deal of stress that uses up what little ATP you have left.

That is why when people start to get really ill, they tend to fade very rapidly: not because of the spread of the disease, but through a reduction in the ATP needed to provide the energy required for the body to fight the disease. Without an adequate supply of energy, your body would rapidly fade.

By taking a D-ribose supplement that passes unchanged right into your bloodstream and taken to where it is needed most, you body can rapidly generate sufficient ATP to keep up the fight against the agent that is making you ill. Your immune system is given a massive energy boost, and more importantly, your heart is kept beating. D-ribose is the answer to the prayer of many sick people, and also to athletes and bodybuilders needing quick bursts of energy. But what did they use before D-ribose was discovered to have the properties that it has?

At one time, it was adenosine monophosphate (that’s right, not ATP or ADP, but AMP) that was administered intravenously to those suffering from chronic fatigue, this substance being synthesized to ATP in the body over a period of time. However, it take a lot of time to be effective, and the injections had to be made daily into the muscle tissue, so it fell out of favor.

Then came an ATP supplement that could be taken orally, but the side effects were unpleasant, and that too went out of favor. However, towards the end of the 1990’s D-ribose was found to overcome all of these disadvantages, and not only be able to be taken orally, but also to work almost immediately by providing the mitochondria with a direct source of the sugar they need to generate energy.

It is now one of the most popular energy providing supplements on the market, and also a remedy for chronic fatigue that helps the patient to overcome energy-sapping medical conditions both directly and by providing the immune system with the energy needed to keep it operating effectively against masses of invading bacteria and viruses. There is nothing better than D-ribose for providing you with the energy boost that you need, whenever you require it, either to provide energy for your sport or to help you overcome illness.

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Curcumin, Curcuminoids, and Curamin
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Date: April 30, 2008 10:40 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Curcumin, Curcuminoids, and Curamin

Curcumin, a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, possesses many potentially far-reaching health benefits. After many studies preformed on humans, animals, and in-vitro, it has been found that curcumin may be helpful in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. All of these previously listed diseases share an underlying inflammation, which can be diminished by curcumin.

If you have ever eaten curry or cooked with the spice turmeric, you’ve consumed curcumin. Curcumin, which consists of several curcuminoids, is the active constituent of turmeric, which is used in curry. Turmeric is biologically related to ginger. Curcumin works as an antioxidant by boosting levels of glutathione S-transfErase, which is one of the body’s main antioxidants. It also blocks the formation of the prostaglandin E2, which is compound that promotes inflammation within the body. Curcumin also inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa beta, which is another substance that is involved in inflammation. Additionally, it reduces the activity of COX-2 and 5-LOX, which are two more inflammation-promoting enzymes. Lastly, curcumin prevents mutations that can result in DNA, which helps to maintain healthier, younger cells.

Curcumin taken as a supplement can help with any conditions and diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, liver and kidney protection, ulcerative colitis, and other inflammatory diseases. A study using a curcumin-rich turmeric extract done at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in Tucson, treated rheumatoid arthritis in laboratory animals. The results showed that this extract blocked joint inflammation as well as the breakdown of joint cartilage and bone by inhibiting the genes that are involved in inflammation. Curcumin also holds a great amount of promise in preventing cancer and also as an adjunct treatment.

Animal studies have shown that curcumin can protect against colon, intestinal, oral, and skin cancers as its benefits come from several mechanisms. First of all, it blocks the cell-growth cycle in cancer cells, which leads to cell destruction. Additionally, it reduces free radicals by its antioxidant properties, which can lead to cancer-causing cell mutations. Studies have also found that curcumin can protect the liver from a variety of toxic compounds. One recent study left researchers reporting that curcumin increased the clearance of creatinine and urea, which are signs of improved kidney function. It also reduced liver damage from toxic chemicals and excess iron.

Japanese doctors have recently used curcumin to treat patients with ulcerative colitis. A combination of curcumin and conventional medications has led to the best benefits over six months of treatment. Since inflammation is the root of all chronic degenerative diseases, curcumin is likely to be beneficial for many different conditions. So far, research has identified curcumin’s benefits for diabetic retinopathy, lung disorders, and skin problems including psoriasis.

Turmeric, which is the source of curcumin, has been used as a culinary spice for the past 2,000 years, was used by ancient Greeks, and is now a widely recommended Ayurvedic medicine. It is native to India and other regions of South Asia. By eating a lot of curry, which is rich in curcumin, you may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and help to maintain mental function. One study proved that people who often ate curry had half the risk of becoming mentally impaired. By eating curry on occasion, the risk of mental decline can be reduced by a little more than a third. Curcumin can be safely taken in amounts from 500 to 8,000 mg daily. Look for a standardized supplement containing at least 90 percent curcumin.

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A Periwinkle Extract Vinpocetine May Promote Cerebral Blood Flow
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Date: December 01, 2007 09:05 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: A Periwinkle Extract Vinpocetine May Promote Cerebral Blood Flow

Periwinkles form the plant genus Vinca, of which the lesser periwinkle and the greater periwinkle are the two members. They are also a form of dogbane, known for its alkaloid properties. Periwinkles are of interest to the medical profession due to their biosynthesis of a number of alkaloids that are used to protect themselves from bacteria and are also toxic to the herbivores that would otherwise eat them.

Many other plants produce alkaloids, perhaps the best known being poppy, that produces the alkaloid opium that is the precursor to heroin. The alkaloids of the periwinkle, however, have a much more beneficial use for mankind in their action on certain types of cancer such as Hodgkin’s disease, and also on the flow of blood to the brain.

The components of the periwinkle include vinblastine, which is used in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and it is the only plant known to produce the alkaloid, although only in very small quantities after synthetic seeding. This involves introducing modified tryptamines to the plant so that they produce the desired alkaloid, although only in quantities of 0.002% of the weight of the plant. Although small, this is still less expensive that synthesizing the alkaloid in a chemical plant rather than a biological one!

Chemists are now seeking more readily synthesizable alternative forms of the alkaloid that have the same effect, again using the periwinkle as a botanical chemical factory to provide them with a lead as to possible synthetic routes. However, it is for the application of another alkaloid of this amazing little plant that we are more concerned with here.

In addition to vinblastine, the periwinkle produces the alkaloid vincamine, a type of tryptamine that can be extracted from the leaves of the lesser periwinkle, the Vinca minor. This periwinkle has been used through the ages as an invigorating tonic and as an astringent to treat bleeding gums and sores in the mouth. Vincamine promotes the aerobic glycolysis that is essential to cerebral health.

Normal glycolysis, or the conversion of glucose to energy in the mitochondria of the cells of the body, occurs best in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic glycolysis). However, the brain produces up to and over 90% more energy through aerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen than through anaerobic. Hence one of the needs for such a rich supply of oxygenated blood being needed by the brain. As people grow older, or their brain tissue becomes damaged, then the supply of blood can be reduced and more and more anaerobic glycolysis is switched on. This results in an increasing loss of brain energy and hence brain function. Vincamine can reverse this effect, or at least maintain the status quo, and so enable people to maintain their brain function for longer.

It is also what is known as a vasodilator, and dilates the blood vessels in the brain allowing a greater blood flow. It is known to be beneficial in relation to tasks requiring focused concentration such as mathematical problem solving, and has also been found effective in the treatment of people with poor memory.

Vinpocetine (ethyl apovincaminate) is a derivative of vincamine, obtained by slightly modifying the molecule to produce a commercial form of the alkaloid. This possesses all of the beneficial effects of its precursor, including its positive effects on memory, believed to be due to the stimulation of serotonin production that improves the rate at which the brain can process information. Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears that has severely reduced the quality of life of so many people, can also be treated with vinpotecine.

Its vascodilation effect is thought to be through its action as a phosphodeatErase 1 (PDE1) inhibitor that results in an improvement in the plasticity of neurons. The mechanism is complex, but the end result is an improvement in the cognitive abilities of the subject. This is supplemented by the effect of vinpocetine on the calcium levels in the blood vessels. This renders them more plastic in much the same way that some anti-hypertension treatments work to reduce blood pressure by increasing the plasticity of the blood vessels by modification of their calcium levels. It can also reduce the viscosity of the blood through its action on the “stickiness” of leucocytes and so allow the blood to run more freely through the capillaries of the brain.

These effects have been demonstrated through double blind studies, and there is little doubt that vinpocetine helps to maintain a healthy cerebral circulation. So let’s have a recap on its various effects, and then finish with a summary of the conditions that the alkaloid can be used to treat or improve. The theory and biochemistry behind these effects is known, but is complex, but here are the major actions:

a) It improves blood flow by modifying the calcium content of the blood vessels and so improves their elasticity, hence allowing a freer movement of blood. In effect it helps the blood vessels to dilate easier.

b) It inhibits the enzyme PDE1 and by doing so helps to restore the elasticity of neurons in aging brain cells, allowing them to relax more and operate more effectively.

c) It promotes aerobic glycolysis, and so the rate at which the mitochondria of brain cells produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that is the chemical manifestation of energy.

d) It helps to maintain a good supply of glucose and oxygen in the brain to allow (c) to occur.

Not all of these may be separate effects, but the outcome is an improvement in conditions such as short term memory loss, dementia and other conditions associated with a reduction in the blood supply to the brain including Menière’s syndrome and vertigo. There is also evidence that it helps with hearing problems, macular degeneration of the eye, and fatigue.

It is a supplement that should be taken by the elderly to help with age-related memory problems, but has also been found to be beneficial in normal healthy people. The periwinkle extract Vinpocetine has been shown to have benefits, largely through an increase in the blood flow to the brain, and will be of use to anybody suffering from conditions that can be related to a deficiency in their cerebral blood supply.



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Breast Cancer and Natural Supplements
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Date: May 11, 2007 10:47 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Breast Cancer and Natural Supplements

Breast Cancer and Nutritional Supplements

 

There is probably nothing more frightening for a woman than the discovery of a lump in her breast. Cancer and all its consequences quickly come to mind. This quick association may materialize, in part, because no woman is immune. Most have a friend, a sister, a mother, or a coworker who has been diagnosed with the disease. And they know how difficult dealing with this disease can be. Fortunately, 80% of all breast lumps are not cancerous. Most are cysts or a benign clump of tissue.

Over her lifetime, a woman’s breasts undergo many, many changes. From before puberty and on, breast tissue is continually evolving. Breasts often feel different before menstrual cycle, returning to normal a few days after. Pregnancy certainly causes changes in a woman’s breasts, as does breastfeeding. And as women age, breast tissue becomes less dense.

Because of these continual changes, breast tissue especially requires adequate nutrition. While everyone benefits from a healthy diet, there are additional nutrients from which women can specifically benefit.

In this issue of Ask the Doctor, we will discuss breast cancer and the vast amount of research that has explored the role nutrition plays in this serious and still deadly disease. Specifically, we will discuss how two B vitamins, calcium D-glucarate, broccoli extract, green tea, maitake mushrooms, and iodine can all help prevent breast cancer.

 

Q. How can these nutrients prevent breast cancer?

A. Scientists learn a lot about disease from simply observing what is happening around them. One observation that has been recognized for many years is that certain cultures have very low incidence of breast cancer. Women n China and Japan are good examples of this. Compared to women in America, Canada, and parts of Europe, Asian cultures have much lower breast cancer rates. It seems likely that something in their diet might be protecting these women from the disease because once Asian women adopt a western diet, their breast cancer rates climb.

Moms (and dads) have also learned a lot about diseases simply by observing what is happening in their families. They have notices that certain vegetables play a large role in the prevention of all types of diseases, including cancer. And, accordingly, they have been urging their offspring to eat their vegetables for several generations.

Building on these observations, scientists have designed and carried out many studies to determine what it is about these nutrients that can prevent breast cancer. What they have discovered, so far, follows. Let’s start with the B vitamins.

 

Vitamin B12

Deficiencies of this vitamin can result in a serious type of anemia. Nerve damage can also occur if B12 levels are too low. Researchers are now investigating whether breast cancer may, in part, be caused by a B12 deficiency as well.

At John Hopkins University in Maryland, two large but separate blood sample donations were evaluated against cases of breast cancer. In 1974, 12,450 blood samples were donated by female volunteers. In 1989, another 14,625 women again voluntarily donated samples of their blood. Cases of breast cancer that occurred in these groups of women were then recorded and their blood samples examined. Women, who had the lowest levels of B12 in their blood, had the highest rates of breast cancer.

Another study, this one taking place in a laboratory setting, discovered that vitamin B12, applied directly against experimental breast cancer cells, actually stopped the cancer cells from growing. The researchers conducting the experiment believe that giving vitamin B12 to women with breast cancer as part of a chemotherapy regime, might help keep the cancer in check.

 

Folic Acid

Low folic acid intake is linked to the development of all cancers. This is because folic acid is crucial to the making and continual repair of DNA, the molecule that carries our genetic code. A recent study discovered that high intakes of folic acid might actually reduce the risk of breast cancer. The researchers looked at the diets of over 2600 women. During interviews with the researchers, the women reported what they usually ate. Once the data was collected, the results showed that women, who ate lots of foods that contained folic acid, had much lower rates of breast cancer.

There is no clear-cut, single cause of breast cancer. Many factors are required for the disease to appear. One such factor is estrogen. A recent study showed that women who developed breast cancer tended to have higher levels of estrogen circulating in their bodies than women without breast cancer. This means that women who got their periods before age eleven or entered menopause after age fifty-five have a higher risk of breast cancer. This also supports the theory that the number of menstrual cycles a woman has affects her risk for breast cancer.

Another factor is drinking alcohol. Because alcohol raises estrogen levels, if a woman consumes even moderate amounts of alcohol her risk of breast cancer also is increased. The link between alcohol and breast cancer may even be stronger than other dietary links. However, an important study has discovered that folic acid may uncouple this link.

A very large study of over 34,000 women recently studied the effect of folic acid on the risk of breast cancer. This project was part of the Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing, long-term study that looks at nutrition’s role in the development of disease. The women in the folic acid and breast cancer study were followed for 12 years. The participants completed detailed food questionnaires that provided the researchers with important data.

The women were divided into four groups:

1.      Women with low folic acid levels and drink alcohol

2.      Women with high folic acid levels and rink alcohol

3.      Women with low folic acid levels and don’t drink alcohol

4.      Women with high folic acid levels and don’t drink alcohol

Within these four groups the women were further divided into subgroups according to the amount of alcohol they consumed each day and their specific folic acid intake.

The researchers found that women who consumed the lowest amounts of folic acid and drank at least one alcoholic beverage a day had the highest rate of breast cancer. In contrast, women who had high intakes of folic acid and also drank at least one alcoholic beverage a day, had the same rate of breast cancer as the women with high folic acid intakes who did not drink. In other words, women who had high levels of folic acid in their diet Erased their alcohol-related increase in breast cancer risk.

 

Calcium D-Glucarate

It seems estrogen can be both friend and foe. While women need the hormone to soften skin, thicken hair, and fill out hips and breasts, estrogen can also nourish breast tumors, helping them grow bigger, stronger, and more deadly. Thanks, in part, to good nutrition, American women get their periods early and go through menopause alter in life. Women today also have fewer pregnancies; families with one or two children are quite common.

All of these factors increase the time women’s bodies are exposed to estrogen. As we discussed before, longer exposure means increased opportunities for estrogen to cause trouble. It is also a troubling fact of modern life that we are continuously exposed to cancer-causing chemicals and toxins. These toxins come in part from contaminants in the food we eat and pollutants in the air we breathe.

The body does have a system that eliminates some of the excess estrogen and toxic chemicals before they can cause harm. In the liver, they are bound or attached to a chemical called glucuronic acid. The bound toxin or estrogen is then excreted in bile and eventually eliminated as a waste product in the stool.

However, an enzyme called beta-glucuronidase can break this bond between estrogen and glucuronic acid. When this happens, the hormone or toxin is released from its bone, capable of causing harm once more. Increased beta-glucuronidase activity is associated with an increased risk for various cancers, particularly hormone-dependant cancers like breast cancer.

Fortunately, scientists have discovered that a natural substance found in foods calcium D-glucarate (CDG) can stop the activity of beta-glucuonidase. CDG keeps the harmful estrogen bound to glucuronidase. While CDG is found in fruits and vegetables, the amounts may not be sufficient to maintain effective levels to stop beta-glucuronidase.

CDG has been shown in experimental studies to significantly stop beast cancer growth. And several human trials are currently underway with CDG to determine its capability to decrease the breast cancer risk in women at high risk for the disease.

 

Iodine

There are some very interesting connections between breast tissue and thyroid tissue. Iodine is an essential trace element present in a hormone of the thyroid gland and is involved in several metabolic functions. One iodine function is the protection of breast tissue from cancerous cells.

In a laboratory study, researchers exposed breast cancer cells and breast tissue without any cancer to a type of seaweed that contains high levels of iodine. The seaweed killed all of the cancerous cells, yet did not harm the normal breast cells. Japanese women frequently eat this type of seaweed and have very low rates of breast cancer. The study’s researchers believe one reason for this low incidence of breast cancer may be the iodine in the seaweed.

And, for some as yet unknown reasons, women who have thyroid cancer are at higher risk of developing breast cancer. While they are unsure why this happens, researchers are continuing to study this link, and support of healthy thyroid function remains an important consideration.

 

Broccoli

For quite some time, scientists have observed that cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower, significantly reduce the risk of disease, including cancer. It seems a phytochemical in broccoli sulforaphane, is one of the chemicals responsible for this beneficial activity. Sulforaphane increases certain enzymes in the body called phase 2 enzymes that deactivate cancer-causing chemicals.

Breast cancer cells exposed to sulforaphane in several lab experiments showed that the compound inhibited the growth of the cancer cells up to 80 percent. Researchers are in the process of setting up clinical trials to study sulforaphane’s effect in women who have breast cancer.

 

Green Tea

There is a tall amount of research, including finding from the Nurses’ Health Study, that suggest green tea beverage consumption is associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer. In fact, researchers have long noted the low rates of breast cancer in Japan, a country where green tea consumption is very high.

The active compound in green tea responsible for breast cancer inhibition is epigallocatechin-3 gallate or EGCG. When breast cancer cells are exposed to EGCG in lab experiments, the cells stop growing, lose their ability to replicate, and die.

In a recent study, researchers discovered that drinking green tea prevented the recurrence of breast cancer in women who have previously been diagnosed and treated for the disease. This study involved over 1100 Japanese women. The women who drank green tea every day had very low rates of their breast cancer returning.

 

Maitake Mushrooms

For thousands of years, maitake mushrooms have been linked to good health in those who eat them. Called “dancing mushrooms” (possibly due to their wavy, rippling appearance or possibly due to the little dance of joy mushroom hunters perform when they find them in the woods), maitakes contain an important compound called D-fraction.

Not only does the D-fraction in maitake mushrooms stop the growth of cancerous tumors, it also alerts and stimulates immune cells (including macrophages and natural killer cells) to fight the disease. Maitake also inhibits some of the mechanism that promotes metastasis, or spread, of cancer cells in the lymph and bloodstream.

Because of this success, maitake is now being used in clinical trials of women with breast cancer. One study reported significant improvement of symptoms, including reduction of the tumor. The maitake was given to breast cancer patients in addition to standard chemotherapy.

 

Q. Should these nutrients be used in place of traditional treatment for breast cancer?

A. Absolutely not. None of these nutrients can cure breast cancer. However, they can be a part of a validated plan of treatment. If you have breast cancer, talk to your health care practitioner about these nutrients. Remember, nutritional supplements are just that: supplements to food, medication, and treatment. They are intended to enhance and prevent, not replace.

 

Conclusion

Despite apprehension in performing self-breast exams, women are very proactive in their health. Yearly mammograms and pap tests have been an important part of their lives for many years, and newer and more accurate diagnoses are emerging. The prevention of health problems in themselves and their families has always been a high priority for women. And for women, nutrition has played an important part of health problem prevention.

Nutritionally speaking, what benefits your breasts benefit your whole body. However, as we have learned, there are specific links between nutrition and developing breast cancer that seem to be fairly strong.

Making a few changes may reduce the risk of developing the disease. The nutrients listed here, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium d-glucarate, iodine, broccoli, green tea, and maitake mushrooms can be an important part of a woman’s preventative health regimen.



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Memory And Focus
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Date: May 08, 2007 02:05 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Memory And Focus

Memory & Focus

 

Some people think getting older often means getting slower. It’s true that as we age, we may find we can’t walk quite as fast, climb as many flights of stairs, or play sports as hard as we could when we were twenty. However, we k now that a healthy diet, regular exercise, and the right dietary supplements can make a huge difference in our health, strength, and mobility as we age.

This is true for our mental abilities as well. We may not think as quickly as we used to, might misplace our keys more often, and experience more “tip-of-my-tongue” word searches. These so-called “middle-aged moments” most often have minor consequences: a missed appointment or the forgotten name of an acquaintance. However, in a small number of cases, these mental slips can also be the first sign of serious diseases of aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease of other dementias.

The good news is, just like our physical health, we can improve how we function mentally. Eating healthy foods, taking the right supplements, and participating in regular mental exercise can significantly increase our mental endurance, improve our memory, and optimize our ability to focus.

In fact, groundbreaking and ongoing research has discovered that specific herbs and vitamins, particularly Ginkgo Biloba, Bacopa monnieri, folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12, and the important co-enzyme and antioxidant, alpha lipoic acid, all have powerful effects on memory and focus. These nutritional supplements have been scientifically shown to quickly reduce mild age-related memory chances, as well as greatly reducing the risk of developing more serious problems like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, or other brain diseases later on in life.

 

Q. What is the difference between age related memory decline and dementia?

A. As we get older, our nerve cells need more time to spark and connect, slowing the process of bringing memories and events to mind. Another theory is that, as we age, we accumulate more knowledge and memories. The mind then has to sort through much more data to reference a memory. Almost everyone middle-aged and older notices this slowdown. Memory decline and problems with mental focus are a normal part of aging.

While it’s true that the older we get, our chances of developing Alzheimer’s disease increase, this illness is not a normal part of aging. Alzheimer’s is an irreversible, progressive dementia that slowly kills nerve cells in areas of the brain where memory, learning, though, and language take place. Often first appearing as people begin retirement, Alzheimer’s disease makes the “golden years” a time of loss and devastation. Memories vanish, relationships are Erased, and independence is gradually lost.

After Alzheimer’s disease, the second most common cause of dementia in older people is multi-infarct dementia. Caused by a series of mini-strokes that damage or destroy brain tissue over time, multi-infarct dementia usually affects people between the ages of 60 and 75. Men are slightly more at risk. High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor for multi-infarct dementia.

Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, strokes, Huntington’s disease, Creutzfelt-Jakob disease, and alcoholism can also cause progressive and irreversible dementia.

While normal age-related memory and focus loss may mean we can’t remember where we put our car keys, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia may mean we can’t remember what our car keys are used for.

 

Q. Are any types of memory and focus loss reversible?

A. Yes. As women enter menopause, they frequently experience trouble remembering. This memory interference is caused by hormone fluctuations and can affect speech, thinking, and attention. Symptoms of menopause-related memory loss and poor focus include recognizing faces less well than in the past, missing scheduled appointments, and misplacing articles. Once a woman passes through menopause, her ability to remember and focus most often improves.

Certain medications, such as the heavily prescribed cholesterol lowering drugs called stains, can temporarily interfere with memory. Low vitamin B levels, artherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and thyroid disease can cause disruption of mental focus and memory loss. These problems usually resolve with treatment of the underlying disorder.

A certain type of stoke, called a transient ischemic attack (TIA) can cause memory loss that may be reversible. A TIA is a brief episode of stroke symptoms that come on quickly. Sometimes referred to as a “mini-stroke” or “warning stroke,” a TIA is caused by a temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain. But, unlike a stroke, a TIA does not lead to permanent brain damage. While a TIA is usually short-lived, it is likely to occur again if not properly managed and can be a warning of future stroke.

 

Q. I seem to forget a lot of things. How can I be sure I don’t have Alzheimer’s disease or some other dementia?

A. If you, or other around you, are concerned about your memory, you should be examined by your health care practitioner. Once the cause of your memory and focus problem is diagnosed, treatment can begin. All causes of memory loss and mental focus disruption can be treated, even Alzheimer’s disease. While presently irreversible dementias cannot be cured, the progression of the disease may be slowed, and in some cases, stopped..

Research on memory loss and mental focus disruption has increased dramatically in the past few years. Discoveries regarding Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, as well as age-related loss of memory and focus have recently been made. Most importantly, many new treatment options, including the use of nutritional supplements, have been developed.

 

Q. How can nutritional supplements improve memory and focus?

A. Several herbs and vitamins have been demonstrated to improve memory and mental focus. While some nutritional supplements work now to improve memory and focus, others work to prevent problems we might develop later.

One of the most researched herbs, Ginkgo biloba, has been found to be effective in improving currently experienced memory and focus loss; in other words, problems we are having now. Ginkgo has been studied in individuals who have age-related memory loss, as well as in those with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. It seems that ginkgo can improve many brain functions, such as speeding up memory recall, protecting brain cells from chemical changes and free radical damage, improving blood flow to the brain, and helping nerve cells communicate with each other better.

Several studies examined ginkgo’s effect in healthy people who were experiencing normal age-related memory and focus problems. They determined that ginkgo improved memory, attention, and clarity of thinking. Ginkgo can also help restore memories that may be lost in TIAs, those mini-strokes that were discussed earlier.

In studies of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, the results showed that ginkgo slowed down the disease in those severely afflicted and actually improved those with very mild or moderate disease. In one of these studies, ginkgo was compared to four prescription cholinestErase inhibitors, medications commonly used to treat individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Using written mental tests, the researchers found that ginkgo worked just as effectively as the prescription drugs. While those taking one of the cholinestErase inhibitors dropped out of the study because of disturbing side effects, ginkgo had no side effects and improved symptoms equally as well.

 

Q. Hoe does Bacopa monnieri help memory and focus?

A. Like ginkgo, bacopa works on the memory and focus problems we are experiencing now. Bacopa grows in India and has a long history as a natural medicine. In a recent study, bacopa was compared to a placebo in its effect on memory. Adults between the ages of 40 and 65 were divided into 2 groups. Half got the bacopa and half got a placebo. Researchers, who didn’t k now which patients got the bacopa, tested both groups’ memory before the study, at three months, and when the study ended six weeks later. The results showed the group taking the bacopa extract was able to remember new information much better than the group taking the placebo.

 

Q. How does alpha lipoic acid help memory and focus?

A. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a vitamin-like coenzyme that prevents memory and focus problems we might have later on. ALA is an incredibly powerful antioxidant that works especially well with other antioxidants. An antioxidant’s job is to disarm damaging free radicals, those naturally occurring molecules that damage cells and cause disease. ALA has potent antioxidant action in almost all the tissues of the body, helps generate energy from food an oxygen, can get directly to the nerves, and plays an important role in the “antioxidant network”.

Researchers have discovered unmistakable free radical damage in Alzheimer’s disease. Accordingly, ALA’s effect in the illness has been studied extensively. Researchers have learned that ALA not only prevents free radical damage in Alzheimer’s disease, but also regulates protective chemicals in the brain that help improve symptoms.

In a recent study, people with Alzheimer’s disease were given tests that measured through and memory. They were then given ALA supplements for an average of 11 months. At the end of the study, the participants were tested again. The results showed that every person had higher scores on the thought and memory tests than they had at the beginning.

ALA is unique among antioxidants, as it can neutralize free radicals in both the fat and the water of cells. In contrast, the well known vitamin C is only water-soluble, while the popular antioxidant vitamin E is only soluble in fat. Because ALA is easily absorbed, enters cells and tissues in a highly usable form, performs a variety of antioxidant actions (including rejuvenation of other antioxidants), and is both fat and water soluble, many researchers label ALA an “ideal antioxidant”.

 

Q. How do vitamins B12 and B6 help memory and focus?

A. Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient in the regulation of nerve transmissions. It is required by the nervous system for normal brain function, and it may also help with mood.

Like ALA, vitamins B6 and B12 help prevent memory and focus problems further on down the road. One important recent discovery is the role of homocysteine in brain diseases. These important B vitamins can reduce homocysteine, an amino acid (the building blocks of protein) that is produced in the human body. Homocysteine irritate s blood vessels, makes it easier for blood to clot, and can cause cholesterol to become more harmful.

Researchers have learned that people with Alzheimer’s and other dementias (including Parkinson’s disease) have elevated homocysteine levels. IN fact, t he amount of homocysteine in the blood corresponds to the severity of the disease. Most people with a high homocysteine level don’t have enough folate, vitamin B5 or vitamin B12 in their diet. Replacing these vitamins helps return the homocysteine level to normal.

Reducing homocysteine levels may prevent the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease, or other brain diseases, and improve the symptoms of those already afflicted.

 

Q. What about folic acid?

A. Folic acid has long been recognized as a vital nutrient for the brain and spinal cord. Recent research has demonstrated that folic acid has significant importance in Alzheimer’s disease.

An ongoing study of Alzheimer’s disease that began in 1986 has been studying 678 members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame in the hopes of learning how the disease develops, how it might be prevented, and how to treat it. Data collected in the study includes biographies the sisters wrote upon entrance to the order, blood samples from the sisters while they are living, and information gained from the voluntary donation of their brains after death.

Aptly named the “Nun Study,” ground breaking discoveries have already been made. It seems that diet and nutrition have a dramatic influence in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Sisters who had high levels of folic acid showed little evidence of Alzheimer’s-type damage in their brains after death. And, those nuns who had Alzheimer’s disease in spite of high folic acid levels had profoundly less brain damage from the disease. In fact, some sisters who had no outward evidence of Alzheimer’s disease while they were living had surprisingly extensive damage in their brains after death.

 

Q. Besides taking ginkgo, bacopa, B vitamins, folic acid, and ALA, is there other things I can do to prevent Alzheimer’s disease?

A. You may not know if you have a serious B-vitamin deficiency. Routine lab work does not measure the amount of B vitamins in your blood. You might want to ask your health care practitioner to have your B vitamin level in your blood measured, especially if you are having memory and focus problems. Keep in mind that this type of lab work is fairly expensive, however.

Supplements do not replace the need for a healthy diet, especially a diet with high levels of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and omega-3 fatty acids. Keeping your body healthy helps keep your brain healthy as well.

It also seems that the use-it-or-lose-it theory applies to our brain as well as our body. Research has shown that people who seek opportunities to keep mentally active, such as reading books, newspapers, and magazines, solving crossword puzzles, playing card games, and visiting museums, lower their risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Conclusion

Dealing with age-related memory loss may be both frustrating and frightening. As the population of America gets older, dementia is continuing to affect a larger proportion of society. Prevention of these devastating diseases has become increasingly important.

In fact, more and more research shows prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias is a reality. And age-related memory loss can successfully be improved as well. Taking the scientifically validated nutritional supplements ginkgo, bacopa, vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid, and ALA can improve age-related memory loss and potentially prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias as we age.



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Complete Liver Cleanse
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Date: April 19, 2007 04:17 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Complete Liver Cleanse

Complete Liver Cleanse

Technical Data Sheet

 

DESCRIPTION:

The liver performs over 500 functions, including metabolizing carbohydrates and proteins, synthesizing and storing vitamins, and regulating hormones – naming just a few. To do this job, the liver is also required to be exposed to potentially harmful toxins and chemicals, every day.

One way to support the liver is through periodic supplementation with the proper balance of herbal ingredients, phytosterols, and fiber. Complete Liver Cleanse is a convenient, multi-ingredient formula that supports overall liver health and detoxification.

Complete Liver Cleanse:

Includes ingredients for various aspects of liver and gallbladder support:

-Herbal ingredients that support liver and gallbladder health

-Detoxifying ingredients that keep bound toxins from being reabsorbed

-Phytosterols to block cholesterol absorption in the intestines

-Fiber that moves cholesterol and toxins out of the body

-Oat beta-glucan fiber with up to 4 times higher viscosity than other beta-glucan

Fibers

-Simple, two week liver cleanse program

FORMULA:

Each 3 capsules contain:

Calcium (as calcium D-glucarate) 13 mg

Proprietary PuraFiber Blend: 1 mg

Viscofiber Oat B-Gucan Concentrate, phytosterols

(beta sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, brassicasterol,

and other plant sterols), and glucomannan

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Fruit Phytosome 220 mg

One part Milk Thistle Extract, standardized to contain 80%

Silymarin bound to two parts phosphatidylcholine (soy) using

a patented process

Burdock (Arctium lappa) Root Extract 4:1 100 mg

Calcium D-Glucarate 100 mg

Boldo (Peumus boldus) Leaf Extract 2:1 75 mg

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Rhizome Extract 50 mg

Standardized to contain 90% curcuminoids

Dandelion (Taraxacum offinale) Root Extract 4:1 50 mg

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Leaf Extract 30 mg

Standardized to contain 13-18% caffeylquinic

Acids calculated as chlorogenic acid

Contains no: sugar, salt, yeast, wheat, dairy products, artificial coloring, artificial flavoring, ingredients of animal origin, or preservatives. This product contains natural ingredients; color variations are normal.

Other ingredients: See label for most current information

Viscofiber is a registered trademark of Cebena Bioproducts, Inc. The use and composition of the Viscofiber proprietary formula is protected by patients and patent applications filed in the U.S., Canada and internationally.

This product contains calcium D-glucarate, the use of which is licensed from Applied Food Sciences, LLC, and protected by U.S. patent 4,845,123.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

The Liver

Every day, the liver must process an almost unbelievable amount of blood – at a rate of three pints every minute. All the while, the liver performs over 500 physiologic functions, including protein and glucose synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, vitamin and mineral storage, synthesis of clotting factors, urea formation, metabolism of medications, and the production of bile. The liver also assists in hormonal regulation, blood glucose control, and other regulatory functions.

Harmful substances that have been neutralized by the liver are carried to the intestines and kidneys for excretion. They are transported by bile, a greenish, watery solution that is synthesized, and continuously being excreted, by the liver. Stored in the gallbladder, a small sac cupped in the under surface of the liver, bile is also required for the digestion of dietary fats. However, in the case of toxins, bile is primarily an early transporter of the toxic compounds to the intestines, where they can be bound to fiber that helps transport them out of the body. Environmental toxins, including lipid (fat) soluble toxins, are broken into water-soluble components by bile to be excreted through the kidneys or colon.

Liver Detoxification

Detoxification refers to the process of excreting potentially harmful compounds that are both generated by the body and acquired through exposure to the environment. In the body, toxins are generated as by-products of cellular metabolic processes. Examples include dead and digested bacteria, hydrogen peroxide, cellular debris, and carbon dioxide.

The Environmental Protection Agency has determined that the amount of environmental toxins in the air, groundwater, and soil has increased significantly in the last 40 years. In fact, the use of pesticides has doubled every ten years since 1945. Americans are increasingly exposed to heavy metals, pesticides, fossil fuel emissions, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, and other harmful chemicals. The Environmental Protection Agency reports that traces of toxic chemicals can now be found in nearly every American.

Herbal Liver Support

One of the major components in Complete Liver Cleanse is its milk thistle extract, standardized to contain 80% silymarin, the plant’s most bioactive compound. Milk Thistle provides support, at a cellular level, for healthy liver function. A patented delivery system, known as the Phytosome process, provides superior absorption of the milk thistle extract.

Silymarin, a key compound found in milk thistle, is a mixture of flavonoids with a long history of liver support. Silymarin supports the health of Kupffer cells, specialized liver cells responsible for removing bacteria, old blood cells, and other foreign matter from the liver’s blood supply. Silymarin scavenges free radicals (superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide) produced by activated Kupffer cells, supports healthy leukotriene levels, and supports glutathione production that is used in detoxification.

Silymarin also supports the health of hepatocytes, highly versatile liver cells with unique physiologic functions. Studies of silymarin have demonstrated that it supports the health of the hepatocyte outer membrane, which is crucial to the liver’s detoxification processes. Silymarin also supports the healthy regenerative ability of the liver through support of protein synthesis in the hepatocytes.

Phytosome Process

A special, patented proves known as Phytosome enhances the absorption of milk thistle in Complete Liver Cleanse. The Phytosome process pairs herbal ingredients with phosphatidylcholine molecules. Phosphatidylcholine is a naturally occurring substance found in soybeans, egg yolks, and some vegetables. In the body, phosphatidylcholine is an important building block of cell membranes.

When milk thistle (or other herbs) are bound with phosphatidylcholine, the phosphatidylcholine molecule facilitates absorption through the intestines into the bloodstream. Research has shown increased blood and serum levels for phytosome herbs in comparison to the individual herb alone.

To test whether binding an herb with phosphatidylcholine increased its bioavailability, researchers gave volunteers identical amounts of either milk thistle alone, or milk thistle phytosome. The researchers then took blood sample from the participants and measured the level of silybin (a key compound in milk thistle). The measurements showed that silybin levels in participants taking the phytosome form of milk thistle were higher, and that silybin was detected for a longer time, than those who took milk thistle without the phytosome delivery system.

Other Herbal Liver Supportive Ingredients

Herbal extracts are often at their best when they are working synergistically – that is, when different constituents of each plant work together and support each other. Complete Liver Cleanse contains a variety of herbal extracts that have noted benefits for supporting the body’s healthy bile flow and free-radical scavenging effects. These ingredients provide a wide spectrum of liver supportive benefits.

For instance, dandelion root extract supports healthy bile flow from the gallbladder.

Burdock Root:

Burdock is originally native to Europe and Asia, but was introduced to North America, probably during colonial times. The plant is commonly found in the northern United States, and is very recognizable, with large, heart-shaped leaves. It has a long history of traditional use for gastrointestinal support.

Burdock root (Arctium lappa) supports the natural physiologic processes of organs involved in detoxification and elimination: notably, the liver, kidneys, and intestines.

Boldo:

Bolodo (pemus boldus) is a small evergreen native to South America, but naturalized to southern Europe. The leaves are considered the health supportive part of the plant. This herb has a long history of use in Chile, and became known in Western countries in the late 19th century.

In scientific studies, boldo appears to have strong free-radical scavenging ability, mostly attributed to the catechin and flavonoids content of its leaves. In a clinical study, boldo also appears to relax smooth muscle and support intestinal transit time.

Artichoke Leaf extract specifically supports healthy bile production in the liver and healthy gastrointestinal function in general. Research into artichoke’s gastrointestinal supportive properties has included at least three clinical trials. Artichoke’s role in supporting healthy cholesterol levels within normal limits has also been investigated.

Turmeric:

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a perennial shrub native to southern Asia with a long history as both a food ingredient and for health support.

More recently, turmeric has been investigated for its support of healthy bile secretion, and pancreatic and gastric function.

In a scientific study, dietary curcuminoids derived from turmeric supported healthy lipid metabolism and cholesterol levels already within normal limits.

Curcumin has also been shown in scientific studies to enhance the activity of glutathione S-transfErase - an enzyme responsible for linking glutathione (one of the body’s natural antioxidants) with toxins to help remove them from the body. In this way, it provides additional support for healthy liver function.

Detoxification

Calcium d-glucarate:

The process of detoxification is the breakdown and excretion of substances that are no longer needed or may be harmful to the body. One of the ways in which the body excretes hormones and toxins is by binding them to glucuronic acid in the liver, and then excreting this compound in the bile.

However, this process can be disrupted by B-glucuronidase, an enzyme that is produced by intestinal bacteria. This enzyme has the ability to break (uncouple) the chemical bond established by glucuronic acid. This action releases the bound toxins, which are then reabsorbed into the body instead of being excreted.

Calcium D-Glucarate is the calcium salt of d-glucaric acid. It is found in both the human body, and in some plant sources, including broccoli and oranges.

Calcium d0glucarate enhances the body’s detoxification systems by inhibiting the actions of beta-glucuronidase. This helps decrease the portion of active compounds that could be hazardous to the body.

Phytosterols

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is vital to fat digestion, cell structure, nerve insulation and hormone production. Cholesterol comes from two sources: dietary or “exogenous” cholesterol absorbed in the intestine, and “endogenous” cholesterol formed mostly by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

Cholesterol occurs in two forms known as lipoproteins. Lipoproteins act as transports that carry fat s to and from the cells.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) carries low lipid density cholesterol (LDL) away from arterial walls and returns it to the bloodstream. LDL then travels back to the liver, which processes and eliminates it. While high levels of HDL cholesterol is desirable, high amounts of LDL cholesterol is not supportive of optimal health.

LDL-cholesterol is both synthesized in the body, or absorbed into the bloodstream through receptor sites in the intestines. Think of these receptors as “parking spaces” for cholesterol. As it happens, the liver can receive up to 500 mg per day of cholesterol from intestinal absorption. (It can also produce as much as 1000 mg per day).

One way to help reduce the absorption of LDL cholesterol molecules it to occupy their “parking places” in the intestines. Phytosterols in Liver Cleanse are essentially the “fat” of plants. They’re found in nuts, corn and rice and are some of the “good” fats associated with the benefits of olive oil, flaxseed oil and other healthy oils.

The structure of phytosterols is so similar to cholesterol that they fit perfectly in the specially-shaped intestinal parking spaces that LDL-cholesterol would normally occupy.

Taken with, or just before meals, phytosterols block the cholesterol receptor sites so that cholesterol is excreted from the body rather than absorbed. Phytosterols also have the additional role of helping promote healthy bile salt excretion in the intestines.

The phytosterol blend in Complete Liver Cleanse can help minimize the absorption of cholesterol from high-protein food sources, help retain healthy cholesterol levels that are within normal limits, and move bile sat through the digestive system.

Fiber and detoxification

Fiber plays a key role in the removal and excretion of intestinal toxins in detoxification. Only fibers that can effectively bind toxins will be successful in eliminating these harmful substances. Due to the unique benefits of individual fibers, the best binding, removal, and elimination effects are noted when combining different fiber types. Complete Liver Cleanse contains a combination of oat beta-glucan and konjac fiber that has been shown in scientific studies to bind to bile salts.

Dietary fibers are complex mixtures of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, mucilage, and gums, which are resistant to digestive fluids or enzymes – that is, they aren’t absorbed into the bloodstream. So, while fiber itself doesn’t necessarily provide nutrients, it does promote laxation and modulate gastric and intestinal physiology. Intestinal flora that normally reside within the colon utilize fiber as a medium for microbial fermentation, resulting in the synthesis of the vitamins, vitamin K and biotin, and the formation of short chain fatty acids, or SCFA.

SCFA have a simple, but important job: to be absorbed by the colon mucosa, increasing fecal matter bulk and providing energy. Fiber has been demonstrated in numerous clinical studies to provide support of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and endocrine function health.

Complete Liver Cleanse also features two unique fibers to promote detoxification – konjac and oat beta-glucan.

Konjac:

Konjac, (Amorphophallus Konjac) is a tuber native to Asia, rich in glucomannan polysaccharide. This viscous material is made into a jelly, noodles and other foods. It has been used in Japan for at least a thousand years.

As a fiber, konjac has shown positive results maintaining healthy cholesterol levels within normal limits in clinical studies. This beneficial effect is due to konjac’s ability to boost excretion of bile acid.

Oat beta-glucan:

Oat beta-glucan has been a widely studied fiber source for supporting healthy cholesterol levels within normal limits.

In a randomized clinical study, oat beta-glucan showed support of healthy HDL/LDL ratios already within normal limits in individuals over a three week trial.

Closely linked to cholesterol, oat beta-glucan has also been studied for its support of healthy bile excretion.

Fiber has benefits beyond maintaining healthy cholesterol levels already within normal limits. It also contributes to healthy blood sugar levels already within normal limits. In a double-blind, clinical study, the oat beta-glucan fiber used in Liver Cleanse was shown to have 4 times higher viscosity than another high concentrate beta-glucan fiber.

Viscosity – the resistance to flow – is an important factor in beta-glucan, and all fiber. Water, for instance, would have a low viscosity, because it provides very little resistance to movement. Fiber, on the other hand, should have a higher viscosity in order to maximize its transit time through the GI tract, providing a gentle “scrubbing” on the intestinal walls. Therefore, the higher the viscosity, the greater the potential benefit.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

Three capsules in the morning and three capsules at bedtime for 14 days.

LABEL PRECAUTION:

Warnings: Do not use if you know or suspect you have an obstructed bile duct or problematic gallstones. If pregnant, nursing or taking prescription drugs, consult your healthcare practitioner prior to use. Keep out of reach of children.



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L-Citrulline 500mg capsules of powder
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Date: September 01, 2006 01:03 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Citrulline 500mg capsules of powder

L-Citrulline 500mg capsules of powder

 

Now Available!

  • Supports cardiovascular health and sexual function.
  • An amino acid that increases blood flow to the heart and organs.
  • Helps the liver’s detoxification process by converting toxic ammonia into urea for elimination.
  • The body converts l-Arginine to l-Citrulline, a byproduct of which is nitric oxide, a key component in the relaxation and dilation of blood vessels.
  • A readily available nutrient for cardio function, and a preferred source of nitric oxide synthesis.

L-Citrulline is produced in the urea cycle when carbamoyl phosphate is converted to Citrulline in the ornithine carbamoyl transfErase reaction. When endogenous supplies of ornithine carbamoyl transfErase are insufficient, supplemental L-Citrulline has been shown to support ammonia incorporation and liver detoxification of ammonia.



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Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine
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Date: February 12, 2006 01:55 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Benefits

Supports cognitive function*

ALC has been studied for its effect on cognitive performance and emotional health in the elderly. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 481 elderly subjects exhibiting mild memory impairment improved their scores on a memory test after taking 1500 mg of ALC a day for 90 days.2 Hospitalized elderly people taking ALC have shown improvements in mental outlook.3 While ALC is not a treatment or cure for Alzheimer's disease, double-blind studies suggest it may help slow the rate at which early-stage Alzheimer's patients deteriorate.4 In particular, ALC seems to benefit short-term memory in these patients.5

Supports biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for brain and nerve function* Brain function requires coordinated communication between brain cells. Brain and nerve cells ("neurons") communicate across tiny cell-to-cell gaps called "synapses." The passage of an electrical impulse from one neuron to the next requires a "neurotransmitter." When an electrical signal arrives at the synaptic junction, the neuron releases a neurotransmitter into the synapse. The neuron on the other side of the synapse contains receptors for the neurotransmitter; these receptors bind the neurotransmitter, triggering a series of chemical events that sends a new electrical signal down the membrane of the receiving neuron. Neurotransmitters work together like an orchestra to transmit information throughout the brain and nervous system. Acetylcholine is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the body, regulating activities of vital organs, blood vessels and communication between nerves and muscles. In the brain, acetylcholine helps facilitate memory and learning as well as influence emotions. ALC is structurally similar to acetylcholine, and brain neurons stimulated by acetylcholine are receptive to stimulation by ALC.6 It has been shown experimentally that ALC supplies acetyl groups for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.7 ALC's hypothesized cholinomimetic (acts like acetylcholine) activity has led researchers to investigate its effects on mental function and emotional health.8

Helps supply the brain with energy by improving energetics in the mitochondrion*

The acetyl groups donated by ALC can be used to synthesize acetyl-CoA, the key substrate for energy metabolism in the mitochondrion. 9 Acetyl-CoA enters the Krebs cycle, the mitochondrial mechanism that generates cellular energy in the form of ATP. ALC easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to play various roles in maintaining brain neuron (nerve cell) function. When given by oral administration, the concentration of ALC is increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.10

Stabilizes intracellular membranes*

ALC was found to improve membrane phospholipid metabolism in early-stage Alzheimer's patients.11 Phospholipids are structural components of brain cell membranes that regulate neuron function. ALC donates acetyl groups that can be used to modify the functional activity of proteins in neuronal membranes.12 ALC thus plays a role in maintaining membrane function. ALC also increases membrane stability and structural integrity.13

Increases nerve growth factor production*

The body produces various specialized proteins called "growth factors" which are essential to growth and repair of tissue. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) protects neurons from death, prolonging survival of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is theorized that aging of the central nervous system is associated with a loss of NGF. ALC has shown the ability to reverse age-related decrease in the binding of NGF to its receptors in neuron membranes.14 Given to aged rats, ALC increases the level and utilization of NGF in the rats. ALC protects cholinergic neurons (nerve cells stimulated by acetylcholine) in rats from degeneration due to lack of NGF.15 These results, together with other data from animal studies, suggest that ALC positively influences NGF activity.16

Has a protective influence on brain neurons*

Several animal studies have revealed that ALC exerts a protective effect on neurons. In one experiment, brain cells from rats exposed to NMDA, a known neurotoxin, were protected by being simultaneously exposed to ALC.17 Rats injected with ALC were protected from mortality caused by the neurotoxin MPP+.18 ALC has been shown to raise levels of glutathione, a highly valuable antioxidant, in isolated mouse brain tissue.19 ALC prevents buildup of malondyhaldeyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation.20 ALC is also a chelator of iron, which can generate free radicals. It also reinforces antioxidant mechanisms in the brain.21 As a whole, data from test tube and animal studies, showing that ALC has a protective, restorative effect on brain neurons and neuronal energetic processes, suggest that ALC is an anti-aging nutrient for the brain. This hypothesis is supported by human studies demonstrating measurable benefits for brain function in elderly persons taking ALC by oral consumption.


Safety
Suggested Adult Use: 1 to 4 capsules daily.
ALC is considered safe and well-tolerated when consumed orally. ALC has been administered in doses as high as 3 grams per day for periods of two to six months, with no reports of serious side effects. Some patients have experienced occasional mild abdominal discomfort, nausea, skin rash, restlessness, vertigo and headache. The severity and incidence of these side effects are reported as minor.22

Scientific References
1. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
2. Salvioli, G. Neri , M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1994; 20(4):169-76.
3. Tempesta, E, et al. L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs. placebo. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1987;8(7):417-23.
4. Spagnoli, A et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1991;41:1726-32.
5. Rai, G et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Curr. Med Res. Opin. 1990;11:638-47.
6. Falchetto, S, Kato, G, Provini, L. The action of carnitines on cortical neurons. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1971; 49(1):1:7.
7. Dolezal, V., Tucek, S. Utilization of citrate, acetylcarnitine, acetate, pyruvate and glucose for the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat brain slices. J Neurochem 1981;36(4):1323.30.
8. Passeri, M, et al. Mental impairment in aging: selection of patients, methods of evaluation and therapeutic possibilities of acetyl-L-carnitine. Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. 1988;8(5):367-76.
9. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
10. Parnetti, L, et al. Pharmacokinetics of IV and oral acetyl-L-carnitine in multiple dose regimen in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Eur. J. Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:89-93.
11. Pettegrew, JW, et al. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging 1995;16(1):1-4.
12. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
13. Arduni, A, et al. Effect of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on the human erythrocyte membrane stability and deformability. Life Sci 1990;47(26):2395-2400.
14. Taglialatela, G, et al. Stimulation of nerve growth factor receptors in PC12 by acetyl-L-carnitine. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44(3):577-85.
15. Taglialatela, G, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment increases nerve growth factor levels and choline acetyltransfErase activity in the central nervous system of aged rats. Exp Gerontol 1994;29(1):55-56.
16. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
17. Forloni, G, Angeretti, N, Smiroldo, S. Neuroprotective activity of acetyl-L-carnitine: studies in vitro. J Neurosci Res 1994;37(1):92-6.
18. Steffen, V, et al. Effect of intraventricular injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: protection by acetyl-L-carnitine. Hum Exp Toxicol 1995;14(11):865-71.
19. Fariello, RG, et al. Systemic acetyl-L-carnitine elevates nigral levels of glutathione and GABA. Life Sci 1988;43(3):289-92.
20. Calvani, M, et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ny Acad Sci 1992;663:483-86.
21. Calvani, M, Carta, A. Clues to the mechanism of action of acetyl-L-carnitine in the central nervous system. Dementia 1991;2:1-6.
22. Zdanowicz, M. Acetyl-L-carnitine's healing potential. Continuing Education Module. New Hope Institute of Retailing. October, 2001.


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Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant
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Date: December 07, 2005 05:43 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant

Vitaberry Plus +™ Super Fruit Antioxidant

By Nilesh Patel, NOW Quality Assurance, April 20, 2005 Why are FRUITS AND VEGETABLES important? “Diets rich in FRUITS AND VEGETABLES may reduce the risk of some types of cancer and other chronic diseases.”- National Cancer Institute. OXYGEN AND ANTIOXIDANTS As we all know, “Oxygen is critical to life,” but is itself a double-edged sword. While oxygen is necessary to sustain life and for natural defense against microbes, too much oxygen in our cells can lead to the production of “free radicals” (mitochondrial respiratory chain) or ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Free radicals come in many forms - singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, superoxideperoxynitrite, to name a few - but all have one commonality. Each has an unpaired (unbalanced) electron, a situation it remedies by stealing an electron from a stable molecule. This sets off a domino effect of oxidation, a chain reaction that usually ends up damaging cellular integrity and compromising overall health. Nature has a defense system in place to protect these processes in the form of antioxidants. Whether endogenous (produced by the body, such as liver enzymes, SOD, coenzymes and sulfur-containing compounds) or exogenous (obtained through the diet, such as vitamins C & E, bioflavonoids, carotenes, etc.), antioxidants “quench” free radicals by donating an electron to stabilize a molecule, thus controling the chain reaction and stopping the oxidation “domino effect”. ANTIOXIDANT-RICH FOODS Research suggests that eating plenty of foods high in antioxidants helps to slow the processes associated with aging and protect against many chronic diseases. Maximizing one’s antioxidant power will enhance overall health. Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and non-nutritive factors that can affect oxidative damage and enzymatic defense and might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. A new “6-a-day” study looked into the effects of fruits and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers by The Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research in Denmark. The study found that fruits and vegetables increase erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and resistance of plasma lipoproteins to oxidation more efficiently than do the nutritive factors (vitamins and minerals) that the fruits and vegetables are also known to contain. Certain berries, such as blackberries, also contain salicylates, which are also linked to heart health and prevention of atherosclerosis. The protective effects of fruits and vegetables intake on both heart disease death and deaths in general have previously been demonstrated but researchers at the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston. Quercetin is an anti-oxidizing flavonoid found in many berries (such as cranberries, bilberries, blueberries, strawberries, etc.) and can prevent CVDs (coronary vascular diseases), according to a recent Finnish study. All these natural plant polyphenols are responsible for the colors of many red and purple berries, fruits, vegetables and flowers. GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES The new federal guidelines released earlier this year by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommend eating more fruits and vegetables, combined, than any other food group -- five cups or about 10 servings a day for most adults. The amount of fruits and vegetables recommended has increased for men and women of every age. “Fruits and vegetables are the "good news" story of the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans for food-loving consumers, the industry and America's public health”, stated the Produce for Better Health Foundation (PBH). Eating a variety of colorful phytochemical-rich fruits and vegetables has been associated with lower risk of some chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Many authoritative organizations such as the National Cancer Institute and The American Heart Association recommend getting phytochemicals from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables, rather than from individual component supplements. The Scottish government is promoting healthy eating through a scheme designed to increase purchasing of fruit and nutritional foods. Scottish health minister Andy Kerr said, "This initiative shows that healthy eating can be good for customers and good for business." Scottish women are said to have the highest rates of death from lung cancer in the world as well as the highest rates in Europe for coronary heart disease. They also have low consumption of fruits and vegetables, shown in studies to help protect against some cancers and benefit heart health. ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) Free radicals and oxygen free radicals play an important role in the development and progression of many brain disorders such as brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and Down syndrome. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes & is also linked to other host of degenerative health conditions. Fortunately, antioxidants are available to support the body’s defense and fight disease and aging. Examples of “Fast acting antioxidants” in the body (serum) are: uric acid (polyphenols), ascorbate, bilirubin, vitamin E (the later two are lipid soluble). Examples of “Slow acting antioxidants” are glucose, urea nitrogen etc. In short, free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated as by-products of normal cellular metabolism. Their deleterious effects are minimized in vivo (in the body) by the presence of antioxidant systems. How do Antioxidants work? Antioxidants are substances in plants that help maintain health. Antioxidants protect against damage to cells caused by too many “free oxygen radicals,” which form because of the effects of oxidation. Smoking, sunlight, heavy exercise, and pollution all increase oxidation in the body. Most people would benefit by eating more (five to nine or more servings) fruits and vegetables & colorful plant foods, such as purple, dark green, yellow, orange, blue, and red ones, each day. These have healthful pigments along with antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C, carotenoids, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, selenium, flavonoids, and other beneficial substances. There are numerous ways in which these antioxidants affect, but can be explained in two groups: Alpha (a) Effects: This refers to the scavenging or neutralizing of free radicals. These effects do not change the way humans (or animals) feel. There are also no noticeable health, psychological or emotional benefits. While there are no obvious changes, increased total antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased tumor rates, prevention of heart attacks and increased longevity. Beta (ß) Effects: These are the changes on health, psychological or emotional state that you or others will notice. In this case, the antioxidant is affecting metabolic processes (enzymes) with consequent changes in the physical (improvement in joint movements, improved skin condition, tissue damage recovery), emotional (better ability to cope with stress) or psychological state (increased alertness). The ORAC value Because most of the active nutritional components in fruits and vegetables are antioxidants, accurate measurement of antioxidant activity serves as a good indicator of potential health benefit. Scientific opinion runs high that ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity) will eventually become a government standard of reference for overall daily fruits and vegetables intake. ORAC units are a measurement of the ability of food to stop oxidation. It is most generally expressed in terms of Trolox equivalent per gram (µmole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). POPULATION DATA A survey done by the National Research Council indicates that only 10% of the US population consumes the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The equivalent to eating 5 mixed servings of fruits and vegetables per day is about 1,670 ORAC units. Based on scientific evidence it is suggested that daily antioxidant intake should be increased to between 3,000 and 5,000 ORAC units per day, per human subject, in order to reach a significant antioxidant capacity in blood plasma and other tissues. WHAT IS NOW DOING TO HELP? In accord with our mission, “To provide value in products and services that empower people to lead healthier lives,” NOW® Foods is introducing an ALL-FRUIT-DERIVED antioxidant product called VitaBerry Plus +™ Super Fruit Antioxidant Vcaps (vegetarian capsules) (product number #3336). At time of manufacture this product provides an ORAC value of at least 2,500 units per serving from a full-spectrum antioxidant blend of fruits containing phytochemicals and phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, quinic acid, resveratrol , many organic acids, resveratrol and vitamin C. VitaBerry Plus +™ is formulated with VitaBerry™ Hi-ORAC Fruit Blend [a proprietary blend of fruit extracts & concentrated powders containing Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) extract, Grape (Vitis vinifera) & Grape seed extract, Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) & Raspberry seed extract, Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Prune (Prunus domestica), Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus), Wild Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extract & Strawberry (Fragaria virginia)], Hi-Active™ Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Pomegranate (Punica granatum) min. 40% ellagic acid fruit extract. One gram of VitaBerry™ Hi-ORAC Fruit Blend provides at least 6,000 ORAC units (i.e., µmole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). (Also watch for an upcoming antioxidant product from NOW called Enzogenol® (Pinus radiata bark extract from New Zealand) with Rutin (a flavonoid from South American fruit of Dimorphandra mollis) and Grapeseed extract. IS IT EFFECTIVE? Total ORAC value includes both lipophilic and hydrophilic components. VitaBerry Plus +™ contains only water/hydroethanol based extracts and concentrated (100:1 to 125:1) freeze-dried fresh fruit blends, so the lipophilic ORAC value is mere 2-4% of the total ORAC value. Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium-containing enzyme that decreases cell death from brain injuries. It also acts as a critical first-line antioxidant defense on the airway (respiratory) epithelial surface against ROS and RNS (reactive nitrogen species. Genetics research has found that the glutathione S-transfErase gene controls the onset of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease etc. Taking glutathione (GSH) itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since it breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells. So glutathione precursor dietary supplements (such as NAC and GliSODin), along with fruits and vegetables, are effective in boosting intracellular levels of GSH. The lungs have a defense system against the ROS oxidants consisting of low molecular weight antioxidants such as GSH and intracellular enzymes such as SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase to protect against the toxic effects of oxidants generated within the cells. Some of the primary effects of VitaBerry Plus +™ against the common reactive free-radical species or ROS are as follows: - Superoxide dismutase-SOD (destroys Superoxide radicals),
- Catalase (neutralizes peroxides),
- Functions similar to reduced Glutathione (GSH),
- Glutathione peroxidase enzyme (detoxifies peroxides, using GSH as a reducing agent),
- Functions similar to Glutathione S-transfErase (GST),
- Nullifies Superoxide-generating NADH/NADPH oxidase system In conclusion More concentrated than fresh berries, with over 6000 ORAC units per gram, VitaBerry Plus +™ provides consumers with the antioxidant power of almost 15 servings per day of FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ina convenient vegetarian capsule form! VitaBerry™ PLUS +™ (# 3336) provides a powerful, convenient way to supplement diets that do not include sufficient fruit and vegetable antioxidants Selected References: USDA/HHS guidelines report at: etaryguidelines/dga2005/document/

ls.com/proprietary/pdf/VitaberryBrochure.pdf g Kaplan M., Hayek T. , Raz A., Coleman R. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice supplementation to apolipoprotein E deficient mice with extensive atherosclerosis reduces macrophages lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis. J. Nutr. 131: 2082-2089 (2001) Lars O Dragsted et. al., The 6-a-day study:effects if fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1060-1072, June 2004 Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Polyphenols and flavaonoids protects LDL against atherogenic modifications.In: Handbook of Antioxidants Biochemical, Nutritional and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Edition. Cadenas E & Packer L (Eds.) Marcel Dekker, NY(Pub.). 16:303-336 (2001) Wood, Jacqueline, et al. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 77 (2002) 155-161 Aviram M. Pomegranate juice as a major source for polyphenolic flavonoids and it is most potent antioxidant against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Free Radical Research 36 (Supplement 1): 71-72 (2002) Jennifer Schraag, Antioxidants: Nature’s Way of Balancing Life. HSR Health Supplement Retailer, Vol. 11, No. 2, 24-27, February 2005 com/news/printNewsBis.asp?id=58665 com/news/printNewsBis.asp?id=58697

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TMG Fact Sheet
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Date: December 07, 2005 02:13 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: TMG Fact Sheet

TMG Fact Sheet

Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 03/07/05

LIKELY USERS: People with high homocysteine levels; People with risks of developing Alzheimer’s Disease; People needing greater metabolism of fats; People with liver detoxification challenges; People consuming alcohol KEY INGREDIENTS: TMG is composed of three methyl groups attached to a glycine atom. It can “donate” methyl groups.

MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: TMG is a metabolite of the B vitamin family product called Choline. Choline has 4 methyl groups, TMG has 3 and DMG has 2. These substances plus Folic acid, Vitamin B-12 and SAM-e are all methyl donors. Methyl donors can contribute methyl groups to biological processes such as liver function, detoxification and cellular replication (production of new cells). Methylation protects the kidneys and stimulates production of the fat-transporting molecule l-carnitine.

TMG helps the liver metabolize fats, preventing the accumulation of fats in the liver. It also helps to detoxify chemicals in the liver, while protecting the liver from being damaged by those chemicals.

Methylation with TMG helps to convert the dangerous, inflammatory chemical homocysteine into the amino acid methionine. TMG may lower homocysteine when B-6, B-12 and folic acid cannot.

ADDITIONAL PRODUCT INFORMATION: TMG is also known as Betaine and is a component of Betaine hydrochloride (Betaine HCl), a stomach acid supplement that is very acidic. But Betaine HCl is not used in the same way as TMG. TMG is not highly acidic and will not supplement low stomach acid.

TMG may be useful for autistic children, along with B-6 and magnesium. It may also be useful in strengthening the body’s immune response against pathogenic bacteria. There is very preliminary evidence that TMG and methyl donors may help against some forms of seizures.

DMG has been used as a sports supplement. TMG is 50% more effective than DMG in any application where the methyl groups are useful. Otherwise, they can used interchangeably.

SERVING SIZE & HOW TO TAKE IT: One serving per day, or up to 6,000 mg., as needed.

COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS: SAM-e, Milk Thistle (Silymarin), Dr. Verghese’s Liver Detoxifier & Regenerator, Antioxidants, NAC, Homocysteine Regulators, D-Flame, Detox Support

CAUTIONS: Pregnant and lactating women and people using prescription drugs should consult their physician before taking any dietary supplement.

People with Parkinson’s or taking L-dopa should not use methyl donors like TMG without a physician’s specific approval and supervision. There are no other known drug interactions with TMG.

This information is based on my own knowledge and references, and should not be used as diagnosis, prescription or as a specific product claim. This is not an official publication by any company, nor has this information been screened or approved by the FDA or any private company.

Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. REFERENCES:

General:

Craig SA. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):539-49. Review. PMID: 15321791

Methylation:

Barak AJ, Tuma DJ. Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci 1983;32:771-4 [review].

Benson R, Crowell B, Hill B, et al. The effects of L-dopa on the activity of methionine adenosyltransfErase: relevance to L-dopa therapy and tolerance. Neurochem Res 1993;18:325–30.

Chambers ST. Betaines: their significance for bacteria and the renal tract. Clin Sci 1995;88:25-7 [review].

Charlton CG, Crowell B Jr. Parkinson’s disease-like effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine: effects of L-dopa. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992;43:423–31.

Charlton CG, Mack J. Substantia nigra degeneration and tyrosine hydroxylase depletion caused by excess S-adenosylmethionine in the rat brain. Support for an excess methylation hypothesis for parkinsonism. Mol Neurobiol 1994;9:149–61.

Cheng H, Gomes-Trolin C, Aquilonius SM, et al. Levels of L-methionine S-adenosyltransfErase activity in erythrocytes and concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in whole blood of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Exp Neurol 1997;145:580–5.

Crowell BG Jr, Benson R, Shockley D, Charlton CG. S-adenosyl-L-methionine decreases motor activity in the rat: similarity to Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms. Behav Neural Biol 1993;59:186–93.

Selhub J. Homocysteine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr 1999;19:217-46 [review].

Homocysteine:

Brosnan JT, Jacobs RL, Stead LM, Brosnan ME. Methylation demand: a key determinant of homocysteine metabolism. Acta Biochim Pol. 2004;51(2):405-13. Review. PMID: 15218538 Gahl WA, Bernardini I, Chen S, et al. The effect of oral betaine on vertebral body bone density in pyridoxine-non-responsive homocystinuria. J Inherit Metab Dis 1988;11:291-8.

Olthof MR, van Vliet T, Boelsma E, Verhoef P. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2003 Dec;133(12):4135-8. PMID: 14652361

Olthof MR, Verhoef P. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health. Curr Drug Metab. 2005 Feb;6(1):15-22. PMID: 15720203

Schwab U, Torronen A, Toppinen L, Alfthan G, Saarinen M, Aro A, Uusitupa M. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;76(5):961-7. PMID: 12399266

Selhub J. Homocysteine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr 1999;19:217-46 [review].

van Guldener C, Janssen MJ, de Meer K, et al. Effect of folic acid and betaine on fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine and methionine levels in chronic haemodialysis patients. J Intern Med 1999;245:175-83.

Wendel U, Bremer HJ. Betaine in the treatment of homocystinuria due to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Eur J Pediatr 1984;142:147-50.

Wilcken DE, Wilcken B, Dudman NP, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria—the effects of betaine in the treatment of patients not responsive to pyridoxine. N Engl J Med 1983;309:448-53.

Wilcken DE, Dudman NP, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency--the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985 Dec;34(12):1115-21. PMID: 3934499

Liver function:

Babucke G, Sarre B. Clinical experience with betain citrate. Med Klin 1973;68:1109-13 [in German].

Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badakhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997;21:1100-2.

Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Matti J, Tuma DJ. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethioine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1993;17:552-5.

Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol 1996;13:395-8 [review]. PMID: 8836329

Freed WJ. Prevention of strychnine-induced seizures and death by the N-methylated glycine derivatives betaine, dimethylglycine and sarcosine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Apr;22(4):641-3. PMID: 2581277

Junnila M, Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Rahko T. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 1998;40:263-6.

Ji C, Kaplowitz N. Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice. Gastroenterology. 2003 May;124(5):1488-99. PMID: 12730887

Kettunen H, Tiihonen K, Peuranen S, Saarinen MT, Remus JC. Dietary betaine accumulates in the liver and intestinal tissue and stabilizes the intestinal epithelial structure in healthy and coccidia-infected broiler chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001 Nov;130(4):759-69. PMID: 11691612

Kim SK, Kim YC, Kim YC. Effects of singly administered betaine on hepatotoxicity of chloroform in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:655-61.

McCarty MF. Co-administration of equimolar doses of betaine may alleviate the hepatotoxic risk associated with niacin therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2000 Sep;55(3):189-94. PMID: 10985907

Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1998;44:249-55.

Poschl G, Stickel F, Wang XD, Seitz HK. Alcohol and cancer: genetic and nutritional aspects. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004 Feb;63(1):65-71. Review. PMID: 15070439

Semmler F. Treatment of liver diseases, especially of fatty liver with betaine citrate. Ther Ggw 1977;116:2113-24 [in German].

Zapadniuk VI, Panteleimonova TN. [Cholagogic effect of trimethylglycine in normal animals of different ages and in experimental atherosclerosis] Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1987 Jul;104(7):30-2. Russian. PMID: 3620644

Autism & Seizures:

Rimland B. Seizures, Vitamin B6, DMG, and Sudden Speech. Autism Research Review International. 1996;10(2):1.

Roach ES, Carlin L. N,N-dimethylglycine for epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:1081-82.

Vitamin B6/DMG. Letters to the Editor, Autism Research Interview International. 1994;8(2):6.

Immunity:

Reap EA, Lawson JW. Stimulation of the immune response by dimethylglycine, a nontoxic metabolite. J Lab Clin Med. Apr1990;115(4):481-6.

Safety:

Hoorn AJ. Dimethylglycine and chemically related amines tested for mutagenicity under potential nitrosation conditions. Mutat Res. 1989 Apr;222(4):343-50. PMID: 2468082



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Sytrinol can lower Cholesterol by 27% - 34%
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Date: September 20, 2005 09:56 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Sytrinol can lower Cholesterol by 27% - 34%

Sytrinol – MultiPronged Heart Health

According to the American Heart Association, more than 60 million Americans suffer from on of more forms of cardiovascular imbalances. When we add in those individuals with blood cholesterol concerns, we see over 100 million Americans who may be in need of specific diet and lifestyle recommendations for achieving and maintaining heart health.

Aside from the generalized recommendations that we typically hear for heart health (lose weight, exercise more, and eat less fat and more fruits and vegetables) There are a number of potentially beneficial dietary supplements that may help to maintain cholesterol levels in the normal range. Among supplements there is a wide range of safety and efficacy between products—but a newer product called Sytrinol stands out for its clinical effectiveness.

Sytrinol is a patented blend of polymethoxylated flavones (from citrus) and tocotrienols (from palm fruit). One of the factors that sets Sytrinol apart from existing natural products for heart health is its multipronged approach to controlling multiple factors related to overall heart health—including control of cholesterol, cellular irritation, oxidation, triglycerides, and others.

Cholesterol Conundrum

While it is unarguable that cholesterol is an important contributor to overall heart health, it couldn’t be further from the truth that cholesterol is the “only” or even the most important factor when it comes to protecting your heart. Did you know that approximately HALF of all serious heart challenges each year are experienced by people with NORMAL cholesterol levels? If Cholesterol is not to blame, then what is?

In addition to total cholesterol levels (the “number” that you may know as 200 to 240 of other values in “mg/dl” units), we know how that LDL and HDL matter a lot (Low-density lipoprotein—the “bad” cholesterol, and High-density lipoprotein—the “good” cholesterol). We also know that some forms of the bad and LDL can be “Badder” than others—specifically those with lots of structural protein called “apolipoprotein B” (which tends to encourage LDL cholesterol to become embedded in your blood vessel linings—bad!). In addition to our total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the various apoproteins, we also need to know our triglyceride levels, our levels of cellular irritation, what our free radical load looks like, and what our antioxidant defenses are. Sytrinol addresses each of these important aspects of heart and health simultaneously.

The Sytrinol Solution

Polymethoxylated Flavones (PMFs) in Sytrinol are just what they sound like – flavonoid compounds with extra methoxy groups compared to “regular flavones. Like all flavonoids, the PMFs deliver potent antioxidant activity, but the PMF version is about three times more potent in its ability to address cholesterol levels (20% - 30% reduction in clinical Studies). The two primary PMFs are nobiletin and tangeretin.

In addition to the PMFs, Sytrinol contains palm tocotrienols—one of the most potent antioxidant nutrients known. An interesting effect of tocotrienols is a reduction in cholesterol synthesis in the liver—by a mechanism similar to (but safer than) the commonly utilized mechanism of inhibition of the HMG-CoA Reductase Enzyme.

Sytrinol is known to work via several unique mechanisms to reduce triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). First, by reducing DGAT activity (Diacylglycerol acetyl transfErase) and increasing liver PPAR (Peroxisome porliferator-activated receptor)—Sytrinol can reduce overall synthesis of TG (DGAT inhibition). The overall effect is to reduce TG levels in the blood by two complementary mechanisms.

In terms of LDL effects, Sytrinol also reduces both Apolipoprotein B levels (ApoB—needed for the synthesis of LDL particles) and MTTP levels (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein-needed to transfer fat into the new LDL particles). By reducing levels of both these tructural LDL components, Sytrinol reduces overall LDL levels, and thus total cholesterol levels, in the blood.

The clinical results behind Sytrinol are impressive—showing a reduction in levels of total, LDL, and triglycerides by 27% - 34% within 4 weeks. In one of these studies, ApoB levels were reduced (suggesting reduced LDL) and ApoA1 levels were increased (suggesting increased HDL)—as would be expected based on the biochemistry of PMFs and tocotrienols.

Sytrinol is also wonderfully safe—and at the effective dose of 300mg daily, users will benefit from its multipronged effects. One aspect of Sytrinol safety that I especially like is the finding that, unlike some flavonoids like naringin from grapefruit, there are no known risks of drug interactions with the form of citrus derived PMFs found in Sytrinol (certain grapefruit flavonoids can interfere with liver enzymes needed to metabolize many prescription drugs).

Summary

Not since Red Yeast Rice was removed from the market by the FDA, have we had a truly effective, multimechanism solution for cholesterol control (and nearly total heart health). There are certainly other options for addressing heart health and cholesterol levels, but among the available choices, such as policosanol, guggulipid, niacin, and plant sterols, we’re looking at about half the cholesterol-lowering ability (10% - 15% in most cases) compared to Sytrinol. If youre in the “borderline” zone of cholesterol levels (about 240mg/dl and below), you should absolutely consider Sytrinol to keep your cholesterol levels under control.

References

Kurowska EM, manthey Ja. Hypolipidemic effects of absorption of citrus polymethoxylated flavones in hamsters with diet-included hypercholesterolemia. J Argic food chem.. 2004 may 19;52(10):2879-86.

Kurowska EM, manthey Ja, Casaschi A, Theriault AG. Modulation of HepG2 cell net apolipoprotein B secretion by the citrus polymethoxyflavone, Tangeretin. Lipids 2004 feb;39(2):143-51.

Manthey JA, Grohmann K, Montanari A, Ash K, Manthey CL, Polymethoxylated flavones derived from citrus suppress tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by human moncytes. J Nat Prod. 1999 mar;62(3)441-4.

Mora A, Paya M, rios JL, Alcaraz MJ. Structure-activity relationships of polymethoxyflavones and other flavonoids as inhibitors of non-enzymic lipid peroxidation. Biochem Parmacol. 1990 Aug 15;40(4):797-7.

Takanaga H, Ohnishi A, Yamada S, Matsuo H, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Ohtani H, Sawada Y. Polymethoxylated flavones in orange juice are inhibitors of P-glycoprotein but not cytochrome P450 3A4. J Pharmacol exp. Ther. 2000 Apr;293(1):230-6.

By: Shawn M. Talbott, PH.D.

Disclaimer: The above article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or treat a particular illness. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a holistically competent licensed professional health care provider. The information in this article has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.



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CHOLESTEROL RESCUE - Maintain Your Cholesterol Wellness
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Date: June 29, 2005 01:48 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: CHOLESTEROL RESCUE - Maintain Your Cholesterol Wellness

CHOLESTEROL RESCUE

You live in a fat-drenched, fast food world, propped up by diets loaded with processed foods that stimulate your body to create excess bad cholesterol – or low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Your busy life is full of stress, and devoid of time for proper exercise. There are three ways to deal with cholesterol in the body, but a seemingly infinite number of lifestyle and hereditary elements that affect LDL levels. Is it any wonder you find yourself in danger of developing unwanted cholesterol levels? Source Naturals is devoted to helping you. So we developed CHOLESTEROL RESCUE as a comprehensive solution to help you keep cholesterol levels in the normal range. CHOLESTEROL RESCUE uses only natural ingredients, clinically researched to effectively maintain healthy cholesterol levels. It is scientifically formulated with the triple action of three ingredients that target the ways you can deal with your cholesterol concerns; combining the naturally occurring polymethoxylated flavone (PMF) and tocotrienol action of Sytrinol™ with the action of plant sterols. Research suggests that daily consumption of 800 mg of plant sterols, taken with food in two divided doses as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Source Naturals offers CHOLESTEROL RESCUE as part of our ongoing commitment to providing you with high quality natural supplements to support your healthy lifestyle.

Cholesterol & Your Body

On average, humans ingest approximately 300mg of cholesterol per day. Though an important part of a healthy body, a high level of cholesterol in the blood might be out of the normal range. Cholesterol is transported in your system by lipoproteins. There are two kinds of lipoproteins in your body, but the low-density lipoproteins, or LDL, are the major factors in developing unwanted cholesterol levels. If there are high levels of LDL circulating in your bloodstream, it can undergo oxidation by free radicals in the artery walls, which can then become trapped as imbalanced deposits. These deposits can build up, reducing critical blood-flow. CHOLESTEROL RESCUE has been specially developed to reduce LDL levels using two different methods: inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, and reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol.

The Plant Sterol Effect

Sterols are an essential component of the cell membrane, and are produced by both plants and humans. While the most common sterol produced in humans is cholesterol, plants produce phytosterols, or plant sterols. Using a complex compound of plant sterols similar to cholesterol with only slight molecular differences, CHOLESTEROL RESCUE has been formulated to balance the amount of dietary cholesterol your body absorbs.

Plant sterols have long been known to inhibit the uptake of both dietary and bile-produced cholesterol in the intestines. The most plausible theory behind this is that, because of the similarity between plant sterols and cholesterol, the body cannot properly distinguish between the two during the absorption process, thereby displacing the uptake of cholesterol into your system. Research suggests that daily consumption of 800mg of plant sterols, taken with food in two divided doses as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

Sytrinol™ For Heart Health

CHOLESTEROL RESCUE also contains SYTRINOL™, a proven natural alternative for maintaining cholesterol wellness. The patented blend of citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and tocotrienols has been clinically shown to promote cardiovascular health by supporting normal cholesterol production by your liver, helping balance triglyceride production, and providing powerful antioxidant protection. The PMFs promote normal cholesterol levels by inhibiting both the production of cholesterol precursors, such as cholesteryl esters, and the activity of HMG CoA Reductase, an enzyme that synthesizes cholesterol in the liver. These PMFs can also balance the body’s production of triglycerides by inhibiting your liver’s triglyceride producing enzyme, diacylglycerol acetyltransfErase. Tocotrienols help break down cholesterol building blocks, interfere with cholesterol production, and provide critical antioxidant protection. Because cholesterol becomes problematic when oxidized, the powerful antioxidant action of tocotrienols can help prevent the conditions that may affect your cardiovascular circulation.

Spearheading the Wellness Revolution in Cholesterol Defense

With so many ways to develop undesirable cholesterol levels in your body, you need to be proactive in maintaining your good health. In our on-going dedication to your wellness, and a commitment to delivering the benefits of our high quality supplements to the natural products marketplace, Source Naturals has produced a scientifically formulated blend of three effective ingredients in fighting unwanted cholesterol. Combining a comprehensive formula of allnatural components, clinically researched for promoting cardiovascular health, CHOLESTEROL RESCUE is available now at your local health food store.

References
Guthrie N, Kurowska EM. Anticancer and Cholesterol-lowering activities of citrus flavonoids. Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. (Wildman, R.E.C., ed), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2001. 113-126. Packer L, Weber SU, Rimbach G. Molecular aspects of alphatocotrienol antioxidant action on cell signaling. Symposium: Molecular Mechanisms of Protective Effects of Vitamin E in Atherosclerosis. American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 2001. 131:369S-373S. Hicks KB, Moreau RA. Phytosterols and phytostanols: functional food cholesterol busters. Food Technology. 2001. 55:63-67. Middleton Jr E, Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC. The effect of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacological Review. 2000. 52:673-751. Child P, Kuksis A. Critical role of ring structure in the differential uptake of cholesterol and plant sterols by membrane preparations in vitro. Journal of Lipid Research. 1983. 24: 1196-1209



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SYTRINOL - For Heart Health, Don’t Be Confused About Cholesterol...
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Date: June 29, 2005 09:44 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: SYTRINOL - For Heart Health, Don’t Be Confused About Cholesterol...

SYTRINOL - For Heart Health, Don’t Be Confused About Cholesterol...

Maintaining your cardiovascular health is one of the best ways you can stay fit. That means working to keep your cholesterol levels within the normal range. And contrary to popular belief, the amount of cholesterol you consume in food is not the most important factor for regulating normal cholesterol levels. It is actually the liver’s imbalanced production of cholesterol that is much more critical for your cardiovascular health.

You can address the root cause of maintaining normal cholesterol levels today with Source Naturals SYTRINOL™. This patented blend of citrus polymethoxylated flavones and tocotrienols has been clinically shown to promote cardiovascular health by supporting normal cholesterol production by your liver, promoting balanced triglyceride (fat) production, and providing antioxidant protection. Source Naturals, an industry leader in many categories, introduces the science of SYTRINOL™ in the CHOLESTEROL RESCUE™ product family to support your better heart health today.

The Truth About Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a very confusing subject – our bodies require it but we can also get too much of it. Cholesterol is one type of the ring-shaped compounds called sterols. Other sterols include bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones and vitamin D. Approximately 90% of the cholesterol in your body is in your cell membranes. The remaining 10% can be found in your blood and throughout your body.

Liver’s Over-Production of Cholesterol

When your body needs more cholesterol, your liver takes carbohydrates, proteins and fats (also called triglycerides) from your diet and converts them into cholesterol. The amount of cholesterol that you might consume from foods (in animal products such as eggs, milk, cheese and beef ) is minute compared to the amount of cholesterol produced by your liver. Thus, cholesterol from food isn’t as critical to your total cholesterol. But balancing the cholesterol produced by your liver is very critical to your total cholesterol and thus, your cardiovascular health.

Oxidized LDL Cholesterol

Despite the confusion, cholesterol is a vital component of good health that strengthens cell membranes and provides building blocks for hormones, bile and vitamin D production. However, there is one potential pathway where cholesterol can contribute to an imbalance. When cholesterol moves through the blood to individual cells, it can travel in groups such as lipoproteins, which also contain fats and proteins. When the cholesterol is moving through your blood in Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) it can undergo oxidation by free radicals in the artery walls. Some medical experts theorize that the oxidized LDL cholesterol becomes trapped in the artery walls as imbalanced deposits instead of completing the journey to join cell membranes. These deposits can eventually reduce the size and function of the arteries, compromising blood flow. Thus, antioxidant protection, balanced triglyceride production, and normal cholesterol production by the liver can all be critically important to your good health. And SYTRINOL™ provides all of these benefits.

How SYTRINOL™ Supports Heart Health

SYTRINOL is a powerful scientifically formulated blend protected by U.S. patent numbers 6,251,400, 09/ 481724. It contains natural citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and tocotrienols that go deep to address the root causes of cholesterol wellness.

Citrus PMFs

Polymethoxylated flavones are types of polyphenolic compounds called flavonoids, which are the largest known category of phytonutrients. Health benefits of various flavonoids include antioxidant activity, immune system support, and cellular protection. The unique structure of polymethoxylated flavones, which naturally contain methyl groups paired with oxygen in key places, enables PMFs to interfere with cholesterol production. The citrus PMFs in SYTRINOL, such as tangeretin and sinensetin, promote normal cholesterol levels by inhibiting both the production of cholesterol precursors, such as cholesteryl esters, and the activity of HMG CoA Reductase, an enzyme that synthesizes cholesterol in the liver. These PMFs can also balance the body’s production of triglycerides by inhibiting the activity of your liver’s triglyceride producing enzyme, diacylglycerol acetyltransfErase. Since LDL cholesterol is made from cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing your liver’s production of triglycerides will reduce the amount of those triglycerides available to form LDL cholesterol compounds.

Tocotrienols

Tocotrienols are compounds similar to vitamin E in structure and function. The tocotrienols in SYTRINOL increase degradation of cholesterol building blocks such as Apolipoprotein B, interfere with cholesterol production, and provide antioxidant protection. The tocotrienols in SYTRINOL are also especially protective antioxidants for LDL cholesterol compounds that have already been produced, helping to prevent the oxidized LDL cholesterol conditions that may affect your cardiovascular circulation.

SYTRINOL’s Proactive Synergy

SYTRINOL works so well because this natural blend of PMFs and tocotrienols works proactively, synergistically, and independently. In preliminary human research, SYTRINOL proactively supported balanced cholesterol and triglyceride production by the liver through the synergistic effects of the PMFs and tocotrienols. Furthermore, SYTRINOL promotes LDL cholesterol antioxidant protection.

The above information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Other products work reactively to disable existing cholesterol and may only work in conjunction with diets. And because SYTRINOL works independently of diet, you can take it anytime.

Three Lifestyle Strategies for Cardiovascular Health

1. Exercise regularly to increase hearthealthy HDL cholesterol and lower blood triglycerides (fats).

2. Eat a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins to help maintain normal cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

3. Take the right supplements to promote your cardiovascular health. In preliminary clinical studies, the amino acid L-ARGININE supported healthy blood flow to the heart and body. GARLIC OIL helps to maintain healthy cholesterol levels and promotes healthy circulation. POLICOSANOL CHOLESTEROL COMPLEX, CHOLESRESPONSE™, CHOLESFIBER™, CHOLESTREX®, and GRAPEFRUIT PECTIN all help to support normal cholesterol levels. HEART RESPONSE™ and HEART SCIENCE™ are advanced formulas that address heart health. Additionally, you can get cardiovascular system supporting compounds such as folic acid, betacarotene, CoQ10, lipoic acid, ginkgo, grapeseed extract, hawthorn extract, magnesium, vitamin E, and many other nutrients in LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE™, Source Naturals’ best-selling multiple. There is a revolution underway in natural health consciousness, and your local health food store is at the forefront. You can benefit right now – long before word spreads to the general public – with the innovative heart nutrition of SYTRINOL, a CHOLESTEROL RESCUE™ product. SYTRINOL™ is a trademark of KGK Synergize exclusively licensed worldwide to SourceOne Global Partners.

References
Guthrie, N. and Kurowska, E.M. (2000). Anticancer and Cholesterol-Lowering Activities of Citrus Flavonoids. Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Wildman, R.E.C, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 113-126. Guthrie, N. and Kurowska, E.M. (2000). Anticancer and Cholesterol-Lowering Activities of Tocotrienols. Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Wildman, R.E.C, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 269-280.



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Sytrinol - A Natural Solution for Addressing Cholesterol
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Date: June 21, 2005 05:16 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Sytrinol - A Natural Solution for Addressing Cholesterol

Sytrinol - A Natural Solution For Addressing Cholesterol

By Richard F. Staack, Ph.D., M.B.A.

Sytrinol™, a patented proprietary formula derived from natural citrus and palm fruit extracts, combines citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), palm tocotrienols and other proprietary constituents. This combination results in a synergistic effect for maintaining cholesterol levels in the normal range, including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as demonstrated by a long-term, three-phase clinical trial. This trial is extremely significant because it is a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, one of only a few in the dietary supplement industry. Sytrinol has also been shown to maintain normal levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the beneficial cholesterol. Additionally, Sytrinol is a powerful antioxidant with numerous heart health benefits and also plays a significant role in reducing cellular irritation.

What are polymethoxylated flavones?

Polymethoxylated flavones are a highly methoxylated sub-classification of citrus flavonoids. This process occurs naturally and results in a more biologically active molecule. This is especially true for tangeretin and nobiletin, two of the primary polymethoxylated flavones in Sytrinol. Tocotrienols, naturally occurring analogues of tocopherol (natural vitamin E), are the other proprietary ingredient in Sytrinol and are a group of minor dietary constituents that have been studied for their effect on heart health.

Sytrinol's Proven Benefits

Sytrinol is the result of over 12 years of research focusing on the relationship between polymethoxylated flavonoids, tocotrienols, and cardiovascular health. Sytrinol?s benefits have been shown in vitro, in vivo, and in multiple clinical studies. In these studies, subjects consumed 150 mg of Sytrinol twice per day (300 mg/day) and were instructed to keep the same dietary habits and maintain their caloric intake. Fasting blood samples were drawn at study onset, and at 4-weeks, 8-weeks, and 12-weeks. The results of the clinical studies were all similar in their effect, with a reduction of total cholesterol up to 30 percent, LDL cholesterol up to 27 percent, and total triglycerides up to 34 percent in twelve weeks compared to the placebo group. Additionally, the LDL/HDL ratio was significantly reduced in all clinical studies up to 30 percent. Another very important benefit of Sytrinol that cannot be claimed by other cholesterol-addressing supplements is its effect on C-reactive protein (CRP), which plays a role in cardiovascular challenges. Recent research has established that inflammation may cause C-reactive protein to be produced in the body. Specific PMFs, including nobiletin and tangeretin, have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that Sytrinol may have a positive effect on CRP Sytrinol has also been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. The polymethoxylated flavones have been researched for over 25 years demonstrating their antioxidant effects for heart health. Studies have shown that polymethoxylated flavonoids and their metabolites are excellent sources of dietary antioxidants that are able to suppress many of the events of free radical damage, including cellular irritation. The tocotrienols in Sytrinol have a higher antioxidant activity than tocopherols. Alpha-tocotrienol has been shown to be up to 60 times more potent than alpha-tocopherol in the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Other research has demonstrated that the delta and gamma isomers of tocotrienols also have potent antioxidant activity.

Mechanisms

Sytrinol has three complementary mechanisms of action in the body that delivers cardiovascular benefits. *Polymethoxylated flavones decrease apolipoprotein B, the structural protein needed for endogenous synthesis of LDL cholesterol. *Polymethoxylated flavones (tangeretin & nobiletin) decrease diacylglycerol acetyl transfErase, a liver enzyme needed for endogenous synthesis of triglycerides. *Tocotrienols inhibit HMG CoA reductase, the liver enzyme responsible for endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. These mechanisms work synergistically to support normal total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, more significantly than other natural supplements on the market today. Sytrinol can also be combined with other ingredients such as phytosterols. Phytosterols help block cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract while Sytrinol helps block cholesterol synthesis in the body. This suggests that, when combined, a more pronounced effect on maintaining normal cholesterol levels would result.

Consumer Friendly

The ease of compliance for consumers is a major consideration for a successful natural heart health product. Consumers do not have to take Sytrinol prior to, immediately following, or directly with their meals and, as a result, are more likely to take the correct dosage and continue using the product. Sytrinol can be taken in tablets, or softgels, which are easy to swallow because of the low dosage. Sytrinol will also be available in functional foods.

Dr. Richard Staack is the Vice President of Business Development, Technology, and Science at SourceOne™ Global Partners. He received his Master of Science and Doctorate in Nutritional and Biochemical Toxicology from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He received his Master of Business Administration with Distinction from DeVry University. Dr. Staack has received several awards and honors in the field of nutrition, is associated with numerous professional affiliations, and has published several articles on nutrition and toxicology in peer-reviewed journals.

Disclaimer: the above article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or treat a particular illness. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a holistically competent licensed professional health care provider.



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Nothing to Sneeze At
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Date: June 18, 2005 08:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Nothing to Sneeze At

Nothing to Sneeze At by Carole Poole Energy Times, August 14, 2004

To many, nothing is more annoying than a persistent allergy. Runny nose, itchy eyes, hives, sneezing, coughing...Frequently, allergies seem to represent suffering with no end.

When you are sensitive to something in your environment, often your only hope for relief appears to be to flee to an elsewhere that eludes the problematic, trouble-making allergen.

Complementary measures are available that can lower your risk of allergic reactions. Heading off allergic reactions before they strike can help you enter a comfort zone that leaves nothing to sneeze at.

Limit Your Antibiotics

While people have always suffered allergies, today, many experts agree, allergies are on the rise. One possible explanation: antibiotics. For instance, research at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit demonstrates that kids who get antibiotics within six months of being born run an increased risk of being allergic to dust mites, ragweed, grass and animals. At the same time, if two or more cats or dogs live with them, they reduce their chances of allergies (Eur Respir Soc ann conf, 2003).

" I'm not suggesting children shouldn't receive antibiotics. But I believe we need to be more prudent in prescribing them for children at such an early age," Christine Cole Johnson, PhD, says. "In the past, many of them were prescribed unnecessarily, especially for viral infections like colds and the flu when they would have no effect anyway."

Dr. Cole's investigators found that by age 7, kids who got one or more rounds of antibiotics were:

  • • 1.5 times more likely to develop allergies
  • • 2.5 times more likely to develop asthma
  • • Twice as likely to get allergies if their mothers had allergies

    When antibiotics are necessary, they are crucial to quelling bacterial infections. However, if you or your children suffer colds or flus, diseases caused by viruses, antibiotics have no effect on your illness but could increase your chance of developing allergies.

    " Over the past four decades there has been an explosive increase in allergy and asthma in westernized countries, which correlates with widespread use of antibiotics and alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) microflora," says Mairi Noverr, a researcher on a study linking allergies to antibiotic use (104th Gen Meet Amer Soc Microbiol, 2004). "We propose that the link between antibiotic use and dysregulated pulmonary immunity is through antibiotic-induced long-term alterations in the bacterial and fungal GI microflora." While a lot of research needs to be done, it may help to fortify the probiotic, or good, microbes in your intestines with probiotic supplements. One study has shown that giving probiotics to pregnant women helped their children avoid allergic eczema, a skin condition (Lancet 2001; 357:1076-9).

    Green Tea Relief

    Research has demonstrated that various types of tea can produce a range of health benefits. Tea drinkers can add allergy relief to that list.

    Research in Japan demonstrates that for the allergy-oppressed, green tea may help them have nothing to sneeze at. In laboratory tests, scientist found that green tea contains a substance that blocks one of the immune cell receptors which is often a part of the allergic response. The substance, methylated epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is believed to have a similar effect in the real world (J Agr Food Chem 10/9/02).

    " Green tea appears to be a promising source for effective anti-allergenic agents," notes Hirofumi Tachibana, PhD, the study's chief investigator and an associate professor at Kyushu University in Fukuoka. "If you have allergies, you should consider drinking it." Traditionally, many people have consumed tea as part of their effort to suppress sneezes, coughs and itchy eyes caused by allergies. This experiment supports the evidence that green tea, in particular, has a reliable effect.

    According to Dr. Tachibana, green tea's anti-allergenic benefits have not been completely established, but tea apparently has the potential to be effective against allergens like dust, chemicals, pet dander and pollen.

    Tea Antioxidant

    EGCG has also been shown to be a very active antioxidant, helping to quell the destructive effects of the caustic molecules known as free radicals. Green tea is richer in EGCG than black tea or oolong tea (a type that falls between black and green).

    Although other research has demonstrated that EGCG offsets allergic responses in lab animals fed this substance, scientists don't completely understand why it works for allergies. Researchers theorize that EGCG restricts the production of histamine and immunoglobulin E (IgE), two substances secreted in the body as part of the chain of chemical reactions that lead to an allergic reaction, says Dr. Tachibana.

    This study shows, for the first time, that a methylated form of EGCG can block the IgE receptor, which is a key receptor involved in an allergic response. The effect was demonstrated using human basophils, which are blood cells that release histamine. As of now, nobody knows how much green tea you need to guzzle to have the best protection against allergies and, of the several varieties available, nobody knows which green tea is best.

    Outside of the US, green tea is the second most popular beverage in the world, right behind water. In the US, however, black tea is more popular than green. But the allergy sensitive should think and drink green.

    Stay Away from Diesels

    Those who are allergic to ragweed or pet dander usually know they should avoid the source of their allergies. But now scientists have found that, for many allergy sufferers, diesel exhaust can also worsen sneezes and wheezes.

    Scientists at two southern California schools have shown that about half of us have inherited a sensitivity to diesel pollution that can make our allergies significantly worse (Lancet 1/10/04). "[T]his study suggests a direct way that pollution could be triggering allergies and asthma in a large number of susceptible individuals...," says Frank D. Gilliland, MD, PhD, the study's lead author. Diesel exhaust particles are thought to act as destructive free radicals in the lungs, forming caustic molecules that damage lung tissue. This irritation can cause your immune system to create larger amounts of compounds that make you sneeze and wheeze more.

    The Antioxidant Advantage

    Antioxidants, scientists believe, can help defuse this damage and ease the body's allergic responses. The California scientists looked at two antioxidant enzymes the body makes to protect the lungs called glutathione S-transfErase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transfErase P1 (GSTP1). Only about five of ten people's immune systems can make all the effective forms of these enzymes. The rest of us lack this protection to some degree, and the immune system in about one in five people can't make any effective form of these enzymes.

    The research team found that people allergic to ragweed who lacked these antioxidant enzymes suffered more when they took in both ragweed pollen and particles from diesel pollution.

    Breathe Easier With C

    This research may help explain why many health practitioners recommend vitamin C, a potent antioxidant, to allergy sufferers. Vitamin C "prevents the secretion of histamine by the white blood cells, increases the detoxification of histamine and lowers the blood-histamine levels," says Sylvia Goldfarb, PhD, author of Allergy Relief (Avery/Penguin).

    Scientists continue to study the allergy conundrum. Meanwhile, sip a cup of green tea and shut the window before the next truck comes by.



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    Essential Beauty Serums
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    Date: June 16, 2005 10:48 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Essential Beauty Serums

    The vitamins that protect the inside of our bodies from damage, when topically applied may also protect our skin. Vitamins C and E are powerful antioxidant nutrients that help protect cells from damage and are used extensively in salons and spas to achieve radiant skin. The result is a firmer, more youthful appearance as these serums minimize fine lines and wrinkles and improve skin’s elasticity and texture. Research shows that a combination of C and E serum helps to protect skin from UV rays and pollutants.

    Essential C Serum protects and defends skin against everyday onslaughts from air pollution and ultraviolet light. Ascorbic acid (natural source vitamin C) Erases fine lines as a result of antioxidant activity. The fragrance of sunned oranges invigorates, while vitamin E soothes and moisturizes.

    Essential E Serum contains vitamin E, a natural healing agent that provides antioxidant lipids soothe damage and moisturize skin. Natural alpha tocopherol, soy oil, avocado oil, and Aloe Vera, soften and sooth for a healthy glow with an uplifting floral fragrance.

    Beautiful Skin Begins with Nutrition

    Science – Essential C Serum harnesses the power of natural ascorbic acid to gently exfoliate and Erase fine lines. Vitamin C has a direct benefit for collagen and connective tissue. When collagen loses water due to age, stress, pollution, and UV exposure, oxygen radicals form in the skin. These radicals attack the collagen layer and break it down, commonly known as photo-aging. Topical application of Vitamin C can:

  • •Prevent photo-aging
  • •Provide antioxidant protection
  • •Stimulate collagen production

    Safety – Nature’s Life Essential Serums are for external use only.
    Servings – Apply to face twice daily. Contents of one ampoule is enough for morning and night application.



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    Thanks for the Memory
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    Date: June 11, 2005 03:49 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Thanks for the Memory

    Thanks for the Memory by Estelle Sobel , February 6, 2002

    Thanks for the Memory By Estelle Sobel

    "I feel like every day, I lose my memory more and more. It started when I couldn't find my car keys, sometimes I forget directions. My mother has Alzheimer's so I'm concerned," says Jerry Solowitz, a 63 year old man.

    Ellen Lerner, 37, sometimes worries that she can't keep track of everything in her job as a public relations executive. "I feel like stress can get to me easily, and I worry because I forget simple things like where I put a file."

    Should these people be concerned?

    "Yes," says Lynda Toth, Ph.D., co-author with Pavel Yutsis, M.D., of Why Can't I Remember? Reversing Memory Loss (Avery, 1999).

    Jerry should start a specific program with a health practitioner who specializes in memory loss, due to lots of unsuspected new causes for memory dysfunction. Ellen needs to make lifestyle changes, as stress can definitely lead to memory loss.

    "Cortisol, which is one of the stress hormones, can be harmful because it keeps calcium in the memory pathway too long and destroys the neurons, which is very damaging to the brain," notes Toth.

    Why Does Memory Fail?

    Memory fails for several reasons, says Augustine DiGiovanna, M.D., author of Human Aging: Biological Perspectives, (McGraw-Hill 2000), and Professor of Biology at Salisbury State University in Salisbury, MD.

    Normal Aging: Much of diminished memory as we age is due to reduced blood flow to the brain from atherosclerosis, which is hardening and narrowing of the arteries. Decreased blood flow causes neurons to shrink and function less effectively.

    Also, as we age we lose neurons and neuron connections that can lead to memory loss. So the way people think, how much they remember, and the mental activities they do determine how many brain cells survive through the years.

    Finally, as people live longer, the chance is greater that the body's immune system and other defense mechanisms won't be able to protect against certain diseases that affect the brain and memory (Parkinson's, strokes, Alzheimers, atherosclerosis).

    A Starving Brain: The brain is not getting fed the nutrients it needs (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, glucose). Without the right "food" the brain's energy levels become lowered and stop powering the memory cells. Then, free radicals can do more dirty work and continue to rust memory cells.

    Drink And Sink: Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and slows down the processing of information between memory neurons. Memory loss increases over time, as memory tissues shrink.

    Sad Stories: Depression can imbalance the neurotransmitters and electrical charges of neurons.

    Tense and Tight: High blood pressure can constrict and narrow blood vessels, limiting blood and oxygen flow to the brain.

    Memory-Sustaining Supplements

    One way to boost brain power is to take the right supplements.

    Ginkgo biloba: The powerful medicinal herb ginkgo biloba increases blood flow and circulation to the head by dilating blood vessels in the brain, allowing more oxygenated blood to get to the neurons. It also protects against free radical damage.

    Research: Ginkgo biloba extract displayed a significant effect on helping the mental abilities of people 50-59 years old (Phytotherapy Research 13, 1999: 408-415).

    Pregnenolone: This powerful hormone regulates the balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system and helps enhance memory and brain function, possibly by repairing a fatty substance that is part of the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve cells. Research: A St. Louis University School of Medicine study on mice showed that pregnenolone enhanced memory and helped mice to navigate mazes better.

    Huperzine A: This herbal supplement is derived from club moss found in China; in purified form it inhibits the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter produced in the brain that you need for memory.

    Research: Studies conducted by Alan Mazurek, M.D., found that huperzine A in purified form improves memory, enhances focus and concentration and has been used to improve memory loss in Alzheimer's patients (Alt. Ther. in Health Med. 5 [2], March 1999: 97-98).

    Another study in The Journal of Neuroscience Research showed that huperzine A is a potent inhibitor of cholinestErase, which penetrates the brain and produces a dose-dependent increase of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, norepinephrine and dopamine in rat cortex (41, 1995: 828-835).

    Phosphatidylserine (PS): This substance, which occurs naturally in nerve cell membranes, helps keep fatty substances soluble and cell membranes fluid and helps reduce levels of cortisone which are damaging to tissues.

    Research: Phosphatidylserine encourages a sense of calm by raising the levels of alpha brain waves and increasing the production of acetylcholine (Neuropsychobiology 24, 1990-1991: 42-48).

    Vitamin E: This potent antioxidant attaches to bad cholesterol and helps prevent free radical damage to cells.

    Research: Age-related processes like memory function and problem solving can be affected by free radical damage. Several studies show that vitamin E might slow the effects of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (JAMA 282, August 18, 1999: 621). Acetyl-l-carnitine: Increases cognitive performance because it rejuvenates cellular membranes of mitochondria, the storehouses of energy contained in every living cell.

    Alpha-Lipoic Acid: Preserves memory tissue by increasing glutathione levels, which protect fat stores in neurons from being damaged.

    Nine Ways to Remember

    Dr. Lynda Toth suggests the following ways to make the most of what you've now got.

    1) Power Up Your Smile. Remove dental fillings and replace them with porcelain or ceramic ones. The mercury in metal fillings may be harmful (some believe) and can affect the brain and nervous system, inflaming memory tissue and preventing the entry of nutrients into the cells.

    2) Don't Be a Tin Man/Woman Avoid exposure to aluminum. Don't use aluminum pots to cook in. Aluminum accumulates in memory tissue, damaging cells. In fact, autopsies of Alzheimers patients show they have unusually huge amounts of aluminum in the brain. But no one knows where this aluminum comes from.

    3) Eat Right. Eat organic and pesticide-free foods. Pesticides get into the cells and can damage DNA.

    4) A Matter of Taste. Avoid foods with artificial coloring, monosodium glutamate (MSG, often called "natural flavors" or "natural seasoning"). Also avoid processed foods with taste enhancers called exito toxins such as l-cysteine and aspartic acid.

    5) In the Raw. Make sure that your diet consists of enzyme-rich 50% raw foods (fruits and vegetables) to feed the brain. Eat less animal fats.

    * Drink green juices to support levels of the brain's clean-up enzymes.

    *Eat lots of fiber, which helps remove toxins from the body. Pick up psyllium fiber.

    *Limit intake of processed sugar, caffeine and alcohol to lessen the load on the liver and pancreas.

    6) Cut Bait. Watch the fish that you eat. Lots of ocean and inland-caught fish are contaminated with mercury. Go for deep, cold water fish such as cod. Avoid shark and swordfish.

    7). Oil Up. Supplement your diet with omega-3 fatty acids, such as cod liver oil or flaxseed oil. These fats lubricate memory cells.

    8) Work That Body. Stay fit and exercise. Exercise helps oxygenate the body, reduces cholesterol, and builds and energizes new memory cells which reduces wear and tear on the brain function.

    9) Do Mind Games. Read, listen to music. Tune into different radio stations than the ones you normally listen to. Do crossword puzzles and a wide selection of word games which can stretch your brain and give it a tough workout.

    Student of Life

    You need to keep learning your whole life to keep your brain and memory in tip top shape. The brain is adaptable, and you are always building new neurons, says Dr. Toth, which means that there is no limit to how long it can develop. Anything that stimulates the brain will help it to grow. That's why as you get older it's even more important to take classes, start a new hobby, travel. In fact, the challenge of learning and doing new things (without stopping in a fit of frustration) causes your brain to grow, says Dr. Mazurek.

    The Good News

    As people get older, their brains may actually improve and repair themselves through a complicated process that is designed to eliminate faulty neurons that are prone to making mistakes. At the same time, brain activity goes on that results in the development of new and improved connections with neighboring neurons.

    Research also shows that memory improves if you train people to have faith in themselves. (The brain helps those who help themselves.) Apparently, a confident perspective can encourage the brain to actually improve to the point where its new-found abilities may increase to the point where it fulfills expectations.

    So keep your chin up and stay away from the artery-clogging saturated fat that can cut off the brain's blood supply. It's all in the attitude, says Dr. DiGiovanna. And, of course, the key to a long and happy life with your brain is also on the end of your fork and in that bottle of supplements.

    Estelle Sobel, is the co-author of Beautiful Skin: Every Woman's Guide to Looking Her Best at Any Age (Adams Media, May 2000).



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    Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...
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    Date: June 02, 2005 12:18 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...

    Our adult years are the time to reap the fruit of an active, meaningful life – appreciated by family and friends who value our experience and knowledge. For some, however, their later years are clouded by a mental decline that erodes their capacity to enjoy life. More of us are becoming apprehensive about the future health of our minds. Will we still be able to communicate our needs as well as our wisdom? As science focuses its investigative might on the workings of the human brain, new findings suggest that it is possible to enjoy a vital, healthy brain and mind – well into old age. Based on compelling research, Source Naturals formulated HIGHER MIND. It contains the most important Neuroceuticals™ now recognized by nutrition scientists – including phosphatidyl serine, a natural nutrient that promotes cognitive function. The connection is clear: nourish your brain; enrich your life.

    To have a healthy, well-functioning brain and nervous system, we need the correct nutrients. Our diets must provide the necessary raw materials for nerve cells to grow, for the synthesis of neurochemicals, and for the maintenance of nerve cell membranes. Nutritional deficiencies can alter the brain’s metabolism, which is expressed by changes in perception and thinking, behavior and mood.

    Brain Cells – Issued at Birth

    Before birth, neurons (nerve cells) are created at the amazing rate of 15 million per hour. As infants, we have over 100 billion neurons, but this is the most we will ever have because – unlike most other cells in our body – nerve cells do not reproduce. A different strategy is used to replace the neurons that are naturally lost throughout life: nerve cells repair themselves and grow by extending branches of nerve fibers called dendrites (from the Latin word for tree). These are the communication links with other neurons that form the circuitry of the brain. A single neuron may be in contact with up to a hundred thousand others! When the density of this fragile organic communication network decreases, we experience a corresponding decline in mental acuity.

    Brain Cell Membranes

    The membrane is the working surface of a cell. It needs to be strong yet flexible, so the cell can maintain its integrity and be able to move and change shape. The membrane regulates the flow of nutrients into the cell and the removal of waste, plus controls the passage of molecular messages from outside the cell to its interior. Membrane ion pumps use a third of the cell’s energy just to maintain the correct ratio of sodium to potassium. In neurons, a rapid exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the nerve membrane is responsible for their unique ability to generate the electrical impulses that are the basis of all communication in the nervous system. As cells age, their membranes become less fluid and more rigid. Key membrane molecules called phospholipids are crucial to the health of neuron membranes, allowing the brain to maintain its youthful quality. The phospholipids in HIGHER MIND – especially phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl choline – are essential nutritional supplements for the aging brain.

    Phosphatidyl Serine – Key to Cognition

    For the past decade, researchers have been investigating the role in brain health of a remarkable neuroceutical, phosphatidyl serine (PS). This key structural molecule is integral to the matrix of fats and proteins that compose cell membranes. Although PS is found in all the cells of the body, its highest concentration is in nerve cell membranes. PS is rarely found in the foods we eat, so the body has to synthesize it, but the process is energy- intensive and becomes less efficient with age. Consequently, our levels of PS tend to decline as we get older. PS taken as a dietary supplement is well-absorbed, readily reaching the brain, where it helps create more effective, well-structured nerve cell membranes. The positive effects of PS supplementation have been demonstrated by 23 clinical studies with over 1200 human subjects, ages 43 to 90. Consistent and statistically significant results have confirmed the value of PS in improving age-related cognitive decline, as well as in improving behavioral aspects such as apathy and withdrawal.1 A major study concluded that for one particular measurable parameter of higher mental functions, PS recipients achieved scores of persons roughly 12 years younger.2 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is one of the most important proteins the body makes. It enables neurons to extend dendrites out to other neurons, allowing the brain to maintain an effective communication network. In experiments, PS enhanced the production and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age.3 The effects of PS at the cellular level are manifest in the performance of the brain as a whole. Subjects taking PS showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism. This enhancement corresponded to higher performances on cognitive tests.4

    The Chemistry of Thought

    Science now understands the role of neurotransmitters in regulating the body’s complex network of behavior. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals used by neurons to communicate with each other. Activated by a neuron’s electrical impulse, neurotransmitters travel between nerve cells, where they excite or inhibit (in various degrees) the electrical impulse in neighboring cells. One of HIGHER MIND’S key strategies is to improve the brain’s ability to produce and use acetylcholine, a key excitatory neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is essential for both the storage and recall of memory, and partly responsible for concentration and focus. It also plays a significant role in muscular coordination. Patients showing cognitive decline may exhibit reduced ability to synthesize and utilize acetylcholine.5 The chemical building blocks of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters are called precursors. The most important one for acetylcholine is DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol). This natural substance is found in various fish, such as anchovies and sardines. Supplements of DMAE (and phosphatidyl choline) promote increased levels of choline in the brain. Acetylcholine is created when an acetyl group is attached to the choline molecule, with the help of choline acetyl transfErase (CAT), a key brain enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine is an amino acid that activates this enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine may also help reduce lipofuscin deposits in the brain because of its involvement in the metabolism of fatty acids.6 Lipofuscin is composed of oxidized fats and proteins; the brown “age spots” on the back of an elderly person’s hand are made of lipofuscin. The amino acid L-pyroglutamic acid sensitizes the acetylcholine receptor sites on a neuron membrane. A given amount of acetylcholine will then have a larger, more powerful effect. Studies have shown that supplements of L-pyroglutamic acid seem to enhance the ability to focus, remember, and learn.

    Total Nutrition for the Brain

    The neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenalin are critical to motor coordination, motivation, concentration, and alertness. Like acetylcholine, their production tends to decline with age. The precursors and activators of dopamine and noradrenalin included in HIGHER MIND are the amino acids N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine and DL-phenylalanine (DLPA), plus folic acid, vitamins B-3, B-6, and C. DLPA is also a precursor to PEA, a neuroamine that has a stimulating effect on the brain. Glutamine is an amino acid precursor to glutamic acid, a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in mental activity and learning. Glutamine acts as an alternative fuel source for the brain when blood sugar levels are low. It also helps the brain dispose of waste ammonia, which is a natural result of protein breakdown but is irritating to neurons even at low levels. GABA is a dietary amino acid which is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA works to calm and balance the mind, enhancing mental focus. Along with taurine, these two relaxing neurotransmitters provide a balancing influence to the other, excitatory neurotransmitters. Taurine is found in brain tissue more than anywhere else in the body. It has antioxidant properties and serves as a nerve cell membrane stabilizer, preventing excessive or erratic electrical activity in the brain.

    The Importance of Magnesium

    Magnesium must be present in adequate amounts in the synaptic gaps between neurons or the neurons become hyper-reactive: causing noises to sound excessively loud and emotional reactions to be extreme. Magnesium also activates a key enzyme responsible for maintaining cellular sodium- potassium balance, which is absolutely essential to the electrical activity of nerve cells, as well as to the existence of the cell itself. (Cells would burst if the sodium-potassium ratio were wrong.) Magnesium also helps relax cerebral blood vessels and is important to the manufacture of ATP, the chief energy molecule of the brain. A buildup of aluminum has been found in the brains of some elderly. In 1989, the British medical journal Lancet published a study showing that drinking water with aluminum can increase the risk of damage by up to 50%. An abundant natural element, aluminum is now a common feature in our culture. It’s found in tap water, cookware, deodorants, beverage containers, baked goods, and of course as aluminum foil. In the brain, aluminum breaks down the structure of neurons – causing them to starve – by displacing magnesium from tubulin, a glycoprotein responsible for making microtubules. These tiny pipe-like structures within a neuron provide needed rigidity, as well as transport nutrients from the nucleus down the dendrites to the ends of the nerve cell. Magnesium malate is an excellent form of magnesium that ensures neurons receive this vital mineral.

    B is for Brain Vitamins

    HIGHER MIND also contains a high profile of B vitamins and other key nutrients that are often N A T U R A L S S O U R C E Strategies for Wellness SM ¤ lacking in older individuals. A deficiency in any of the B vitamins can alter nerve function and psychological well-being. Thiamine (B-1), known as the “nerve vitamin,” was first recognized because its deficiency caused beriberi, a degenerative nerve disease. Thiamine is part of the structure of nerve cell membranes and is important to the reparative process that neurons need to offset the stress of continual firing of the electrical impulse. Low amounts of thiamine can cause cell malnutrition in the hypothalamus, the brain’s memory center. 7 NAD and NADH, two coenzyme forms of Niacin (B-3), are the most plentiful coenzymes in the brain. They are essential to hundreds of enzymatic reactions, including ones that produce energy. NADH can stimulate the synthesis of key mood-elevating neurotransmitters. It is also one of the body’s most potent antioxidants. Pantothenic acid (B-5), cyanocobalamin (B-12), and folic acid are required to form the myelin sheath – the insulating covering of nerve fibers. A diet low in pantothenic acid has been shown to make test subjects emotionally upset, irritable, and depressed.7 A lack of B-12 can result in poor concentration and, in severe deficiencies, hallucinations. Pyridoxine (B-6) is precursor to over 60 enzymatic reactions and is involved in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters.

    Brain Power

    Brain cells almost exclusively burn glucose for their energy (other cells can also burn fat), and typically require 50% of all the glucose in the blood. Two B-like vitamins help in the utilization of glucose: PAK (pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate) may potentiate the effects of insulin and improve glucose utilization to the cells;8 Biotin is important for the transformation of glucose into energy in the brain. Lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 are metabolic energizers that help produce ATP, the primary energy molecule in the body. Since the brain uses 20% of the body’s total energy supply, efficient ATP production is vital. Lipoic acid and CoQ10 are also powerful antioxidants that help regenerate other antioxidants in the body. The blood vessels feeding the brain become less efficient as we pass middle age. Since the brain depends on the bloodstream to deliver nutrients and oxygen and to remove waste, the quality of this blood flow is paramount to proper brain nutrition. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown in scientific studies to increase blood flow to the brain by helping vessels to dilate. It also promotes the smoothness and healthy integrity of blood vessel linings.

    For the Life of Your Mind Without proper nutrition, the brain will deteriorate; therefore strategies are needed to both enhance current brain function and protect it throughout life. Based on the latest scientific findings, Source Naturals HIGHER MIND is formulated with neuroceuticals that support the mental functions that tend to decline with age. They give your brain the nourishment it needs to integrate perception, memory, and learning into a more comprehensive awareness – so you can excel for a lifetime.

    References
    1. Palmieri, G., et al. (1987). Clin. Trials J. 24: 73- 83.
    2. Crook, T.H., et al. (1991). Neurol. 41: 644-49.
    3. Nunzi, M.G., et al. In Phospholipids: Biochemical, Pharmaceutical and Analytical Considerations (ed. I. Hanin and G. Pepeu).
    New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
    4. Heiss, W.D., et al. (1993). Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 695: 327-31.
    5. Passeri, M., et al. (1990). Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. X(1/2): 75-79.
    6. Kohjimoto, Y., et al. (1988). Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 48(3): 365-71.
    7. Philpott, William H. Brain Allergies: the Psychonutrient Connection. New Canaan: Keats, 1987.
    8. Passariello, N., et al. (1983). Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 21: 252-56.



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    Ellagic Active - Raspberry Extract - Promotes Healthy Cells ...
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    Date: June 01, 2005 01:22 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Ellagic Active - Raspberry Extract - Promotes Healthy Cells ...

    Ellagic Active - Raspberry Extract

    You may think raspberries are strictly a summertime indulgence. Yet scientists know this simple fruit is far more valuable than a delicious snack or gourmet dessert. Raspberries have the highest content of ellagitannins— amazing health compounds— which are converted into ellagic acids in the body. These compounds are highly regarded for their positive effects on the growth and regulation of various cells and tissues, including those in the breast, pancreas, esophageal, skin, colon and prostate. Ellagic acid is also a powerful antioxidant (even stronger than vitamin C) that supports DNA integrity and promotes overall cell health, according to animal and in-vitro research. Source Naturals offers ELLAGIC ACID in response to a breakthrough in cell research. We strive to be ahead of mainstream nutritional science and are passionate about our commitment to informed health choices.

    Protective Benefits

    Dieticians have long stressed the importance of the consumption of fruits and vegetables for general health and well-being, but now these food items are being recognized as even greater contributors to human health. We know that ellagic acid binds to DNA, and acts as a shield, protecting DNA and increasing the expression of the enzyme p21, which arrests division of cells with DNA damage. Raspberries contain phytochemicals that provide protective action: One study showed that ellagic acid was able to induce the production of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR), a major detoxification enzyme. Ellagic acid acts as a free radical scavenger to “bind” irritant-causing chemicals, making them inactive. Ellagic acid stimulates the activity of the enzyme glutathione-S-transfErase that supports healthy cell growth.

    Extensive Research

    Raspberry is also a traditional remedy in support of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. It is used to promote healthy blood vessels, as a mouth and throat remedy and is said to help maintain a “normal, balanced feeling” in the stomach. Research studies on the protective effects of ellagic acid have been extensive—there are approximately 126 published studies. Berries also contain a natural form of salicylates, which provide cardio support. British researchers analyzed the blood of subjects and found salicylates were present from dietary sources, including raspberries and blackberries. Researchers at the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in Hyattsville, Maryland established a connection between reduced health risks and increased intake of salicylates. Animal tests also suggest that red raspberry may reduce levels of glucose (blood sugar) to support normal blood sugar levels.

    Potent Defense

    Research in the past decade has determined that ellagic acid is one of the most exciting and promising compounds for its striking effect on cell division, regeneration and growth. While ellagic acid has been found to occur naturally in 46 different foods, red raspberry has been identified as having the highest natural content. Each tablet contains 300 mg of raspberry leaf extract (40% ellagitannins), which is ten times higher than other raspberry products. Source Naturals again joins forces with your natural foods retailer to bring you this unparalleled supplement.

    References:
    Daniel. 1991. Quantification and liberation of ellagic acid in dietary sources, Diss Abstr Int [B]; 51(10), 4787. Festa, Aglitti, Duranti, Ricord, Perticon, Cozzi. 2001. Strong Antioxidant Activity of Ellagic Acid in Mammalian Cells. Anticancer Research 21: 3903-08. Narayanan, Gian. 2001. Re: Down Regulation Associated Cell Cycle Arrest. Anticancer Research 21: 359-64. Singh, Khanna, Visen, Chander. 1999. Protective Effect of Ellagic Acid. Indian J Exp Biol 37 (9), 939-940. Xue, Aziz, Sun, Cassady. 2001. Inhibition of Cellular Transformation by Berry Extracts. Carcinogenesis 22(2) 351-356.



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    Chem-Defense - Fight Chemical sensitivity ...
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    Date: June 01, 2005 10:21 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Chem-Defense - Fight Chemical sensitivity ...

    Chem Defense

    CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY IS REAL.

    COURTESY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, OUR ENVIRONMENT HAS BECOME A STEW OF FOREIGN CHEMICALS. For some people suffering the malaise, lack of focus, and drained feeling associated with chemical sensitivities, home is the only sanctuary from this onslaught. For others, not even home is safe. We at Source Naturals take this threat very seriously. That’s why we created CHEM-DEFENSE.

    Source Naturals’ CHEM-DEFENSE is a potent combination of Molybdenum, Glutathione, and Coenzymated B-2, nutrients which research has shown may help break down and dispel harmful chemicals from the body. And CHEM-DEFENSE is sublingual — it dissolves under the tongue so it goes directly into your bloodstream, where it can be delivered to your system, fast.

    major problem has hit America in the late 20th century that is more far reaching than most people are aware — chemical sensitivity. In fact, some studies indicate that 1 out of 3 Americans may be afflicted with chemical sensitivities. In the past century, modern organic chemistry has synthesized and released into the world an estimated 300,000 xenobiotic (foreign to our normal biology) chemicals. The food processing and food growing industries put an approximate 10,000 xenobiotic chemicals into our food supply alone. These chemicals can be found in common items such as cleaning fluids, drycleaning compounds, glues, cigarette smoke, perfume, building materials and processed foods. Chemical sensitivity is the result of impairment or inadequacy of the body’s natural detoxification systems, allowing excessive levels of harmful, xenobiotic chemicals to accumulate in the body, and the results are often devastating. In sensitive people, artificial chemicals can cause an incredible range of problems: “fogginess” and lack of focus, emotional distress, fatigue, and more. The parts of the body that are most affected can vary from person to person. Some of the worst offenders are the aldehydes. The most infamous of these is formaldehyde (found in such widely used items as permanent press clothing, particle board, paints and upholsteries). The other common culprit is acetaldehyde (produced by Candida overgrowth or from alcohol consumption).

    The Secret to CHEM-DEFENSE’S Power is Molybdenum

    Fortunately, nature has provided the body with a special aldehyde detoxification pathway: an enzyme called aldehyde oxidase (ADO). ADO is activated by one of the coenzyme forms of Vitamin B2, Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD), and the trace mineral Molybdenum. Unfortunately, this enzymatic pathway can become impaired due to overexposure to foreign chemicals. In addition, aging, nutritional deficiencies, genetics and general poor health can greatly diminish the body’s production of these enzymes, causing a toxic buildup of aldehydes, leaving many individuals vulnerable. Current nutritional research has revealed that supplementing the diet with Molybdenum and Coenzyme B-2, both found in CHEM-DEFENSE, can increase levels of the important enzyme ADO, helping to dispel toxins from the body. A study published in the Townsend Letter for Doctors confirms the benefits of a sublingually administered 300 mcg dose (100 mcg three times a day) of Molybdenum. It was found that on the average, about 50-65% of the various symptoms of chemical sensitivity — including fogginess and other discomforts — were alleviated at least to some degree. Molybdenum is also important for several other enzymes, including xanthine oxidase, and most importantly, sulfite oxidase. Sulfite oxidase is responsible for breaking down sulfites, chemicals widely used as preservatives in wines, salad bars, produce, and other foods. Sulfites are a common culprit in chemical sensitivity reactions. In fact, by the 1980’s, it was conservatively estimated that 5,000,000 (five million) Americans were sensitive to sulfites and experienced discomfort upon ingestion. Sulfite oxidase is also important in the sulfation of various compounds, especially in the brain. This is particularly important, as the brain is often dramatically affected during bouts of chemical sensitivity. According to the Nutrition Desk Reference, the amount of Molybdenum required daily for people is 100 mcg to 500 mcg. It also states that the amount of Molybdenum in food can vary tremendously, depending on crop soil levels. Low levels are not at all uncommon, and they are lessened even further by commercial farming practices that utilize synthetic fertilizers which do not put Molybdenum back into the soil. The result? The typical American diet does not provide adequate Molybdenum. The form of Molybdenum included in CHEM-DEFENSE is Molybdenum Aspartate-Citrate, Molybdenum bound to the cellular metabolites Aspartic Acid and Citric Acid. This has been shown to be the most bioactive form available by experts in mineral metabolism.

    Glutathione in its Most Bioavailable Form

    Ultimately, the one organ that must cope with and attempt to relieve the body of toxic chemicals is the liver, often referred to by nutritionists as “the body’s most overburdened organ.” To accomplish this, the liver must rely heavily on Glutathione, a tripeptide (three amino acids bound together). The Glutathione in CHEM-DEFENSE will help the liver to produce adequate levels of the important enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and glutathione S-transfErase (GSH-S), enzymes that are essential for breaking down and disposing of foreign chemicals in the body. Glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) helps to break down hydrogen peroxide, a medium-level toxin which is found in many xenobiotic chemicals. GSHpx also prevents cell damage caused by fatty acid oxidation, which threatens the integrity of cell membranes. Glutathione is very fragile. In fact, when taken orally, it is often destroyed by protein-digesting enzymes in the stomach. As CHEM-DEFENSE is in sublingual form, it bypasses the digestive process and goes straight into the bloodstream, allowing for maximum activity.

    Coenzyme B2 — The “Recycling” Nutrient

    Once Glutathione is used in the body for its detoxification functions, it becomes oxidized Glutathione, meaning it has been “used up.” Fortunately, the human body can “recycle” oxidized Glutathione and return it to its beneficial reduced (active) state. This process is made possible by a coenzyme form of Vitamin B2 (FAD), which is present in CHEM-DEFENSE.

    Sublingual Delivery for Maximum Benefit

    Many nutrients, when taken orally, are never completely absorbed into the bloodstream, or not absorbed at all! Because this formula is in sublingual form, the nutrients in CHEM-DEFENSE are absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the blood vessels under the tongue and in the cheeks, assuring maximum bioavailability and benefit. In America today, as foreign chemicals continue to be released into the environment on an uncontrolled basis, people continue to experience chemical sensitivities for which there appears to be no solution. Now there is. Source Naturals CHEM-DEFENSE combines the most bioavailable forms of key antioxidant nutrients that are not only powerful in and of themselves, but work together synergistically to address the problems associated with chemical sensitivities. As with all of their other products, Source Naturals has taken special care to create a product that is all natural, hypo-allergenic, and sugarfree. CHEM-DEFENSE sublingual is available in two delicious flavors — natural peppermint, and for people on homeopathic regimens who prefer an alternative to peppermint, natural orange flavor. Let’s face it — life in the modern world is a battle for your health. Arm yourself with a powerful weapon: Source Naturals CHEM-DEFENSE.

    References
    1. Arias, I.M. et al. The Liver — Biology and Pathobiology. ©1988 by Raven Press: New York, N.Y.
    2. Garrison, R.H. & Somer, E. The Nutrition Desk Reference © 1985 by Keats Publishing: New Canaan, C.T.
    3. Shils, Maurice E & Young, Vernon R. (1988). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease © 1988 by Lea & Febiger: Philadelphia, PA.
    4. Cooter, Stephen, Ph.D. Molybdenum: Recycling Fatigue Into Energy. Townsend Letter for Doctors. (April, 1994): 332-36



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    TopPreviousNext

    Date: May 31, 2005 04:39 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)

    Acetyl-L-carnitine is truly a mind-body nutrient. It helps synthesize acetylcholine, the brain's principal neurotransmitter responsible for learning and memory. And it is a more bioavailable form of L-carnitine, an amino acid derivative that performs the vital function of transporting longchain fatty acids into the cellular mitochondria where they are oxidized to generate metabolic energy. Supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine supports the activity of brain cells that depend on acetylcholine. It can also reduce the metabolic waste products that damage cells over time. As one of the most important nutrients to help slow the aging process, acetyl-L-carnitine is at the heart of Source Naturals' commitment to empower people to take charge of their own health.

    Acetylcholine is the brain's principal neurochemical of thought. Neurons need it to communicate with each other, especially to create and recall memories. Acetylcholine is also involved in muscular coordination. At neuromuscular junctions throughout the body, it tells muscles when to contract. But the efficiency of cells that use acetylcholine naturally declines with age, partly because of decreased activity of the enzyme that synthesizes this neurotransmitter.

    Neurotransmitter Production

    Acetylcholine is created when the enzyme choline acetyl transfErase (CAT) attaches an acetyl group to a choline molecule. CAT activity is heightened by acetyl-L-carnitine, which donates its acetyl group. Acetyl-L-carnitine is made in small amounts naturally in the body, but its production begins to decline in midlife. In well-controlled human studies, supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine slowed the progress of mental decline by notably improving attention and memory. When supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine was combined with lipoic acid (a powerful natural antioxidant), significant improvement in memory was seen in animals. Researchers said that together the two chemicals "tune up" the mitochondria, the energy-producing organelles that power all cells. Mitochondrial decay is believed to be the primary reason for age-related deterioration of cognitive function and energy levels.

    Cellular Energy and Protection

    As the active form of L-carnitine, acetyl L-carnitine efficiently transports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria where they are converted into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the energy molecule. Animal studies suggest that supplemental acetyl L-carnitine has a positive effect on energy generation as well as on the structural integrity of aging mitochondria. By supporting fatty acid metabolism, acetyl L-carnitine also helps reduce lipofuscin, a metabolic waste product composed of damaged proteins and rancid fats. The brown "liver spots" on some elderly hands are composed of this aging pigment that gradually builds up in cells of the heart, liver, brain, and lens of the eye.

    Muscle Performance

    Ninety-five percent of the body's carnitine is found in muscle cells, especially in the heart where mitochondria comprise nearly 50% of a cell's volume. During prolonged exercise, muscles have a high demand for carnitine because fats can account for up to twothirds of the energy burned. L-carnitine supplements can increase exercise endurance and reduce fatigue. Acetyl L-carnitine is also a key nutrient in Source Naturals' legendary neuroceutical formulas MEGAMIND™ and HIGHER MIND™. And because acetyl L-carnitine also generates the basic energy that affects all biological and mental processes, this mind-body nutrient is one of the few nutritional compounds with such a broad range of action in maintaining youthful functioning. Source Naturals ACETYL L-CARNITINE is therefore an essential part of a smart strategy to live well, age well.

    References

    Carta A. and M. Calvani. Acetyl-L-carnitine: a drug able to slow the progress of Alzheimer's disease? Ann NY Acad Sci 1991; 640: 228-232. Hagen T.M. et al. August 4, 1998. Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95(16):9562-6. Liu J. et al. February 19, 2002. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransfErase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha-lipoic acid. PNAS 99(4):1876-81. Spagnoli A.U. et al. 1991. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 41(11):1726-1732.



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    new treatment options for chronic hepatitis
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    Date: May 30, 2005 10:11 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: new treatment options for chronic hepatitis

    Can science meet the challenges of the HCV pandemic: new treatment options for chronic hepatitis C. Roehr B Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (1998 Jul), 4(7), 24-9. Journal code: 9508185. ISSN:1081-454X. United States. (NEWSPAPER ARTICLE) written in English. PubMed ID 11365638 AN 2001282246 MEDLINE

    Abstract

    New treatment options for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection are examined. Studies show the efficacy of interferon alfa-2b in normalization of serum alanine aminotransfErase and histological improvement in necroinflammatory liver disease. However, 70 to 80 percent experiencing normalization usually relapse within 1 year after treatment. Ten to 20 percent will have a sustained response lasting at least 3 years. Ideas for improving treatment response include longer initial treatment regimens, increasing dosages of interferon alpha, or adding another agent to interferon alpha. Based on encouraging study results, the interferon/ribavirin combination has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in HCV patients relapsing following interferon alpha monotherapy. So far the FDA has approved interferon alfa-2b, interferon alfa-2a, alfacon-1, and interferon alfa-2b/ribavirin as treatments for HCV; ribavirin alone is not effective against HCV infection. Other drugs are being tested with interferon alpha but have not generated enough substantive data. Thymosin, an immune modulator that enhances the body's production of interferon and interleukin rather than attacking HCV directly, is also being investigated. Oral dosing of interferon is in clinical trials for hepatitis B, and the results may be applicable to HCV. Alternative therapies are gaining wider interest such as using milk thistle for liver regeneration or using licorice root for quelling liver inflammation. As for transmission risk, there is little evidence supporting sexual activity as a major risk factor, however, some risk is reported with anal intercourse, sex during the menstrual cycles, and years of cohabitation with an infected partner.


  • Milk thistle had successful results in hepatitis B amd possibly Hepatitis C.



  • NADH 5mg




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    Glycerylphosphorylcholine -- Supports Cognitive Function in AD ...
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    Date: May 24, 2005 09:52 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Glycerylphosphorylcholine -- Supports Cognitive Function in AD ...

    Cognitive Improvement in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Dementia After Treatment with the Acetylcholine Precursor Choline Alfoscerate: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Maria De Jesus Moreno Moreno, MD Instituto Nacional de la Senectud, Mexico City, Mexico


    This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of the cholinergic precursor choline alfoscerate (CA) in the treatment of cognitive impairment due to mild to moderate AD (Alzheimer's disease).

    in both men and woman they consistently improved after 90 and 180 days versus baseline with adiministration of GPC three times a day, whereas in the placebo group they remained unchanged or worsened. Statistically significant differences were observed between treatments after 90 and 180 days.

    Keypoints:

  • improved cognition and global function
  • showed a statistically significant improvement after 90 and 180 days of treatment
  • Increased neurotransmission
  • With out treatment men and woman declined consistantly
  • references:

    Bartus RT, Dean RL III, Beer B, Lippa AS. The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, Science. 1982;217:408-414. 2. Larson EB, Kukull WA, Katzman RL. Cognitive impairment: Dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Annu Rev Public Health. 1992;13:431-449. 3. Hofman A, Rocca WA, Brayne C, et al, for the European Prevalence Research Group. The prevalence of dementia in Europe: A collaborative study of 1980-1990 findings. Int d Epidemiol. 1991;20:736-748. 4. Blackwood W, Corsellis JAN, eds. Greenfield's Neuropathology. 3rd ed. London: Arnold; 1976. 5. Geldmacher DS. Cost-effective recognition and diagnosis of dementia. 5emin Neurol. 2002;22:63-70. 6. Perry EK, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, et al. Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia. BMJ. 1978;2:1457-1459. 7. Perry EK. The cholinergic hypothesis--ten years on. Br Med Bull. 1986;42:63-69. 8. Giacobini E. From molecular structure to Alzheimer therapy. Jpn d Pharmacol. 1997;74:225-241. 9. Giacobini E. Invited review: CholinestErase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease therapy: From tacrine to future applications. Neurochem Int. 1998;32:413-419. 10. Brinkman SD, Smith RC, Meyer JS, et al. Lecithin and memory training in suspected Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol. 1982;37:4-9. 11. Davis E, Emmerling MR, Jaen JC, et al. Therapeutic intervention in dementia. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1993;7:41-83. 12. Amenta E Parnetti L, Gallai V, Wallin A. Treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease with cholinergic precursors. Ineffective treatments or inappropiate approaches? Mech Ageing Dev. 2001;122:2025-2040. 13. Sigala S, Imperato A, Rizzonelli P, et al. k-Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine antagonizes scopolamine-induced amnesia and enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in the rat. Eurd Pharmacol. 1992;211:351-358. 14. Govoni S, Battaini E Lucchi L, et al. Effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine in counteracting drug-induced amnesia: Through cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms [in Italian]. Basi Raz Ter. 1991;21:75-78. 15. Canonico PL, Nicoletti F, Scapagnini U. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine [in Italian]. Basi Raz Te~ 1990;20: 53-54. 191 CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS ® 16. Parnetti L, Amenta E Gallai V. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: An analysis of published clinical data. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001;122:2041-2055. 17. Venn RD. The Sandoz Clinical Assessment-Geriatric (SCAG) scale. A general-purpose psychogeriatric rating scale. Gerontology. 1983;29:185-198. 18. Di Perri R, Coppola G, Ambrosio LA, et al. A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia. J Int Med Res. 1991;19:330-341. 19. Frattola L, Piolti R, Bassi S, et al. Multicenter clinical comparison of the effects of choline alphoscerate and cytidine diphosphocholine in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia. Curt Ther Res Clin Exp. 1991;49:683-693. 20. Muratorio A, Bonuccelli U, Nuti A, et al. A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using L-c~-glycerylphosphorylcholine. Curt Ther Res Clin Exp. 1992;52:741-75l. 21. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: APA; 1994. 22. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, et al. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology. 1984;34:939-944. 23. Folstein ME Folstein SE. "Mini-mental state": A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975; 12:189-198. 24. Loeb C, Gandolfo C. Diagnostic evaluation of degenerative and vascular dementia. Stroke. 1983;14:399-401. 25. Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:56-62. 26. Hamilton M. Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. BrJ Soc Clin Psych& 1967;6:278-296. 27. Rosen WG, Mohs RC, Davis KL. A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease. AmJ Psychiatry. 1984;141:1356-1364. 28. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, De Leon MJ, et al. The Global Deterioration Scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:1136-1139. 29. National Institute of Mental Health. Clinical global impressions. In: Guy W, ed. ECDEU Assessment for Psychopharmacology. Revised edition. Rockville, Md: National Institute of Mental Health; 1976:217-222. 30. Burns A, Russell E, Page S. New drugs for Alzheimer's disease. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;174:476-479. 31. Kumar V, Anand R, Messina J, et al. An efficacy and safety analysis of Exelon in Alzheimer's disease patients with concurrent vascular risk factors. Eur J Neurol. 2000;7:159-169. 32. Knapp MJ, Knopman DS, Solomon PR, et al, for the Tacrine Study Group. A 30-week randomized controlled trial of high-dose tacrine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. JAMA. 1994;271:985-991. 192 M. Moreno 33. Lindstrom MJ, Bates DM. Newton-Rapshon algorithms for linear-mixed effects models for repeated measure data. J Am Stat Assoc. 1998;83:1014-1022. 34. Thai LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1996;47:705-711. 35. Rogers SL, Friedhoff LT, for the Donepezil Study Group. The efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease: Results of a US multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dementia. 1996;7:293-303. 36. Rogers SL, Doody RS, Mohs RC, Friedhoff LT, for the Donepezil Study Group. Donepezil improves cognition and global function in Alzheimer disease: A 15-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158:1021-1031. 37. Corey-Bloom J, Anand R, Veach J, for the ENA 713 B352 Study Group. A randomized trial evaluating the efficacy and the safety of ENA 713 (rivastigmine tartrate), a new acetylcholinestErase inhibitor, in patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychopharmacol. 1998;1:55-65. 38. Rosler M, Anand R, Cicin-Sain A, et al. Efficacy and safety of rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: International randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 1999;318: 633-638. 39. Amenta E Bronzetti E, Del Valle M, Vega JA. Effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine in neuroanatomy of aging brain in experimental animals [in Italian]. Basi Raz Te~: 1990;20:31-38. Address correspondence to: Scientific Department, Italfarmaco SpA, via dei Lavoratori 54, 20092 Cinisello Balsamo, Milan, Italy.

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    Milk Thistle and Liver Damage abstract ...
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: May 22, 2005 04:32 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Milk Thistle and Liver Damage abstract ...

    Silymarin Protects Against Liver Damage in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Fumonisin B1 Despite Increasing Accumulation of Free Sphingoid Bases

    Quanren He, Jiyoung Kim, and Raghubir P. Sharma,1 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-7389

    This study showed that silymarin prevented FB1-induced liver injury and the overexpressions of selected genes for TNF-superfamily and IFNg.FB1 increased free sphingoid bases in tissues via the inhibition of ceramide synthase (Merrill et al., 1993; Wang et al., 1991). Free sphingoid bases could mediate cell death following FB1 treatment (Schmelz et al., 339 SILYMARIN PROTECTS AGAINST FUMONISIN HEPATOTOXICITY TABLE 2 Activity of Serine PalmitoyltransfErase (SPT) in Liver and Kidney of Mice Following FB1 Exposurea Treatment Hepatic SPT activity Renal SPT activity Control 186.2 6 21.4 325.4 63.5 FB1 267.5 24.6* 319.5 14.8 Silymarin 80.0 12.9*,# 220.3 19.4*,# Silymarin 1 FB1 71.0 15.6*,# 251.1 13.6 aActivity of SPT is expressed as pmol product/min. mg protein. Data are presented as mean SE. *p 5 0.05 compared to control; # p 5 0.05 compared to FB1 treatment. 1998; Tolleson et al., 1999). In contrast to its inhibitory effects on liver damage and selected gene induction, silymarin dramatically increased FB1-induced accumulation of free sphingoid bases. The FB1-induced alterations in mouse liver were similar to those reported previously employing similar protocols (Sharma et al., 1997, 2003a,b). The only difference in treatments was the duration (3 vs. 5 days in former reports) and gender (females in the current experiments). Exposure of mice to FB1 caused the appearance of apoptotic cells in liver with no other noticeable alterations. The PCNA-positive cells were also increased in FB1treated mice.

    In conclusion, we have clearly demonstrated that silymarin plays a protective role in FB1 hepatotoxicity in a mouse model. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of silymarin in fumonisin liver injury in humans or animals exposed to fumo-nisin-producing, fungus-contaminated feeds. The efficacy of silymarin in the protection from liver damage after long-term exposure to the mycotoxin still needs to be studied.



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    Niacin and Cholesterol -- abstracts states blocks cholesterol absorption ...
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: May 21, 2005 11:20 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Niacin and Cholesterol -- abstracts states blocks cholesterol absorption ...

    The Era of Statins - Is There Still a Place for Other Classes of Lipid-Lowering Drugs? Wascher, Thomas C. Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, and Diabetic Angiopathy Research Group, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. HeartDrug (2005), 5(1), 34-38. CODEN: HEARCO ISSN: 1422-9528. Journal; General Review written in English. CAN 142:384798 AN 2005:64730 CAPLUS

    Abstract

    A review. Plenty of evidence suggests statins as the first-line therapy for the treatment of lipid disorders. However, further therapeutic options available in the treatment of lipid disorders are fibrates, niacin and cholesterol absorption inhibitors. In the present study, current treatment modalities of lipid disorders are reviewed, and their use was scrutinized based on the available evidence.


    Niacin and cholesterol: role in cardiovascular disease (review). Ganji, Shobha H.; Kamanna, Vaijinath S.; Kashyap, Moti L. Atherosclerosis Research Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA, USA. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (2003), 14(6), 298-305. CODEN: JNBIEL ISSN: 0955-2863. Journal; General Review written in English. CAN 139:291534 AN 2003:542279 CAPLUS

    Abstract

    A review. Niacin has been widely used as a pharmacol. agent to regulate abnormalities in blood plasma lipid and lipoprotein metab. and in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although the use of niacin in the treatment of dyslipidemia has been reported as early as 1955, only recent studies have examd. the cellular and mol. mechanism of action of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein metab. The beneficial effects of niacin in decreasing triglyceride and apolipoprotein-B contg. lipoprotein (VLDL and LDL) levels are mainly due to decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue triglyceride stores and inhibition of hepatocyte diacylglycerol acyltransfErase and triglyceride synthesis, leading to increased intracellular apolipoprotein-B degrdn. and subsequent decreased secretion of VLDL and LDL particles. The mechanism of action of niacin to raise HDL levels involves decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of HDL-apolipoprotein A-I without affecting its biosynthetic rates. Niacin selectively increases blood plasma levels of Lp-AI (HDL subfraction without apolipoprotein A-II), a cardioprotective subfraction of HDL in patients with low HDL levels. Using human hepatocytes (Hep G2 cells) as an in vitro model, recent studies indicate that niacin selectively inhibits the uptake/removal of HDL-apolipoprotein A-I (but not HDL-cholesterol ester) by hepatocytes, thereby increasing the capacity of retained HDL-apolipoprotein A-I to augment cholesterol efflux through reverse cholesterol transport pathway. The data provide evidence extending the role of niacin as a lipid-lowering drug beyond its dietary role as a vitamin.



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    Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone...
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    Date: May 17, 2005 04:47 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Androgens and 4-Diol and 4-Dione conversion to Testosterone...

    The androgens 4-androstenediol and 4-androstenedione are natural testosterone precursors. The biosynthesis of testosterone takes place within the testicular Leydig cells in two metabolic pathways. During the progesterone-pathway (.delta.-4 pathway), pregnenolone is metabolized to progesterone by the 3-.beta.-hydroxy-steroid deydrogenase and an isomErase. Progesterone is then changed to 17-.alpha.-hydroxyprogesterone by the 17-.alpha.-hydroxylase and C.sub.17C.sub.21-lyase to androstenedione, then to testosterone by reduction of the 17-keto-group by 17-.beta.-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase. The DHEA-pathway (.delta.-5 pathway) leads from pregenolone to 17-.alpha.-hydroxypregnenolone to dehyroepiandrosterone (C.sub.17C.sub.21-lyase), to 5-.delta.-androstenediol. See FIG. 4; Wichmann et al., 83(3) EXP. CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. 283-290 (1984).

    As a testosterone pro-hormone and metabolite, 4-androstenedione may be used by athletes and bodybuilders to improve muscle mass. Levels of .delta. 4-androstenedione increase significantly with moderate exercise in healthy men. Velardo et al., 97(1) EXP. & CLIN. ENDOCRINOL. 99-101 (1991). Additionally, supplementation with 4-androstenedione has been known to produced elevations in serum testosterone. Mahesh et al., 41(3-8) J. STEROID BIOCHEM. MOL. BIOL. 495-513 (1992).

    4-androstenediol is also metabolized into testosterone and is produced by conversion of dehyroepiandrosterone. Inaba et al., 13(2) ENDOCRINOLOGIA JAPONICA 160-72 (1966). It was first shown to produce elevations in human serum testosterone levels in 1965, and this was also demonstrated in in vitro studies in animals (Kundu, 6(5) STEROIDS 543-51 (1965) and human fibroblast cultures. Faredin et al. 32(2) ACTA MEDICA ACADEMIAE SCIENTIARUM HUNGARICAE 139-52 (1975). Supplementation with 4-androstenedione, 4-androstenediol, and 19-nor-4-androstenedione has been studied to determine whether a rise in testosterone is produced. Uralets et al., 23 ANAL. TOXICOL. 357-366 (1999). Testosterone is excreted in the urine unchanged and is metablized through 5.alpha.- and .beta.-DHT as 5.alpha.- and .beta.-androstanediol, while androstenedione is similarly excreted as androsterone and etiocholanolone. Both the final excreted steroid and the intermediaries stanediones and DHT intraconvert so that androsterone, 5.alpha.- and .beta.-androstanediol and etiocholanolone are seen in urine. Supplementation with 4-androstenediol produced a 10-fold greater urine testosterone concentration than 4androstenedione. (Uralets, 1999)



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    Composition and Method of increasing Testonsterone...
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    Date: May 17, 2005 04:01 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Composition and Method of increasing Testonsterone...

    Composition and method for increasing testosterone levels

    Abstract This invention provides compositions and methods related to the administration of deer antler, one or more nor-testosterone precursors, and one or more testosterone precursors, to increase testosterone levels, treat sexual dysfunction, improve sexual function, improve energy, enhance feelings of well-being and increase muscle mass in males. This invention also provides for inhibitors of the enzymes aromatase and/or 5-alpha reductase, to support testosterone levels and avoid undesirable metabolites.

    May reduce DHT:

    By using velvet deer antler along with the testosterone and nor-testosterone precursors, the antler promotes youth film testosterone levels while balancing and ameliorating dangerous spikes in these levels. Another embodiment of the invention includes herbs that inhibits 5-alpha-reductase reducing undesirable levels of dihyrotestosterone. Another embodiment includes chrysin, which inhibits aromatase and the production of estrogenic steroids.

    Deer antler (called Rokujo in Ancient Chinese Medicine) is used for its sexual-reinforcing and anti-aging actions. Wang et al., 36(7) CHEM. PHARM. BULL. 2587-92 (1988). Velvet antler is living tissue that grows at a rate of up to 2 cm/day in some species. Cartilage, bone and support tissues such as nerves, blood vessels and hair follicles of the antler also evidence accelerated growth. Antler is the only mammalian organ that regenerates. These features, responsible for the accelerate growth of velvet antler are likely to be caused by either unique regulatory substances or substances found in other tissues but at lower levels. It is believed that factors actually responsible for the rapid regeneration of the velvet antler can explain the powerful health benefits of the product. Specifically, velvet deer antler regulates the adrenal cortex and energy metabolism, promotes sexual function and growth, and strengthens resistance. Its functions fall into the major categories of general body strengthening, healing, promoting blood cell growth and improving immune and cardiovascular function.

    Some of velvet deer antler's key ingredients include lysophosphatidyl choline, with hypotensive activity, phosphatidyl ethanolamines, sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl choline hypothanthene and uridene, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting and anti-aging effects; polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine, with RNA polymErase stimulating effects; gangliosides that may promote memory and learning; and anti-inflammatory amino acids. A wide variety of growth factors are also found in velvet, and may be associated with its growth-promoting activity. Tsujibo et al., 35(2) CHEM. PHARM. BULL. 654-59 (1987).

    As taught by ancient Chinese medicine, deer antler tonifies the yang, primarily deficient yang of the kidneys, spleen and heart. Because kidneys are the seat of the basal yang, the most important use of this class of herbs is to tonify the kidney yang, whose principal manifestation of deficiency is systemic exhaustion. Yang deficiency causes impotence, spermatorrhea, watery vaginal discharge, infertility, enuresis, polyuria, wheezing and daybreak diarrhea. Patients with deficient kidney yang very often have decreased plasma thyroid hormone binding proteins, 24-hour urinary 17-ketosteroids, and decreased rate of glycolysis. When treated with tonifiers such as deer antler, these measurements return to normal ranges. BENSKY ET AL., CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE, MATERIA MEDICA, REVISED EDITION Eastland Press, Seattle, Wash. (1993).


  • Deer Antler Velvet Full Spectrum Planetary Formulas 30Ct

  • Deer Antler Velvet Full Spectrum 60ct



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