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What is the Krebs cycle and why is it important? Darrell Miller 8/16/15
The Krebs Cycle - Our Lifes Blood! Darrell Miller 1/13/11
Pantothenic acid has a wide range of health benefits Darrell Miller 12/28/10
L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 5/7/09
Inosine Darrell Miller 12/19/08
GABA Darrell Miller 8/26/08
B Vitamin Complex Darrell Miller 6/23/08
B Vitamin Supplements Darrell Miller 5/7/08
Biotin For Better Health! Darrell Miller 4/14/08
B Complex to Restore the Adrenal Glands from Stress Darrell Miller 2/7/08
The Awesome Foursome: Coenzyme Q10, D-Ribose, L-Carnitine, and Magnesium Darrell Miller 5/18/07
Revita Darrell Miller 3/8/07
l-Arginine/l-Citrulline Complex - Supports Peak Performance Darrell Miller 3/6/07
Which Calcium is Best? Darrell Miller 10/17/06
Benefits of L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 2/12/06
Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 2/12/06
Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) Darrell Miller 8/2/05
Life Force - The Energy Activator Darrell Miller 6/29/05
L-ARGININE - For Increased Circulation Darrell Miller 6/29/05
Acetyl L-Carnitine & Alpha Lipoic Acid - For Cellular Vitality Darrell Miller 6/24/05
Pep Up and Go! Darrell Miller 6/14/05
Hidden In Plain Sight - The spreading epidemic: Diabetes. Darrell Miller 6/12/05
Energy Cycles - Stress and lack of energy don't just frazzle your nerves Darrell Miller 6/12/05
Energy Vitamins Darrell Miller 6/11/05
Re: Natural Energy Production ... Darrell Miller 6/9/05
Minerals - Why take them? Darrell Miller 6/9/05
Mega H- Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life Darrell Miller 6/3/05
Magnesium Malate - Fight Aluminum Build-Up ... Darrell Miller 6/3/05
Life Minerals - Why are Minerals So Important? Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Hangover Formula - Fight Hangovers with this formula... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Gluco Sciense - Take Control of your Blood Sugar ... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Fibro Response - Feel your Vitality ... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Darrell Miller 6/1/05
Diet Pyruvate - Get the Look Naturally ... Darrell Miller 6/1/05
COENZYME Q10 - Transforming food into energy Darrell Miller 6/1/05



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What is the Krebs cycle and why is it important?
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Date: August 16, 2015 07:14 PM
Author: Darrell Miller
Subject: What is the Krebs cycle and why is it important?

The Krebs cycle is a series of chemical response that helps in the production of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide, a compound that is rich in energy.  This cycle happens with the combination of two carbon coenzymes and carbon complexes and goes through a series of changes to produce the required energy that is needed for the smooth functioning of living organism.  This cycle occurs in all the cells that use oxygen for their respiration process.  Carbon dioxide has an important role since it fuels breathing and the ATP also plays a vital role as it provides cells with a required energy for synthesis of proteins from amino acid and the reproduction of deoxyribonucleic acid.  These are considered essential for energy supply and for the continuation of any kind of life including human.

The Krebs cycle is known as the second phase of the aerobic respiration.  Aerobic respiration is composed of three phases, Glycosis is the first phase, followed by the Krebs Cycle, and last is the Electron phase.  These three stages are a series of a cycle that all living cells must experience to produce the required energy for the smooth functioning of the mechanism of life.

Why Krebs cycle is important?

Poor digestion, fatigue and lack of proper nutrition are the common complaints among the people of all ages all over the world.  This complaint comes when the body does not get proper nutrition or is unable to digest food even if it's available.  It leads to a chronic problem and makes most of the people suffer. But what makes them suffer? This is the listless metabolism that ultimately leads to slow Krebs cycle function. When Krebs cycle does not function properly, after a period of time it causes the accretion of undigested food remains in the blood vessels and also creates some other health complications such as constipation, fatigue and smoggy brain.  In the long run, it can create some other health complication that is severe and sometimes life-threatening. So to avoid this situation people usually prefer to take the Krebs cycle supplement.  This supplement resolves all these issues and also makes you feel energetic.

Why your body is reliant on Krebs cycles?

Krebs cycles are important since it helps to generate energy from the food, particularly from the carbohydrate. And you can get carbohydrate from grains, cereals, fats and also from vegetable and animal sources. You can also get carbohydrates from the proteins.

By definition, carbohydrates are the combination of three important things, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and these things can be changed to glucose inside your body. Initially your body uses the carbohydrate as the foundation of glucose and then through a series of processing, the body gets the required amount of carbohydrates from the diet. And here Krebs cycle plays an important role to generate energy from the carbohydrate.

The Krebs cycle is considered important for producing energy, it does not help you to run fast and to be active only, and it also enables your metabolic process to work efficiently.


 

 

References:

//www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-Krebs-cycle.htm

 

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The Krebs Cycle - Our Lifes Blood!
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Date: January 13, 2011 05:00 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Krebs Cycle - Our Lifes Blood!

The Krebs Cycle, also known as the Citric Acid Cycle, is an important series of biochemical reactions that are intrinsic to cellular respiration and the generation of energy from oxygen and glucose in aerobic organisms. Although humans can generate energy anaerobically, they cannot do so for long periods and oxygen is essential for life because it fuels the Krebs Cycle. Without this cycle, there would be no available energy to maintain our vital processes.

What is The Krebs Cycle

We shall first discuss exactly what the Krebs Cycle is and then its importance in the body. The process takes place within the mitochondria of the body cells.

A. The cycle begins with the ten-step pathway of glycolysis, during which glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvate: no oxygen is required for this step. Basically:

Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2P + 2ADP = 2Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2ATP

The pyruvate can then undergo aerobic or anaerobic respiration to generate energy. The Krebs Cycle is the aerobic route, and significantly more efficient that the alternative fermentation.

B. The two pyruvate molecules are then oxidized to two of Acetyl CoA with the release of carbon dioxide. The two acetyl groups of the Acetyl CoA are donated to Oxaloacetate in the presence of water to form Citrate.

C. Citrate then undergoes a number of chemical reactions to arrive back at Oxaloacetate again and the cycle starts all over again by reacting with more Acetyl CoA from Pyruvate and oxygen to form Citrate again. During the cycle more ATP is produced and electrons and other species are sent into the Electron Transfer Chain where most energy is generated.

During this cycle three major events occur:

1. During the various transformations of Citrate, specifically when Succinyl-CoA is converted to Succinate, one Guanosine Triphosphate group (GTP) is generated, which then donates a phosphate to Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) to create the energy molecule Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

2. Over the whole cycle, three molecules of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) are reduced to NADH that donates its electrons to the electron transport chain that is responsible for the generation of large quantities of ATP.

3. A molecule of Flavine Adenosine Dinucleotide (FAD) is reduced to FADH2, again donating its electrons to the electron transport system and the generation of energy.

Factor 2 and 3 are of more significance to energy generation than factor 1, and are the major means by which the Krebs Cycle generates energy.

Electron Transport Chain

The Krebs Cycle takes place within the mitochondria, structures that are contained in each of your body cells. Also within these mitochondria are a series of membranes that are very important in the generation of energy.

The major energy produced in your body cells comes from the Electron Transport Chain, a series of chemical reactions between an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Such reactions drive the transport of hydrogen ions (H+) across the membranes in the mitochondria.

The electron donors are species such as NADH, FADH2 and succinate and the electron acceptors are oxygen molecules. Hence the importance of oxygen in the process of aerobic respiration. The H+ ions are driven across the membranes and result in the conversion of ADP to ATP energy. In essence, the hydrogen atoms and electrons take part in a progressive chain of redox reactions, and at the end react with oxygen molecules and change it to water.

The Ultimate Products

Ultimately, through the whole chain and cycles of:

Glucose to pyruvate (glycolysis) Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA + CO2 (oxidation) Acetyl CoA to Citrate and the entire Krebs Cycle (reduction and oxidation) Krebs Cycle products to the Electron Transfer Chain Electron Transfer Chain to Water and ATP (redox) Final oxidation of hydrogen atoms to water

Basically: Glucose + Oxygen + 30ADP = Carbon Dioxide + Water + 30ATP

This is not balanced of course, and the ATP could be anything from 29 to 38, though 29.85 is the most accurate calculation to date. The entire process of glycolysis, oxidation, Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain is powered by a series of enzymes and a small amount of ATP energy.

Glucose and oxygen are used up as the raw materials and ATP energy molecules are the product. It has been calculated that the total ATP yield obtained from one molecule of glucose lies between 29.5 and 30 molecules of ATP.

The Importance of the Krebs Cycle to Your Body

Were it not for the Krebs Cycle you would not be able to generate energy efficiently from your food. In particular, the carbohydrate content of your food. Carbohydrates are available in your diet from two sources: simple and complex carbohydrate foodstuffs such as cereals and grains, and fats and oils from animal and vegetable sources. They are also available from proteins, which are composed of amino acids at the head of the molecule with a carbohydrate tail.

Carbohydrates by definition contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecules, and can be converted to glucose within your body. Proteins can be deaminated and then the carbohydrate portion again converted to glucose. In fact, your body will initially use the carbohydrates in your diet as a source of glucose for its glycolysis to pyruvate, then the fatty tissue in your body, then the proteins will be deaminated so your body can get to the carbohydrate they contain.

Were it not for the Krebs Cycle, your body could not use the glucose as described above to generate energy. The only option open to it would be anaerobic respiration, or energy production in the absence of oxygen. ATP is still generated, but much less efficiently.

Anaerobic Respiration

Anaerobic respiration is basically respiration without oxygen. If there was no Krebs Cycle, then this is the only way your body would have to create energy.

Because no oxygen is actually needed for glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle, anaerobic respiration can proceed right to the end of the Electron Transport Chain. Then instead of oxygen being used as the terminal electron donor, it has to be another species such as nitrate or sulfate. Because the Reduction Potential of these species is much lower than that of oxygen, the amount of ATP energy produced is also much lower.

Your body tries to compensate by producing even more pyruvate and the excess is removed through lactic acid fermentation. Although this also generates ATP energy enough for short-term use, it leads ultimately to lactic acidosis and a reduction in pH, causing pain and vomiting.

Ultimately, if oxygen is not forthcoming, the brain runs short of the energy needed for it to work and you die. There is insufficient ATP generated from anaerobic respiration to maintain human life.

Conclusion

The Krebs Cycle is of critical importance for the production of energy: not just the energy to enable you to run fast, but to enable your metabolic processes to continue. It is needed for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and while lactic acid fermentation can be used by your muscle cells as a brief but effective means of generating short-term energy, it is insufficient to maintain the needs of your metabolism.

Without the Krebs Cycle, mammalian and most other animal life would not be viable and the world would be populated by anaerobic bacteria.

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Pantothenic acid has a wide range of health benefits
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Date: December 28, 2010 11:42 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Pantothenic acid has a wide range of health benefits

Pantothenic Acid Benefits

Pantothenic acid is otherwise known as Vitamin B5 and is a member of the B vitamin complex. Among its various health benefits are helping to alleviate such conditions as hair loss, asthma, allergies, respiratory problems, heart disorders, osteoarthritis, skin disorders and much more, so what is it about this substance that is possesses so many health benefits?

Pantothenic acid is an essential component in the synthesis of the ubiquitous Coenzyme A that is found in every cell in your body. Coenzyme A (CoA) is necessary for the formation of the acetyl-CoA that enables carbons atoms to be moved within cells. It is also an essential factor in the Kreb's or Citric Acid Cycle that generates ATP energy in every cell in your body.

pantothenic acid and Krebs cycleMany other extremely important substances rely on Pantothenic acid and CoA, such as the biosynthesis of cholesterol (needed for sex hormone production), the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and fatty acids which are essential for a healthy heart, immune system and many other biological processes. Little wonder then that a pantothenic acid supplement offers so many benefits to your health.

Pantothenic Acid for Healthy Hair and Skin

Most young people value the look of their hair and skin, and pantothenic acid is largely responsible, along with several other essential vitamins, for their health. Otherwise referred to as Vitamin B5, pantothenic acid is contained as an ingredient in a wide range of shampoos. This was done as a reaction to the possibility of a deficiency in pantothenic acid leading to loss of hair color and skin irritation.

In fact this occurred only with mice, and its use in shampoos has never been proved, though all that may indicate is that there has never been enough testing carried out - which might well be the case. However, there is more evidence for its effect in maintaining a healthy skin, and tests have indicated that pantothenic acid, taken both orally and topically, can help to improve the appearance of the skin within between a week and four weeks of commencing the treatment.

There is more evidence available for this effect of pantothenic on skin health and in reducing the incidence and appearance of acne, largely because of the properties of Coenzyme A, a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that can destroy the free radicals that damage skin cells. It can also reduce skin inflammation, which will in turn reduce the inflammatory appearance of acne and other skin conditions.

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L-Carnitine
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Date: May 07, 2009 05:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Carnitine

L-carnitine is amino acid essential for the metabolism of fats into a form of energy necessary for extended aerobic activity. Originally discovered in Russia, and Germany a year later, the structural formulation of carnitine, as it is correctly known, was determined in 1927, although it is physiological and biochemical activity was not understood until the 1960s.

The amino acid is biosynthesized in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine. The vitamins niacin, B6, C and iron are essential for this reaction to take place. However, the supply of L-carnitine has to be supplemented by the diet, good sources being dairy products, red meat, nuts and seeds, pulses and fruits such as apricots, bananas and avocado. Most of the L-carnitine supply of the body is stored within the muscle tissue. However, it is not unusual for conditions to arise making it difficult for the body to obtain all the carnitine required.

L-carnitine enables fatty acids to be transported into the mitochondria, where cell metabolism occurs. The biochemistry is discussed below, although in simple terms the amino acid allows body fats, in the form of triglycerides, to be made more readily available for the generation of energy required for extended exertion. In this way, body fats can be used for energy and the supplies of glycogen stored by the liver can be retained for emergency use.

By providing the energy for endurance and stamina in this way, carnitine makes use of an otherwise unavailable energy source, and has the added benefit of reducing body fat stores and reducing strain on the heart.

Although there is generally a plentiful supply of L-carnitine available in a healthy diet, supplementation can ensure that a deficiency does not occur. Supplements are available in the form of L-carnitine or its acetylated derivative, acetyl L-carnitine.

In order for fatty acids to be used in the production of energy, their long-chain acetyl groups have to get inside the mitochondria where they are oxidized to the acetate to be used for the production of energy via the Citric Acid or Krebs cycle.

In order for the biochemistry to take place, fatty acids must be rendered suitable for binding to the carnitine molecule. The chemical grouping with a good affinity for L-carnitine is the acetyl or acetyl group, available in the molecule acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). The free fatty acid, therefore, is attached to coenzyme-A by means of a thioester bond, catalyzed by means of the enzyme fatty acetyl-CoA synthetase. The reaction is then completed by means of in organic pyrophosphatase.

In this way, the fatty acid in the form of an acetyL-carnitine derivative can be transported through the mitochondrial wall. This transportation takes place by means of several steps. These are:

1. As explained, the acetyl-CoA is attached to L-carnitine by means of the enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase I. This enzyme is conveniently located on the outer mitochondrial membrane.

2. The enzyme carnitine-acetylcarnitine translocase helps the acetyL-carnitine through the membrane.

3. Another enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase II, located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, converts the acetyL-carnitine to acetyl-CoA, liberating the carnitine which returns to the muscle mass.

L-carnitine is the only known substance that allows fatty acids to cross the mitochondrial membrane, and therefore deficiencies must be avoided.

Another way in which carnitine is used in energy production is in the Krebs cycle itself. Part of this cycle involves the conversion of guanine diphosphate to the higher energy form guanine triphosphate. In this way energy can be stored in much the same way as it is in the conversion of ADP to ATP. Succinyl CoA is involved in this conversion, and one of the by-products of it is a corresponding succinate, that is then converted to a fumarate by the action of L-carnitine fumarate. Carnitine, therefore, has two parts to play in the production of long-term energy from the fatty acids contained in body fats.

Since the fatty acid triglycerides contained in body fats are a major source of energy in the heart and skeletal muscles, it is easy to understand how L-carnitine is believed to lead to the increased energy levels required for stamina and staying power. A major reason for its effect on longer-term or extended energy requirements is that in enabling stored body fats to be used for immediate and longer-term energy requirements, L-carnitine allows emergency glycogen stores to be retained for use once immediate fatty acid supplies or those of carnitine have been depleted, and so allows the energy supply to be extended even farther. Research has also suggested that the amino acid can possibly be used to treat liver and kidney disease, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome.

As with many supplements, the question is often asked how does L-carnitine work in practice as opposed to the claims made for it by the supplement providers? Recent research indicates mixed results, but sufficient to justify its use. It is generally accepted that a supplement is necessary when there is a deficiency, but once that deficiency has been corrected further intake is unnecessary. However, it is also believed that during long and extended periods of exercise a carnitine deficiency does occur as L-carnitine is used up, and the supplement is necessary to ensure sufficient energy supply throughout the period of exercise.

There has also been a case reported in the Journal of Clinical Neurology (Negoro, Tsuda, Kato & Morimatsu, 1995) where a deficiency, caused by anorexia nervosa damaging the liver to the extent that it was unable to synthesize L-carnitine, was remedied by means of an oral supplement. Studies on endurance athletes have been mixed, ranging from no effect to L-carnitine being found to promote weight loss.

Carnitine has no unknown harmful side effects, and has been studied for medical applications other than as an energy supplement. For example it possesses extensive antioxidant properties, and can be used as a supplement against oxidative stress and the prevention of the lipid peroxidation that is a precursor to atherosclerosis.

Its use in osteoporosis and reducing bone mass is also being studied. The concentration of L-carnitine diminishes with age, and affects fatty acid metabolism in a number of tissues. Bones are particularly affected since they require continuous reconstruction. Without detailing the biochemistry involved in this, administration of carnitine helps to reduce the speed by which this occurs. Trials are so far been carried out only on animals.

In studies on both healthy volunteers and patients with type II diabetes, L-carnitine was found to improve storage of glucose in both groups, although its oxidation increased only in the group with diabetes. Other studies carried out include improving the function of neurotransmitters in the brains of elderly patients and in the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and other neurological disorders.

In conclusion then, although the jury is out on the use of L-carnitine is an energy-giving or weight-loss supplement, it appears to be effective where the body's stores of carnitine could be depleted such as with long-term exercise, natural deficiencies or deficiencies caused through age. It is also under study in the treatment of various medical conditions. On balance, it would appear that the prospective benefits of L-carnitine render it worthy of use.

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Inosine
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Date: December 19, 2008 12:35 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Inosine

Inosine is a specific type of glycosylamine that consists of a base bound to a deoxyribose or ribose sugar. This type of glycosylamine is referred to as a nucleoside, others being adenosine, thymidine and cytidine.

It is available naturally in brewer’s yeast and major organ offal such as liver and kidney. It’s function in animal biochemistry is in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), often known as the molecule of energy, that is essential for the generation of energy by the mitochondria in our body cells. It’s biochemistry is described below.

Inosine is synthesized as inosine monophosphate by means of a complex series of biochemical reactions. The inosine monophosphate is a precursor for adenine, a nucleotide and purine base that reacts with ribose to form adenosine. This is another nucleoside that can be phosphorylated to produce adenosine monophosphate (AMP), the diphosphate (ADP), the triphosphate (ATP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

Each of these is involved in the metabolism of energy in the mitochondria. Glucose undergoes a number of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the presence of oxygen that ultimately breaks it down to water and carbon dioxide, plus at least 36 molecules of ATP via glycolysis and then the Krebs cycle. The ATP reacts with water to release energy and form ADP. The ADP can then be phosphorylated to produce more ATP. The starting point of all of this is inosine, and it is little wonder this nucleoside is used by athletes to help boost their energy.

Not only that, however, but adenine is also the precursor of amino and nucleic acids responsible for the generation of RNA and DNA, and it is also responsible for the production of many coenzymes. These provide other opportunities for its use elsewhere in medicine, and it has also been found to possess other medical properties that will be discussed later.

It was in the 1970s that inosine was first used to boost athletic performance due to its part in the generation of the energy needed by every muscle in the body. Its use began in eastern countries, although evidence at the time did not support the theory. Nevertheless, this did not deter its advocates, and inosine continued to be used by athletes, a practice that has now spread world-wide.

It has been found to be a metabolic activator, in that it supports metabolism through the generation of energy. Inosine has been used by power lifters for heavy weight training to increase the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen, and strength athletes, particularly of the Eastern Bloc, used it from the mid 1970s onwards.

Inosine appears to increase the natural ability of the body to handle strenuous workouts, although there is no scientific proof of this. However, those that use it claim an increased ability to carry out intensive training workouts and an improvement in their competitive performance. The nucleotide can penetrate the cell walls and get to where it is needed to take part in the metabolism of energy through the production of ATP.

Now, however, inosine has an entirley different application in medicine. Studies have shown that it could support those suffering from MS (multiple sclerosis) and strokes through its pereceived neuroprotective properties. It appears to promote axonal rewiring, where undamaged neurons appear to grow new connections with damaged areas of the brain, and undamaged neurons seem to branch out to replace some of the damaged neurons.

Inosine is also an intermediate in the production of uric acid through purine and purine nucleoside degradation. Uric acid is a powerful antioxidant, particularly in respect of peroxynitrite, a nucleophile that causes the type of axonal degradation that is associated with multiple sclerosis. It thefore helps in two ways: through the production of uric acid, and in promoting axonal rewiring that can improve brain function in patients.

Another potential medical use for the substance is based upon the discovery that inosine and related compounds can act as powerful anti-inflammatories through their effect on inflammatory macrophage proteins. Certain conditions can cause the release of these macrohages, and where it is an undesirable side-effect, inosine can be administered to prevent it occuring.

Inosine appears to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines without inhibiting anti-inflammatory cytokines. It appears to do so extracellularly, although the effect can be reversed by the blockading of adenosine receptors. However, it is a convenient way of avoiding this sometimes serious condition, which is a natural function of the immune system, without affecting any other part of that system’s essential work.

It is not an essential nutrient, since it is synthesized biochemically, but a supplement of inosine is certainly worth taking if you want to increase your ability to carry out athetic exercise requiring a high energy output and increased blood oxygen availability. It also helps to reduce recovery time, and proponents of its use claim that it enables you to exercise at a higher level for longer.

Although the medical evidence for this is scant, not a lot of work has been done in trying to establish it, and those that use inosine in this way swear that it is effective. The theory certainly indicates that it should be effective in helping to produce more energy, and also that it should be able to make more oxygen available, and some athletes have been taking it for decades with excellent results.

There are no known side effects of its use, although pregnant women and nursing mothers are recommended not to use it, as with many other health supplements the pathology of which have not been closely studuied. As with any supplement, you are highly recommended to consult your own doctor or physician when taking any supplement, particular if you have a current medical condition or are taking prescriptive medicines.

If you are predisposed to gout, and some people are, the uric acid it produces can render inosine unsuitable. Uric acid reacts with calcium to produce the sodium urate that is deposited on the cartilage and tendons of the joints, particularly the big toe. It is a very painful condition, so those that have suffered gout in the past should not take inosine as a supplement.

Otherwise, its effect on your athletic performance might be academic!

--
Buy Inosine at Vitanet ®, LLC

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GABA
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Date: August 26, 2008 04:58 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: GABA

GABA is gama amino butyric acid, and is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is essential for the proper function of your brain and the central nervous system, and has the effect of reducing excessive brain activity and promoting a state of calm.

For many people, the rush of daily life, with its problems, worries and external stimuli, can over-stimulate the brain to the extent that it can all seem too much for them. They feel anxious and overwhelmed, and wish that they could just go into a quiet corner to get away from it all. Most people have felt like that at some time, but the demands of life do not allow them that luxury. They just have to bear it and get on with life.

That is where GABA can come in. It can be used to bring your nervous system back to base, and make you feel more relaxed, calmer and more able to meet these challenges that life often throws at you. When you feel that you just can’t relax or concentrate on what you are doing, GABA can help you. If you look around you and everybody else seems OK, without apparently feeling the stress and irritability that you feel, and then perhaps your problem is due to a GABA deficiency. GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in your brain, and a deficiency would certainly give you the symptoms that you are feeling. Let me explain why.

As your brain becomes excited, it can run out of control and needs some form of modification or inhibition to keep it acting as normal. Without this you would become increasingly more restless and irritable, and ultimately have seizures. GABA is not only the main inhibitor in your brain, but also helps in the production of endorphins that provide you with a sense of well being. That sense of calm you feel when endorphins are produced, for example during exercise or sexual intercourse, is commonly referred to as the ‘endorphin effect’.

GABA is at its highest concentration in specific areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus, the hippocampus and the central brain area, and is present in up to 40% of all synapses, the small gaps between neurons across which brain cells can communicate with each other.

It is produced during the Krebs or Citric Acid Cycle that is responsible for cell respiration or the production of energy from carbohydrates. It is synthesized from alpha-keto glutarate, which is produced just before the Succinyl Co-A stage of the Krebs Cycle in the brain. Vitamin B6 in involved in its metabolism, and a Vitamin B6 deficiency can lead to a deficiency in GABA that might result in seizures.

Basically GABA works by inhibiting the firing of neurons in your brain, and thus reducing general brain activity. The GABA receptor allows more chloride ion to enter the brain cell, thus helping to maintain the electrical charge within the cells. Bezodiazepines (e.g. diazepam) work by increasing the effectiveness of GABA in opening the chloride ion cells to allow more chloride ion to enter the neurons, and caffeine does the opposite, and inhibits this property of GABA. Thus diazepam works as a minor tranquilizer and caffeine as a stimulant.

Alcohol has a similar effect to the benzodiazepines, increasing the release of chloride into the neurons, and is the major way in which alcohol affects the brain. In fact, tolerance to drugs and withdrawal symptoms can be explained by the receptors adapting to the drug. They may increase in number, which means that more of the drug is needed to work on them, and they can become hypoactive in the event of the drug being withdrawn, that enhances the symptoms that the drug was intended to treat.

So basically, that is the way that GABA works. In simple terms it increases the flow of chloride electrolyte to the brain, and in so doing affects our mood. This effect is enhanced by prescription drugs such as Valium and Ativan, which are used by those that suffer the effects of a GABA deficiency. However, these drugs have side effects, not the least of which is dependency due to the GABA receptors becoming modified to suit the drug. There is a more natural way to overcome many stress problems and symptoms of mood swings.

Knowing what causes these symptoms, it makes sense to eat foods that stimulate the creation of neurotransmitters to replace those that are deficient. Since GABA is produced in the Krebs Cycle and complex carbohydrates produce glutamine that is an important part of that Cycle, and is also the precursor to GABA, then the consumption of such foods should in theory produce more GABA. In this case the theory works, and you should eat foods rich in complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, brown rice and oats as part of your diet.

Other foods that are high in glutamine or its precursors, glutamic acid and glutamate, include citrus fruits, beef liver, broccoli, halibut and lentils. A useful supplement to take is L-theanine, an amino acid found in green tea, and available in supplement form. L-theanine can calm your nerves while maintaining clarity of thought. In other words it calms you down, but doesn’t make you drowsy and allows you to enjoy your day with anxiety.

Your doctor can determine whether or not you have a neurotransmitter deficiency through a simple urine test, and might also test your saliva for hormone content. A GABA supplement might be indicated, and if so it other beneficial effects on your body other than its effect on your brain cells.

It improves your sleep cycles and promotes vivid dreaming, and can also have a positive effect on your blood pressure. It is also an effective pain killer, and can provide relief from such conditions as back pain and arthritis. Its stimulating effect on the anterior pituitary gland to secrete Human Growth Hormone might also be regarded as a benefit by many. Increasing the level of HGH in your blood can lead to fat loss and improved anabolic activity (increase in muscle tissue). This can be of benefit to older people whose level of HGH secretion has dropped off, and who find it more difficult to lose fat.

GABA is a substance that has many known benefits and no known side effects other than a slight tingling and increase in heart rate when the supplement is first used. It has a definite benefit for people to whom the world seems too hectic and overwhelming.



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B Vitamin Complex
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Date: June 23, 2008 03:19 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: B Vitamin Complex

The vitamin B supplement you take is a mixture of nutrients that, although they share the same vitamin letter, are in fact distinctly different chemical entities. The reason that they share the same reference letter of the alphabet is that they are all essential water soluble vitamins (Vitamin C being the only other), they frequently work in synergy with each other and they often come from common sources and have similar properties in the body. They were therefore at one time believed to be just the one chemical entity.

They are essential in that they must form part of our diet because our bodies cannot manufacture these substances from others, and although most share common biochemical and health functions, there is no health function that requires all of them, and none of them can be totally replaced by another.

The B-Vitamin complex that you take can consist of as many as eight different B vitamins, each of which is essential for a healthy body and at one time it was believed that this mixture was only one single vitamin. That is why they are collectively known as vitamin B and were subsequently allocated numbers: it was only later that the individual components were discovered.

These eight are vitamin B-1 (thiamine), vitamin B-2 (riboflavin), vitamin B-3 (niacin), vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B-12 (cobalamins), biotin and folic acid (folate). They are found in yeast, liver, tuna, bananas and rice among other sources, and, as with all vitamins, without them life would not be possible. Not all vitamins are found in each of these food sources, and vitamin B-12, for example, is available in nutritional quantities only from animal sources.

Knowing what they are is all very well, but what does your body do with the B vitamin supplement that you take? Before considering that, the reason that a regular supply is important is because of their water solubility. This is a useful property for a vitamin to possess, because it means that they can easily be transported by the body fluids to the tissues where they are needed. The downside, however, is that they are consequently also easily flushed from the body, and your body cannot store any of the B vitamins.

You therefore must have a regular dietary source that can be augmented through supplementation. This is particularly desirable in alcoholics, those on diets to lose weight and vegans who are advised to take a regular vitamin B-12 supplement.

A lack of vitamin B will make you feel tired and lack energy because they play a big part in your body’s metabolism of blood glucose into energy. They also help to maintain a healthy immune system, keep your nervous system in tip-top condition and maintain good healthy skin, hair and muscles. The B complex is also very important in maintaining healthy blood and liver, and each and every component of the mixture has a specific part to play, both on individually and by interaction with others in the B complex.

Rather than examining what your body does with the supplement as a whole, let’s have a look at each component, and what your body does with that. Taking them one at a time, thiamine (B1) helps you to burn carbohydrates to generate energy. It is highly water soluble and must be taken daily. In the form of thiamine pyrophosphate it plays a key part in the metabolism of carbohydrates to energy, and also in the metabolism of certain amino acids. If you rely heavily on a high carbohydrate diet, you will need a good regular supplement of thiamine to be able to convert them to energy.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) also plays a part in fat and carbohydrate metabolism and the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the molecule of energy. It plays a significant part in the health of your skin and a deficiency is associated with mouth ulcers, cracked lips, flaky skin and bloodshot watery eyes. It also activates vitamin B6 and folic acid, one of the cases where the B vitamins work together synergistically.

Vitamin B3, or niacin, is well known to women as a component of some shampoos, and helps to promote health hair. However, this vitamin also takes part in the process of energy creation within your body, and helps to maintain a good muscle tone within the digestive tract. It is also used as a supplement for the treatment of diseases related to high levels of LDL cholesterol and is useful for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

Pantothenic acid is also found as a component of shampoos, so no prizes for guessing one of its functions. Vitamin B-5 plays a significant part in the energy-producing Krebs Cycle, or Citric Acid Cycle, that is used by every cell in your body to generate energy just where it is needed. It is also needed to synthesize acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter needed for good brain function and it helps to reduce stress. Pantothenic acid is also closely involved in the production of cholesterol in your liver: cholesterol is not all bad, and is needed by your body to produce some of the steroid hormones and also vitamin D.

Amino acids are the small units that are used to biosynthesize proteins and ultimately the genes and DNA that determine who you are. The major factor involved in processing these amino acids is Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), one of the lesser known of the vitamin B complex. It synthesizes and breaks up different amino acids to produce a variety of other compounds, such as the hormones serotonin, melatonin and dopamine.

Deficiencies in these hormones can be very serious, Parkinson’s disease believed to be connected with a dopamine deficiency for example, and other disorders include kidney stones, anemia and many skin complaints. Although deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare, it can occur in alcoholics and those with chronic kidney problems. It is believed that many diets are deficient, however, and a good vitamin B supplement would ensure that this did not occur.

Vitamin B-12 is one where deficiency can occur, particularly in alcoholics and vegans. It is available in sufficient quantities only from meat sources, and a supplement is indicated in anyone with a low meat intake in their diet. It is used by your body for the replication of DNA and to allow the normal activity of your body cells. It also helps to control homocysteine levels in conjunction with vitamin B6 and folic acid: homocysteine is a high-risk amino acid associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease that can lead to Alzheimer’s disease, heart attacks and strokes.

The seventh, biotin (sometimes referred to as vitamin B7) also takes part in the metabolism of energy, but deficiencies have not been known, and the final known member of the B vitamin complex is folic acid. This is essential for cell growth and the synthesis of RNA and DNA in the body. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is responsible for the synthesis of proteins in your body, and the well known Deoxy-ribonucleic acid (DNA) holds the genetic information of your body. Folic acid is therefore essential in the growing fetus, and any other cellular system that rapidly regenerates such as blood cells and the various cells of the immune system.

Without folic acid your body would be more susceptible to bacterial and viral attack, and less able to protect you from foreign invaders into your body tissues. Although deficiency is not common, folic acid is present in fresh food only and degrades when stored at room temperature and when cooked. A supplement is therefore advisable during pregnancy to help to prevent neural tube defects.

It is evident that the Vitamin B complex plays many parts in the chemistry of your body, and that a supplement can be of benefit in assuring that there are no deficiencies. A good B complex can be found at your local or internet health food store.



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B Vitamin Supplements
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Date: May 07, 2008 03:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: B Vitamin Supplements

The fact that B vitamins have had to be coenzymated before they can be used by your body has been known for some time, but it is only over the past few years that they have been made commercially available in that form. Before we discuss the B vitamins in their coenzyme form it might be appropriate to discuss what coenzymes are and how they differ from ordinary enzymes.

An enzyme is like an organic catalyst: it takes part in biochemical reactions by allowing such reactions to take place, but itself remaining unchanged. All enzymes are proteins formed in your body from amino acids and other protein material. A coenzyme, on the other hand, is somewhat like an enzyme for the enzymes, in that it is needed for the enzyme to do its job. Without a coenzyme, many enzymes could not promote the biochemical reaction it is responsible for.

The B vitamins are all water soluble, which means that they are readily excreted and it is not impossible that if you take a B vitamin supplement, the whole lot will be immediately excreted in your urine if not used by your body. Whether they are or not it is a fact that your body can quickly become depleted of the B vitamin group, especially if you drink a lot. Alcoholics in particular are frequently vitamin B deficient. Although the liver can store unused vitamin B, they are only very small quantities and insufficient to prevent a deficiency.

A deficiency in the B vitamins can cause a wide range of unpleasant conditions that are rapidly remedied with supplements. Pellagra is due largely to a deficiency in Vitamin B3, and causes hair loss, horrible skin lesions and many other side effects that you don’t want to know about. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause loss of memory, and is common in alcoholics and some vegetarians (vitamin B12 is animal derived). Other symptoms of a general B vitamin deficiency include exhaustion, heart palpitations, fibrillation, anxiety, restlessness, attention deficit disorder and many, many more.

It is not pleasant so you make sure that take enough vitamin B in your diet: dietary sources are far superior to pills although supplements will help you get over the symptoms of the deficiency until your diet takes over. Supplementation is also a good way to maintain a regular supply of vitamin B complex irrespective of your diet. The effects of a deficiency are so bad that a regular supplement is well worth taking.

However, back to coenzymes and why they are needed for the metabolism of B vitamins in your body. Most B vitamins are, in fact, coenzymes themselves. Keep in mind that the definition of a vitamin is an organic substance that is essential for the normal health of your body. If you lack even one vitamin, your health with suffer and eventually you will be likely to die. That describes all of the B vitamins perfectly, and they also just happen to be coenzymes. This is not coincidence, of course, and their biochemistry must have been recognized before the concept of coenzymes was formulated.

The B vitamins proper consist of eight distinct proteins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folic acid), B12 (cyanocobalamin), and biotin and pantothenic acid. They are all essential components in human and animal metabolism, and most are also coenzymes.

Every cell in your body depends on B vitamins for its existence, which is why pregnant women should include a good supply of them in their diet, especially folic acid (B9). They are essential for the cellular development of the fetus. Folic acid is necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids that allow cell growth and the production of red blood cells. However, not one can be placed in importance above any other since they are all essential.

With respect to the coenzyme factor, the vitamin B coenzymes are responsible for many of the biochemical reactions upon which life depends. Coenzyme B-12 for example is essential for two types of reaction that it catalyzes, one being a hydrogen atom exchange with alcohol and amine functional groups, the other being connected with methyl group transfer between molecules.

In humans, the first of these is responsible for an essential step that results in energy being metabolized from fats and proteins in the mitochondria and the second for DNA production in cells that is indirectly responsible for growth. Each of these is why a vitamin B-12 deficiency leads to excessive fatigue and also a lack of fetal growth (although folic acid can make up for the latter deficiency).

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is a coenzyme for the metabolism of carbohydrates to energy. In the body it is present in the form of thiamine diphosphate, a coenzyme that assists in the decarboxylation of pyruvate as part of the citric acid cycle, otherwise known as the Krebs Cycle, that takes place in the mitochondria and is responsible for the generation of energy through aerobic respiration.

Another coenzyme that is involved in the Krebs Cycle is formed in the body from Vitamin B3, or niacin. This coenzyme, nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide, has a redox potential and can store energy for use later on. Vitamin B5 can be converted in the body to Coenzyme A that not only breaks proteins down into individual amino acids, but also takes part in the first part of the Krebs Cycle. There is a common pattern emerging here where the B vitamins have an important part to play in the generation of energy from fats and carbohydrates.

Similarly, Vitamin B6 is present in the body as the coenzyme Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate that helps to break down the body’s emergency energy store, glycogen, into energy when needed.

In these ways, and more, the coenzymes created in the body from the B vitamins help many of the reactions of life to take place, and without these coenzymes life could not exist. Hence the importance of the B vitamins themselves, and any deficiency could be disastrous to the metabolic processes that generate energy and keep you alive. It is not just the energy needed for exercise and normal human activity that will be compromised, but also that which keeps the heart beating and your diaphragm moving to allow you to breath.

Without a doubt, a Vitamin B supplement is one of the most valuable of all the vitamin supplements, and they are available in many forms. You might also find some of the B vitamins in their coenzyme form, though some of them may be unstable. However, whatever form they are taken in, Vitamin B complex should be one of the first on your vitamin supplement shopping list.

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Biotin For Better Health!
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Date: April 14, 2008 12:42 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Biotin For Better Health!

Biotin is one of the B vitamins, known as vitamin B7 and also, for some reason, vitamin H. If you have a deficiency of this vitamin you will know about it because it makes you bald. So keep up your vitamin B7 intake girls!

However, this should not be difficult since it is contained in cooked egg white (not raw), tomatoes, chard, onions, cabbage, strawberries, walnuts, halibut, carrots, liver, brewers yeast and cucumber to name but a few of the many sources. It makes sense that it has so many sources because biotin is essential for many of the biochemical reactions that take place continuously in your body.

It is contained in raw eggs, but is bound too tightly to the protein to be available to your body. It has to be cooked before the bond is broken sufficiently to render it bioavailable.

Included in these is the all-important Krebs cycle that releases energy from food. It is necessary for the growth of your body cells, for the metabolism of the fats you consume and for the biosynthesis of the fatty acids that are eventually converted to proteins and then the DNA that is essential for life. In other words, without biotin we would not be here.

However, do not get overly worried about the necessity of biotin in your diet, since the same applies to all of the other vitamins you consume. That is what vitamins are chemicals that have been identified ages ago as being essential to life. Without vitamins we could not survive which is why the vitamin supplement industry is so strong and healthy.

So, what does biotin do specifically, other than being necessary for some of the essential biochemical processes in your body? These tend to look after themselves, so what are the physical attributes that biotin provides for you? The name should give you a clue. In fact it should be familiar since it is one of the more commonly mentioned ingredients of hair care products: “Biotin for Healthy Hair” - ring a bell?

Although a deficiency of biotin is rare with a healthy balanced diet, it can happen, and when it does your first sign might be your skin drying out, your cholesterol levels will increase, you will feel continually tired and depressed with a poor appetite and you will be nauseous. You will also frequently vomit, which puts the icing on the cake of a set of very undesirable symptoms. It is important, then, that you do not suffer from a deficiency of biotin, vitamin B7 or vitamin H, whatever you want to call it, and is why many people take a supplement just to make sure.

This is normally taken as part of a general B complex supplement or even a general multivitamin supplement, since almost everybody has no idea what this vitamin is and why it is so necessary for your continued health. So let's have a look at why biotin is so important, with specific reference to your hair, skin and nails. However, we shall also examine its deeper biochemical uses and explain why it is such an essential vitamin.

With regard to biotin supplements in hair preparations, it benefit’s by helping one grow thicker hair, symptoms of a deficiency is brittle hair. If you are deficient, you will lose your eyelashes and eyebrows in addition to your hair, depending on the severity of your deficiency. As stated, however, that is particularly rare. The biotin content of shampoos is likely useless since it is not absorbed through the skin.

What it does in the diet, however, is to thicken the nails and also the hair fiber giving it a fuller appearance, so that you appear to have more hair than you actually have. It also increases the flexibility of the hair, skin and nails rendering them less brittle and less liable to breaking and scaling. However, as previously stated if you eat a good balanced diet you should avoid these problems, although a vitamin B complex supplement will do the job just as well.

So what else does vitamin B7 do for you? Lots in fact, so let's have a look at the more important of them starting with the function of your body cells in the production of energy. Biotin takes part in the Citric Acid Cycle, otherwise known as the Krebs Cycle, whereby energy is created by the conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water. It is one of the essential metabolic pathways of life, and biotin is needed to recharge the Krebs cycle with metabolites when mitochondria become deficient in these essential components.

Without them you would begin to feel tired and lack energy, and this would get increasingly worse without a biotin supplement. It is amazing that your energy is created in the mitochondria which are a part of the tiny cells that make up the tissue of your body, and equally amazing that it depends upon, among other substances, a vitamin of which very few people are even aware of.

In spite of any other effect biotin has on your body, including providing healthy hair, skin and nails, its primary role in your body is in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates into a form that can be used by your body for the production of energy. Biochemically, it functions as a coenzyme, which is a molecule needed to help an enzyme do its work. In fact an alternative name give to biotin is Coenzyme R.

It helps in the biochemical conversion of sugars to energy, and is a component of enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase. That enzyme is protein contained within the mitochondria that contains a biotin prosthetic group, without which it could not function to help the body to generate energy during exercise. Suffice it to say that without biotin you would find it difficult to generate energy, especially when the demand for it is at its highest.

Biotin's biochemical role is not restricted to energy production however, and it is involved in the biochemical synthesis of amino acids and also of glucose from other sugars. Glucose is the main blood sugar that is manufactured in the body from the other saccharides that you eat, such as fructose.

A reasonable level of supplementation to ensure that you do not suffer from a deficiency is around 100 micrograms daily, although up to 5 milligrams (5000 mcg) are safe for the treatment of brittle nails or hair loss. Much depends on age and it is best taken as a vitamin B complex supplement, since the B vitamins appear to give best results as a team!

So, while you can have healthy hair, skin and nails with biotin, without it you will have no energy and likely have no need for your hair, skin and nails!



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B Complex to Restore the Adrenal Glands from Stress
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Date: February 07, 2008 05:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: B Complex to Restore the Adrenal Glands from Stress

The B vitamins comprise a range of water soluble vitamins that frequently work together to impart a number of general benefits to your body’s health. In general they support and maintain the metabolic rate, maintain the function of the nervous system, support the immune system, maintain healthy skin and muscles and help to promote cell growth and division. They work together to suppress the causes and symptoms of cardiovascular disease and stress and they are dispersed throughout the whole of the body by means of the circulation system of the blood.

In very general terms they collectively ensure that the body is provided with energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates and glucose. They are also needed for the metabolism of fats and proteins, and also the maintenance and health of the nervous system in general.

There are many natural sources, including lentils, potatoes, liver, turkey, brewer’s yeast, and also, of course, dietary supplements.

Vitamin B Complex can help to restore the adrenal glands from stress, but to understand how it does so, it is first necessary to understand what these glands are, and the part that they can play in stress.

The adrenal glands are situated just above each kidney, and take the form of two small pieces of tissue in the shape of a pyramid that generate specific hormones and chemical messengers. You have likely heard of adrenaline, the hormone that make you respond to certain types of stress either through flight or by fighting: what is known as the fight or flight reaction. Well, in fact there are two of them, noredrenaline being the other. They are also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine respectively.

Both the adrenal glands are controlled by what is known as the HPA axis, short for the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis which is the stress center of the body. The adrenals are the main steroid-producing plants in the body, responsible not only for the adrenaline hormones, but also for cortisone and hydrocortisone, testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, progesterone and a number of others. These are produced in the outer cortex of the adrenal glands, whereas adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced and secreted by the medulla.

Adrenaline and cortisol are responsible along with others for the balance of your body fluids, blood sugar and blood pressure and many of the other main metabolic functions of the body, and if the adrenaline is not working properly, it can disrupt the metabolism of your blood glucose into energy, giving you a weak run-down and listless feeling. This is not surprising since your energy is failing at the cellular level.

The main reason for adrenal fatigue is stress. Either emotional or physical stress or even poor nutrition can be responsible for reducing the functioning of the glands to such an extent that they no longer provide the steroid hormones in the proper balanced quantities needed to maintain the proper functioning of your metabolic processes. Unlike Addison’s disease, which a complete stoppage of the functioning of the adrenal glands, in Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome the glands still function, but at a reduced capacity and the various products they are responsible for generating are secreted in reduced and imbalanced quantities.

However, fatigue is not normally the first reaction of the body to stress. As normal stress levels increase the bodies response is generally to secrete higher levels of adrenaline, and the cortex produces extra cortisol and other hormones. As stress continues beyond the intermittent stage and becomes more constant, the adrenals produce a more sustained high level of hormones, that generally raise blood pressure and also increase the level of sugar in the blood in order allow a sustained increase in energy levels. Corticosteroids are produced to maintain this higher level reaction to stress.

Finally, when the adrenals can sustain this high level of activity no longer, adrenal fatigue sets in which is when the worst symptoms of the stress are evident: exhaustion, both physically and mentally, excessive fear, guilt and worry, and under-activity of the HPA axis leads to depression, hopelessness and severe illness, often due to a weakened immune system.

So where does the B vitamin complex come into this? Vitamin B complex includes niacin, thiamine, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamins B6 and B12. As already stated, the complex is useful in supporting many of the critical functions of the body from healthy bones to healthy blood cells, and nervous systems. It also helps to maintain your reproductive system and can be used in cases of nerve-related conditions such as sciatica and neurological conditions.

Pantothenic acid, vitamin B5, is particularly useful in dealing with stress in that it enhances the activity of the adrenal glands. It also increases your energy levels due to its effect on the Krebs Cycle through its action as a precursor of acetyl Coenzyme A and acetylcholine which is a primary neurotransmitter. This helps to reduce fatigue and the pain of headaches caused by excessive stress and consequent reduction in adrenal output. Pantothenic acid is also essential during the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and is important in the maintenance of healthy nerves, skin and glands.

In fact the whole of the vitamin B family work together to make sure that your whole nervous system and metabolism remain healthy. People with high stress jobs often take the vitamin B complex to help reduce that stress and also anger. Excessive stress and anger can lead to anxiety and overwork the adrenal glands, and B complex can help to restore these to their normal function.

If you are concerned about your adrenal health, you can have a simple test carried out on your saliva, blood or urine by a trained medical practitioner. Many doctors do not know to carry out this test since it is not a normal test as would be used to detect Addison’s Disease, or complete adrenal failure, but only adrenal fatigue, so ask specifically for an adrenal fatigue check.

A quick self-test is to shine a light into an eye using a flashlight while looking in a mirror. They pupil should contract and return to normal after about 30 seconds. If it fails to do so, or even dilates, then that is a sign of adrenal fatigue. However, you must have it confirmed by a proper test.

All in all, a B complex supplement is a good way to restore adrenal glands from stress, and it also helps your nervous system in general, in addition to aiding the metabolic processes of your body. However, make sure that your symptoms are what you think they are by seeking professional medical advice.



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The Awesome Foursome: Coenzyme Q10, D-Ribose, L-Carnitine, and Magnesium
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Date: May 18, 2007 01:06 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Awesome Foursome: Coenzyme Q10, D-Ribose, L-Carnitine, and Magnesium

The Awesome Foursome: Coenzyme Q10, L-Carnitine,

D-Ribose, Magnesium

 

The “Awesome Foursome” of Coenzyme Q10, L-Carnitine, D-Ribose, and magnesium helps our hearts metabolize energy more efficiently and protects them from the stress of cardiovascular disease. This powerful combination of nutrients goes directly to the basic biochemistry of cellular energy metabolism. Now let’s take a closer look at how Coenzyme Q10, L-Carnitine, D-Ribose, and magnesium work in synergy to promote cardiovascular health.

 

Coenzyme Q10:

Energy Recycling through the Electron Transport Chain

Coenzyme Q10 is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect the mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial DNA, and cell walls from free-radical attack. But its most important function in the body is its central role in energy metabolism.

Most – about 90 percent – of the ATP used by cells is recycled as food (fuel) and oxidized in the mitochondria. Fatty acids, carbohydrates, and, occasionally, proteins are carried across the mitochondrial membrane and enter the Krebs’ cycle, moving from step to step and spinning off electrons. These electrons are then handed off to the electron transport chain, where, in the presence of oxygen, the energy from the electrons is captured as a phosphate group is added to ADP to form ATP. This recycling of ATP is called oxidative phosphorylation, and the by-products of these pathways are CO2 and water.

In this fashion, Coenzyme Q10 acts as a gatekeeper of electrons, making sure they are carried to just the right place to pass on their life-giving energy.

What is critical, however, is the simple fact that without Coenzyme Q10 the electron transport chain would totally break down. And since the electron transport chain is (by far!) the largest contributor to cellular energy turnover, its loss would be catastrophic. It is also important to know that there has to be an excess of Coenzyme Q10 in the mitochondria to be maximally effective. Having just enough isn’t sufficient to do the job properly, and having a deficiency seriously affects the mitochondria’s ability to supply the cell with energy.

Cellular stress can cause Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, which places a severe strain on Coenzyme Q10 availability. People with heart disease, hypertension, gingival disease, Parkinson’s disease, and the other disorders we’ve discussed are known to be deficient in Coenzyme Q10. Whether these deficiencies are the cause or the effect of these varied medical problems, the end result is that they sap the life out of their mitochondria and reduce their energy supplies. You see, Coenzyme Q10 cannot function properly if electrons are not coming out of the Krebs’ cycle, and the Krebs’ cycle won’t work without the fuel that’s transported into the mitochondria by L-Carnitine.

 

L-Carnitine:

Transporting the Cellular Energy Fuel

Fatty acids are the preferred energy fuel for hearts and most other cells in the body. L-Carnitine facilitates the beta oxidation of fatty acids as energy fuel. And since fatty acids are the preferred fuel for energy recycling in cells, this action is critical to cell and tissue function. Unfortunately, L-carnitine is deficient in people with heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, lipid metabolic disorders, mitochondrial disorders, and many other disease syndromes we reviewed earlier. This L-carnitine deficiency disrupts the normal metabolism of fatty acids, reducing available energy supplies and leading to the accumulation of toxic by-products of fatty acid metabolism. L-carnitine supplementation revives fatty acid metabolism and restore normal mitochondrial function. But even this powerful improvement in cellular energy metabolism cannot up for the energy drain that comes from the loss of energy substrates caused by low oxygen delivery to the tissue. Only D-Ribose can do that.

 

D-Ribose:

Rebuilding the Cellular Energy Pool

As long as cells and tissues have plenty of oxygen, the pool of energy substrates in the cell remains high. And as long as there is enough L-carnitine and Coenzyme Q10 available, the process of energy utilization and supply can proceed unimpeded. However, the cellular supply of oxygen can be restricted by acute or chronic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, any number of skeletal – or neuromuscular diseases, or even high-intensity exercise.

When cells are deprived of oxygen the mitochondrial energy turnover becomes inefficient. Remember, oxygen is required to let the oxidative pathway of energy recycling work properly. If the mitochondria are not able to recycle energy efficiently, cellular energy supply cannot keep pace with demand. But the cell has a continuing need for energy so it will use all its ATP stores and then break down the by-product, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), to pull the remaining energy out of this compound as well. What’s left is adenosine menophosphate (AMP). Since a growing concentration of AMP is incompatible with sustained cellular function it’s quickly broken apart and the by-products are washed out of the cell. The net result of this process is a depletion of the cellular pool of energy substrates. When the by-products of AMP catabolism are washed out of the cell, they are lost forever. It takes a long time to replace these lost energy substrates even if the cell is fully perfused with oxygen again.

Ribose is the only compound used by the body to refill this energy pool.  Every cell in the body has the capacity to make ribose, but hearts, muscles, and most other tissues lack the metabolic machinery to make ribose quickly when the cells are stressed by oxygen depletion or metabolic insufficiency.  Ribose is made naturally in the cells from glucose.  In stressed cells, however, glucose is preferentially metabolized for the energy turnover and is not available for ribose synthesis.  So when energy pools are drained from stressed cells, the cells must first wait for the slow process of ribose synthesis before they can begin to replace their lost energy stores.

    Acute ischemia, like that which takes place during a heart attack, heart surgery, or angioplasty, drains the cell of energy.  Even when oxygenated blood flow returns, refilling the energy pool may take ten or more days.  But when oxygen deprivation is chronic, or when energy metabolism is disrupted by disease, there may be so much continual strain on the energy supply that the pool can ever refill without the assistance of supplemental ribose.  Conditions like ischemic heart disease or congestive heart failure fall into this category.  In these situations, supplementing the tissue with exogenous ribose is the only way the cell can keep up with the energy drain.

 

Magnesium:

Switching on the Energy Enzymes

Magnesium is an essential mineral that's critical for energy requiring processes, in protein synthesis, membrane integrity, nervous tissue conduction, neuromuscular excitation, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, maintenance of vascular tone, and in intermediary metabolism.  Deficiency may lead to changes in neuromuscular, cardiovascular, immune, and hormonal function; Impaired energy metabolism; and reduced capacity for physical work.  Magnesium deficiency is now considered to contribute to many diseases, and the role for magnesium as a therapeutic agent is expanding.

    Magnesium deficiency reduces the activity of important enzymes used in energy metabolism.  Unless we have adequate levels of magnesium in our cells, the cellular processes of energy metabolism cannot function.  Small changes in magnesium levels can have a substantial effect on heart and blood vessel function.  While magnesium is found in most foods - particularly vegetables - deficiencies are increasing.  Softened water and a trend toward lower vegetable consumption are the culprits contributing to these rising deficiencies.

 

Supporting the Links in The Energy Cycle Chain – the Synergy

Clearly, each membrane of the “Awesome Foursome” is fundamental to cellular energy metabolism in its own right. Each plays a unique and vital role in supplying the heart with the energy it needs to preserve its contractile force. Each is independently effective in helping hearts work through the stress of disease. And while each contributes immeasurable to the energy health of the cell, in combination they are unbeatable. Allow me to reiterate the step-by-step, complicated cellular processes involved to be sure that you really understand the rationale for using these nutrients.

The cell needs a large, sustained, and healthy pool of energy to fuel all its metabolic functions. Contraction, relaxation, maintenance of cellular ion balance, and synthesis of macromolecules, like proteins, all require a high energy charge to carry their reactions to completion. The energy pool must be preserved, or these fundamental cellular functions will become inefficient or will cease to operate altogether. To keep the pool vibrant and healthy, the cell needs ribose. But even with supplemental ribose, the cell needs the efficient turnover of its energy stores to balance ongoing energy utilization with supply. That’s where CoQ10 and L-carnitine come into play.

The converse is also true. Even if the cell is fully charged with energy, cellular energy supply will not keep pace with demand if the mitochondria are not functioning properly. CoQ10 and L-carnitine work to keep mitochondrial operations running at peak efficiency, and one side cannot work effectively without the other. Even though CoQ10 and L-carnitine can make the energy turnover mechanisms work more efficiently, they cannot increase the cell’s chemical driving force, and their action will be only partially effective. Ribose on the other hand, can keep the energy pool supplied with substrate, but the value of energy pool repletion cannot be fully realized if the substrate cannot be maximally utilized and recycled. Ribose fills the tank; CoQ10 an L-carnitine help the engine run properly.

Magnesium is the glue that holds energy metabolism together. By turning on the enzymes that drive the metabolic reactions, magnesium allows it all to happen.

These four nutrients must be utilized by cardiologists and other physicians as they treat patients day-to-day. On my own journey, using Coenzymes Q10 for two decades, L-carnitine for more than ten years, D-Ribose for two years, and magnesium equally as long, I’ve seen this “Awesome Foursome” reduce suffering and improve the quality of life for thousands of patients.

The future of nutrition in conventional medicine is very bright, although the integration of nutritional supplements has been a slow and, at times, lonely process.

L-carnitine and Coenzyme Q10 are finally gaining the recognition they deserve. D-Ribose is emerging as a new player in the complex understanding of metabolic cardiology, and doctors are beginning to discuss the important role of magnesium deficiency in heart patients. As a practicing cardiologist for over thirty years, I see metabolic cardiology as the future for the treatment of heart disease and other complex disease conditions, as well.



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Protect the Heart with D-Ribose, Coenzyme Q10, L-Carnitine, and Magnesium at Vitanet ®, LLC

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Revita
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Date: March 08, 2007 12:27 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Revita

Revita, the most efficient hair growth stimulating shampoo available in the market is the final result of DS Laboratories efforts on cutting edge research. Revita is a powerful and unique SLS/SLES free combination of active ingredients specially designed to maintain scalp vitality and act on folicle dysfunctions in order to achieve best results in short periods of time. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate, commonly used low cost detergents in shampoos and cleansers, are linked to skin irritation, skin drying and hair loss due to follicle attack. Revita is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate free, providing a high quality scalp skin safe shampoo product.

Revita was developed with a cost-no-object approach. Revita’s compounds have been chosen based exclusively on their properties, quality and efficacy (in the opposite of the majority of available products, which are usually developed with production costs in mind). The final result is a very high quality shampoo product with absolutely no equivalent competitor in the market. Revita combines costly first line compounds at high concentrations like Caffeine at 4.0%, Pyrus Malus (Apple) Seed Extract at 1.0% and Spin Traps (SOD Mimic) at 0.1% with other top level ingredients which make Revita a unique product in its class.

To improve the efficacy of this synergic combination, DS Laboratories developed a unique “chemical free” extraction process that keeps original properties and clinical efficacy of final components. Through gentle mechanical compression, Revita’s compounds are obtained as pure and chemically preserved active molecules.

Revita starts acting on your scalp and hair follicle since the first day of use. The time you will need to note the first results will depend of the severity and duration of your hair loss. No matter how long or how intense your hair loss is, using Revita on daily basis will improve the vitality of your scalp, maintaining the quality of your hair and stimulating new hair growth.

Through the synergic interaction of very effective compounds, Revita brings you a highly effective product designed to maintain scalp vitality and act on hair loss. By combining an antioxidant effect, anti-DHT properties, powerful hydrating molecules, hair growth stimulants and structural amino acids, Revita brings you the most effective hair growth stimulating shampoo available.

Apple Polyphenol (procyanidin B2 and C1) - phytochemical concentrate found in the skin of unripe apples that acts as potent antioxidant. It protects cells against free radicals, reactive atoms that contribute to tissue damage in the body. These chemical compounds are being studied extensively in labs around the world for their health effects in major diseases including treatment of hair growth. Studies showed that after sequential use, an increase of almost 80% of hair diameter and an increase in number of total hairs was shown, with no side effects.

In 2000, Japanese researchers presented their findings to the international community on the hair growth effects of apple polyphenols - specifically one known as procyanidin B-2. They identified two successful compounds- one from chardonnay grapes, and one extracted from unripe apples. The procyanidin B-2 fraction clearly outperformed the grape extract. "Procyanidin B-2 purified from apples," stated the research team, "shows the highest activity of more than 300% relative to controls."

In the same year, in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, nineteen men with male pattern baldness were studied with a daily topical application of a 1% procyanidin B-2 solution, extracted from apples. Ten other balding men served as controls, receiving a placebo solution. After 6 months, the study concluded:

• The increase in number of total hairs and terminal hairs in the procyanidin B-2 group subjects was significantly greater than controls.

• 78.9% of subjects showed an increased mean value of hair diameter.

• "Procyanidin B-2 therapy shows promise as a cure for male pattern baldness."

Following the revelations, an attempt was made to further understand the mechanism by which the remarkable hair growth effects occurred. The results were published in the prestigious British Journal of Dermatology: Procyanidin B-2, extracted from apples, promotes hair growth: a laboratory study, Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):41-51. In this study, the researchers concluded that procyanidin B-2 acts to diminish protein kinase C isozymes, which play an important role in the hair growth cycle. Procyanidin B-2 seems to promote hair growth by down regulating PKC in both the anagen (active growth phase) and telogen (resting phase) of the hair follicle. When the anagen phase is prolonged, and the telogen phase is shortened, increased hair growth results.

Two more clinical trials and a total of seven published studies have now confirmed the surprising hair growth-promoting effects of apple procyanidins. Here is a summary of those findings:

• Total Number of Hairs: Significantly Increased

• Total Number of Terminal Hairs: Significantly Greater

• Increase in Hair Diameter: 78.9% Positive • Ratio of Thicker (terminal) Hairs: Significantly Higher

• Hair Follicle Activation: Intensive

In the most exciting development yet, Japanese researchers released a new study late in 2005. Once again, procyanidin therapy was proven successful in regrowing hair in subjects with male pattern baldness. The new study, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, confirmed the findings of earlier studies, showing clear improvement in the number of hairs and the density of hairs in the treated area. Building on the success of earlier trials, the study was extended to 12 months in the procyanidin group, and proved that longer term procyanidin therapy was even more successful than prior 4 and 6 month trials.

Cooper Peptides - Cooper Peptides have two main properties: (1) potent tissue protective anti-inflammatory agents that limit oxidative damage after tissue injury, and (2) tissue remodeling activation agents, that is, the processes for removal of damaged protein and scar tissue and their replacement by normal tissue. Studies at numerous universities and research institutes have found copper-peptides to improve hair transplant success, increase hair follicle size, stimulate hair growth and reduce hair loss.

Research scientists at the University of San Francisco Wound Center stumbled upon very interesting results. Their discovery was made while applying a synthetically formulated compound, Copper Peptide, to severe wound areas on several patients. During this process something unusual happened. Not only did the wounds heal about 30 percent faster, but a significant stimulation of the follicular cells occurred. As a side effect, these tripeptide complexes actually grew hair around the wound area.

The discovery was so startling that they then applied the same Copper Peptide complex to a female patient who had suffered roughly 90 percent alopecia (hair loss) for years. After about six months of use, she had recovered almost 100 percent of her hair. Dr. Loren Pickart, the leading authority in Copper Peptide technology, describes it as being like a protein injection to the scalp.

Tests were then conducted with chemotherapy patients and recent hair transplant recipients, all with great success in stimulating newer and stronger hair follicles.

Spin traps – are very special compounds that were originally utilized in measuring free radical activity because they react with free radicals both in vitro and in vivo, producing stable complexes. The most commonly used spin trap and the standard which measures new ones is PBN - alpha-phenyl- N-tert butyl nitrone. Hundreds of studies have been conducted over the last ten years that have tested PBN and other “spin traps” in numerous conditions. Later it was discovered that these spin traps had powerful free radical quenching abilities in living systems and could treat a variety of conditions. Spin traps could provide unique protection against free radical damage that complements and enhances the activities of the classical antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E.

Spin traps modulate NF kappa-B regulated cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthases that are implicated in pro-inflammatory disease conditions. A method for ameliorating a cellular dysfunction of a tissue such as the treatment of hair loss and stimulation of hair growth comprises administering a nitroso or nitrone spin trap to the affected tissue. These agents inhibit the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide to produce peroxinitrite. Scientists discovered that nitrone and nitroso spin traps have properties in the body for ameliorating cellular dysfunction in tissue attributed, in part, to high energy oxygen and hydroxyl free radicals, and enhancing recuperation of the tissue. Alpha-phenyl-N-tert butyl nitrone (PBN) can be administered, for example, as an anti-alopecia agent to stimulate hair growth.

Spin traps can be administered to the skin to be treated, such as the scalp. Depending on the type of hair loss or alopecia being treated and the conditions thereof, the stimulation of hair growth can usually be obtained by topical application, preferably repeated daily application. The utility of topically applied spin traps is not limited thereto, however, and the stimulation of hair growth can include an increased rate of growth, increased hair diameter, follicular neogenesis, and the like; inhibiting hair loss or alopecia from progressing.

Ketoconazole - Topical ketoconazole shows itself to have an anti-DHT binding effect in the scalp. Nevertheless, it is likely that ketoconazole exhibits other methods to its anti-hair-loss effect. One such theory of ketoconazole anti-alopecia effects may be on its activity upon the removal of sebum, a fatty substance that accumulates in the scalp around the hair follicles. In addition, ketoconazole is an antifungal medication and is significant for people combating hair loss since acting as an antifungal agent it reduces scalp irritation caused by fungal colonization or infection. Reduction of the inflammatory process that occurs in male pattern alopecia is crucial.

If we first examine the role of androgens, specifically dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we find that this hormone has been thought to slowly "choke" the growth of the hair follicle by inhibiting the function of an enzyme in the hair follicle called adenylate cyclase. Suffice it to say that when DHT concentrations remain high in the scalp, we see terminal (thick, coarse) scalp hair become reduced to vellus hair (fine, thin peach fuzz). On March 04, 2001, at the American Academy of Dermatology Meeting in Washington DC, scientists presented the findings of a study done on 1% ketoconazole shampoo which had good news for hair loss sufferers. In the study presented, one hundred male volunteers with mild to moderate dandruff and somewhat oily scalp, were using in a double-blind fashion either a 1% ketoconazole shampoo or a 1% zinc pyrithione shampoo, 2-3 times a week for 6 months.

Analysis of the different parameters set up in the study shows that the hair diameter gradually increased with ketoconazole use (+8.46%) over a 6 month period, whereas the diameter showed a trend to decrease with zinc pyrithione use over the same period (-2.28%). The sebum excretion rate was reduced with ketoconazole (-6.54%) while it increased with zinc pyrithione (+8.2%) over the same period of time. The number of hairs shed over a 24-hour period was reduced by 16.46% with ketoconazole and 6.02% with zinc pyrithione after 6 months. Finally, the percentage of hairs in the anagen phase increased by 6.4% and 8.4% respectively during the study.

The results are similar to a previous study done on 2% prescription strength Ketokonazole where it was shown that use of 2% ketoconazol yielded an increase in hair shaft diameter similar to what was achieved by the control group using 2% Minoxidil and a non-medicated shampoo.

Rooibos - Rooibos or Red Bush Tea - a hardy shrub indigenous to the North Western Cape of South Africa – is an exciting new botanical ingredient with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties well documented in medical literature. In alternative medicine Rooibos is often prescribed for nervous tension, allergies, stomach and digestive problems. Results from an independent study also showed a significant improvement in hair loss. Studies were initiated at an independent laboratory (Dermascan, France) to study the effect of the use of Rooibos in a hair lotion on a group of healthy persons who were suffering from the problem of hair loss. A 90 day trial was conducted comparing a hair lotion containing Rooibos with a placebo lotion.

After 90 days results showed a significant increase of the hair growth in the lotion containing Rooibos compared with the placebo. An increase in the hair growth was observed with 89% of the volunteers with no undesirable reactions (irritation or allergy). The participants were next asked to fill in a questionnaire. When the results were tallied, 67 percent rated their hair loss as zero or low, 78 percent saw a low to medium improvement, 45 percent saw a low to medium regrowth of hair, and 63 percent considered their hair had become smoother and shinier.

Conclusion: results show that most of the volunteers had a remarkable improvement in both the increase of hair growth and the decrease in hair loss.

MSM - Sulphur is present in protein-rich foods containing high levels of the amino acids methionine and cysteine. These foods include meat, fish, legumes, nuts, eggs, and vegetables, especially onions. However, sulphur has recently become a popular nutritional supplement and topical treatment thanks to the discovery of methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM.

The use of MSM as a nutritional supplement and topical application is relatively recent. An American chemist named Robert Herschler, began studying MSM in 1955. However, another man, Dr. Stanley Jacob with Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, is considered by many to be the father of MSM. Dr. Jacob found that simple marine life like algae and plankton convert inorganic sulphur to organic sulphur compounds. These compounds are known as dimethylsulfonium salts. These salts are transformed into dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is released into the atmosphere and is converted by ultraviolet light into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). When DMSO oxidizes, it turns into MSM and is absorbed by plants that become food for animals and humans. MSM is a white, crystalline powder that is odorless and nearly tasteless. When taken as a dietary supplement, MSM proved to have the same health benefits as DMSO without side-effects such as bad breath, itchy skin, nasal congestion, and shortness of breath. Why does MSM help with the development of stronger hair? Various scientific studies have proven that MSM contributes a definite normalizing effect on body functions. The sulfur normally provided to the body by MSM is required for healthy collagen and keratin which are essential for healthy hair, skin and nails. MSM also has proven antioxidant benefits which can disrupt or alter damaging chain reactions of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

MSM has been widely used as a dietary supplement without any reports of allergy or intolerance related to its use. Supplements of MSM are comfortably assimilated without side effects. There are no known contraindications.

Caffeine 4% - Active caffeine ingredient helps to regulate the effects of testosterone levels. Male pattern baldness is known to occur in individuals with sensitivity to testosterone, causing damage to hair follicles that eventually leads to baldness. Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.

The independent study at the University of Jena used hair samples from the scalps of young men entering into the first stages of hormone-related hair loss. The study relied on a hair organ culture that used four different types of testing samples. The first was a nutrient-based sample, the second a testosterone only sample, the third was a caffeine only sample and the fourth a mixture of caffeine and testosterone.

According to the research, the results showed that the samples containing the caffeine nutrient helped to stave off hair loss and encouraged new hair growth, while the sample that relied on testosterone only led to increased hair loss. But perhaps the most impressive was the testosterone and caffeine sample, which helped to prevent further hair loss.

The results showed that using the caffeine treatment average growth was increased by around 46 per cent and the life cycle of the hair was extended by 37 per cent, when compared to the control study.

Carnitine Tartrate - L-Carnitine, a vitamin-like nutrient, occurs naturally in the human body and is essential for turning fat into energy. Active energy metabolism is an essential prerequisite for the growth of strong and healthy hair. In biological systems ATP acts as the universal energy currency. One of the most potent bio-actives that significantly increases cellular ATP content is carnitine tartrate.

Statistical evaluation demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate, showing that carnitine tartrate is an ideal ingredient for hair care formulations, providing energy for the optimal environment to produce strong and healthy hair. Throughout the test period ATP content within plucked hair follicles was determined twice daily using a commercially available test kit. Statistical evaluation of baseline adjusted values demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate. These effects were absent in the placebo group, thus underlining the stimulating activity of carnitine tartrate.

The outstanding bio-activity of carnitine tartrate was furthermore demonstrated in a second study, assessing the effects after a single application of a shampoo formulation supplemented with carnitine tartrate. Again, ATP levels in plucked human hair follicles were significantly increased.

Amino Acids: Ornitine, Taurine, Cysteine - Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, from which hair is created. They are assembled in the correct sequence by stem cells to form keratin, a complex and immensely strong hair protein. Vital amino acids have to be replaced consistently, as damage is accumulated over time. We can replace a combination of these lost amino acids directly into the hair, where they are shown to provide significant tensile benefits to the hair shaft.

Hair is composed primarily of proteins (88%). These proteins are of a hard fibrous type known as keratin. Keratin protein is comprised of what we call "polypeptide chains.” The word, polypeptide, comes from the Greek word "poly" meaning many and "peptos" meaning digested or broken down. In essence, if we break down protein, we have individual amino acids.

Many (poly) amino acids joined together form a "polypeptide chain". Two amino acids are joined together by a "peptide bond", and the correct number of amino acids placed in their correct order will form a specific protein; i.e. keratin, insulin, collagen and so on. The "alpha helix" is the descriptive term given to the polypeptide chain that forms the keratin protein found in human hair. Its structure is a coiled coil. The amino acids link together to form the coil and there are approximately 3.6 amino acids per turn of the helix (coil). Each amino acid is connected together by a "peptide bond". The peptide bond is located between the carbon atom of one amino acid extending to bond with the nitrogen atom of the next amino acid. In many individuals the extremities, including the top of the head, are the most difficult places to maintain blood flow. Follicles which are constantly deprived of blood, and therefore nutrients, cannot produce hair properly. Lack of proper nutrients, amino acids, minerals and vitamins can certainly hamper hair growth.

L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid synthesized by the body from L-Ornithine. Arginine + Ornithine support protein synthesis because they are involved in the transport and storage of nitrogen. The usage of taurine corrects the "rigidification" of the connective sheath that surrounds the Pilosebaceous unit and hair follicles, specifically those affected by pattern hair loss. This is a novel and previously undisclosed angle on hair loss treatment that has yet to be touched upon in any of the medical literature or prior publications.

The amino acid, l-cysteine speeds up hair growth and increases hair shaft diameter resulting in fuller hair. L-cysteine has been reported to facilitate longer hair growth, beyond what is genetically programmed. L-cysteine also provides potent antioxidant protection to the hair follicle. Users of topical n-acetyl-cysteine have reported hair regrowth.

Emu Oil - The emu, dromaius nova hollandiae, is a flightless bird part of a group called ratites which also includes the ostrich and the kiwi. Modern Australians learned early on from the Aborigines the many valuable qualities in the emu and its oil. The earliest research studies in emu oil come from Australia, and Australia continues to export emu oil to this day.

In the United States today there is a growing network of research labs interested in emus and their incredible oil. Emu oil is rendered from a thick pad of fat on the back of the bird that was apparently provided by nature to protect the animal from the extreme temperatures in its Australian homeland. Emu oil is deep penetrating and super hydrating to the skin - an all-natural tissue nutrient. Michael Hollick, MD, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Physiology, and Dermatology at Boston University School of Medicine conducted a study involving emu oil and hair growth. His study found that there was a 20% increase in growth activity of skin that received emu oil compared to skin that received corn oil. Looking at the hair follicles Dr. Hollick realized they were much more robust, the skin thickness was remarkably increased suggesting that emu oil stimulated skin growth and hair growth. Additionally, the study showed that over 80% of hair follicles that had been "asleep" were woken up, and began growing.

Emu oil is anti-inflammatory, which may be in part why it stimulates hair growth. Emu Oil has also been shown to be a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor in target tissues when topically applied, which likely contributes significantly to its hair growth properties. A third important property of emu oil is that it is bacteriostatic.

Emu Oil contains a multitude of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) which helps to "feed" the skin. Consumers who suffer from natural forms of baldness have reported hair re-growth. Since Alopecia Areata only suppresses the hair follicle (vs. killing the hair follicle), emu oil may have an effect to assist with hair regrowth.

Biotin – Biotin is a member of the B-vitamin family and a major component in the natural hair manufacturing process -- it is essential to not only grow new hair, but it also plays a major role in the overall health of skin and nails. The beneficial effects of biotin on hair may be linked to its ability to improve the metabolism of scalp oils. Biotin when absorbed by the scalp may promote hair growth and it is able to penetrate the hair shaft making it expand which actually thickens the hair cuticle.

Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in the Krebs Cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food. Biotin is so important to hair health, that many dermatologists prescribe biotin supplements to their patients as part of their medical treatment for hair loss.

After applying Revita with a gentle massage, you should leave it on the scalp from 1 – 2 minutes before rinsing. Then repeat and leave on the scalp for 3 – 5 minutes. If desired, follow with a high quality conditioner. For optimal results, Revita should be used at least 5 times per week.

This formulation is contraindicated in individuals with a history of sensitivity reactions to any of its components. It should be discontinued if hypersensitivity to any of its ingredients is noted.

Q. Is Revita safe ?

A. Revita primarily contains compounds that are not only safe in topical use, but actually dramatically enhance overall skin health. The other active ingredients such as Ketoconazole have been tested in clinical studies and have been shown safe.

Q: Can I use hair sprays, mousses, gels, etc.?

A: Hair spray, gel, and other styling aids are not recommended since they tend to clog the hair shaft. However, you can use them while using Revita.

Q: Can I have my hair colored or permed while using Revita ?

A: While there is no evidence that coloring or perming hair can lead to or even worsen hair loss, it is generally not recommended for people with hair loss. If you are experiencing hair loss then perming and coloring hair is not recommended. However, this will not interfere with Revita.

Q: What is SLS/SLES free ?

A: SLS means Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and SLES means Sodium Laureth Sulfate, commonly used low cost detergents in shampoos and cleansers. They are linked to skin irritation, skin drying and hair loss due to follicle attack. Revita is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate free, and that means that Revita does not irritate you scalp and preserves your hair follicale health.

Q: Can I blow dry my hair after using Revita ?

A: Extreme heat damages the proteins in the hairs making them fragile. Nevertheless, if you need or want to blow dry your hair, you can do it after using Revita.

Q: Who is a candidate for Revita ?

A: Ideal candidate is someone with little hair loss or at the beginning stages of hair loss, since it is much easier to prevent hair loss then to grow new hair. Someone who is concerned with hair loss prevention should start using Revita immediately.

Q: What type of results should I expect with Revita ?

A: When deciding to use Revita, it is important to have realistic expectations. Depending of severity and duration of your hair loss, it could take some time to see hair growth. In fact, during the first 2 weeks of treatment you may actually notice increased hair loss as old hairs are being pushed out and the hair follicles start growing new hair. Do not become alarmed with this and just stick to the treatment.

Q. Does Revita have any systemic side effects ?

A. No, when used as directed, Revita active ingredients have a long history of use both orally and topically.

Q. Does Revita work for women?

A. Yes. In most cases, the cause of hair loss in women is surprisingly similar to men. Fortunately for women, estrogen helps to protect the hair follicle from the destructive effects of DHT. However, many women develop thinning hair and loss due to fluctuation of estrogen levels and/or over production of DHT. Revita can help protect the hair follicle from DHT resulting in a thicker, fuller and healthier hair.

Q. I am using other topical treatments. Can I use Revita at the same time ?

A. Yes. Revita has no side effects and does not cross react with other topical treatments. You can safely opt to use Revita with other products, and we strongly recommend the association with Spectral.DNC for more severe hair loss or Spectral.RS for thinning hair.

Q. Do I need to use Revita for a long time ?

A. Once you have reached the desired results, you should continue to use Revita as your regular shampoo to maintain the revitalized hairs and a healthy scalp.

Q: Is stress a factor in hair loss?

A: When the body is under significant physical and emotional stress it is possible that the immune system will produce anti-bodies that attack hair follicles, and this results in bald patches or diffuse loss. Stress-induced loss will respond very well to Revita and you should keep using Revita as your regular daily shampoo to keep your scalp healthy.

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l-Arginine/l-Citrulline Complex - Supports Peak Performance
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Date: March 06, 2007 02:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: l-Arginine/l-Citrulline Complex - Supports Peak Performance

  • Free-form amino acid combination
  • Arginine supports muscle metabolism and energy
  • Arginine supports heart function and circulation
  • Arginine easily converts into nitric oxide (NO)
  • l-Arginine/l-Citrullinne Complex supports liver detoxification

l-Arginine and l-Citrulline are two amino acids bundled into a single powerful supplement. Both are key intermediates in the Krebs urea cycle, where they participate in the detoxification of ammonia via the production of urea. In addition, any arginine not converted to urea enters general circulation where it is distributed to various tissues and metabolized for other uses such as protein synthesis. l-Arginine is probably best known for its role in cardiovascular health and the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The formation of NO mediates smooth muscle relaxation in the blood vessel wall, and thus reduces the workload of the heart. Many nerve cells also use NO as a signaling molecule. Erectile function, for example, is mediated by the release of NO from the autonomic nerves in the penis. Also, l-Arginine is an important factor in muscle metabolism promoting energy during exercise and increased recovery after a workout.

1 tablet contains:

l-Arginine (as l-Arginine HCI) 750 mg

l-Citrulline 250 mg

Suggested Use: 1 tablet four times daily.



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Buy Arginine and Citrulline complex at Vitanet for Peak Performance!

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Which Calcium is Best?
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Date: October 17, 2006 03:52 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Which Calcium is Best?

Customers walking into a health food store today are faced with a vast array of calcium supplements. They might ask: which one should I pick? Which one is best? Not easy questions to answer. All calcium forms will accomplish the same task: providing your body with a nutrient that it needs to build healthy bones and teeth; however, which form of calcium has the features that you want in a calcium supplement? Looking at shelves of calcium products is kind of like shopping for a car; there are many makes and many models—some are basic and others are more sophisticated.

Fortunately, there are many forms of calcium to satisfy your needs. Like the car lot, a health food store offers many options; therefore, you have to select a calcium product that consumers will feel confident in taking regularly and that will provide the most benefit.

Some consumers have done research and will come armed with information. They have already made choices based on advertising, word-of-mouth or an article they have read. They already know the form of calcium they want, be it a “Ferrari” or a “Ford.” If the client doesn’t have a specific preference: asking these basic questions will help in the selection process:

1. Do you prefer tablets, capsules, softgels, liquid or powder?

  • Tablets are for consumers who want high dosage in fewer pills.
  • Capsules are flavorless and may be easier to swallow than tablets for some.
  • Softgels have a slicker surface and may slide down the throat more easily for some.
  • Liquids are easiest to swallow and are available in different flavors.
  • Powders are flavorless, versatile and can be mixed with food or beverages.

2. Do you have high or low stomach acid?

  • Should you use calcium that has buffering action or a calcium that does not further reduce your stomach acid.

3. Do you have absorption issues?

  • Rapid transit time in the bowels may affect a person’s choice of calcium.

What is calcium?

Calcium (Ca) is one of the most important minerals found in our bones and teeth—99 percent of body calcium is found there. But the calcium molecule does not like to travel alone and, in its more basic state, it comes bounded to carbon (C), Oxygen (O), and/or hydrogen (H) molecules or in more complex form, it is bonded to organic or amino acids that act as stabilizing carriers. On most labels, the amount of calcium listed actually indicates the pure or elemental calcium because it is that amount of the calcium that is deemed important to our daily supplementation, not the complex of the materials with which it is bonded.

Where does calcium come from?

Other than the calcium found in bone, the only natural form of calcium found in nature is calcium carbonate, a calcium molecule bonded to one molecule of carbon and three molecules of oxygen (CaCO3). One of the most common minerals on the face of the earth, calcium carbonate is called calcite, aragonite or vaterite by geologists. In its geological form, it constitutes approximately four percent, by weight, or the earth’s crust.

Commercial sources of calcium carbonate used to make supplements are: limestone, dolomite, oyster cell, egg shell, coral and sea water (have you ever seen that white deposit left by hard water? That’s mostly calcium carbonate). Calcium carbonate is the starting material for all other forms of calcium supplements. From this starting material, calcium can be reduced to more concentrated forms, such as oxide or hydroxide or it can be chelated (bonded) to organic acids and amino acids to help support enhanced absorption.

Lets look more closely at the different forms of calcium that are available as supplements.

Calcium Oxide (CaO): this form is 71 percent elemental calcium and is also called “lime” commercially. This is one of the oldest and most inexpensive forms of calcium used in a variety of commercial applications and it is occasionally used in supplements where space and price are a factor. It sometimes can be found in inexpensive mass market calcium/mineral combinations or multivitamin/mineral products and in a unique algal calcium from Japan. Unfortunately, CaO is a strong alkali that may cause stomach distress, which is why it isn’t often used in health food supplements.

Calcium Hydroxide (CaHO): at 54 percent elemental calcium, it is the next highest source of elemental calcium and is also known commercially as “slaked lime.” It is used where space is an issue. Although it is also a strong alkali, it is more stable than calcium oxide. It is most often used as a component of multi-mineral formulations or in addition to other forms of calcium (i.e., calcium citrate) to provide potency where space is an issue. It is not often used as a single ingredient in health food supplementation. This is for people who want a high dosage of calcium from a minimum amount of pills in multi-mineral formulas.

Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3): at 40 percent elemental calcium, it is the most widely used form of calcium in single ingredient calcium supplements as well as combination supplements. Inexpensive and an abundant source of elemental calcium, it is the only form of calcium found in nature outside of bone. It is the primary form of calcium used in the mass market and in antacid products. This is for people who have high stomach acid and who need a buffering type of calcium. Also for people who want a high dose of calcium in a minimum amount of pills.

Calcium Citrate: at 21 percent elemental calcium, it is one of the most popular forms of calcium supplements in the health food market as well as the mass market. This calcium salt does not lower stomach acid as much as calcium carbonate. This calcium salt is usually recommended for people who have low stomach acid, have had stomach surgery or who need a form of calcium that will not lower their stomach acid further.

Calcium Gluconate and Lactate: these two forms of calcium are high soluble. Since the amount of elemental calcium is much lower (9 percent and 13 percent respectively), they are used more often in powder form and mixed with liquids or food. When mixed in a beverage, the calcium is already dissolved and is ready to be absorbed. This is the best calcium salt for people who have overactive bowels, who have trouble swallowing pills or who don’t like the taste of pre-formed liquid calcium supplements. These calcium powders can be mixed in juices or smoothies or added to food as they are virtually tasteless.

Calcium Orotate and Asporotate: In the mid 20th century, Dr. Hans Nieper, a German scientist, advanced a theory that orotic and aspartic salt forms of calcium are transported directly to cell membranes for better absorption. The Solaray brand developed an asporotate formula, which combines three organic acids: aspartic acid (-Asp), orotic acid (-oro) and citric acid (-tate) into one product. The asporotate formula has become one of the most popular calcium formulas and is exclusive to the Solaray brand. This product is for customers who appreciate the idea of combining the enhanced absorbability of three organic acids into one. Aspartate and citrate are also part of the Krebs (energy) cycle and are natural to the body’s metabolic systems and, according to Neiper, calcium Orotate and Aspartate are mineral transporters that enter into the cells to facilitate enzymatic actions rather than being extra-cellular. For people who believe that intracellular calcium is of importance, calcium Orotate and asporotate may be good choice.

Calcium Hydroxyapatite: this is another “natural form of calcium usually as a mineral ash form bovine source bone. Bone meal is also a form of calcium from bovine bone. These forms of animal derived calcium are for customers who want a source that is closest to their own bone matrix. Not for vegetarians.

Calcium Amino Acid Chelates (*HVP): this form is calcium carbonate bonded (Chelated) to a form of amino acid complex such as whole rice concentrate or other grain source. This form is for customers who want the additional bioavailability of amino acids.

Calcium AEP: Another form of calcium endorsed by Dr. Hans Nieper who theorized that calcium would cross the cell membranes more readily when it was combined with phosphatidyl ethanolamine or Amino Ethanol Phosphate (AEP), a nutrient found in nerve sheaths. This highly specialized form is for very educated customers who are proponets of Hans Niepers theory.

So, which form is best?

Calcium, like cars, comes in a variety of forms. Isn’t it wonderful that we have so many choices? The point is, there is no best one, there are only individual choices. Although we have our favorites, taking a calcium supplement, regardless of which one it is, should:

  • Be a matter of personal choice based on how our body feels when taking it.
  • Be in a form that is most convenient or appetizing so that we receive our daily requirements.
  • Take into consideration any personal body limitations we might have .

Our primary concern when choosing a calcium supplement should be to provide our body with the right amount of calcium daily so that our skeleton and teeth can maintain proper mineralization and strength as the cells continuously break down and rebuild. The type of calcium complex we prefer is entirely up to us.

*HVP = Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein



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Benefits of L-Carnitine
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Date: February 12, 2006 03:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of L-Carnitine

Benefits

Helps the body burn fat for energy*

L-Carnitine promotes energy production in cells by transporting fatty acids into the mitochondrion. Its primary function is to transfer long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Fatty acid molecules are activated to coenzyme A (CoA) esters in the cytoplasm of the cell, and then esterified to L-Carnitine. The combination of a fatty acid molecule and L-Carnitine is called “acyl-carnitine.” Much of the body's L-Carnitine content is stored in the form of acyl-carnitine.1

The mitochondrion is the cell’s energy-generating furnace. Called an “organelle,” the mitochondrion is a self-contained structure inside the cell. Like all cellular structures, the mitochondrion is surrounded by a membrane. This membrane is an impenetrable barrier to acyl-CoA esters; passage across the membrane requires L-Carnitine as a transporter. On the inside of the mitochondrial membrane, the acyl-CoA esters are made available to be metabolized through the process of beta oxidation. One of the key metabolic byproducts of this process is acetyl-CoA, also called “active acetate,” which enters the Krebs cycle (also known as the “citric acid cycle”) to supply fuel for production of ATP, the cell’s primary energy “currency.” L-Carnitine shuttles excess fatty acid residues out of the mitochondrion, and in this role is essential for preventing toxic buildup of fatty acids inside the mitochondrion.

Evidence suggests that L-Carnitine and short chain acyl-carnitine esters can protect the mitochondrion from adverse effects of drugs and toxic chemicals. L-Carnitine has been shown to protect animals form cardiotoxins and decrease mortality rate in animals with diphtheria, due to this cardioprotective effect.2

Helps maintain a healthy heart and cardiovascular system*

Muscle tissue contains a high concentration of L-Carnitine. With its constant energy needs, heart muscle tissue is especially rich in L-Carnitine. If the body’s ability to biosynthesize L-Carnitine is compromised, energy production in muscle tissue is impaired, and a toxic buildup of fatty acids can occur.3 Defective production of L-Carnitine by the body can result from a variety of factors, including kidney or liver malfunction, increased catabolism or the inability of tissues to extract and retain L-Carnitine from the blood.

Along with glucose and lactate, fatty acids are the primary oxidation fuel for the heart. A considerable amount of scientific data from animal experiments indicates that L-Carnitine protects the heart under conditions of hypoxia, or low oxygen. In addition to the oxidation of fat for energy in the cell, L-Carnitine is involved in the metabolism of glucose.4 Evidence of L-Carnitine’s role in glucose metabolism was uncovered in a small trial on 9 diabetic individuals. Given intravenously, L-Carnitine improved insulin-mediated glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity.5

Depletion of the body’s L-Carnitine supply is linked to various abnormal states, especially of the heart muscle. The effect of L-Carnitine on hypoxic (oxygen-starved) isolated heart muscle tissue has been studied.6 At high concentrations, L-Carnitine demonstrates a clear-cut ability to potentiate the contractility of isolated heart muscle tissue, indicating the L-Carnitine has a strengthening effect on the heart. L-Carnitine has been shown to improve the performance of rats subjected to fatigue test.

Research has revealed that in animals and humans with defective heart muscle, the amount of free L-Carnitine (not bound to fatty acids) is reduced. Administration of L-Carnitine to hamsters prevents damage to the heart muscle. Given to humans with angina, L-Carnitine was found to improve exercise tolerance. In a small study, patients with congestive heart failure showed gains in heart function with oral consumption of L-Carnitine, reportedly by restoring normal oxidation of fatty acids.7 In heart valve replacement patients, L-Carnitine has been shown to increase the valve tissue levels of ATP, pyruvate and creatine phosphate, which are key cellular energy substrates. In a controlled study, L-Carnitine was administered to 38 patients prior to open heart surgery. Prior to surgery, heart circulatory function, as assessed by measurements of hemodynamics, was “good” in all 38. While there was evidence of a “preserving” effect of L-Carnitine on heart cells, no differences in cardiac performance were observed. These results suggest that noticeable improvements in heart muscle performance with L-Carnitine are most likely to occur in people with compromised hearts.8

It has been suggested that L-Carnitine favorably influences blood lipids. Preliminary evidence of this was seen in a small open trial on 26 patients who took 3 grams of L-Carnitine daily for 40 days. Blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides dropped substantially, while the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol–– a known marker of cardiovascular health––markedly improved.9

While L-Carnitine is not a treatment for heart disease, (nor should it be used as a substitute for medical treatment) the results of these and other studies suggest that oral consumption of L-Carnitine has a beneficial influence on maintaining a healthy heart and cardiovascular system.



Safety

Suggested Adult Use: Take 1 to 4 capsules daily without food.

L-Carnitine is considered to be very safe for oral consumption. L-Carnitine is generally well tolerated, even at doses as high as 15 grams daily. Toxicity or overdosage has not been reported.10



Scientific References
1. Wagenmakers, A. L-Carnitine supplementation and performance in man. Brouns, F. ed. Advances in Nutrition and Top Sport. Med Sport Sci. Basel, Karger, 1991;32:110-27.
2. Arrigoni-Martelli, E., Caso, V. Carnitine protects mitochondria and removes toxic acyls from xenobiotics. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 2001;27(1):27-49)
3. Pepine, C.J. The therapeutic potential of carnitine in cardiovascular disorders. Clinical Therapeutics 1991;13(1):2-21.
4. Calvani, M., Reda, E., Arrigoni-Martelli, E. Regulation by carnitine of myocardial fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Basic Research in Cardiology 2000;95(2):75-83.
5. Capaldo, B. et al. Carnitine improves peripheral glucose disposal in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 1991;14:191-96.
6. Fanelli, O. Carnitine and acetyl-carnitine, natural substances endowed with interesting pharmacological properties. Life Sciences 1978;23:2563-2570.
7. Kobayashi, A., Masumura, Y., Yamazaki, N. L-Carnitine treatment for congestive heart failure-experimental and clinical study. Japanese Circulation Journal 1992;56:86-94.
8. Pastoris, O. et al. Effect of L-Carnitine on myocardial metabolism: results of a balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients undergoing heart surgery. Pharmacological Research 1998;37(2):115-22.
9. Pola, P. et al. Carnitine in the therapy of dyslipidemic patients. Current Therapeutic Research 1980;27(2):208-16.
10. L-Carnitine. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. First Ed. 2001.Montvale, NJ:Medical Economics.



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Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine
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Date: February 12, 2006 01:55 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Benefits

Supports cognitive function*

ALC has been studied for its effect on cognitive performance and emotional health in the elderly. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 481 elderly subjects exhibiting mild memory impairment improved their scores on a memory test after taking 1500 mg of ALC a day for 90 days.2 Hospitalized elderly people taking ALC have shown improvements in mental outlook.3 While ALC is not a treatment or cure for Alzheimer's disease, double-blind studies suggest it may help slow the rate at which early-stage Alzheimer's patients deteriorate.4 In particular, ALC seems to benefit short-term memory in these patients.5

Supports biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for brain and nerve function* Brain function requires coordinated communication between brain cells. Brain and nerve cells ("neurons") communicate across tiny cell-to-cell gaps called "synapses." The passage of an electrical impulse from one neuron to the next requires a "neurotransmitter." When an electrical signal arrives at the synaptic junction, the neuron releases a neurotransmitter into the synapse. The neuron on the other side of the synapse contains receptors for the neurotransmitter; these receptors bind the neurotransmitter, triggering a series of chemical events that sends a new electrical signal down the membrane of the receiving neuron. Neurotransmitters work together like an orchestra to transmit information throughout the brain and nervous system. Acetylcholine is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the body, regulating activities of vital organs, blood vessels and communication between nerves and muscles. In the brain, acetylcholine helps facilitate memory and learning as well as influence emotions. ALC is structurally similar to acetylcholine, and brain neurons stimulated by acetylcholine are receptive to stimulation by ALC.6 It has been shown experimentally that ALC supplies acetyl groups for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.7 ALC's hypothesized cholinomimetic (acts like acetylcholine) activity has led researchers to investigate its effects on mental function and emotional health.8

Helps supply the brain with energy by improving energetics in the mitochondrion*

The acetyl groups donated by ALC can be used to synthesize acetyl-CoA, the key substrate for energy metabolism in the mitochondrion. 9 Acetyl-CoA enters the Krebs cycle, the mitochondrial mechanism that generates cellular energy in the form of ATP. ALC easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to play various roles in maintaining brain neuron (nerve cell) function. When given by oral administration, the concentration of ALC is increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.10

Stabilizes intracellular membranes*

ALC was found to improve membrane phospholipid metabolism in early-stage Alzheimer's patients.11 Phospholipids are structural components of brain cell membranes that regulate neuron function. ALC donates acetyl groups that can be used to modify the functional activity of proteins in neuronal membranes.12 ALC thus plays a role in maintaining membrane function. ALC also increases membrane stability and structural integrity.13

Increases nerve growth factor production*

The body produces various specialized proteins called "growth factors" which are essential to growth and repair of tissue. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) protects neurons from death, prolonging survival of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is theorized that aging of the central nervous system is associated with a loss of NGF. ALC has shown the ability to reverse age-related decrease in the binding of NGF to its receptors in neuron membranes.14 Given to aged rats, ALC increases the level and utilization of NGF in the rats. ALC protects cholinergic neurons (nerve cells stimulated by acetylcholine) in rats from degeneration due to lack of NGF.15 These results, together with other data from animal studies, suggest that ALC positively influences NGF activity.16

Has a protective influence on brain neurons*

Several animal studies have revealed that ALC exerts a protective effect on neurons. In one experiment, brain cells from rats exposed to NMDA, a known neurotoxin, were protected by being simultaneously exposed to ALC.17 Rats injected with ALC were protected from mortality caused by the neurotoxin MPP+.18 ALC has been shown to raise levels of glutathione, a highly valuable antioxidant, in isolated mouse brain tissue.19 ALC prevents buildup of malondyhaldeyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation.20 ALC is also a chelator of iron, which can generate free radicals. It also reinforces antioxidant mechanisms in the brain.21 As a whole, data from test tube and animal studies, showing that ALC has a protective, restorative effect on brain neurons and neuronal energetic processes, suggest that ALC is an anti-aging nutrient for the brain. This hypothesis is supported by human studies demonstrating measurable benefits for brain function in elderly persons taking ALC by oral consumption.


Safety
Suggested Adult Use: 1 to 4 capsules daily.
ALC is considered safe and well-tolerated when consumed orally. ALC has been administered in doses as high as 3 grams per day for periods of two to six months, with no reports of serious side effects. Some patients have experienced occasional mild abdominal discomfort, nausea, skin rash, restlessness, vertigo and headache. The severity and incidence of these side effects are reported as minor.22

Scientific References
1. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
2. Salvioli, G. Neri , M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1994; 20(4):169-76.
3. Tempesta, E, et al. L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs. placebo. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1987;8(7):417-23.
4. Spagnoli, A et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1991;41:1726-32.
5. Rai, G et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Curr. Med Res. Opin. 1990;11:638-47.
6. Falchetto, S, Kato, G, Provini, L. The action of carnitines on cortical neurons. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1971; 49(1):1:7.
7. Dolezal, V., Tucek, S. Utilization of citrate, acetylcarnitine, acetate, pyruvate and glucose for the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat brain slices. J Neurochem 1981;36(4):1323.30.
8. Passeri, M, et al. Mental impairment in aging: selection of patients, methods of evaluation and therapeutic possibilities of acetyl-L-carnitine. Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. 1988;8(5):367-76.
9. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
10. Parnetti, L, et al. Pharmacokinetics of IV and oral acetyl-L-carnitine in multiple dose regimen in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Eur. J. Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:89-93.
11. Pettegrew, JW, et al. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging 1995;16(1):1-4.
12. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
13. Arduni, A, et al. Effect of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on the human erythrocyte membrane stability and deformability. Life Sci 1990;47(26):2395-2400.
14. Taglialatela, G, et al. Stimulation of nerve growth factor receptors in PC12 by acetyl-L-carnitine. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44(3):577-85.
15. Taglialatela, G, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment increases nerve growth factor levels and choline acetyltransferase activity in the central nervous system of aged rats. Exp Gerontol 1994;29(1):55-56.
16. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
17. Forloni, G, Angeretti, N, Smiroldo, S. Neuroprotective activity of acetyl-L-carnitine: studies in vitro. J Neurosci Res 1994;37(1):92-6.
18. Steffen, V, et al. Effect of intraventricular injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: protection by acetyl-L-carnitine. Hum Exp Toxicol 1995;14(11):865-71.
19. Fariello, RG, et al. Systemic acetyl-L-carnitine elevates nigral levels of glutathione and GABA. Life Sci 1988;43(3):289-92.
20. Calvani, M, et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ny Acad Sci 1992;663:483-86.
21. Calvani, M, Carta, A. Clues to the mechanism of action of acetyl-L-carnitine in the central nervous system. Dementia 1991;2:1-6.
22. Zdanowicz, M. Acetyl-L-carnitine's healing potential. Continuing Education Module. New Hope Institute of Retailing. October, 2001.


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Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
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Date: August 02, 2005 03:52 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)

Benefits

Benfotiamine raises the blood level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the biologically active co-enzyme of thiamine.4

Thiamine and its Co-enzyme, TPP

Thiamine (vitamin B1) plays an essential part in the metabolism of glucose, through actions of it co-enzyme TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate). TPP is formed by the enzymatically-catalyzed addition of two phosphate groups donated by ATP to thiamine. TPP also goes by the name "thiamine diphosphate." In the cytoplasm of the cell, glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, is metabolized to pyruvic acid, which is converted into acetyl-CoA, otherwise known as "active acetate." Acetyl CoA enters the mitochondrion, where it serves as the starting substrate in the Kreb’s cycle (citric acid cycle). The Krebs cycle is the primary source of cellular metabolic energy. TPP, along with other co-enzymes, is essential for the removal of CO2 from pyruvic acid, which in turn is a key step in the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA. CO2 removal from pyruvic acid is called "oxidative decarboxylation," and for this reason, TPP was originally referred to as "cocarboxylase." TPP is thus vital to the cell’s energy supply. Benfotiamine helps maintain healthy cells in the presence of blood glucose. Acting as a biochemical "super-thiamin," it does this through several different cellular mechanisms, as discussed below.

Benfotiamine and Glucose Metabolism Benfotiamine normalizes cellular processes fueled by glucose metabolites.

As long as glucose remains at normal levels, excess glucose metabolites do not accumulate within the cell. The bulk of the cell’s glucose supply is converted to pyruvic acid, which serves as substrate for production of acetyl CoA, the primary fuel for the Krebs cycle. Of the total amount of metabolic energy (in the form of ATP) released from food, the Krebs cycle generates about 90 percent.5 In the presence of elevated glucose levels, the electron transport chain, the final ATP-generating system in the mitochondrion, produces larger than normal amounts of the oxygen free radical "superoxide." This excess superoxide inhibits glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as key enzyme in the conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid, resulting in an excess of intermediate metabolites known as "triosephosphates." Increase triosephophate levels trigger several cellular mechanisms that result in potential damage to vascular tissue. Cells particularly vulnerable to this biochemical dysfunction are found in the retina, kidneys and nerves.

Benfotiamine has been shown to block three of these mechanisms: the hexosamine pathway, the diaglycerol-protein kinease C pathway and the formation of Advanced Glycation End-poducts. As discussed below, benfotiamine does this by activating transketolase, a key thiamin-dependent enzyme.6 Benfotiamine stimulates tranketolase, a cellular enzyme essential for maintenance of normal glucose metabolic pathways.* Transketolase diverts the excess fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate, (formed by the inhibition of GAPDH, as mentioned above), into production of pentose-5-phosphates and erythrose-4-phosphate and away from the damaging pathways. Benfotiamine activates transketolase activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells incubated in glucose.6 To test benfotiamine’s ability to counteract these metabolic abnormalities caused by elevated blood glucose, studies have been done in diabetic rats. Benfotiamine increases transketolase activity in the retinas of diabetic rats, while concomitantly decreasing hexosamine pathway activity, protein kinase C activity and AGE formation.6

Benfotiamine and Protein glycation Benfotiamine controls formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs).

AGEs have an affinity for proteins such as collagen, the major structural protein in connective tissue. AGEs are formed through abnormal linkages between proteins and glucose. This occurs via a non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction similar to the "browning reaction" that takes place in stored food.7 At high glucose concentrations, glucose attaches to lysine, forming a Schiff base, which in turn forms "early glycosylation products." Once blood glucose levels return to normal levels, the amount of these early glycosylation products decreases, and they are not particularly harmful to most tissue proteins. On long-lived proteins such as collagen, however, early glycosylation products are chemically rearranged into the damaging Advanced Glycation End-products. AGE formation on the collagen in coronary arteries causes increased vascular permeability. This vessel "leakiness" allows for abnormal cross-linking between plasma proteins and other proteins in the vessel wall, comprising vascular function and potentially occluding the vessel lumen. A number of other potentially harmful events may also occur, including production of cytokines that further increase vascular permeability. Endothelin-1, a strong vasoconstrictor, is over produced, increasing the possibility of thrombosis and generation of oxygen free radicals is stimulated.8 It is vitally important to support normal glucose metabolic pathways so that formation of AGEs is minimized. Benfotiamine, in the test tube (in vitro) prevents AGE formation in endothelial cells cultured in high glucose by decreasing the glucose metabolites that produce AGEs.9 Endothelial cells make up the membranes that line the inner walls of organs and blood vessels. In a rat study comparing the effects of Benfotiamine with water-soluble thiamin, Benfotiamine inhibited AGE formation in diabetic rats while completely preventing formation of "glycooxidation products," which are toxic by products of chronic elevated blood glucose. AGE levels were not significantly altered by thiamin.10 Benfotiamine also normalized nerve function in the animals. After three months of administration, "nerve conduction velocity (NCV)," a measure of nerve function, was increased by both benfotiamine and thiamin; at six months, NCV was normalized by benfotiamine, whereas thiamin produced no further increases in this parameter.

Dysfunctional glucose metabolic pathways leading to AGE formation occurs in endothelial cells of the kidneys. In a recent animal study, benfotiamine was administered to rats with elevated glucose levels. Benfotiamine increased transketolase activity in the kidney filtration system of these rats, while at the same time shifting triosephophates into the pentose pathway and preventing protein leakage.11

Safety

Benfotiamine has an excellent tolerability profile and can be taken for long periods without adverse effects.3,12 The statements in this fact sheet have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Scientific References

1. Bitsch R, Wolf M, Möller J. Bioavailability assessment of the lipophilic benfotiamine as compared to a water-soluble thiamin derivative. Ann Nutr Metab 1991;35(2):292-6.

2. Schreeb KH, Freudenthaler S, Vormfelde SV, et al. Comparative bioavailability of two vitamin B1 preparations: benfotiamine and thiamine mononitrate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 52(4):319-20.

3. Loew D. Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;34(2):47-50.

4. Frank T, Bitsch R, Maiwald J, Stein G. High thiamine diphosphate concentrations in erythrocytes can be achieved in dialysis patients by oral administration of benfontiamine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;56(3):251-7.

5. Pike RL, Brown ML. Nutrition, An Integrated Approach, 3rd Ed. New York:MacMillan; 1986:467.

6. Hammes H-P, Du X, Edlestein D, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic neuropathy. Nat Med 2003;9(3):294-99.

7. Monnier VM, Kohn RR, Cerami A. Accelerated age-related browning of human collagen in diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1984;81(2):583-7.

8. Brownlee M. The pathological implications of protein glycation. Clin Invest Med 1995;18(4):275-81.

9. Pomero F, Molinar Min A, La Selva M, et al. Benfotiamine is similar to thiamine in correcting endothelial cell defects induced by high glucose. Acta Diabetol 2001;38(3):135-8.

10. Stracke H, Hammes HP, Werkman D, et al. Efficacy of benfotiamine versus thiamine on function and glycation products of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2001;109(6):300-6.

11. Babaei-Jadidi R, Karachalias N, Ahmed N, et al. Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine. Diabetes 2003;52(8):2110-20.

12. Bergfeld R, MatsumaraT, Du X, Brownlee M. Benfotiamin prevents the consequences of hyperglycemia induced mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen specifies and experimental diabetic neuropathy (Abstract) Diabetologia 2001; 44(Suppl1):A39.



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Life Force - The Energy Activator
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Date: June 29, 2005 10:35 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Life Force - The Energy Activator

Don’t Be Confused About Multiples – Get the Top-Ranked Multiple That Scores 100%

We can help you decide how to pick the most advanced daily multiple for your wellness. Listen to the experts. Source Naturals LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE was honored as a leading formula in an independent scientific analysis of 500 multiples, ranking higher than any other national brand. Lyle MacWilliam, author of the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements (ide.com) ranked multiples based on criteria developed from the published recommendations of the most renowned nutritional authorities: Phyllis Balch, C.N.C.; Michael Colgan, Ph.D.; Earl Mindell, Ph.D.; Michael Murray, N.D.; Richard Passwater, Ph.D.; Ray Strand, M.D.; and Julian Whitaker, M.D. Source Naturals’ success in this rigorous scientific analysis reflects our Bio-Aligned™ formulation method. LIFE FORCE goes deep to the underlying cause of health imbalances by supporting multiple body systems. And now, based on the latest scientific research, we have improved the formula by adding even more antioxidants and other cutting-edge ingredients. According to Lyle MacWilliam, “Source Naturals made a top ranked multiple even better!” And based on Lyle’s analysis of the new formula, LIFE FORCE is now the highest rated multiple of any evaluated in the current edition of this guide, scoring a 100% rating.

Bio-Align™ Yourself with Life Force

LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE was chosen as one of America’s most elite and comprehensive multiples, as reported in the Comparative Guide to Dietary Supplements by Lyle MacWilliam, 3rd ed. LIFE FORCE received this acknowledgement by nutrition experts because it is uniquely effective. This Bio-Aligned Formula™ goes beyond ordinary multiples that simply replace nutrients missing from the diet. LIFE FORCE provides key organ-specific nutrients to support your body’s energy generation, heart, brain, immune system, musculoskeletal system, skin, liver, eyes, and more. When all your body systems function in harmony, everything in life comes together. Your mood is positive, your mind is clear, you’ve got energy in your step—that’s your LIFE FORCE working for you.

Get Ahead with Activated Energy and a Healthy Metabolism

Your metabolism determines how much you weigh, how energetic you feel, and the effective functioning of all your systems. LIFE FORCE is a rarity – a unique multiple containing an incredible number of nutrients at the potency levels that truly support your healthy metabolic function. For example, it contains coenzyme Q10, which plays a crucial role in cellular energy production. CoQ10 is a vital intermediate in the electron transport chain, one of the body’s energy production cycles, which converts glucose, or blood sugar, into ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), a high energy molecule that is the body’s “energy currency.” LIFE FORCE also supplies alpha-lipoic acid and the potent R-lipoic acid form of lipoic acid, which are both referred to as the universal antioxidants and important intermediaries in the Krebs cycle, another energy production cycle.

LIFE FORCE also contains tyrosine and iodine, both precursors to thyroid hormones. These hormones regulate key metabolic functions like heart rate, digestive function, weight management and energy levels. No discussion of metabolism would be complete without mentioning the B vitamins and their coenzymated forms, such as thiamin cocarboxylase, riboflavin mononucleotide, and the methylcobalamin form of vitamin B- 12. These critical vitamins and their immediately bioavailable coenzymated forms are formulated to play critical roles in thousands of enzyme reactions that promote carbohydrate metabolism, energy production, and the mental functions that invigorate and activate you as you move through your busy days. And now green tea extract with EGCG (Epigallocatechin Gallate) has been added to the formula for added metabolic support.

Protect Your Heart and Circulatory System

The amazing muscular organ that is your heart beats more than 100,000 times a day, 365 days a year, promoting vitality and alertness by constantly oxygenating our tissues. LIFE FORCE supports your cardiovascular system with antioxidant coenzyme Q10, which helps support heart muscle metabolism. LIFE FORCE also contains the minerals potassium and magnesium, electrolytes vital for healthy heartbeat and heart function, and the herb hawthorn, a rich source of antioxidant flavonoids, which has traditionally been used as a heart tonic. LIFE FORCE also supplies vitamins B-6, B-12 and folic acid to help maintain healthy homocysteine levels and vitamin K to support healthy circulation. Unlike common multiples, it supports cholesterol wellness, circulatory health and antioxidant cardiovascular protection, with both the typical d-alpha form of vitamin E but and the more potent and effective gamma-tocopherol and similarly structured tocotrienols.

Skin and Musculoskeletal Support

LIFE FORCE furnishes nutrients to build healthy bones, muscles and skin. We all know that calcium and magnesium are crucial for bone health, but many people don't know that there are a variety of nutritional cofactors that help build bone, such as vitamin D (which enhances calcium absorption and utilization), boron, manganese and copper. LIFE FORCE also supplies vitamin C and copper, necessary nutrients for collagen production (collagen is a key constituent of connective tissue in joints, skin and other areas), and the cutting-edge nutrient methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), an assimilable form of the mineral sulfur, used by the body to build and maintain connective tissues, including joint cartilage, hair, skin and nails. Additional nutraceuticals to support healthy skin include DMAE bitartrate, CoQ10, and alpha lipoic acid. LIFE FORCE also now includes rutin, quercetin, green tea extract and 65% more turmeric extract for your joint comfort.

Brain and Nerves Nutrition

The hectic pace and constant demands of life can keep our pulse racing, our nerves jangling and our temples throbbing. Our nervous systems are crying out, “Help!” LIFE FORCE provides that help. LIFE FORCE supplies the most highly bioavailable and bioactive forms of the amino acid tyrosine – the N-acetyl form and the acetyl-L form. Tyrosine is an important precursor to epinephrine and norepinephrine (collectively known as the catecholamines), which helps you respond to stress. It also contains high doses of vitamins C and B-6, required by the adrenal glands to produce the catecholamines. In addition, LIFE FORCE delivers the full spectrum of B vitamins, all important for healthy nervous system function. Now LIFE FORCE also contains a more bio-available form of tyrosine, acetyl-L-Tyrosine. And LIFE FORCE contains Neuroceutical® nutrients that support healthy brain function by furnishing DMAE and choline. Both are precursors to the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine and are important for memory focus and muscular movement. Choline is also a precursor to phosphatidylcholine, an important constituent of the cellular membranes that surround and protect our brain cells. In addition, LIFE FORCE contains the renowned herb Ginkgo biloba and now even more grape seed extract, both effective antioxidants that can prevent lipid peroxidation, which is critically important for the high amounts of fatty tissue in the brain. LIFE FORCE—good food for the brain.

Immune Defense

LIFE FORCE MULTIPLE supports your immune system, so you can feel your best through the seasons. LIFE FORCE contains the immunosupportive nutrient vitamin A, which fosters cell-mediated immunity and protects the epithelial linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Two forms of vitamin A are supplied: preformed vitamin A and its precursor, the potent antioxidant betacarotene. Other immuno-supportive nutrients in LIFE FORCE include vitamin B-6, vitamin C and zinc, which is fundamental for proper functioning of our T-cells, the “seek and destroy” cells of our immune system. LIFE FORCE also now includes 40% more lipoic acid, including the highly bioavailable alpha and R-isomer forms. Lipoic acid along with the B vitamins and CoQ10 promote building the energy reserves needed when the immune system needs to kick into high gear.

Powerful Liver Support

Your liver is responsible for converting many nutrients into their metabolically active forms before your body can use them. After activation, these nutrients travel through the blood stream to target organs where they perform their metabolic functions. Not only does the liver activate nutrients, but it also plays a crucial role in a variety of other metabolic functions, from fat digestion and cholesterol production to blood sugar regulation to the processing and elimination of toxins, an important role in today’s increasingly polluted world. For all these reasons, nourishing the liver is crucial. And LIFE FORCE does just that. LIFE FORCE contains alpha-lipoic acid, turmeric, silymarin and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) – all potent antioxidants that support healthy liver function. NAC and alpha-lipoic acid both help produce glutathione, one of the liver’s primary detoxifying molecules. Silymarin, the active flavonoid complex of the herb milk thistle, as well as coenzyme Q10, have been shown in vitro to inhibit lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. Turmeric extract promotes bile flow and is a rich source of the antioxidant, curcumin. LIFE FORCE also contains choline and inositol, vitamin- like molecules which act as lipotropics, unique substances that prevent the deposition of fat in the liver. Since the liver is naturally high in fats, LIFE FORCE is one of the only multiples that contains the fat-soluble form of vitamin C, ascorbyl palmitate, for antioxidant protection.

Complete Antioxidant Defense

Oxidative stress is the primary cause of accelerated aging. This and other forms of free radical damage are constantly threatening your body. Whether it is from pollution, ultraviolet light, food additives, or from other sources, it is more critical than ever to protect your body with antioxidants. LIFE FORCE contains 24 of the most powerful antioxidants known to science, including eight new antioxidants based on the latest research. It contains antioxidants that are water soluble, such as quercetin and rutin, and ones that are fat soluble, such as alpha-lipoic acid and lycopene. There are antioxidants that are especially protective of specific body systems, such as lutein to protect the macula in your eye, lycopene to protect your prostate gland, and tocotrienols to protect your arteries.

Cutting-Edge Vision Nutrition

The structure and functions of your eyes are very complex. LIFE FORCE contains nutrients to help support and maintain healthy eye tissue, which is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress from free radicals. To support your healthy macula, aqueous tissue and optical nerve signals, LIFE FORCE includes ingredients such as lutein, astaxanthin, beta carotene, bilberry, zinc, lipoic acid and quercetin.

Life Force Replenishes Essential Nutrients to Support Your Low Carb Lifestyle

LIFE FORCE contains optimal levels of many nutrients that might be deficient in low carb meals. Counting carbs can lead to restrictions of nutrient-dense foods, such as dairy products, grains, fruits and vegetables. LIFE FORCE contains many of the same protective antioxidants, vitamins and minerals as fruits and vegetables, including betacarotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, flavinols, magnesium and selenium. It also contains high levels of the same vitamins found in grains, including all of the B vitamins, to support your body’s healthy energy metabolism. And it contains nutrients found in dairy products, such as calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D.

Support Healthy Fat and Protein Consumption with Life Force

Low carb lifestyles mean higher consumption of proteins and fats. Unfortunately, there are artery, heart, colon and many other health concerns associated with meals that are high in fat and protein and low in fiber and produce. However, the nutrients in LIFE FORCE can help you better process these foods when eating this way. LIFE FORCE contains high levels of protective fat-soluble antioxidants such as alpha lipoic acid, ascorbyl palmitate (vitamin C ester) and vitamin E to protect your body from the free radicals generated by consuming more fats. It also contains many nutrients for liver health, such as silymarin, CoQ10, NAcetyl Cysteine and turmeric to help support the fat metabolism your liver is responsible for. LIFE FORCE also contains a high level of the B vitamin biotin, which aids in fat, protein and energy metabolism.

Complete Energizing Nutrition

LIFE FORCE is the only multiple to target organ systems with specific nutrients and bio-botanicals, antioxidants and Neuroceuticals® for total body harmony and energy activation, system by system. Only this dedication to going deep to the cellular root of system imbalances can produce a multiple so effective that it is acknowledged in a prestigious scientific review, the Comparative Guide to Nutritional Supplements. A nutritional program with LIFE FORCE at its center can be an easy first step in joining the Wellness Revolution. The goal of this revolution is a long, healthy and fulfilling life. Allow yourself to feel your best, to achieve mental and physical harmony, to radiate energy and vitality. Feel your LIFE FORCE!

References
Guyton, A. 1991. Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eighth Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. 1995. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Linder, M. 1991. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism, Second Ed. Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT. Mathews, C. and van Holde, K.E. 1990. Biochemistry. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. Shils, M. and Young, V. 1980. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Sixth Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.



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L-ARGININE - For Increased Circulation
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Date: June 29, 2005 10:16 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-ARGININE - For Increased Circulation

L-Arginine

L-Arginine is an amino acid present in the proteins of all life forms. Under normal circumstances your body can synthesize sufficient quantities from your diet to meet your needs, but in times of stress conditions, such as trauma and wound healing, you may not be able to manufacture enough. L-Arginine’s primary function involves the metabolism of protein and nitrogen. But the scientific community recently became excited about arginine’s newfound role as a promoter of cardiovascular health. L-Arginine is the primary precursor to nitric oxide, a small molecule that is responsible for relaxing blood vessels. If you are among the many people concerned about your circulatory health, then L-arginine should be a part of your wellness program. Source Naturals L-ARGININE is available in 500 mg tablets or capsules and the convenient higher potency 1,000 mg tablets.

L-Arginine is an amino acid that is found in most proteins consumed in your diet. A small amount is produced in the liver but it is predominantly synthesized in the kidneys. L-Arginine has several roles in the body, such as assisting in wound healing, helping remove excess ammonia from the body, stimulating immune function, and promoting secretion of several hormones, including glucagons, insulin, and growth hormone. It plays an important role in muscle metabolism by working to transport, store and excrete nitrogen. L-Arginine is required by the body to synthesize nitric oxide, which is produced by all tissues of the body, and plays important roles in the cardiovascular system, immune system and nervous system. Nitric oxide supports blood vessel dilation, which may help circulation.

Cardiovascular Support

L-Arginine is a nitric oxide precursor. Nitric oxide is formed from arginine via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase or synthasetase (NOS). One of its functions is to regulate smooth muscle contraction. Nitric oxide’s effect on blood vessels is the reason nitroglycerine is prescribed for patients with pain that results from inadequate blood flow to the heart. The nitroglycerine is converted to nitric oxide, which relaxes blood vessels and in turn reduces the workload of the heart.

Protein Metabolism

L-Arginine is a key nutrient in the energy generating Krebs cycle, where it participates in the detoxification of ammonia. Ammonia is a toxic byproduct of energy metabolism. It is converted to urea and eliminated from the body. Any L-arginine not converted to urea enters general circulation, where it is distributed to various tissues and metabolized for other uses such as protein synthesis.

A Wellness Revolution – Taking Charge of Your Health

Taking personal responsibility for your health is at the heart of the wellness revolution. Mainstream health care has still not caught up to this wellness approach that health food stores have been promoting for decades. Source Naturals is committed to bringing you effective, safe, advanced natural products like L-ARGININE for your lifelong health.

References:
Lerman, A. et al. 1998. Long-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans. Circulation. 97:2123-2128. Creager M. et al. 1992. L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Clin Invest. 90:1248-1253. Moncada S., Higgs A. 1993. The LArginine –Nitric Oxide Pathway. The New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (27):2002-2012.



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Acetyl L-Carnitine & Alpha Lipoic Acid - For Cellular Vitality
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Date: June 24, 2005 05:24 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Acetyl L-Carnitine & Alpha Lipoic Acid - For Cellular Vitality

You may not think that your good health is related to the vitality of your cells, but it is. Your body is comprised of billions and billions of cells that work together in complex systems to keep you healthy.

But each of these cells also has a unique life. A primary role of your body is to keep these cells healthy and vital in every part of your body throughout your life. And to stay healthy, each of these self-contained cells must produce its own energy – cells can’t borrow energy from each other. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to maintain these cells that are so critical to your good health.

Source Naturals, the science company, introduces ACETYL L-CARNITINE & ALPHA LIPOIC ACID for your cellular vitality. It contains alpha lipoic acid and acetyl L-carnitine, two compounds that can support your cellular vitality for your better overall health.

For Cellular Vitality

ACETYL L-CARNITINE & ALPHA LIPOIC ACID is a groundbreaking new combination of two amazing nutrients, alpha lipoic acid and acetyl L-carnitine, that support your body’s own system for maintenance of cell function as you age.

Alpha Lipoic Acid for Vitality

Alpha lipoic acid is a fat and water soluble compound that is naturally found in your body. It directly recycles vitamin C and indirectly recycles vitamin E to help your body maintain beneficial levels of these important and protective antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid also supports the immune system and healthy liver function.

One of the most important roles alpha lipoic acid plays in your body is its role in cellular energy production. Alpha-lipoic acid is a coenzyme that assists in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coA. Acetyl-coA is the beginning point for the Krebs cycle, one of the body's main energy production cycles, which produces the high-energy molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). By supporting the Krebs cycle, alpha lipoic acid supports your cellular vitality.

Acetyl L-Carnitine for Vitality

Acetyl L-carnitine is a nutrient for your mind and your body. Medical experts believe that this form of carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is the most bioavailable form available. It supports your body’s synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is critical for learning and memory. One of the most important functions that acetyl L-carnitine performs in your body is its role in supporting cellular energy. This critical biochemical compound transports longchain fatty acids into the mitochondria in your cells. Cellular mitochondria are where these fatty acids are used to generate ATP, the metabolic energy for your cellular vitality.

Join the Wellness Revolution

Your life can seem to move at a dizzying pace. You might not have a lot of time to focus on your good health, and mainstream medicine doesn’t always incorporate the scientific advances of recent decades into their health recommendations for you. But you can benefit from new information right now by shopping for products like ACETYL L-CARNITINE& ALPHA LIPOIC ACID at your local health food stores and outlets, the only places where you will find these groundbreaking products to support your lifelong vitality.

References

Packer L et al. (1995). Alpha-Lipoic Acid as a Biological Antioxidant. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 19(2): 227-250. Hagen T et al. (2002). Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. PNAS. 99(4): 1870-1875. Kern M et al. (2003) Effects of Acetyl-LCarnitine and Lipoic Acid supplementation on physiologic and psychological factors in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 35(5S): 267.



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Pep Up and Go!
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Date: June 14, 2005 05:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Pep Up and Go!

Pep Up and Go!

by Harris Parker Energy Times, February 2, 2000

Feel your energy flagging?

You've lost count of the number of phone calls you fielded all afternoon-the last was from your son, who missed the late bus home from school-and colleagues needing your decision are lined up outside your office. Your husband has invited clients home for dinner. You wilt like a new hairdo on a damp August day and pray for a miracle to jump-start your engine.

Your pep quotient depends on three essential ingredients: nutrients you consume through your diet and supplements, how much you exercise and your sleep schedule.(Of course, if you're troubled by any kind of disabling, ceaseless fatigue accompanied by mental fuzziness, joint pain, sore throat, swollen glands, headaches and other chronic distress, consult your health practitioner.)

Vitamins and Energy

Certain nutrients are called vitamins because scientists consider them to be crucial for vitality. They generally function as coenzymes, partnering with the enzymes that are catalysts for the chemical reactions constantly taking place in our bodies. Our need to replenish our store of vitamins, which may merge with cell, muscle, enzyme, hormone, blood and bone structure once they have been absorbed, depends on their rate of utilization, according to The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book (Avery) by Shari Lieberman, PhD, and Nancy Bruning.

While a low-fat diet rich in raw fruits and vegetables helps supply important nutrients, a B complex supplement and a balanced multivitamin can guarantee daily vitamin levels.

Be Energetic with B Vitamins

Vitamins, especially the B vitamins, play extremely important roles in producing cellular energy. The chart on page 39 lists the key vitamins and describes their effects as well as the consequences of not getting enough of them. Their benefit is felt most profoundly in the energy producing process known as the Krebs cycle (which we'll explain in a moment).

Vitamins B2 and B3, for example, supply the major building blocks for substances that are called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and FADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH), which are critical elements of energy production in the Krebs cycle as well as a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

Hundreds of Reactions

Even though you may never have heard of NAD and NADH, these molecules are found in very many places throughout your body; they play a role in hundreds of biochemical reactions in all kinds of cells. B vitamins also combine with other materials to build coenzymes, chemicals which help form other chemicals necessary for cellular energy. B vitamins are crucial: miss out on one or more and you may break these metabolic chains necessary for peak energy.

Energy to Spend

The main energy currency of every cell single cell is ATP: a chemical called adenosine triphosphate. This material is used by cells for every imaginable task including reproduction, growth, movement and metabolism. Specialized metabolic cycles within the cell are designed to generate ATP.

Consequently, the more ATP our cells create, the more energy can be generated. The raw materials used to make cellular energy are glucose (blood sugar) and "free" fatty acids. The best way to supply your cells with the sugar they need is to consume complex carbohydrates which also supply fiber and other nutrients. When you eat carbohydrates, they are made into glucose which is stored as a starch called glycogen in muscles and the liver. Your body can rapidly turn glycogen into glucose for extra energy. (The process of making energy from glycogen yields carbon dioxide and water as well as ATP.)

Making Energy

The first step in making glucose into energy is called glycolysis. This complicated process requires nine different steps. During these steps, glucose is made into a substance called pyruvate. The process of glycolysis requires ATP, but yields twice as much ATP as is present when it starts.

From here, the process gets a little more complicated as pyruvate enters into a complex chain of events in tiny cellular structures called mitochondria. (Many metabolic events take place in the mitochondria.) The pyruvate molecules are converted to a molecule known as acetyl coenzyme A and eventually made into carbon dioxide, water and more ATP.

This process is known as the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. It also involves a series of events known as oxidative phosphorylation in which NADH formed during the Krebs cycle is oxidized to form ATP.

Why is fat such a concentrated source of energy? Free fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle to help generate ATP much more efficiently than glucose - producing roughly six times more energy per gram than glucose.

And Don't Overlook. . . . . .other supplements that may aid energy production: • Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioxidant that works in the fatty tissues of cell membranes and in cells' watery interiors • Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone as it exists everywhere in the body, acts like a vitamin because it stimulates some reactions. CoQ10 protects cell membranes, especially of the heart, against oxidation and toxins.

Ginsengs: Energy Generators

With their legendary and slightly mysterious characteristics, the ginsengs are greatly respected natural energy boosters. " Perhaps no herb has excited so much interest in medical circles as ginseng, and yet, strangely, it does not actually 'cure' any one particular ailment," reports Michael Hallowell, the author of Herbal Healing (Avery) and a frequent lecturer on botanic medicine. "Rather, its virtue lies in its tremendous power as a tonic and invigorator. Russian athletes are prescribed large amounts of ginseng because researchers in Moscow have shown that it not only improves stamina, but also increases the efficiency with which blood is pumped to the muscles."

What are the physiological mechanisms that allow ginseng to bolster your get up and go? In order to unravel the legend and lore of ginseng, the first step is understanding the intricacies of the three types: • Asian (Panax ginseng), which produces the strongest and most profound stimulation; • American (Panax quinquefolium), which soothes at a more subtle level; • Siberian (Eleutherococcus senticosus), a stamina booster embraced by a wide range of athletes. All three varieties are treasured for their ability to help people adjust to stress.

Biologically Active

The ginsengs are adaptogens, "biologically active substances found in certain herbs and plants that help the body and mind adapt to the changes and stress of life," says Stephen Fulder, MD, author of The Book of Ginseng and Other Chinese Herbs for Vitality (Inner Traditions). "Stress is not an illness in itself. Stress is change, our ability to adapt to all the changes that occur in life, emotional or physical, from exercise, work, chemicals, drugs, food, radiation, bacteria, disease, temperature, or simply too many late nights or too much fun."

The body reacts to stress by producing the hormone adrenaline, which throws the whole body into a state of alert. Metabolism, blood pressure and circulation accelerate; immunity and resistance drastically decline; performance suffers.

Top-Notch Tonics

Enter the ginsengs, with their varied, subtle tonic qualities. The Greek name for this herb, "panax," means "panacea" or cure-all. But the Chinese, who first referred to it 2,000 years ago, more literally called it "ren shen" or "person root," in reference to its physical resemblance to a miniature human form.

" Most exhibit medicinal properties, but each species has a different chemical makeup and has a unique application in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)," says Kim Derek Pritts, author of Ginseng: How to Find, Grow and Use America's Forest Gold (Stackpole). "In general, all true ginseng contains biologically active saponins (chemicals similar to human hormones), essential oils, carbohydrates, sugars, organic acids, nitrogenous substances, amino acids, peptides, vitamins and minerals."

Building Vital Energy

All the ginsengs strengthen, nourish and build Qi, the TCM concept describing basic vital energy circulating through our bodies. Every physical and mental function, from breathing, thinking, nutrition and circulation, is regulated by Qi. Although many of the Native American tribes used the abundant, indigenous Panax quinquefolium ginseng extensively, particularly to increase mental acuity and boost fertility, the herb never has been as popular in North America as it is in Asia. American ginseng traditionally has been a lucrative export crop to China, where the wild native variety suffers from overharvesting. Even today, according to Paul Bergner in The Healing Power of Ginseng & the Tonic Herbs (Prima), 95% of the American ginseng crop is exported to China, where XiYang Shen, or "western sea root," as it is called, is immensely valued and costs double what it does here.

Energy Boost

Jacques MoraMarco, author of The Complete Ginseng Handbook: A Practical Guide for Energy, Health and Longevity (Contemporary), as well as a licensed acupuncturist and doctor of Eastern medicine, suggests American ginseng for a slight energy boost. The moderate effect of American ginseng is considered a more appropriate tonic to the intensity of our pace and diet.

Variations on a Theme

In TCM terms, American ginseng cools and moistens, as well as lubricates and strengthens the body. It is reputed to reduce fevers and night sweats and alleviate hot, dry lung problems like smoker's cough. With its emollient qualities, American ginseng is considered to treat dry, wrinkled skin effectively.

The Bolder Energizer

Asian ginseng, which includes red Korean panax, is a bolder energizer taken by those who feel depleted from anemia, blood loss, cardiovascular weakness, injury, shock or trauma, as well as the disabling effects of age. In general, Asian ginseng is warming and stimulating, urging the body to run faster.

Siberian ginseng, though botanically not a true ginseng, still acts similarly to Asian ginseng in its reputed power to control stress, boost energy, support the immune system, enhance performance and increase longevity. Called Wu Cha Seng in Chinese, Siberian ginseng is perceived by natural practitioners as an ideal herb for the healthy who want to lift both stamina and endurance. Experts believe it counteracts the effects of cortisol, the stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to injury, pain or emotional turmoil.

Natural Energy Boosters

The herbal pharmacopeia includes several other natural energy boosters available in various forms-shakes and bars for those on the run-loaded with nutrition absent from commercial snacks. Some choices: • Ginkgo biloba-used in Chinese medicine to heat the body and increase sexual energy. Ginkgo enthusiasts take this herb to increase the supply of oxygen to the brain and generally increase circulation. • Gotu kola-may stimulate the central nervous system and help eliminate excess fluid, thereby reducing fatigue. • Astragalus-a Chinese herb that enhances energy and builds the immune system. It is credited with strengthening digestion, improving metabolism, increasing appetite, combating diarrhea and healing sores. • Schisandra-also a Chinese herb, treats respiratory illness, insomnia and irritability and rejuvenates sexual energy. Its mild adaptogens help the body to handle stress. • Licorice-is a favored endocrine toner in Chinese medicine. It is reputed to support the adrenals, the pair of small glands directly above the kidneys that secrete steroidal hormones, norepinephrine and epinephrine, the "fight or flight" hormones. People with high blood pressure or edema, or pregnant women, should avoid it. • Ashwagandha-an Ayurvedic herb used for thousands of years in the traditional healing of India as a potent strength builder for men and women.

Experienced herbal practitioners acquire an impressive and fascinating store of knowledge and experience-you'll find it helpful to visit one as you begin your course of ginseng or other energy-boosting herbs.

TCM Visitation

When you visit a TCM practitioner, you'll notice that she evaluates your body's condition through an extremely careful examination of all the different systems: Several pulse points are felt in order to ferret out and detect troubling abnormalities. The condition and color of the tongue is observed to decipher digestive disorders. In addition, your urine may be examined to determine other imbalances and specific health problems.

In many cases, your TCM practitioner will recommend ginseng as an adaptogen that can give you an overall boost. When taking ginseng, follow the directions on the package. Note: in some cases, you may want to consume a little bit less if you suffer headaches, insomnia or high blood pressure. Consult your health practitioner if you are afflicted with either acute inflammatory disease or bronchitis.

Then take comfort in the eternal soothing wisdom of Chinese Traditional Medicine. In the first century A.D., the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (The Divine Husbandman's Classic of the Materia Medica) effusively described ginseng and the tonic herbs in this beguiling and intriguing manner: "The first class of drugs...are considered to perform the work of sovereigns. They support human life and they resemble heaven. They are not poisonous regardless of the quality and duration of administration."



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Hidden In Plain Sight - The spreading epidemic: Diabetes.
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Date: June 12, 2005 06:02 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Hidden In Plain Sight - The spreading epidemic: Diabetes.

Hidden In Plain Sight by Carl Lowe Energy Times, October 7, 2003

Today, a devastating disease is striking millions of Americans. Sixteen million Americans already have this disease, and every day another 2,200 Americans learn they have it. The spreading epidemic: Diabetes.

The potential ramifications: Millions of people more susceptible to heart disease, dementia, infections, amputations and blindness. Lowering your risk for diabetes is relatively simple and terribly important. Because dealing with some of its effects once you are its victim can be much more complicated.

Signs of Trouble

"Approximately one in four individuals over the age of 60 has type 2 diabetes, which is a remarkable statistic," says Gerald Shulman, MD, of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Yale University. "And, if you add impaired glucose tolerance [a condition that often leads to diabetes], you're talking about 40% of the population."

The economic burden of this epidemic is staggering, estimated at about $100 billion a year and growing.

If you never exercise, carry around a substantial amount of stomach fat and have seen your weight climb significantly over the years, you are among the people at higher risk for diabetes.

These lifestyle habits eventually render your body unable to efficiently process blood sugar. In technical terms, researchers investigating how the body uses and misuses blood sugar have identified what they have called "syndrome X" or "metabolic syndrome," a condition that puts you at high risk for both diabetes and heart disease.

If you have three or more of the following signs, you now have metabolic syndrome and, unless you change the way you live, may eventually suffer diabetes (Circulation 7/14/03):

* Fat around your middle

* High blood pressure

* High triglycerides (blood fats)

* Low level of HDL ("good" cholesterol)

* High fasting blood sugar

In a study of more than 6,000 men in Scotland, having three of these metabolic problems almost doubled the risk of heart disease and more than tripled the risk of diabetes. If you have four of these risk factors, your risk of heart disease just about quadruples, and your diabetes risk skyrockets almost 25 times.

Insulin Resistance

The cells in your body get the energy they need to survive when they take sugar out of your blood and oxidize it along with fatty acids. Normally, insulin, a hormone-like substance released by the pancreas, speeds the absorption of blood sugar by the cells. When your pancreas cannot make insulin at all or makes too little, you suffer what is called type 1 or juvenile diabetes. This condition is usually treated by taking insulin.

But if your pancreas secretes what should be enough insulin for glucose absorption, and your cells are still unable to take sufficient sugar from your blood, you have what is called type 2 or adult-onset diabetes.

Understanding exactly why cells develop difficulties in taking sugar out of the blood and using it for energy has long troubled medical investigators. This condition, before it develops into full-blown diabetes, is called insulin resistance. Researchers have now linked it to malfunctioning mitochondria, the little structures in cells that make the energy that keeps cells functioning.

Scientists have long known that, as you age, you become more susceptible to diabetes. And when researchers compare the mitochondria in young people with those found in the cells of the elderly, they find that older mitochondria are more sluggish.

Making Energy

The mitochondria within the cells oxidize glucose and fatty acids to make energy. (They accomplish this in a complicated metabolic action called the Krebs cycle.) Difficulty with this process, or insulin resistance, can occur when fat and fatty acid waste products accumulate in your liver and muscle tissue.

"We hypothesized that there were two routes to this type of fat accumulation," says Dr. Shulman. "One is that the fat cells might release more fatty acids to be delivered to muscles and/or defects in mitochondrial oxidation might then lead to the accumulation of these fatty acids."

Research confirms that fatty molecules probably collect in muscle cells because the mitochondria's ability to burn fat breaks down over the years. On average, mitochondrial activity dips about 40% in older people.

Dr. Shulman thinks that the final coup de grace in the development of diabetes from insulin resistance takes place when the mitochondria malfunction in the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.

Although Dr. Shulman says that more research is needed to understand why mitochondrial function slips with age, he recommends keeping your mitochondria from slacking off by exercising. Studies now show that regular physical activity can probably increase the mitochondria in your muscles by activating release of an enzyme called AMP kinase. "...an encouraging note in this study is that-since we've shown that exercise leads to more mitochondria by activation of [the enzyme] AMP kinase-by staying active, the elderly might...maintain mitochondrial content and head off such health problems," says Dr. Shulman. "This is yet another reason for seniors to maintain an active lifestyle," he adds.

Maitake for Metabolic Syndrome

Another natural way to fight the metabolic syndrome is with an extract of the maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa). The extract, called sx-fraction, is attracting research investigating its ability to help the body manage blood sugar more efficiently. In one study, five people with diabetes improved their blood sugar levels with sx-fraction (Diab Med 2001; 18).

This research found that taking maitake sx-fraction is often accompanied by drops in blood glucose levels ranging from 30% to 63%. According to Mark Kaylor, PhD and Ken Babal, CN, in Syndrome X and SX-Fraction (Woodland), "...Studies have demonstrated that whole maitake or its fractions are potent agents for improving 'diabetic conditions.'"

Take the Whole Grains Home

Eating a daily dish of whole grains, like whole wheat and brown rice, can also reduce your risk of diabetes (AJCN 8/22/03). In a twelve-year study of more than 40,000 men between the ages of 40 and 75, researchers found that those who ate three servings of whole grains a day cut their risk in half.

The researchers found that even overweight people lowered their chances of diabetes by eating whole grains and exercising.

Consuming more magnesium also helped; whole grains contain amounts of this mineral missing in refined-grain foodstuffs. Magnesium improves insulin response.

In an age of junk food, our simple taste for sugar and refined grains may threaten our health. Yet, your defense against this scourge is no further away than simply eating more fibrous foods and going for a simple, everyday walk.



--
Vitanet ®

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Energy Cycles - Stress and lack of energy don't just frazzle your nerves
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Date: June 12, 2005 02:09 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Energy Cycles - Stress and lack of energy don't just frazzle your nerves

Energy Cycles by Sylvia Whitefeather Energy Times, August 2, 2003

Feeling stressed out and exhausted from an overburdened schedule? Regenerating your personal energy necessitates defusing stress. Stress and lack of energy don't just frazzle your nerves; they can leave you depressed, anxious and vulnerable to a long list of health problems.

According to J. Douglas Bremner, MD, a psychiatrist at Emory University, Atlanta, when your brain overcharges on prolonged stress, your body pays a heavy, tiring price.

"If stress has effects on the brain and neurological function, then stress has effects on all parts of the body, including the heart, blood vessels, immune system and digestive system," says Dr. Bremner, author of Does Stress Damage the Brain? (Norton). "The long list of damaging effects can include heart disease, memory impairment, depression and even increased susceptibility to stroke and cancer."

A Good Night's Sleep

Although getting a good night's sleep is a basic part of lowering stress and boosting energy, many of us seem to be tossing and turning through an epidemic of insomnia. The fact that so many people appear to suffer from disturbed and unsatisfying sleep may signal not only a personal energy lack, but also a deeper health crisis developing on the horizon. Lack of sleep, along with stress, not only contributes to those lackluster afternoons of the blahs, but it can also derail your basic body rhythms, weaken your immune system and make you age quicker.

Researchers at the University of Chicago report that lack of sleep may deplete your get-up-and-go by upsetting basic metabolic functions and interfering with hormones. Pretty serious stuff: When people in this experiment cut back their sleep time to about four hours each night, their bodies behaved as if they were twenty years older and they started showing signs of developing diabetes. These effects happened in only a week of missing sleep (The Lancet, October 23, 1999).

The drastically reduced sleep schedule slowed the thyroid gland, reducing the production and action of thyroid hormones. As a result, metabolism slowed and the non-sleepers developed that awful sluggish feeling too many of us know and hate.

Stress from lack of sleep also coaxed the adrenal glands into releasing extra amounts of cortisol, a stress hormone whose purpose is to force the body into providing short-lived energy boosts. But after a while the body flames out, its ability to cope with daily demands drained even further.

"We found that the metabolic and endocrine changes resulting from a significant sleep debt mimic many of the hallmarks of aging," says Eve Van Couter, PhD, professor of medicine at the University of Chicago and director of the study. "We suspect that chronic sleep loss may not only hasten the onset but could also increase the severity of age-related ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and memory loss."

And when are you are constantly short-changed of sleep, it builds up an accumulative effect. Particularly susceptible are busy parents, shift workers, menopausal women and college students.

One way to take back your energy from this metabolic madness is to get twelve hours of sleep a night for a week. But aside from hitting the snooze button a few hundred times, a possible antidote to this cortisol nightmare may be vitamin C.

Fight and Flight

The human body, which evolved before the advent of split-level houses and SUVs, was built to survive life-threatening, physical danger. When it encounters modern-day stress, such as traffic jams and credit card bills, it releases extra cortisol, heightening the body's immediate ability to run or fight. As a result of cortisol release, senses go on high alert, heart rate speeds up, blood flow to muscles increases, and the immune system mobilizes to deal with what it thinks is an imminent crisis.

However, unlike physical danger that rapidly resolves (either you get away from what's trying to harm you or it does you in), today's stress drags on and on (at least till the next exit on the expressway), and the cortisol in the body continues to circulate.

The long-range result of persistent cortisol is a drop in energy, rampant fatigue and lowered immunity. You feel constantly tired and you get sick more often. You may also gain weight.

But researchers at the University of Alabama at Huntsville have found that large doses of vitamin C "reduce...the levels of stress hormones in the blood and also reduce...other typical indicators of physical and emotional stress, such as loss in body weight, enlargement of the adrenal glands, and reduction in the size of the thymus gland and the spleen," according to P. Samuel Campbell, PhD (American Chemical Society, 1999). Dr. Campbell believes that our prehistoric ancestors probably consumed large amounts of vitamin C in a tropical diet rich in fruits. "If so, the physiological constitution we have inherited may require doses far larger than the present RDA (the amount the government recommends) to keep us healthy under varying environmental conditions, including stress."

Iron Out the Fatigue

If you are a premenopausal woman, a lack of iron may also be draining your body of energy. According to experts, as many as one of every five women who menstruate may suffer anemia caused by a lack of iron. This type of problem is also frequent in teenagers and during pregnancy. (But before you take iron supplements, talk to your health practitioner to make sure this is the source of your fatigue.)

"Women with heavy menstrual flow have the greatest risk (of anemia)," points out Susan Lark, MD, in Healing with Vitamins (Rodale). Dr. Lark recommends eating more iron-rich foods (like organic red meat) even if you are not anemic, since a mild iron deficiency can drag you down into the doldrums.

Vegetarians necessarily eat fewer iron-rich foods than do meat eaters. But if you take a vitamin C supplement when you consume such iron-rich vegetables as lima beans, pinto beans and spinach, your body can absorb more of the iron in these foods.

The Krebs Cycle: Keep the Wheel Turning

All of your cells make the energy that keeps you going. This process, a complicated chemical reaction called the Krebs cycle, transforms fatty acids and carbohydrates into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for cellular energy. Mitochondria, small structures in each cell, are the centers of this energy production.

Energy production requires oxygen. The more oxygen available to the cells, the more energy is produced. Deep breathing and moderate exercise are simple, quick ways to oxygenate the body and boost energy. That is why walking, jogging and other physical activity wakes up your brain and restores pep.

If you've been looking for ways to feel more energetic, take a deep breath and go for a long walk before you sit down to your rejuvenating lima beans and vitamin C. And another thing...take a pass on those late-night TV shows. Sleep is more important.



--
Vitanet ®

Solaray - Ultimate Nutrition - Actipet Pet supplements - Action Labs - Sunny Greens - Thompson nutritional - Natural Sport - Veg Life Vegan Line - Premier One - NaturalMax - Kal

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Energy Vitamins
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Date: June 11, 2005 05:50 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Energy Vitamins

Energy Vitamins by Daniel Mowrey, PhD Energy Times, June 7, 1998

Do you suffer groggy mornings clouded with tired and achy feelings? Do you have to struggle to muster sufficient energy to cope with the day? Then, throughout the morning and afternoon, does frequent fatigue, weakness or depression persist on your horizon like an ugly storm cloud? And your evening may bring little relief as you slump into bed for a restless night, only to begin the same routine the next morning. If lack of vim and vigor plagues your days and nights, your body may be suffering from an inability to synthesize sufficient energy.

Our lives depend on processing the food we eat into substances our cells can take in and use. In a never-ending cycle, our body breaks food down and reconstructs the components to form body structures and burn as energy.

How much you exercise, the food and supplements you eat and how much you sleep influence the efficiency of these processes.

Vitamins and Energy

Certain nutrients are called vitamins because they are crucial for vitality. These nutrients are essential to a productive life, the starting point for all life-giving and life-sustaining processes. Because of vitamins' crucial role in energy production, many people can perk up their stamina simply by consuming an adequate supply of vitamins in their daily diet. Since many vitamins - especially the ones concerned with energy - must be constantly replenished, a decent diet and the right supplements must be consumed every day.

Be Energetic with B Vitamins

Vitamins, especially the B vitamins, play extremely important roles in producing cellular energy. Their most important roles are shown in the illustration on page 48. The chart on page 46 lists the key vitamins and describes their effects as well as the consequences of not getting enough of them. Their effect is felt most profoundly in the energy producing process known as the Krebs cycle (which we'll explain in a moment).

Vitamins B2 and B3, for example, supply the major building blocks for substances called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and FADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH) which are critical elements of producing energy in the Krebs cycle as well as a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

Even though you may never have heard of NAD and NADH, these molecules are found in many places in your body; they play a role in hundreds of biochemical reactions in all kinds of cells. B vitamins also combine with other materials to build coenzymes, chemicals which help form other chemicals necessary for cellular energy. B vitamins are crucial: miss out on one or more and you may break these metabolic chains necessary for peak energy.

Energy to Spend

The main energy currency of every cell is ATP: adenosine triphosphate. This material is used by cells for every imaginable task including reproduction, growth, movement and metabolism. Specialized metabolic cycles within the cell are designed to generate ATP.

Consequently, the more ATP our cells create, the more energy can be generated. The raw materials used to make cellular energy are glucose (blood sugar) and "free" fatty acids. The best way to supply your cells with the sugar they need is to consume complex carbohydrates which also supply fiber and other nutrients. When you eat carbohydrates, they are made into glucose which is stored as a starch called glycogen in muscles and the liver. Your body can rapidly turn glycogen into glucose for extra energy (The process of making energy from glycogen yields carbon dioxide and water as well as ATP.)

Making Energy

The first step in making glucose into energy is called glycolysis. This complicated process requires nine different steps. During these steps, glucose is made into a substance called pyruvate. The process of glycolysis requires ATP, but yields twice as much ATP as is present when it starts.

From here, the process gets a little more complicated as pyruvate enters into a complex chain of events in tiny cellular structures called mitochondria. (Many metabolic events take place in the mitochondria.) The pyruvate molecules are converted to a molecule known as acetyl coenzyme A and eventually made into carbon dioxide, water and more ATP. This process is known as the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. It also involves a series of events known as oxidative phosphorylation in which NADH formed during the Krebs cycle is oxidized to form ATP.

Why is fat such a concentrated source of energy? Free fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle to help generate ATP much more efficiently than glucose - producing roughly six times more energy per gram than glucose.

Get Your Vitamins Every Day

While we rely on our diet to supply many of our vitamins, a B complex supplement and multi-vitamins can ensure you consume sufficient amounts of these crucial nutrients.

Many experts agree that a diet rich in raw fruits, nuts and vegetables that minimizes saturated fat can supply adequate a-mounts of these nutrients. Other supplements that may aid energy production:

Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioxidant that works in the fatty tissues of cell membranes and in cells' watery interiors. CoQ10, a nutrient that protects cell membranes, especially of the heart, against oxidation and toxins. Plus, herbs such as suma, ginseng and licorice root as well as creatine, carnitine and pyruvate.

Of course if you suffer from any long term, intractable fatigue, consult your health practitioner. But for most cases of decreased vim and vigor, adequate vitamins should help your body recover your get up and go.



--
Vitanet ®

Solaray - Ultimate Nutrition - Actipet Pet supplements - Action Labs - Sunny Greens - Thompson nutritional - Natural Sport - Veg Life Vegan Line - Premier One - NaturalMax - Kal

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=299)



TopPreviousNext

Date: June 09, 2005 05:36 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)

Energy Vitamins by Daniel Mowrey, PhD Energy Times, June 7, 1998

Do you suffer groggy mornings clouded with tired and achy feelings? Do you have to struggle to muster sufficient energy to cope with the day? Then, throughout the morning and afternoon, does frequent fatigue, weakness or depression persist on your horizon like an ugly storm cloud? And your evening may bring little relief as you slump into bed for a restless night, only to begin the same routine the next morning. If lack of vim and vigor plagues your days and nights, your body may be suffering from an inability to synthesize sufficient energy.

Our lives depend on processing the food we eat into substances our cells can take in and use. In a never-ending cycle, our body breaks food down and reconstructs the components to form body structures and burn as energy.

How much you exercise, the food and supplements you eat and how much you sleep influence the efficiency of these processes.

Vitamins and Energy
Certain nutrients are called vitamins because they are crucial for vitality. These nutrients are essential to a productive life, the starting point for all life-giving and life-sustaining processes. Because of vitamins' crucial role in energy production, many people can perk up their stamina simply by consuming an adequate supply of vitamins in their daily diet. Since many vitamins - especially the ones concerned with energy - must be constantly replenished, a decent diet and the right supplements must be consumed every day.

Be Energetic with B Vitamins
Vitamins, especially the B vitamins, play extremely important roles in producing cellular energy. Their most important roles are shown in the illustration on page 48. The chart on page 46 lists the key vitamins and describes their effects as well as the consequences of not getting enough of them. Their effect is felt most profoundly in the energy producing process known as the Krebs cycle (which we'll explain in a moment).

Vitamins B2 and B3, for example, supply the major building blocks for substances called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and FADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH) which are critical elements of producing energy in the Krebs cycle as well as a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

Even though you may never have heard of NAD and NADH, these molecules are found in many places in your body; they play a role in hundreds of biochemical reactions in all kinds of cells. B vitamins also combine with other materials to build coenzymes, chemicals which help form other chemicals necessary for cellular energy. B vitamins are crucial: miss out on one or more and you may break these metabolic chains necessary for peak energy.

Energy to Spend
The main energy currency of every cell is ATP: adenosine triphosphate. This material is used by cells for every imaginable task including reproduction, growth, movement and metabolism. Specialized metabolic cycles within the cell are designed to generate ATP.

Consequently, the more ATP our cells create, the more energy can be generated. The raw materials used to make cellular energy are glucose (blood sugar) and "free" fatty acids. The best way to supply your cells with the sugar they need is to consume complex carbohydrates which also supply fiber and other nutrients. When you eat carbohydrates, they are made into glucose which is stored as a starch called glycogen in muscles and the liver. Your body can rapidly turn glycogen into glucose for extra energy (The process of making energy from glycogen yields carbon dioxide and water as well as ATP.)

Making Energy
The first step in making glucose into energy is called glycolysis. This complicated process requires nine different steps. During these steps, glucose is made into a substance called pyruvate. The process of glycolysis requires ATP, but yields twice as much ATP as is present when it starts.

From here, the process gets a little more complicated as pyruvate enters into a complex chain of events in tiny cellular structures called mitochondria. (Many metabolic events take place in the mitochondria.) The pyruvate molecules are converted to a molecule known as acetyl coenzyme A and eventually made into carbon dioxide, water and more ATP. This process is known as the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. It also involves a series of events known as oxidative phosphorylation in which NADH formed during the Krebs cycle is oxidized to form ATP.

Why is fat such a concentrated source of energy? Free fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle to help generate ATP much more efficiently than glucose - producing roughly six times more energy per gram than glucose.

Get Your Vitamins Every Day While we rely on our diet to supply many of our vitamins, a B complex supplement and multi-vitamins can ensure you consume sufficient amounts of these crucial nutrients.

Many experts agree that a diet rich in raw fruits, nuts and vegetables that minimizes saturated fat can supply adequate a-mounts of these nutrients. Other supplements that may aid energy production:

Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioxidant that works in the fatty tissues of cell membranes and in cells' watery interiors. CoQ10, a nutrient that protects cell membranes, especially of the heart, against oxidation and toxins. Plus, herbs such as suma, ginseng and licorice root as well as creatine, carnitine and pyruvate.

Of course if you suffer from any long term, intractable fatigue, consult your health practitioner. But for most cases of decreased vim and vigor, adequate vitamins should help your body recover your get up and go.



--
VitaNet ®
VitaNEt ® Staff

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Minerals - Why take them?
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Date: June 09, 2005 09:04 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Minerals - Why take them?

Minerals

Minerals, along with vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acids, are one of the fundamental tiers of nutritional supplementation. Many essential minerals have been depleted from our soils due to modern farming practices, making mineral supplementation more critical than ever in today's world. Minerals are perhaps more susceptible to issues of bioavailability and absorption than any other class of nutrients. For this reason, Source Naturals has devoted a great deal of research to providing more bioavailable, absorbable forms of key nutritive minerals.

MINERALS: A MULTITUDE OF FUNCTIONS

Life on Earth began in the sea. Most scientists now believe that the ancient ocean was a 'primordial soup' of organic chemicals which contained all the necessary ingredients - amino acids, sugars, and nucleotide components, floating in a solution of water and minerals; for life to get started. Millions of years later, when the first creature crawled up on dry land, evolution had contrived a way for it to carry the ancient ocean along with it.

The composition of the fluid that bathes your cells and tissues is believed to be substantially the same as the ocean some 2 billion years ago. The body is extremely particular about the balance of dissolved minerals in this fluid&endash;so particular that it will sometimes sacrifice its own structure to maintain proper mineral balance in the fluids. For example, one mechanism for the homeostatic control of plasma calcium concentration is the flux of calcium into and out of the bones. If plasma calcium remains too low for extended periods the calcium reserve of the bones could be depleted. What functions do minerals serve, and why are they so important?

Aside from providing structure through the bones and teeth, one of the most important roles of minerals is that of electrolytes. The membranes of our cells are flexible and freely permeable to water. The interior of a cell contains an abundance of large and small organic molecules, most of which have an electric charge. These charged molecules will attract inorganic charged molecules called electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, crowding water out of the cell interior. If the cell did nothing to counteract this phenomenon, the difference in water concentration across the cell membrane would cause more and more water to move into the cell by osmosis, eventually causing the cell to swell up and burst.

Minerals act as cofactors in over a thousand different reactions in the human body; magnesium alone is necessary for the functioning of over 300 enzymes.

A proper balance of minerals is essential to optimal health and vitality. Not only are they a crucial component of the internal environment and structure of the body, they are crucial to the enzymatic reactions that create energy, build tissues and protect the body. Minerals, unfortunately, are also one of the first casualties of the processed food revolution. Thanks to decades of "progress" in industrial farming methods, super-fertilizers and other methods have been developed for growing vegetables and grains that travel well and look healthy and pretty, but are depleted of much of the nutrient complexity required to optimally support human life. Many of the minerals that are left are stripped out when these grains and vegetables are processed to make packaged foods. These 'foods' are often preserved with chemical additives and fillers that can make the minerals they still contain impossible to digest.

What all this adds up to is the fact that mineral supplementation is extremely important. It is also important to ensure that the supplements you take are in forms that are absorbable and bioavailable. Unfortunately, there is no simple formula to follow in this regard, for the process of mineral absorption is complex and can be enhanced or hindered by a variety of factors. There is a great deal yet to be discovered about this aspect of human digestion and nutrition.

Because of the complexity of mineral metabolism Source Naturals offers a full series of major minerals and trace minerals in a variety of high quality, bioavailable forms to meet individual needs. In some cases we have gone further, basing our formulations on a knowledge of biochemical principles. For example, the absorption of many minerals seems to be enhanced by the presence of amino acids. Therefore, we offer amino acid chelates, minerals which are specially chelated (bound) with amino acids from hydrolyzed vegetable protein. In addition, we provide Krebs cycle chelates, minerals which are organically bound to metabolites of the body's cellular energy generation cycle.



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VitaNet ®
VitaNet ® Staff

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Mega H- Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life
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Date: June 03, 2005 05:00 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Mega H- Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life

Our universe is composed of millions of compounds, all derived from just 106 atoms. Of these elements, hydrogen is the first and most fundamental.

Hydrogen is also the most abundant element, comprising 90% of all atoms in the cosmos. In our sun and stars, hydrogen nuclei fuse to produce helium, the second element. This generates the enormous energy that powers life on earth. And just as hydrogen fuels the sun, so, in the human body, it is the essential factor in the electrochemical process that produces ATP, the energy molecule. Virtually all the millions of biochemical processes that occur every second of our lives are powered by ATP. These facts are well established. But they are so basic that, until now, they have been overlooked in the world of nutritional science. It took the dedicated research of Dr. Patrick Flanagan to harness the power of active hydrogen for health and human development.

Introducing a revolutionary breakthrough in the field of nutritional science: MEGA H-™ Active Hydrogen (H-), the Fuel of Life.

The Creation of Mega H-

For 30 years Dr. Patrick Flanagan’s life work has been to discover the health and longevity secrets of the Hunza people of the Himalayas. It is believed a much greater percentage of people there live past the age of 100, with far less of the diseases that ravage the West. The locals claimed that their secret was the cloudy, mineral-rich water that rushes down from the Himalayan glaciers. In studying the properties of this Hunza water, Dr. Flanagan found that silica crystals dissolved in the water were able to hold negatively charged hydrogen ions (H-). These compounds are technically called silica hydrides. This makes Hunza water a power source, filled with the same active H- that powers the human body.

Typically hydrogen has one positively charged proton in the nucleus and one negatively charged electron orbiting the nucleus. The two opposite charges balance each other, resulting in no charge. Active hydrogen, on the other hand, contains two electrons orbiting the nucleus, creating a negative charge. It is this active hydrogen in its charged form that the body needs to carry out its crucial functions. Dr. Flanagan has recreated this silica hydride compound as MEGA H-™.

Cellular Energy: ATP, Hydrogen and Mega H-™

ATP, adenosine triphosphate, is composed of three phosphates. The breaking of the bond between the second and third phosphates releases the energy to power virtually all cellular processes. Amazingly, we all generate enough metabolic energy to produce our own body weight in ATP every day just to function! Every second, each of our approximately 50 trillion cells consumes and regenerates 10 million molecules of ATP.

This massive energy generation (ATP production) is the fundamental core function of every human cell. Without it, basic activities such as cellular repair, and protein, enzyme, hormone and neurotransmitter synthesis would not occur. DNA repair and cell reproduction would cease. Thoughts, feelings, communication, and our ability to experience the world through our senses and change it through our actions would stop. The negative implication of poor energy generation for our health and vitality levels is significant. Many factors such as aging, poor nutrition and pollution can impede this critical energy generation. Negatively charged electrons from hydrogen are the source of the energy needed to generate this staggering amount of ATP. This energy production takes place in the mitochondria of the cells at the final stage of the Krebs Cycle, called the electron transport chain. Typically, the hydrogen comes from the breakdown of carbohydrates from food, which yields hydrogen as well as carbon and oxygen. But MEGA H-™ is an alternative, electron- rich source of hydrogen to power energy generation. In fact, MEGA H-™ has been shown to double the production of ATP and NADH, according to in vitro studies. (NADH is the coenzyme form of vitamin B-3, niacin, that carries hydrogen to the production site of ATP.) If this alone was all that MEGA H-™ could accomplish, it would be the most significant nutritional compound yet discovered. But its properties go far beyond energy generation. It is the body’s most efficient and effective antioxidant. MEGA H-™ also increases cellular hydration and the uptake of nutrients into each cell by lowering the surface tension of water (making water “wetter”). And it can improve athletic performance by lowering lactic acid levels after strenuous workouts.

Aging and Antioxidant Defense

Energy Decline: As we age, there is a decrease in our bodies’ ability to generate cellular energy—and oxidative damage may be a primary factor. Many scientists now accept the theory of aging first proposed by noted scientist Denham Harman, M.D., Ph.D., who argued that “aging changes are induced by free radical reactions, largely initiated by the mitochondria … the rate of damage to the mitochondria determines our life span.” Why is this? While oxygen is necessary for human life, the very act of breathing generates free radicals. Our mitochondria— tiny energy production plants—are the chief source of oxidants produced in our bodies. It is believed these oxidants damage the mitochondria in which they are produced, including the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the site of ATP production. This would seriously impair the ability of mitochondria to meet cellular energy demands. The result: signs of normal aging such as impaired memory, hearing, vision and stamina.

DNA Damage: Oxidants also can damage the cell’s DNA. Hydroxyl radicals cause DNA strands to break; if breaks occur in both strands of DNA, the cell cannot repair the damage and will die. Normally, the body has mechanisms to correct or remove damaged cells. However, as we age and cellular energy production declines, the ability to correct these errors is significantly reduced. Left unrepaired, DNA errors may be passed on when cells divide. Over time, these errors can silently accumulate, leading to cellular changes that go unnoticed until body system imbalances become evident.

World’s Most Elemental Antioxidant

MEGA H-™ may be the world’s most powerful antioxidant. It is possible to measure the Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) of any compound. This rating, which measures the number of electrons present in relation to protons, ranges from (plus) +1,200 to (minus) -800 millivolts; the stronger an antioxidant is, the closer its ORP would be to -800. The more positive the ORP reading, the fewer the number of available electrons from active hydrogen. In chemistry, active hydrogen is defined as hydrogen with an extra electron, also known as the hydrogen anion, negative hydrogen or H-. The strongest natural antioxidants up until now, such as grape seed and green tea, have ORP’s of -100. But Mega H-™ has an ORP of -778 millivolts, as compared to distilled water, making it the most potent natural antioxidant available today. What’s more, MEGA H-™ is in a class by itself, compared to other antioxidants, due to its electrochemical structure. Free radi-cals—unstable molecules that are missing one or more electrons—damage cells by taking electrons from healthy molecules to balance themselves. When other antioxidants donate electrons to quench free radicals, they in turn become reactive free radicals and require electrons from other antioxidants to become stable. The new antioxidant also requires an electron to return to stability. This process continues, resulting in an inefficient and energy-consuming free radical cascade. But MEGA H-™’s negatively charged hydrogen molecule possesses two electrons instead of the typical one. This extra electron can be donated without generating the inefficient free radical cascade. Dr. Flanagan’s profound contribution was his discovery of a method for stabilizing and delivering negatively charged hydrogen (H-). Unlike taking other antioxidants, supplementing with MEGA H-™ provides a net gain of free radical-quenching electrons into the system.

Additional Health Benefits

MEGA H-™ has been the subject of additional positive research: Increases Cellular Hydration: Water is important to cells, interstitial fluids (surrounding joints, muscles and organs), and the matrix of blood. As the body’s primary fluid, water serves as a solvent for nutrients. Since water is used to carry nutrients into the cell, it is theorized that increased cellular hydration also increases the bioavailability of nutrients. Water also eliminates toxins and waste products from the body. From energy production to joint lubrication, all our systems depend on water. It has been theorized that aging results in cell dehydration. A study done by Gary Osborn and H. Salinas, M.D. of the Texas Institute of Functional Medicines suggests that silica hydride supplements like MEGA H-™ increase intracellular, extracellular and total body water levels. It is theorized they work by decreasing water’s surface tension, which allows water and nutrients to more easily enter cells and become available for use by the body. Assists In Exercise Recovery: During strenuous exercise, the oxygen supply to muscle cells is insufficient to meet energy demands. Muscle cells then turn to anaerobic respiration to continue to generate energy. This creates lactic acid, which diffuses into the blood, causing muscle fatigue, soreness and loss of endurance. A placebo-controlled study on six healthy males showed that blood lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise when silica hydride supplements were taken for one week before an exercise trial.

The Scientist Behind Mega H-™

This revolutionary approach to nutrition and health is the brain child of Dr. Patrick Flanagan. Dr. Flanagan was a child prodigy with an intense interest in electronics, biochemistry and physics. At the age of 12, he invented a guided missile and atom bomb detector. This technology was subsequently adopted for use by the U.S. government. At 14 he developed the Neurophone®. This device transmits acoustic information to the brain by means of radio waves into the skin, bypassing the eighth cranial nerve, and may allow some deaf people to hear. By the age of 18, he was named one of the Top Ten most promising young scientists in America by Life Magazine. Dr. Flanagan’s work with MEGA H-™ has its roots in his collaboration with Dr. Henri Coanda, a respected scientist who died in 1972. Dr. Coanda passed along his investigation into Hunza water to Dr. Flanagan. MEGA H- is the culmination of decades of research to bring the energizing and anti-aging benefits of active hydrogen (H-) to the world.

Mega H-™

Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life

  • • The first active hydrogen supplement (H-), a rich source of electrons.
  • • Electrons from H- are a source of energy to generate the body’s staggering amounts of ATP (energy molecule).
  • • MEGA H-™ doubles cellular ATP and NADH in vitro.
  • • Theorized to be the most potent antioxidant in vitro.
  • • May decrease lactic acid levels after exercise.
  • • May increase cellular hydration.

    MEGA H-™ is the first supplement available in the natural foods industry to provide a large reservoir of freely available electrons to power the body’s diverse energy functions.



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    Magnesium Malate - Fight Aluminum Build-Up ...
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    Date: June 03, 2005 11:44 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Magnesium Malate - Fight Aluminum Build-Up ...

    Magnesium Malate

    ALUMINUM has been the focus of much negative attention lately– numerous studies have indicated that aluminum accumulates in the body, especially in nerve tissues, potentially causing harm. Recently, scientific researchers have discovered that one compound may have the powerful effect of diminishing this unwanted aluminum accumulation. On the cutting edge of nutrition science, Source Naturals is one of the first companies to introduce this powerfully protective compound: MAGNESIUM MALATE.

    THE DANGERS OF ALUMINUM

    Aluminum is a naturally occurring metal. It has been the subject of recent studies on aging, and some scientists consider it to be harmful. It may come as a surprise that aluminum can be found in a wide variety of foods and manufactured products, such as baking powder, non-dairy creamers, antacids, deodorants, cookware, and food containers. Even tap water contains aluminum. With so many possible avenues for ingesting aluminum, we may be consuming more than nature originally intended. Mounting evidence that aluminum tends to accumulate in the body is even more cause for alarm. Unfortunately, there are no overt warning signs of excess aluminum accumulation, until levels become high enough to have adverse effects on health.

    THE ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM LINK

    Researchers have suggested that aluminum may be more likely to accumulate in the brains of persons whose diets are Magnesium-deficient — which, unfortunately, includes 90% of Americans! Several studies have shown that animals fed diets low in Magnesium accumulate high concentrations of aluminum in the Central Nervous System. One of Magnesium’s many functions is to activate the enzyme tubulin involved in the maintenance of nerve tissue cells. It has been suggested that when there is not enough Magnesium in the body to plug into the appropriate receptor site on the tubulin enzyme, aluminum takes its place instead. This leads to the inactivation of tubulin and, consequently, inadequate nerve function. Because a Magnesium-deficient diet may increase the amount of aluminum taken up and stored by the body, it is vitally important that we take in sufficient amounts.

    MAGNESIUM MALATE — A ONE-TWO PUNCH

    MAGNESIUM MALATE supplies a one-two punch in combating excess aluminum accumulation. In addition to providing 45% of the U.S. R.D.A. for Magnesium, MAGNESIUM MALATE also supplies Malic Acid. Found abundantly in fruits such as apples, Malic Acid is also produced in the human body. It is a metabolite of the Krebs cycle, the set of biochemical reactions used to produce 90% of all energy in the cells of the body. Malic Acid readily crosses the Blood-Brain-Barrier and has been shown to bind to aluminum. It functions in the body by drawing aluminum away from the tubulin enzyme, so that Magnesium can plug into the receptor sites instead. Malic Acid’s unique ability to bind with aluminum means it can be flushed out of the body, preventing unwanted build-up.

    THE PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH

    With all of the negative evidence mounting against aluminum, educated consumers will want to take precautions in order to maintain their health and well being. Of course, the best way to avoid excess aluminum is to cut back on aluminum intake from known sources. Use only stainless steel or cast iron cookware, and look for aluminum- free deodorants and antacids. Always use filtered or spring water for drinking and cooking. And for those who want to take a pro-active approach, adding MAGNESIUM MALATE to your supplement regimen may be your best bet in depleting unwanted aluminum build-up in the body.

    References

    1. Mitani, K. 1992 “Relationship between...aluminum load...and magnesium status.”Magnesium Research 5(3):203-13
    2. Yoshida, S. 1991 “Environmental factors in western Pacific foci...role of Aluminum(Al)...” Rinsho Shinkeigaku 31(12):1310-2
    3. Costello, RB.; Moser-Veillon, PB. 1992 “A review of magnesium intake...” Magnesium Research 5(1):61-7
    4. Yasui, M; Yase, Y; Ota, K; Garruto, RM. 1991 “Aluminum deposition... from the Kii Peninsula of Japan.” Neurotoxicology 12(3):615-20



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    Life Minerals - Why are Minerals So Important?
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    Date: June 02, 2005 01:14 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Life Minerals - Why are Minerals So Important?

    Why Are Minerals So Important?

    The value of adequate mineral intake for overall health cannot be overstated. Their effects are vast and broad; their deficiencies devastating. Minerals are components of body tissues and fluids that work in combination with enzymes, hormones, vitamins and transport substances. Minerals participate in nerve transmission, muscle contraction, cell permeability, tissue structure, blood formation, acid-base balance, fluid regulation, blood pressure control, protein metabolism and energy production. The human body requires large amounts of some minerals, and trace amounts of others, while some minerals – such as Lead, Mercury and Aluminum – are toxic to the body. Those minerals that are essential to health in relatively high amounts – Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Sodium, Chlorine, and Magnesium – are called macrominerals. Trace minerals – Zinc, Manganese, Copper, Iron, Chromium, Selenium, Iodine and Molybdenum, to name a few – are those which are present in the body in minute amounts, but are just as essential to health as the major minerals. One of the main functions of minerals in the body is to activate enzymes. Magnesium, for example, activates over 300 different enzymes, while Zinc “turns on” over 100. Enzymes are catalysts, functioning in the cells to accelerate chemical reactions. All of these chemical reactions collectively are referred to as “metabolism”, which is the very basis of life.

    Why Do We Need Minerals Now More Than Ever?


    I. The Decreasing Levels of Minerals in Today’s Foods Unlike the compost fertilizers of the past, today’s “high-tech” fertilizers do not replace many of the nutrients essential to both the natural growth of crop plants and to human beings, who depend on them for adequate nutrition. As a result, even a “good” diet may provide less nutrition than is generally required. In addition, many modern food additives bind minerals so tightly in food that they can no longer be absorbed or utilized by the body. A moderate intake of one such additive, EDTA (estimated American daily intake is 50-100 mg), was found in a scientific study to reduce iron absorption by 50%! Dietary studies have shown that mineral deficiencies are so prevalent, it’s rare that anyone gets even the minimum RDA levels of them all. The following are examples of the unfortunate findings:

  • • A study by the USDA in the mid-1980s on Chromium status in adults found that NONE of the people tested consumed even the lower level of the Chromium “Safe & Adequate Intake” range of 50 to 200 mcg.
  • • It is estimated that up to 90% of all Americans may be Magnesium-deficient, even by RDA standards (considered by many Magnesium experts to be already too low).
  • • A study published in the prestigious American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in the late 1970s found 70% of Americans getting less than the 15 mg RDA for Zinc, with most getting only 8- 11 mg per day.
  • • Among Americans who do not eat a high-dairy diet or take Calcium supplements/antacids regularly, virtually no one will achieve the current 1000 mg per day RDA for Calcium.
  • • According to nutritionists, women not taking Iron supplements would need to consume a 3000 calorie diet daily(!) to regularly achieve the U.S.RDA for Iron of 18 mg. Yet most women, especially those who are weight-conscious, consume less than 2000 calories a day, many as little as 1200-1500 calories!


    II. The Increasing Need for Minerals in Today’s Environment and Lifestyle Various aspects of the modern environment and lifestyle — some of which are discussed here — severely affect mineral nutrition in the body.

  • • The results of studies conducted in Michigan and Maryland medical facilities show that physical and psychological stress in healthy adults produces acute deficiencies of trace minerals despite otherwise adequate dietary intake. Given the fact that many adults in America are not healthy by medical standards, the loss of minerals with stress is possibly even greater than has been measured.
  • • In addition, many of the prescription drugs that Americans commonly take chelate, or bind, with one or more minerals, making those minerals unavailable to the body. For example, diuretics flush Potassium out of the body and deplete Magnesium, and sedatives can lower blood levels of Calcium and Magnesium.
  • • Heavy metal toxicity is also a major problem in modern America. Cadmium, Mercury and Lead, for example, are cumulative poisons, toxic even in low doses, and are increasingly prevalent in our environment because of their industrial uses. In the 1960s alone, over 200 million pounds of lead per year were released into the environment from the use of leaded gasoline. Data, published in 1987, indicates that people who have a good supply of the minerals Calcium, Zinc, Iron, Selenium, Copper, Chromium, and Manganese in their diets are largely protected against heavy metal poisoning. Conversely, if these minerals are deficient in the diet, there is a much greater danger of heavy metal toxicity.
  • • Poor diet, cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, and the heating and spoiling of polyunsaturated fats all deplete mineral levels and produce damaging free radicals in the body. Minerals such as Selenium, Iron, Copper and Manganese, and Vitamins, such as C, work in the body to neutralize free radicals and thus diminish their harmful effects.

    What Is The Krebs’ Cycle? And What Are “Krebs’ Cycle Minerals”?

    The Krebs’ Cycle is the energetic root of life, taking place in every cell of the body. It produces 90% of the body’s total energy in the form of ATP. Krebs’ Cycle Minerals are those which are bound to the organic acids used in the Krebs’ Cycle. Such mineral complexes are increasingly becoming the standard in mineralinclusive supplements because they’re so good at what they do: Transport. They are especially effective at penetrating various cell membranes and organelle membranes, thus carrying their mineral partners inside the cell. Many of these organelles have membranes to keep out biochemical invaders; therefore, not just any substance can penetrate cells and their organelles.

    Source Naturals’ Life Minerals™: Optimal Mineral Supplementation

    All this technical and scientific information has been brought together by the experts at Source Naturals into one comprehensive multi-mineral formula: Life Minerals™. Many of the minerals in Life Minerals™ — Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Manganese and Iron — are bound to some of the best known transport agents in the body, the Krebs’ Cycle organic compounds. In addition, there are minerals not usually found in other mineral supplements, such as Silicon, Boron, Copper, and Molybdenum. Plus there are the Vitamins B6, C and D3, which have been shown to significantly enhance mineral absorption and utilization. In addition to the Krebs’ Cycle minerals, Life Minerals™ also uses superior forms of other minerals. The Zinc is OptiZinc™ Zinc Monomethionine, shown in scientific studies to be highly bioavailable, offering increased absorption. The Chromium is ChromeMate®, the non-yeast Glucose Tolerance Factor Chromium, believed by many to be the most superior form of Chromium. Copper Sebacate, a more bioavailable form of Copper, is also included. Minerals are crucial to both the structure and function of the body in hundreds of ways. But what good are mineral supplements if your body cannot utilize them to their fullest advantage? Supplementing your diet with Life Minerals™ is an important aid against deficiencies that may be more significant than suspected. By providing minerals with the highest bioavailability, and including significant potencies of each, Source Naturals’ Life Minerals is your best chance of reaping all the benefits that minerals have to offer.



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    Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ...
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    Date: June 02, 2005 12:07 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ...

    Heart Science 30 tabs

    Your heart is crucial to every function of your body. It is the sole organ which pumps oxygen-rich blood through the entire circulatory system, feeding your cells and making life possible. Only recently are Americans realizing the importance of a proper low-fat diet, regular exercise, giving up cigarette smoking, and cutting down alcohol consumption to maintaining a healthy heart. Unfortunately, there has been a huge gap in the number of nutritional supplements which provide nutrients and herbs to support normal heart function. That’s where Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE comes in. Two years in the making, and backed by numerous scientific studies, the nutrients in HEART SCIENCE are some of the most soundly researched of all. Combining high potencies of these super-nutrients, HEART SCIENCE is the most comprehensive, cutting edge nutritional approach to proper heart care available.

    Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE— The Five Tiered Approach to Heart Health

    Your heart never rests. Even while you sleep, your heart must keep working, relying on the constant generation of energy by the body for its very survival. If this vital organ stops beating for even a short amount of time, all bodily functions cease and life ends. Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE helps support heart function on the chemical, cellular, structural, and energetic levels. This broad spectrum formula includes ingredients specifically geared for
    1) generating energy,
    2) decreasing harmful homocysteine levels,
    3) fighting oxidized cholesterol,
    4) maintaining the heart’s electrical rhythm, and
    5) protecting artery and capillary linings.

    Energy Generators for An Energetic Organ

    Every day, the human heart beats about 104,000 times, pumping over 8,000 liters of blood through the body! Because it requires so much energy to perform efficiently, the experts at Source Naturals included specialty nutrients in HEART SCIENCE such as Coenzyme Q10 and L-Carnitine — integral factors in the body’s energy production cycles — to enhance the body’s energy supply.

    There are three main interconnected energy generating cycles in our cells — the Glycolytic (sugar-burning) cycle, the Krebs’ (citric acid) cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain. Together they supply about 90 to 95% of our body’s entire energy supply, using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the non-vitamin nutrients needed to maximally convert food into ATP (the energy producing molecule). It is the vital connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport Chain, the next step in energy generation after the Krebs’ cycle. Using the raw materials generated by the Krebs’ cycle, the Electron Transport Chain produces most of the body’s total energy! The heart is one of the bodily organs which contains the highest levels of CoQ10, precisely because it needs so much energy to function efficiently.

    CoQ10 is one of the most promising nutrients for the heart under investigation today. It has been postulated that as a result of its participation in energy production, CoQ10 improves heart muscle metabolism and the electrical functioning of the heart by enhancing its pumping capacity.8 Many factors such as a high fat diet, lack of exercise, and cigarette smoking can lead to suboptimal functioning of the heart, and therefore failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood. Interestingly, people whose lifestyles reflect the above factors also tend to have depleted levels of CoQ10 in the heart muscle.10

    Researchers suggest taking between 10-100 mg per day of CoQ10;18,29 HEART SCIENCE provides an impressive 60 mg of CoQ10 per 6 tablets. Similar to CoQ10, L-Carnitine is important for energy production in heart cells. It is a natural amino acid-like substance which plays a key role in transporting fatty acids, the heart’s main source of energy, to the mitochondria, the “power plants” of each cell, where they are utilized for the production of ATP. Heart and skeletal muscles are particularly vulnerable to L-Carnitine deficiency. Studies have shown that supplementation with LCarnitine improves exercise tolerance in individuals with suboptimal heart and circulatory function, and seems to lower blood lipid status and increase HDL (good) cholesterol.16, 22 Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE contains 500 mg of this extremely important compound.

    Like CoQ10 and L-Carnitine, B Vitamins help improve the ability of the heart muscle to function optimally. Each B Vitamin, after being converted to its active coenzyme form, acts as a catalytic “spark plug” for the body’s production of energy. Vitamin B-1, for example, is converted to Cocarboxylase, which serves as a critical link between the Glycolytic and Krebs’ Cycles, and also participates in the conversion of amino acids into energy. A deficiency of B coenzymes within contracting muscle cells can lead to a weakened pumping of the heart.21

    HEART SCIENCE is formulated with high quantities of the most absorbable forms of B Vitamins providing maximum nutrition for the high energy demands of heart cells.

    Homocysteine Regulators

    B Vitamins also play a crucial role in the conversion of homocysteine, a group of potentially harmful amino acids produced by the body, to methionine, another more beneficial amino acid. While it is normal for the body to produce some homocysteine, even a small elevation in homocysteine levels can have negative implications. It is well documented that individuals who are genetically predisposed to having elevated homocysteine levels (homocysteinemics) tend to have excessive plaque accumulation in the arteries and premature damage to endothelial cells (cells lining the blood vessels and heart).26 Researchers have found that even those without this genetic abnormality, whose homocysteine levels are much lower than those of homocysteinemics, still have an increased risk for premature endothelial damage and the development of plaque in the arteries.24, 26 One study conducted among normal men and women found that those with the highest levels of homocysteine were twice as likely to have clogged arteries as were those with the lowest levels.24 Furthermore, it was found that the lower the research subjects’ blood levels of folate and B-6, the higher their homocysteine levels.24 Another study found that Folic Acid administered to normal men and women who were not even deficient in folate caused a significant reduction in plasma concentrations of homocysteine!3 In order to regulate homocysteine levels, it is critical to provide the body with sufficient amounts of B-6, B-12, and Folate, whether through the diet or through supplementation. HEART SCIENCE includes high levels of these three nutrients, providing B-6 in the regular and coenzyme form for maximum utilization.

    The Dangers of Oxidized LDL Cholesterol

    While many people have heard that high cholesterol levels may negatively affect normal heart function, few people understand exactly what cholesterol is, or how it can become harmful. Cholesterol is a white, waxy substance produced in the liver by all animals, and used for a variety of necessary activities in the body. Your liver also manufactures two main kinds of carrier molecules which transport cholesterol throughout the system: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Cholesterol is either carried out by LDL from the liver to all tissues in the body where it is deposited, or carried back by HDLs which remove cholesterol deposits from the arteries and carry them to the liver for disposal. Because of this, LDL cholesterol is considered damaging, while HDL is considered protective. Problems occur when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the body and not enough HDL.

    When the body becomes overloaded with fat, an over-abundance of LDL particles are manufactured to process it, and they in turn become elevated in the body to a degree that the liver cannot handle. Rich in fatty acids and cholesterol, these particles are highly susceptible to free radical attack (oxidation). Once oxidized, LDL particles are no longer recognized by the body, which attacks them with immune cells. Immune cells which are bloated by oxidized lipids (called foam cells) are a key factor in the development of “fatty streaks” — the first sign of excess arterial fat accumulation. The bloated immune cells accumulate in artery lesions and create plaque in blood vessels, leading to obstruction and constriction of the vessels. Plus, these lodged foam cells continue to secrete free radicals into the bloodstream, making the problem worse.

    The development of lesions in the arteries is not an uncommon problem. Arterial (and all blood vessel) walls are composed of a chemical matrix which holds the endothelial cells in place. That endothelial layer is the first and most important line of defense in preventing large molecules, such as cholesterol and fat, from entering the vessel wall. This matrix is composed of proteins, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans (amino sugars). Arterial lesions can be caused by suboptimal collagen and elastin synthesis due to three factors: 1. Vitamin C deficiency (since Vitamin C is a key building block for collagen and elastin); 2. excessive consumption of rancid fats, or heavy usage of alcohol or cigarettes; and 3. free radical damage. Once these lesions are created, the body attempts to repair them by depositing LDL cholesterol — similar to the way one would patch a tire. If that cholesterol is not oxidized, i.e. chemically changed to a harmful, unstable molecule, then this process does not create a problem. But when arterial lesions are “patched” with foam cells, arterial walls suffer page 3 page 4 even more damage, because those foam cells release free radicals which can further damage cell membranes.

    Unfortunately, most people have a lot of oxidized cholesterol floating through the bloodstream. The typical American diet, with its low antioxidant intake and overconsumption of fried and overcooked foods, contributes to the overall levels of harmful oxidized cholesterol. In fact, the average American intake of antioxidants is low even by USRDA standards, making Americans particularly prone to having high levels of oxidized cholesterol.

    Cholesterol Fighters

    Fortunately, there are concrete steps you can take to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol, and its subsequent ill effects on health. In addition to cutting out high-cholesterol and fatty foods, supplementation can protect existing cholesterol and all tissue cells — from oxidation. Antioxidants, substances which scavenge and neutralize free radicals, protect the cardiovascular system by halting the oxidation of cholesterol, and helping to prevent plaque accumulation in the arteries and the continual secretion of free radicals by foam cells. Supplementing the diet with high amounts of Vitamin C, a key antioxidant, also encourages a more healthy “patching” of existing lesions by using collagen (made from Vitamin C) instead of cholesterol. HEART SCIENCE contains generous amounts of the following antioxidants for their protective benefits:

  • • Beta Carotene, a plant pigment, is the naturally occurring precursor to Vitamin A. When the body takes in high enough amounts of Beta Carotene, this lipid-soluble free radical scavenger concentrates in circulating lipoproteins and atherosclerotic plaques, where it performs its antioxidant functions. Beta Carotene is particularly unique and powerful as an antioxidant because it is capable of trapping a very toxic form of di-oxygen, called singlet oxygen, which can result in severe tissue damage. Beta Carotene is one of the most efficient quenchers of singlet oxygen thus far discovered. Six tablets of HEART SCIENCE provide an unprecedented 45,000 IU of Beta Carotene!
  • • Vitamin C is found in plasma, the watery component of blood, where it functions as a potent antioxidant. In addition to strengthening artery linings through collagen manufacture, Vitamin C is involved in the regeneration of Vitamin E within LDL particles. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids by the liver, a crucial step in reducing blood cholesterol levels. Once converted into bile acids, and then into bile salts, cholesterol can be excreted from the body, preventing build-up. Supplementation with Vitamin C may lower levels of LDL cholesterol and increase those of HDL cholesterol.25 It may also have a part in actually removing cholesterol deposits from artery walls — good news for people who are already experiencing plaque buildup.25 Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE provides 1,500 mg of Vitamin C in its bioactive mineral ascorbate form.
  • • Vitamin E, together with Beta Carotene, protects lipids from free radical attack. It is the major antioxidant vitamin that is carried in the lipid fraction of the LDL particle, where it protects the LDL particle from damaging oxidation. Within an LDL particle, one molecule of Vitamin E has the ability to protect about 200 molecules of polyunsaturated fatty acids from free radical damage! Vitamin E also aids in protecting the heart by interfering with the abnormal clumping of blood cell fragments, called platelets, within blood vessels.4 It has been shown to inhibit the formation of thromboxanes and increase the production of prostacyclins, which together decrease abnormal platelet aggregation.11 A high potency of Vitamin E — 400 IU’s — is included in six tablets of HEART SCIENCE in the natural d-alpha succinate form, recognized by scientific researchers to be the most absorbable form!
  • • Selenium is an important mineral which has only recently gained attention. When incorporated into the enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase, it has highly powerful free radical-scavenging abilities, and has been shown to work synergistically with Vitamins A, C, and E. An essential mineral, Selenium used to be derived from eating foods grown in Selenium-rich soil. However, modern agricultural practices have depleted soil of its natural Selenium content, leaving many Americans deficient in this vital nutrient. Several epidemiological studies show that the incidence of advanced fatty deposits in blood vessels is much greater in individuals living in geographic areas of the United States and other parts of the world where the Selenium content of the soil is very low.27
  • Proanthodyn,™ an extract of grape seeds, is being called the most powerful antioxidant yet discovered. This highly potent, water-soluble bioflavonoid contains between 93-95% proanthocyanidins, the highest concentration of any nutrient available today. The protective actions of proanthocyanidins may help to prevent the development of plaque in artery walls by inhibiting the free radicals which are produced during the oxidation of cholesterol. The optimal daily amount (100 mg) of Proanthodyn is included in six tablets of HEART SCIENCE. In addition to the protective actions of antioxidants, several other nutrients can contribute to healthier cholesterol ratios.
  • • Chromium is a trace mineral which functions to aid the entrance of glucose into cells. Six tablets of HEART SCIENCE provide 300 mcg of Chromium in the form of Chromate® Chromium Polynicotinate and Chromium Picolinate — the most bioactive forms of Chromium. Not many people are familiar with the vital role Copper plays in the body. This trace mineral is found in all tissues of the body, and is particularly concentrated in the heart. Copper is part of several enzymes, and, in this capacity, is necessary for the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system, including the heart, arteries, and other blood vessels. Because of its role in elastin production, Copper deficiency can severely damage blood vessels and heart tissue. In fact, researchers have found an inverse relationship between Copper status and increased risk for heart damage.10
  • • L-Proline and L-Lysine are two natural amino acids which show exciting promise in helping to prevent fatty deposits in blood vessels. Researchers have recently identified a particle associated with LDL called apoprotein (a) which is believed to be a main culprit in plaque development. 17 Scientific investigation has revealed that the lipoprotein (a) particle has an adhesive quality that makes the lipoprotein fat globule stick inside blood vessels. The sticky fat globules accumulate, leading to fatty deposits in blood vessels and the subsequent clogging of the arteries. L-Proline and L-Lysine tend to form a barrierlike layer around the apoprotein (a) particle, helping to push it away from the blood vessel wall, and impeding deposit.21

    The Regulating Trio

    Three nutrients — Magnesium, Potassium, and Taurine — work closely together in the body to help maintain the normal electrical rhythm of the heart, promote proper fluid balance, and prevent excessive Calcium levels from building up in the heart and artery linings.

  • • Magnesium is one of the single most important nutrients for maintaining a healthy heart. It plays an extremely vital role in maintaining the electrical and physical integrity of the heart muscle. It has been well established that Magnesium deficiency predisposes humans to serious disruptions of normal cardiac rhythm. One theory is that because Magnesium has a relaxing effect on muscle tissue, inadequate Magnesium stores may make the coronary arteries more susceptible to muscle spasm.10 Too little Magnesium can cause a Calcium/Magnesium imbalance, which can lead to the influx of too much Calcium into heart cells, and potentiate spasms in heart tissue. Another point for consideration is that because it relaxes the blood vessels, Magnesium keeps these vessels open, allowing for maximum blood flow to the heart. Magnesium also has the unique ability to stop unnecessary blood clotting by helping to reduce platelet adhesion.31 Blood clots are naturally produced by the body as a protective device to stop excessive blood flow when the body is injured. The clotting response happens when the body senses that the normally smooth blood vessel linings are rough, indicating that there is a cut. However, sometimes the body mistakes the rough surface of plaque-covered arteries as cuts, and creates unnecessary blood clots. Or, if a high fat meal has just been eaten, tiny fat globules called chylomicrons enter the bloodstream and can cause platelets to become abnormally sticky, possibly creating clots. When these clots flow through the bloodstream and reach a part of the artery which has plaque buildup, normal blood flow is blocked, and the amount of blood which reaches the heart is severely compromised. Magnesium is also crucial for the entrance of Potassium — a key mineral for many bodily functions — into the cells. Even if the body’s Potassium stores are high, without enough Magnesium, the Potassium will not be able to enter the cells and be utilized by the body. 300 mg of Magnesium (75% of the U.S.RDA) are contained in each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE. Along with Magnesium, Potassium helps to regulate normal heartbeat and blood pressure, and is necessary for the contraction and relaxation of muscle tissue. Potassium and Sodium are present in all body fluids; Potassium is found primarily within cell fluids, while Sodium is usually present in fluids surrounding cells. Together, they function to maintain the normal balance and distribution of fluids throughout the body. The body ideally should have a Potassium/Sodium balance of about 1:1; however, because the body holds onto Sodium, yet eliminates Potassium quickly, it is important that the dietary ratio of these two minerals be at least 3:1. Unfortunately, the typical American diet, with its emphasis on processed, salty (Sodiumrich) foods and lack of fresh fruits and vegetables, severely alters the body’s natural Potassium/ Sodium balance. Diets in the United States are extremely high in Sodium — sometimes containing as much as 15 times the recommended daily intake! A high Sodium/low Potassium diet interferes with the normal regulation of heartbeat and blood pressure, and has been linked with elevated blood pressure.25 Taurine is an amino acid which helps normalize electrical and mechanical activity of the heart muscle by regulating Potassium flux in and out of the heart muscle cells.

    Artery Lining Protectors

    Your arteries form an integral part of your cardiovascular system, carrying blood away from the heart to nourish other parts of the body. In a healthy heart, blood surges through the arteries with every beat of the heart. The arteries expand with each pulse to accommodate the flow of blood. When arteries become hardened and narrowed by the build-up of plaque, they can’t expand and are not able to transport blood efficiently throughout the body. This inability to open up increases blood pressure, putting a strain on the heart as well as the arteries. HEART SCIENCE includes ingredients specifically geared to protect against plaque formation within arteries and maintain the flexibility of these vital blood vessels. N-Acetyl Glucosamine (NAG) is a key amino sugar which forms the building blocks of mucopolysaccharides. Mucopolysaccharides, which are long chain sugars, are an integral component of connective tissue. They combine to form gel-like matrixes which are present throughout tissues in the body, helping to maintain the elasticity of blood vessels which must continually adapt to the changing pressures of blood flow. Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE provides 500 mg — a substantial amount — of this vital tissue building block. There is evidence indicating that Silicon, a natural mineral, may protect against plaque formation in the arteries. Silicon is found mainly in connective tissues, where it helps bind the body’s chemical matrix. Bound Silicon is found in high amounts in arterial walls. Researchers have found that there is a steady decline in the Silicon content of the aorta and other arteries as we age. This may be due to the low fiber content of the typical American diet, since fiber is a key dietary source of Silicon.23 HEART SCIENCE includes 400 mg of Horsetail herb extract, a natural source of Silicon. Hawthorn Berry is without question the herb most widely used to encourage normal heart function. The beneficial actions of Hawthorn Berry on cardiac function have been repeatedly demonstrated in experimental studies. Supplementation with Hawthorn Berry has been shown to improve both the blood supply to the heart by dilating coronary vessels, and the metabolic processes in the heart, resulting in normal, strong contractions of the heart muscle.34 Also, Hawthorn may inhibit the angiotensen converting enzyme, which is responsible for converting angiotensen I to angiotensen II, a powerful constrictor of blood vessels.34 Bromelain, a natural enzyme derived from pineapples, has become well-known for its neuromuscular relaxing properties. Researchers have reported favorable results when using Bromelain for soothing vascular linings. Initial research also indicates that Bromelain may break down fibrin, the glue which holds platelets together to form blood clots.6

    Capillary Strengtheners

    Capillaries are the smallest, yet some of the most important, blood vessels. If you think of your cardiovascular system as a series of roads which transport blood and oxygen, then your arteries are akin to interstate highways, your arterioles are the main city boulevards, and your capillaries are local residential streets. Capillaries are so small, in fact, that single red blood cells actually have to fold up to fit through them. Because of their tiny size and the intricate nature of their network throughout the body, capillaries are responsible for actually nourishing each individual tissue cell! Along the length of the capillaries are small openings called slit pores through which oxygen, glucose, and nutrients leave the capillaries and enter the surrounding interstitial fluid. From there, they cross cell membranes and nourish the cells. Similarly, the waste products of cells enter the fluid and cross over into the capillaries, where they are then transported to the liver and kidneys for disposal. If the capillary slit pores are torn or have lesions, then blood proteins and Sodium will leak out and cause the interstitial fluid to take on a more gel-like nature. This makes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the cells more difficult, as well as the disposal of cell waste products, turning the fluid into a stagnant swamp instead of a flowing river. In addition to its powerful antioxidant actions, Proanthodyn also helps protect collagen and elastin, the main constituents of tissue in the capillaries, and throughout the body. It is absolutely essential for capillary walls — which are only one cell thick — to be strong and stable, so that they do not allow blood proteins to leak into the interstitial fluid. Once the interstitial fluid takes on a gel-like consistency, the surrounding cells literally become starved from lack of nutrition. The exciting news is that the proanthocyanidins contained in Proanthodyn are among the few substances yet discovered which can help strengthen capillary walls, ensuring the liquid nature of the interstitial fluid.2 Plus, proanthocyanidins help keep capillary and artery walls flexible, allowing for proper blood flow to the heart.

    Heart Smarts

    The 1990’s mark a decade of increased awareness among Americans of important health issues. Much of the discussion has revolved around protecting that precious center of life we call the heart. Simple lifestyle change is one of the most effective ways to maintain and protect the functioning of the cardiovascular system. In order to take a holistic approach to heart care, make sure you include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables (organic, if possible) in your diet, and cut down on fatty and cholesterol-forming foods. Reduce your salt and alcohol intake to a minimum. Try to get regular, sustained aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes three times a week. Don’t smoke – or if you do smoke, try to eat even more fresh fruits and antioxidant-rich vegetables to counter the amount of free radicals being produced in your body. Lastly, consider adding Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE to your health regimen. HEART SCIENCE, the most comprehensive formula of its kind, provides targeted protection to the entire cardiovascular system. By approaching the promotion of normal heart function on five different levels — through the inclusion of ingredients which supply energy, decrease harmful homocysteine levels, fight cholesterol build-up, help regulate electrical rhythm, and protect artery and capillary linings — HEART SCIENCE is the perfect addition to a holistic approach to heart care.

    Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE™


    The Five Tiered Approach to Heart Health
    Six tablets contain:
    Vitamins and Minerals %USRDA
    Pro-Vit A (Beta Carotene) 45,000 IU 900%
    Vit B1 (Thiamine) 50 mg 3333%
    Vit B3 (Inositol Hexanicotinate) 500 mg 2500%
    Vit B6 (Pyridoxine HCl) 25 mg 1250%
    Coenzyme B6 (Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate)
    25 mg yielding: 16.9 mg of Vit B6 845% (Total Vitamin B6 Activity) (41.9 mg) (2095%)
    Vit B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 500 mcg 8333%
    Folic Acid 800 mcg 200%
    Vit C (Magnesium Ascorbate) 1500 mg 2500%
    Vit E (d-alpha Tocopheryl Succinate) 400 IU 1333%
    Chromium (ChromeMate® †Polynicotinate-150 mcg & Chromium Picolinate††-150 mcg) 300 mcg *
    Copper (Sebacate) 750 mcg 37.5%
    Magnesium (Ascorbate, Taurinate & Oxide) 300 mg 75%
    Potassium (Citrate) 99 mg *
    Selenium (L-Selenomethionine) 200 mcg *
    Silicon (From 400 mg of Horsetail Extract) 13mg *
    * U.S. RDA not established.
    Other Ingredients and Herbs
    Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone) 60 mg
    L-Carnitine (L-Tartrate) 500 mg
    Hawthorn Berry Extract 400 mg
    Proanthodyn™ (Yielding 95 mg of Proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract) 100 mg
    L-Proline 500 mg
    L-Lysine (HCl) 500 mg
    NAG™ (N-Acetyl Glucosamine) 500 mg
    Bromelain (2000 G.D.U. per gram) 1200 G.D.U.
    Taurine (Magnesium Taurinate) 500 mg
    Horsetail Extract (Yielding 31 mg of Silica) 400 mg
    Inositol (Hexanicotinate) 50 mg

    Reference:
    1. Azuma, J., Sawamura, A., & Awata, N. (1992, Jan). “Usefulness of Taurine... and its Prospective Application.” Japanese Circulation Journal, 56(1), 95-9.
    2. Blazso, G and Gabor, M. (1980). “Odema-inhibiting Effect of Procyanidin.” Acta Physiologica Academiae ScientiarumHungaricae, 56(2), 235-240.
    3. Brattstrom, E. L, Hultberg, L. B., & Hardebo, E. J. (1985, Nov.). “Folic Acid Responsive Postmenopausal Homocysteinemia.” Metabolism, (34)11, 1073-1077.
    4. Colette, C., et al., (1988). “Platelet Function in Type I Diabetes: Effects of Supplementation with Large Doses of Vitamin E.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 256-61.
    5. England, M. R., et al. (1992, Nov. 4). “Magnesium Administration and Dysrhythmias...A Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Randomized Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(17), 2395-402.
    6. Felton, G. E. (1980, Nov.). “Fibrinolytic and Antithrombotic Action of Bromelain...” Medical Hypotheses (11)6, 1123-33.
    7. Grundy, S. M. (1993, Apr.). “Oxidized LDL and Atherogenesis: Relation to Risk Factors...” Clinical Cardiology, 16 (4 Suppl.I), I3-5.
    8. Hano, O. et al. (1994, June). “Coenzyme Q10 Enhances Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Recovery and Reduces Ca2+ Overload during Postischemic Reperfusion.” American Journal of Physiology, 266(6 Pt 2), H2174-81.
    9. Heineke, et al. (1972). “Effect of Bromelain (Ananase) on Human Platelet Aggregation.” Experientia V. 23, 844-45.
    10. Hendler, S. S. (1991). The Doctors’ Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia. NewYork: Fireside.
    11. Jandak, et al. (1988, Dec. 15). “Reduction of Platelet Adhesiveness by Vitamin E Supplementation in Humans.” Thrombosis Research 49(4), 393-404.
    12. Jialal, I., et al. (1991, Oct. 15). “Beta-Carotene Inhibits the Oxidative Modification of Low-density Lipoprotein.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1086(1), 134-8.
    13. Jialal, I. & Fuller, C. J. (1993, Apr. 16). “Oxidized LDL and Antioxidants.” Clinical Cardiology, Vol. 16 (Suppl. I), I6-9.
    14. Jialal, I., & Grundy, S.M. (1991, Feb.). “Preservation of the Endogenous Antioxidants in Low Density Lipoprotein...” Journal of Clinical Investigation, 87(2), 597-601.
    15. Kamikawa, T., et al. (1985). “Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on Exercise Tolerance...” American Journal of Cardiology, 56, 247-251.
    16. Kosolcharoen, P., et al. (1981, Nov.). “Improved Exercise Tolerance after Administration of Carnitine.” Current Therapeutic Research, 753-764.
    17. Lawn, R. (1992, June). “Lipoprotein (a) in ...” Medicine, 12-18.
    18. Mortensen, S.A.et al. (1985). “Long-term coenzyme Q10 therapy: A major advance in the management of resistant myocardial failure.” Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 11(8), 581-93.
    19. Nayler, W. G. (1980). “The Use of Coenzyme Q10 to Protect Ischemic Heart Muscle.” In: Yamamura Y., Folkners K., Ito Y., eds. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Vol. 2, Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biochemical Press, 409-425.
    20. Press, R.I., & Geller, J., (1990, Jan.). “The Effect of Chromium Picolinate on Serum Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein Fractions in Human Subjects.” Western Journal of Medicine, 152, 41-45.
    21. Rath, M. (1993). Eradicating Heart Disease. San Francisco: Health Now.
    22. Rossi, C. S., & Silliprandi, N. (1982, Feb.). “Effect of Carnitine on Serum HDL Cholesterol: Report of Two Cases.” Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, 150(2), 51-4.
    23. Schwarz, K. (1977, Feb. 2). “Silicon, Fibre, and Atherosclerosis.” The Lancet, 454-456.
    24. Selhub, J., et al. (1995, Feb. 2). “Association Between Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Extracranial Carotid-artery Stenosis.” New England Journal of Medicine, 332(5), 286-291.
    25. Somer, Elizabeth. (1992). The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. New York: Health Media of America.
    26. Stampfer, M. J., et al. (1992, Aug. 19). “A Prospective Study of Plasma Homocyst(e)ine...” Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(7), 877-881.
    27. Suadicani, P., Hein, H. O., & Gyntelberg, F. (1992, Sept.). “Serum Selenium Concentration...in a Prospective Cohort Study of 3000 Males.” Atherosclerosis, 96(1), 33-42.
    28. Thomas, C. L. (Eds.). (1985). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, (15th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
    29. Tsuyusaki, T. et al. “Mechanocardiography of ischemic or hypertensive heart failure,” in Yamaura Y et al., Biomed. & Clin. Aspects of Coenzyme Q.2 Amsterdam, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, 273-88.
    30. Verlangieri, A. J., & Stevens, J. W. (1979). “L-Ascorbic Acid: Effects on Aortic Glycosaminoglycan S Incorporation...” Blood Vessels, 16(4), 177-185.
    31. Werbach, M. R. (1987). Nutritional Influences on Illness: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research. New Canaan: Keats Publishing, Inc.
    32. White, R.R., et al. (1988, Jul-Aug.). “Bioavailability of 125I Bromelain after Oral Administration to Rats.” Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition, 9(4), 397-403.
    33. Whitney, E. N., Hamilton, Nunnelly, E. M. (1984). Understanding Nutrition, (3rd ed.). St. Paul: West Publishing Company.
    34. Willard, Terry, Ph.D. (1992). Textbook of Advanced Herbology. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Wild Rose College of Natural Healing.
    35. Xiang, H., Heyliger, et al. (1988, Nov.). “Effect of Myo-inositol and T3 on Myocardial Lipids and Cardiac Function in Streptozocin-induced Diabetic Rats.” Diabetes, 37(11), 1542-8.



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    Hangover Formula - Fight Hangovers with this formula...
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 02, 2005 11:37 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Hangover Formula - Fight Hangovers with this formula...

    Whether you plan to “tie one on” during a holiday, or just sip a little wine with dinner, you should be aware that you may experience a form of low-level toxicity. When you drink, your body converts alcohol into toxic by-products, especially one called acetaldehyde. These toxins cause free radical damage and other problems, and are to blame for the hangover experience. HANGOVER FORMULA from Source Naturals may help to prevent and relieve some of the causes of hangovers. Its potent combination of antioxidants and Western and Chinese herbs is designed to help neutralize the negative effects of alcohol and replenish the nutrients it destroys.

    Fight Free Radicals

    Acetaldehyde causes the creation of free radicals, which can disrupt cellular activities throughout your body. This causes damage that accumulates with continued use, and is particularly threatening in its effect on the liver. But research shows that Vitamins C and E, and the amino acid Cysteine, act as an antioxidant force to counter the acetaldehyde-produced free radicals, helping to protect against long-term damage. HANGOVER FORMULA provides substantial amounts of these nutrients, and includes Cysteine both in its free form and as the powerful N-Acetyl Cysteine.

    Help Counteract the Energy Drain

    Acetaldehyde also poisons the energy-generating processes in our cells, the Krebs and glycolytic cycles. It breaks down the protein fraction of enzymes needed to keep these energy generation cycles going. It also damages enzymes that help carry nutrients through the intestinal walls, and others used by the liver to activate vitamins so they can be used in the body. This destruction of critical enzyme systems causes the intense fatigue and the feeling of literally being poisoned that are associated with hangovers and with too much drink, too fast. HANGOVER FORMULA provides the vitamins and minerals necessary to replace the damaged enzymes and keep the Krebs and glycolytic energy cycles going. The result? You feel better — stronger and healthier — than you might otherwise.

    Guard Against Severe Depletion of Critical Vitamins and Minerals

    Alcohol impairs absorption of a wide range of essential vitamins and minerals by the intestines. Many of the vitamins at particular risk are BVitamins such as B1, or Thiamine. Alcohol also disrupts the kidneys’ ability to conserve the mineral Magnesium, which is then flushed out in the urine. To help reduce the risk of severe depletion, HANGOVER FORMULA provides two of the principal minerals related to nerve function — Calcium and Magnesium — plus substantial amounts of all the B-Vitamins, with an especially high level of Thiamine.

    The Acetylcholine Connection

    Another major effect of alcohol in the body is the destruction of acetylcholine, one of the body’s most important neurotransmitters. HANGOVER FORMULA includes Phosphatidyl Choline, Choline Bitartrate, and DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol), which are precursors for acetylcholine. Alcohol also causes the brain’s sensitive cell membranes to get very “puffy” (or “fluidized” in scientific terms). This is followed by a rebound effect, and thecell membranes get too “thin,” which can result in a lack of coordination and focus. The acetylcholine precursors in HANGOVER FORMULA also help restore the normal levels of fluidity to these cell membranes, and assist in clearing and focusing the mind again.

    Herbal Approaches

    Naturopaths worldwide address hangovers with cleansing herbs that help the body regain its natural balance. HANGOVER FORMULA employs a sophisticated selection of these powerful herbs. Chinese Herbology contributes Pueraria Flowers (Ko Hua), specifically to cleanse; Magnolia Bark (Hou Pu), to relieve food stagnation; and Gastrodiae Root (Tien Ma), to relieve tension and excessive “liver yang.” Western Herbology provides Gravel Root, Slippery Elm, and Peach Leaves to restore fluid balance, plus Fennel Seeds, Cloves, and Mint to enhance assimilation. Other herbs of benefit include Germinated Rice, Crysanthemum Flowers, Marshmallow Root, and most importantly, Feverfew Leaf and Milk Thistle Seeds. Numerous studies in the scientific publication Lancet have demonstrated the amazing efficacy of the Feverfew Leaf. This traditional herbal remedy apparently helps to block the effects of hormone-like biochemicals called leukotrienes, which — when out of control — cause intense discomfort, until the body can once again get in balance. Three tablets of HANGOVER FORMULA provides 100 mg of a very potent Feverfew Extract. Silymarin, an extract of Milk Thistle Seeds, is the most popular herb in Germany for the liver. It helps keep this major cleansing organ in optimal working order by fighting free radicals and thus minimizing damage. In addition, Silymarin enhances the unique self-regenerative properties of the liver by helping accelerate repair when damage has been done.

    Complete Nutritional & Herbal Support

    To counter nutrient depletion and ease discomfort during hangover miseries, HANGOVER FORMULA is here to help.



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    Gluco Sciense - Take Control of your Blood Sugar ...
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 02, 2005 10:51 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Gluco Sciense - Take Control of your Blood Sugar ...

    Gluco Sciense for Blood sugar

    Sedentary lifestyles, obesity, and sugar-rich diets are prevalent in our society. The result: challenges to your multiple, interdependent body systems involved with blood sugar levels and insulin activity. Now is the time to learn how a healthy diet and lifestyle can help you maintain healthy blood sugar levels. For further support, Source Naturals offers you GLUCO-SCIENCE™, a breakthrough formula. GLUCO-SCIENCE is uniquely effective because it is a Bio-Aligned Formula™. Source Naturals evaluates the underlying causes of system imbalances. Then we design formulas that provide targeted nutrition to bring your interrelated body systems back into balance. GLUCO-SCIENCE can help bring your body’s systems for carbohydrate metabolism back into alignment.

  • GLUCO-SCIENCE™ Maintains Healthy Blood Sugar Levels When Used as Part of Your Diet

    A Bio-Aligned Formula™

    GLUCO-SCIENCE is a comprehensive herbal-nutrient formula, based on the newest clinical research into key herbs and special ingredients. Source Naturals studied the scientific research, and then designed GLUCO-SCIENCE. This Bio- Aligned Formula provides targeted nutrition to five different body systems involved with healthy blood sugar levels and insulin activity.

    Glucose/Carbohydrate Metabolism

    GLUCO-SCIENCE supports glucose/carbohydrate metabolism with a range of nutrients. B-vitamins are required for glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, the metabolic pathways by which the body converts glucose into cellular energy. Chromium is believed to work closely with insulin to facilitate the uptake of glucose into cells. Manganese is also involved in glucose uptake. The formula also features herbs from several traditions, such as Gymnema sylvestre.

    Insulin/Pancreatic Activity

    Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels after meals. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter cells to provide fuel for cellular energy. Certain nutrients (see chart) support these vital metabolic processes, including mediation of insulin release and activity, and enhancing insulin sensitivity. N-acetyl cysteine protects pancreatic beta cells from oxidative damage in animal studies. In addition, vanadium, zinc, and selenium are notable for their insulin-like actions.

    Heart and Circulatory System

    Vitamin E supports a healthy lipid status, while myricetin has been shown in animal studies to influence triglyceride levels. Gymnema sylvestre and vitamin C are involved with lipid metabolism. Additional heart-healthy ingredients include CoQ10, garlic, fenugreek, and hawthorn.

    Nervous System

    Antioxidants are important for a healthy nervous system. Lipoic acid helps prevent lipid peroxidation, which can impact nerve function. Many B-vitamins are vital to the metabolic processes of the nerves or are present in the phospholipids of cell membranes. Methylcobalamin, an active form of vitamin B-12, supports the central nervous system. Other supportive ingredients are included (see chart).

    Vision

    GLUCO-SCIENCE provides antioxidants, nutrients and herbs with an affinity for eyes and the physiological processes involved in sight. Alpha-lipoic acid, quercetin, and vitamin C support healthy lens function. Bilberry, shown to support microcirculation in animal studies, is widely recognized for supporting vision.

    Lifestyle Tips for Healthy Blood Sugar Levels: A Strategy for WellnessSM

  • • Eat a Glucose-Healthy Diet: Fiber: Soluble fiber helps modulate glucose absorption and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Adding 50 grams per day to your diet could help lower blood sugar up to 10%. Foods high in soluble fiber include oranges, grapefruits, raisins, zucchini, oatmeal, oat bran, strawberries and apples. Viscous fibers, including guar gum, psyllium, and galactomannan can be helpful— they should be taken with liquid and mixed with carbohydrate foods. Protein: A high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is associated with healthy blood sugar levels. Fat: Too much fat may increase your risk for heart disease and/or hardening of the arteries, which compromises circulation. Monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, however, are helpful for managing blood sugar. Glycemic Index: Avoid sugar and other foods with a high glycemic index. Different carbohydrates evoke different glycemic responses. Beans, peas, and oats, for example, raise blood glucose levels much less than bread and potatoes. The Glycemic Index, a useful educational tool in choosing foods to help modulate blood glucose levels, is available in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [1995;62:871S-93S (88)], or go to the Internet at www.mendosa.com/gilists.htm.
  • • Maintain a Healthy Weight: If you are overweight, lose weight. Although a Body Mass Index (BMI) between 18.5 and 22 is considered “healthy,” problems arise at a BMI of 22, especially for women.
  • • Exercise: Exercise lowers blood sugar and helps reduce risks associated with elevated levels, such as nerve and eye damage. Exercise also improves insulin sensitivity, and supports heart function and circulation. Try to get 20-45 minutes of aerobic exercise at least 3 days per week.
  • • Maintain Healthy Blood Pressure Levels: If your blood pressure is 140 over 90 or higher, you are more likely to experience challenges to healthy blood sugar levels. Eat a “DASH Diet” containing 8-10 servings of fresh fruits and vegetables, 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy products and less than 2,400 mg of sodium per day.
  • • Stop Smoking: Smoking raises glucose levels and aggravates related health problems.
  • • Manage Stress: During stress, the level of many hormones increases and stores of glucose are released into your bloodstream, clogging and weakening vessels and capillaries. You can relax and reverse the hormonal response to stress by practicing deep breathing, meditating or doing yoga, exercising regularly, or talking with friends, family, or a support group.

    Help Maintain Healthy Blood Sugar levels with Gluco-sciense.

    Glucose/Carbohydrate Metabolism American Ginseng, Bitter Melon, Blueberry, Fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, Maitake, Myricetin, Pterocarpus marsupium, Chromium, Magnesium, Manganese, Vitamins B-1, B-2, B-5, B-6 & B-12, Biotin, Inositol, Niacinamide Insulin/Pancreatic Activity alpha-Lipoic Acid, Bitter Melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Maitake Fruit Body, Myricetin, N-acetyl-L-Cysteine, Pterocarpus marsupium, Taurine, Chromium, Manganese, Selenium, Vanadium, Zinc Heart and Circulatory System Bilberry, Blueberry, CoQ10, Fenugreek, Garlic, Grape Seed, Gymnema sylvestre, Hawthorn, Myricetin, Taurine, Siberian Ginseng, Magnesium, Selenium, Vitamins B-6, C & E, Folic Acid, Niacinamide Nervous System alpha-Lipoic acid, Glutamine, Magnesium, Taurine, Vitamins B-1 & B-6, Biotin, Choline, Inositol, Methylcobalamin Vision alpha-Lipoic Acid, Bilberry, Quercetin, Taurine, Zinc, Vitamins B-6, C & E



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    Fibro Response - Feel your Vitality ...
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 02, 2005 09:56 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Fibro Response - Feel your Vitality ...

    Fibro Response

    Millions of Americans, the majority of them women, are looking for a product to soothe muscles, relieve joints, support energy, and assist the liver’s natural detoxification process. Source Naturals FIBRO-RESPONSE is based on recent research into the physiological mechanisms involved in muscular metabolism. This research has given new hope to millions of people.

    Fibro-Response: A Bio-Aligned Formulation™ FIBRO-RESPONSE is the latest in a series of formulas we refer to as Bio- Aligned Formulations. We evaluate the underlying causes of system imbalances, then design products that support alignment and harmony in your body’s interdependent systems and functions. These formulas provide targeted nutrition to help create Body Systems in Harmony™.

    FIBRO-RESPONSE was designed to help bring harmony to the interdependent systems and functions that influence joint and muscle health. Our muscles need energy and oxygen to prevent them from becoming fatigued. FIBRO-RESPONSE soothes muscles and joints by supporting oxygen supply and energy production, provides powerful antioxidants for healthy joints and connective tissue, assists healthy liver function, and supports the nervous system and circulation. The ingredients were carefully selected to influence a range of body systems. Some were included for their combined effects with other ingredients; some play important roles in more than one body system.

    Muscles and Energy Production: Our muscle cells are powered by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound popularly referred to as “the energy molecule.” ATP supplies energy for all the body’s myriad physiological processes. To provide this chemical energy, the body generates and uses an amazing two to three pounds of ATP every day! ATP production occurs through a series of complex chemical reactions, including the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain—and these energy production systems in turn require sufficient nutrients. Malic acid, a natural fruit acid that is also produced in our cells, and the essential mineral magnesium, are critical components of the energy production cycle in muscle cells. FIBRO-RESPONSE supplies both in the amounts used in recent scientific research. Additional ingredients that support energy production include coenzyme Q10, a coenzyme in the energy- producing pathways; manganese, which activates many metabolic enzymes; and copper, an important component of energy-producing enzymes. Pantothenic acid, and alpha-lipoic acid help form coenzyme A, a primary starting material for ATP production (pantothenic acid also supports the adrenal glands). Vitamins B-1, B-2, niacin and B-6 are all required for energy production.

    Connective Tissue: Healthy connective tissue is essential for proper muscle function. MSM dietary sulfur supports the integrity of connective tissue and joints. MSM is included in FIBRO-RESPONSE in the amount used in recent joint health studies. Vitamins A and C, zinc, manganese, and copper all have important roles in supporting connective tissue. Liver Support: The liver is the largest and one of the most important body organs. Its vital functions include clearing the blood of toxins, and producing bile, which aids in fat digestion and carries waste products away from the liver. Liver detoxification is essential for muscle and joint comfort. Silymarin from milk thistle seeds is an important contributor to the support of healthy liver function. N-acetyl cysteine serves as a precursor to glutathione, a critical selenium-containing antioxidant produced in the liver, which binds to toxins to help remove them from the body. Alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 play important roles in supporting liver health. This is partly because they are components of the body’s energy production process, and the liver demands a great deal of energy. FIBRORESPONSE also contains a classic Chinese herbal combination traditionally used to harmonize liver “chi” or “energy”: bupleurum, ginseng, pinellia, skullcap, ginger, cinnamon, and licorice. Their actions are complemented by the traditional Western herb dandelion.

    Antioxidant Support: Antioxidants protect tissues and joints from highly destructive molecules called free radicals. Alpha-lipoic acid, termed the “ideal antioxidant,” complements the antioxidant activity of beta carotene and coenzyme Q10. Nacetyl cysteine, best known for supporting the liver, is also highly valued as an antoxidant. Zinc, selenium and copper support our natural defenses. Together, they provide a full armory of powerful antioxidants for joints and connective tissue.

    Nervous System Support: Ginkgo biloba is renowned for promoting blood flow to the brain. This is crucial, since brain tissue is very metabolically active, accounting for 2% of our body weight, yet using 15% of our total energy supply. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that may regulate the nervous system and support clear focus. The herb skullcap, and vitamin B-6, add further support.

    Taking Back Your Life: A Strategy for WellnessSM

    Source Naturals’ expert formulators have created an experiential product that can make a difference in the way you feel. But supplementation is only part of the picture. Healthy lifestyle habits can redefine and empower your own strategy for wellness.

    Rest and Relaxation. Deep, uninterrupted sleep is essential for energy and a healthy nervous system. Sleep 8 to 10 hours nightly and aim to finish meals two hours before retiring.

    Exercise. Even if you feel exhausted and it hurts to move your muscles, you must keep moving. Start easy with nonimpact movement—yoga is an excellent beginning. Do some gentle stretches, followed by 5 to 10 minutes of blood-pumping activity (i.e. biking, stair-stepping, or dancing). Listen to your body: increase activity time only when it feels comfortable. Food and Nutrition. You’ve heard it before but now it’s time to pay attention: eat healthy. Avoid spicy, oily foods and choose light, mild alternatives. Go easy on sugar and incorporate whole grains into your diet. Enjoy steamed vegetables, alternate brown and white rice, and eat less red meat and more fish or soy. Reduce or eliminate milk products. Relax and take time to chew. And drink LOTS of water—it is essential for hydrating the body, flushing out wastes, and absorbing nutrients.

    Breathing. Many people hold their breath unintentionally, often as a result of stress or anxiety. This can become a habit, reducing blood oxygen, interrupting the pumping mechanism of the diaphragm that helps circulation, and causing muscles to become tense. Breathe deeply and feel your lungs expand and fill. Notice how different you feel.

    You have in your hand a powerful, comprehensive formula. Combined with a healthy lifestyle FIBRO-RESPONSE can help you make lasting changes that will empower you throughout life.

    FIBRO-RESPONSE is available in bottles of 45, 90 and 180 tablets.

    References Abraham, G. and J. Flechas. 1992. J. Nutritional Medicine (3): 49-59. American Medical Association, Encyclopedia of Medicine. New York: Random House, 1989. Garfinkel, L. and D. 1985. Magnesium (4): 60-72. Russell, I.J. et al. 1995. J. Rheumatology 22(5): 953-8.

    Targeted Nutrition Muscle Cell Metabolism Malic Acid, Magnesium, CoQ10, Vitamin B-1, (ATP Production) Vitamin B-2, Vitamin B-3, Vitamin B-6, Manganese, Pantothenic Acid, Copper, alpha-Lipoic Acid. Connective Tissue MSM, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Zinc, Manganese, Copper Liver Silymarin from Milk Thistle, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Ginkgo Biloba, Dandelion Root, Chinese Liver Blend (Bupleurum, Skullcap, Panax Ginseng, Pinellia Root, Ginger, Cinnamon, Licorice Root) Antioxidant Support N-Acetyl Cysteine, alpha-Lipoic Acid, Beta Carotene, CoQ10, Zinc, Selenium, Copper, Nervous System GABA, Skullcap, Ginkgo Biloba, Vitamin B-6.



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    Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement
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    Date: June 01, 2005 01:13 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement

    Elan Vital Multiple

    What makes ÉLAN VITÀL unique is its unprecedented range of nutriments in high potencies and superior forms. Quite simply, it stands alone among multiples: a quantum leap beyond maintenance...into excellence. Not only does it offer unparalleled antioxidant nutrition and a full-spectrum of essential vitamins and minerals, ÉLAN VITÀL is also formulated with specific nutrients that support:

  • • structural integrity
  • • energy generation
  • • neurotransmitter production
  • • liver health ÉLAN VITÀL brings you the very best from all areas of advanced nutrition for a difference you can feel.

    Today’s inflated levels of stress and pollution give rise to harmful free radicals – unpaired electrons that can damage living cells and compromise the proper function of tissues and organs. Antioxidants serve to protect the body by neutralizing free radicals; in fact, many scientists believe that high levels of antioxidants may prolong the effective working life span of the body’s cells. The primary strategy of ÉLAN VITÀL is to provide a wide range of antioxidants at exceptional levels, from both botanical and biochemical sources.

    Plantioxidant Protection

    ÉLAN VITÀL has the powerful advantage of Plantioxidants™, standardized botanical extracts with unparalleled free radical-scavenging properties. Plantioxidants have the unique quality of providing targeted protection because they tend to be attracted to different organs in the body. Grape Seed extract is rich in potent proanthocyanidins, a special class of highly bioavailable, water-soluble bioflavonoids that have the unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the health of brain cells. Proanthocyanidins have been shown to efficiently scavenge oxygen radicals, as well as optimize the transport of vitamin C. They also have an affinity for collagen and elastin, the structural proteins that are abundant in vessel linings and other connective tissue. ÉLAN VITÀL contains the most concentrated extract of Bilberry available, with at least 25% anthocyanosides – compounds which are similar to proanthocyanidins but with an unusually strong attraction to optical tissue. They have been shown to protect cellular integrity in the delicate structures of the eyes. Ginkgo biloba extract is a standardized concentration of prime quality ginkgo leaves, yielding 24% ginkgoflavoneglycosides. These active compounds are potent antioxidants that have been associated with superior oxygen transport throughout the body with a special affinity for brain capillaries. Silymarin is the name given to a complex of three bioflavonoid-like compounds — silybum, silycristin, and silymarin — extracted and concentrated from milk thistle seeds. Silymarin functions in the body as an antioxidant with a special attraction for the liver. It has been researched and used extensively in Europe, where it is prized for its unique ability to nourish the liver and support its natural regeneration process by speeding up DNA synthesis in liver cells. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid present in some foods, such as onions and blue-green algae. A cousin of rutin, quercetin has been shown to stabilize cell membranes and help prevent free radical damage to this vital but vulnerable part of cells. Bioflavonoids and related compounds do their best antioxidant work when in the presence of Vitamin C, the nutrient they are most often paired with in nature. The vitamin C provided in ÉLAN VITÀL is both water- and fat-soluble. This combination is crucial because the tissues and membranes richest in fatty acids are most at risk to free radical attack. Fat-soluble vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl palmitate has an affinity for these highly vulnerable structures.

    Antioxidant Nutrients

    ÉLAN VITÀL not only provides botanical defense plants to combat free radicals, but also contains tried-and-true antioxidant nutrients: Biochemicals known as vitamins, minerals, and amino acids work together for maximum protection to all the body’s cells. The amino acid, N-Acetyl Cysteine, is a powerful and highly versatile antioxidant that doubles as a precursor to glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, two of the most formidable cell-protective compounds manufactured by the body. Studies have shown that supplemental N-acetyl cysteine enhances internal levels of glutathione far better than supplements of glutathione itself. Methionine also contributes to the synthesis of glutathione, and is an efficient transporter of certain antioxidant minerals, magnifying their activity. Vitamin A is included in both its fat-soluble palmitate form and in its provitamin form, Beta Carotene. While preformed A has long been known to play a role in the body’s defenses, beta carotene itself has recently been shown to possess a powerful ability to scavenge free radicals and contribute to the youthful function of some tissues. Vitamin E is one of the most important antioxidant compounds in nature. It works to prevent harmful oxidation within each cell and is vital in the protection of red blood cells from free radical-induced rupture. Selenium is an extremely powerful antioxidant shown in studies to work synergistically with Vitamins A, C, and E. In combination with cysteine, selenium helps build the glutathione peroxidase molecule. ÉLAN VITÀL offers a 50/50 blend of the two most scientifically supported forms of selenium: L-selenomethionine and sodium selenite. In addition to being an antioxidant itself, Zinc works closely with fat-soluble vitamin A by facilitating its release from the liver to the rest of the body. In ÉLAN VITÀL, Zinc is synergistically bound to methionine for optimal bioavailability. Copper sebacate is a natural compound that can function as the copper-SOD antioxidant system in the body, one of the first lines of defense against free radical attack. Copper sebacate is a highly absorbable form that possesses significant free radical scavenging activity.

    Supporting Structural Integrity

    An important adjunct to antioxidant nutrition is the amino sugar N-Acetyl Glucosamine, or N-A-G™. Amino sugars are essential components of cell membranes and their surface structures, as well as of the “ground substance” that holds body tissues together. They are also a key constituent of the synovial fluid in the joints. Recent research has revealed that amino sugars play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the connective and structural tissues of the body, a property that complements perfectly the actions of antioxidants: where antioxidants may prevent damage from occurring, amino sugars may help the body repair and regenerate damaged tissue. N-A-G’s activity is supported in ÉLAN VITÀL by other nutrients helpful to structural tissue. The mineral Manganese is required for building amino sugars into mucopolysaccharides, the large molecules that make up the ground substance that holds cells together. Choline and Inositol are both components of phospholipids, principal constituents in cell membranes. Two B vitamins, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12, are important to cell regeneration and to the development of healthy red blood cells.

    Enhanced Energy to Maximize Metabolism

    ÉLAN VITÀL is a potent source of coenzymes, metalloenzymes, and metabolites involved in energy production in the body. There are two main energy production cycles in the cells: the glycolytic cycle and the Krebs’ cycle. Together, they generate about 90-95% of the body’s entire energy supply – using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel, with enzymes as facilitators. The enzymes which catalyze energy production function in combination with coenzymes made from vitamins such as B1, B2, B3, B5 and Biotin, plus metalloenzymes made from minerals, including Magnesium, Manganese, and Copper. Biotin, an often overlooked nutrient, may function to help the body maintain a youthful metabolism. The mineral Magnesium aids in energy production, not only by acting as a cofactor to some enzymes, but also as a stabilizer of ATP, the body’s primary energy molecule. Some of the key connecting enzymes in the energy production process require two additional non-vitamin coenzyme nutrients to maximally convert food into energy: Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10. Lipoic acid helps convert the end-product of the glycolytic cycle, pyruvate, into acetyl-CoA, a principal fuel for the higher energy Krebs’ cycle. Coenzyme Q10. is the connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport System, an off-shoot of the Krebs’ cycle, where ATP molecules are “cashed in” for energy. The muscle-supporting electrolyte mineral Potassium is in the form of Alpha- Ketoglutarate, a critical Krebs’ cycle metabolite that has additional benefits. It has long been used to improve the efficiency of ammonia-clearance from the body, an indispensable function, as ammonia is both exceedingly harmful and constantly produced through the natural metabolism of proteins. Because alpha-ketoglutarate is an organic compound well-recognized by the cells, it is an excellent transporter of potassium into the cells. Succinic Acid, or succinate, is also a metabolite in the Krebs’ cycle. It not only boosts production of ATP energy potential, but also increases the muscle cells’ production of creatine phosphate, another high energy biochemical. Chromium is the essential mineral component of glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, which functions to help insulin (one of the two main blood sugar-controlling hormones in the body) draw sugar molecules from the bloodstream into the cells.

    Smart Nutrients

    ÉLAN VITÀL contains natural substances that sharpen performance beyond just the physical. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is a highly stable and absorbable form of the conditionally essential amino acid L-tyrosine, a precursor to the major excitatory neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. DMAE is a precursor to one of the body’s main neurotransmitters, acetylcholine. From the Plantioxidants comes standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, whose compounds readily cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the integrity of the capillaries in the brain.

    Guarding the Liver

    ÉLAN VITÀL provides several nutrients which collectively support optimal liver function. This is an essential aspect of a multiple, because the liver is responsible for converting nutrients – from food as well as from supplements – into their usable forms. If liver function is compromised in any way, nutrient supplements may be rendered inert in the body. The liver is especially at risk because it must filter out ingested toxins and is continually exposed to chemicals that generate free radicals. N-Acetyl Cysteine and Silymarin have both demonstrated a strong affinity for the liver. Nacetyl cysteine contributes to increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, both of which the liver uses in its natural cleansing function. Silymarin provides unparalleled support to the liver’s natural regeneration process. Because of its many vital functions, the liver uses as much as 12% of the body’s energy supply, even though it represents only 3% of body weight. The liver therefore uses a greater proportion of energy nutrients, especially Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid. Both are highly concentrated in the liver; and lipoic acid in particular has been researched and used heavily in Europe where it is prized for its special protective actions in the liver. Ascorbyl Palmitate is a fat-soluble form of Vitamin C, meaning it can provide antioxidant protection for fatty tissue. This is especially valuable to the liver, which tends to develop fatty streaks that are most vulnerable to damage. Vitamin E has been researched extensively for its antioxidant properties with regard to the liver.

    The Multiple for the 21st Century

    ÉLAN VITÀL is truly a one-of-a-kind multinutrient supplement: one that leaves no nutritional stone unturned. Based on the biochemical principles of nutrition and metabolism – in context of today’s challenges to our health – ÉLAN VITÀL approaches optimal nutrition from several directions...all leading to a lifetime of health and vitality.



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    Diet Pyruvate - Get the Look Naturally ...
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    Date: June 01, 2005 12:20 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Diet Pyruvate - Get the Look Naturally ...

    Diet Pyruvate

    Ideally, a perfect diet would allow you to lose excess body fat, but not lean body mass. Why? Because most experts now agree that the body’s enemy is fat and not weight. Your body composition is capable of changing dramatically without any significant change in weight. It’s simply a matter of body mass redistribution. Fat is lost. Muscle is gained. A new leaner shape emerges. Introducing Source Naturals Diet Pyruvate Powder. A promising new study indicates six or more grams of Pyruvate powder a day may reduce body fat, increase lean body mass, and improve body composition when taken in conjunction with a low-fat diet and exercise plan. Imagine the possibilities.

    Pyruvate has a key role in your body’s metabolism and the energy production process. It is the link between the two main energy generating cycles, glycolysis (anaerobic metabolism) and the Krebs cycle (aerobic metabolism). In essence, it is here that the body creates and disseminates energy from the proteins, fats and carbohydrates that we ingest. Pyruvate occurs naturally in our bodies. It is produced as our systems absorb and process the carbohydrates in food to create glucose. Glucose is the body’s high-performance fuel. It is what drives our muscles and gives us endurance. Glucose is converted into Pyruvate, which then becomes a crucial part of the energy producing process. Pyruvate is found in some of the foods we eat today, but in very small amounts.

    THE POWER OF PYRUVATE.

    Diet Pyruvate may have an especially significant role when taken in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise program, such as the Source Naturals Maximum Metabolism Weight Loss Plan™. Pyruvate has a strategic purpose in the energy production process. Pyruvate is found in a variety of foods, but most contain less than 25 mg per serving. Diet Pyruvate is made of the finest Calcium Pyruvate Monohydrate, manufactured by Med-Pro Industries using a unique, patented process to ensure stability and high purity.

    SOURCE NATURALS DIET PYRUVATE PRODUCTS INCLUDE:

    Diet Pyruvate in capsule form containing 500 and 750 mg of Calcium Pyruvate Monohydrate, Diet Pyruvate in 3 oz. powder form in which one teaspoon contains approximately 3 grams of Calcium Pyruvate Monohydrate, and Diet Pyruva-Nectar™ in a delicious 16 oz. flavored drink mix form of Calcium Pyruvate Monohydrate. Here is a simple and natural program that may help you in reaching healthy weight and body composition goals, when taken with the Maximum Metabolism Weight Loss Plan. Source Naturals wants to help you achieve the look you’ve always imagined. So set your goals, and get the look. Safely. Naturally.

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    COENZYME Q10 - Transforming food into energy
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    Date: June 01, 2005 11:06 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: COENZYME Q10 - Transforming food into energy

    Coenzyme Q10

    It’s 3:30 p.m. and you feel irritable; you can’t seem to concentrate. You were so busy you skipped lunch. At last you bite into the sandwich that you were ready for 3 hours ago. By the time you have eaten half of it, energy is starting to flow through you. What happened? The answer to that question is both extremely complex and very simple. In essence, your body transformed the food into useable energy. CoQ10 is a crucial component of the primary energy generating cycle that takes place in each of the trillions of cells in our bodies. CoQ10 is essential for human life.

    To transform that lunchtime sandwich into useable energy your body essentially has to burn it - just the way a car burns gasoline to drive its engine. This energy generating process takes place in structures called mitochondria - tiny power plants which are within every cell. Inside these energy generating stations, fats, sugars, and amino acids are transformed into ATP, an energy-rich molecule sometimes called the “energy currency” of the body.

    Energy Generation Requires Nutrients

    The body requires many nutrients in order to perform the complex biochemical processes that convert food into ATP “energy currency.” Some of these nutrients such as the B-vitamins are familiar to us. However, there are many other substances which are essential to this process. Coenzyme Q10 is one of these.

    Functions of CoQ10

    Several complex metabolic pathways are required in order for the body to transform that lunchtime sandwich into energy that you can feel and use. First glycolysis and the Krebs’ cycle break down large molecules of protein, carbohydrate and fat into smaller components. CoQ10 is a key enzyme in the Electron Transport Chain - the final stage in this extraordinary design. This pathway generates 90% of the ATP needed by the body from the food we eat. ATP provides the “energy currency” for the following crucial metabolic functions: 1) synthesis of cellular components including cholesterol and proteins (formed primarily by the liver), 2) nerve conduction (in the brain and peripheral nerves), and 3) energy for muscular contraction (of the heart and skeletal muscles). The Heart: The heart muscle (myocardium) consumes a tremendous amount of energy. Your heart beats over 100,000 times and pumps 1,000 gallons of blood each day! CoQ10 is necessary for the generation of the energy required by the heart. Numerous scientific studies have demonstrated that supplementation with this nutrient may support normal heart function. Its presence is necessary for cardiac performance during exercise as exemplified by criteria including: blood flow, oxygen utilization, contractility and exercise tolerance. In addition, CoQ10 may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure. The Gums: Since the 1970’s scientists have been researching the effects of CoQ10 on the health of the oral tissues. Although the mechanism of action is not known, research has established that CoQ10 has a profound ability to preserve and maintain the health of the gums. Antioxidant Properties: CoQ10 plays an additional vital role in our metabolism as a protector of lipids in cell membranes. Laboratory studies have also shown that CoQ10 is more efficient than vitamin E, beta carotene or lycopene in safeguarding LDL cholesterol from oxidation by peroxides. This process is important for maintaining the health of our blood vessels.

    Energy Insurance

    CoQ10 is needed in body tissues where energy production is critical, such as the liver, brain and muscles. Therefore we include CoQ10 in significant potencies in many of our premium formulas, such as Life Force Multiple™, Élan Vitàl™, Heart Science™, Liver Guard™, MenoBalance™, Higher Mind™, MegaMind™ and Wellness Multiple™. We also offer a combination of CoQ10 and Lipoic Acid (30 mg each), CoQ10 Sublingual (30 mg and 60 mg), 30 mg CoQ10 Softgels with Bioperine® and 30 mg CoQ10 NutraSpray™. Our single CoQ10 products are CoQ10 in 15 mg, 30 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, and Ultra Potency 125 mg caps.

    References
    1) Folkers et al., BCACQ, Elsevier, 1977
    2) Judy et al., BCACQ, Elsevier, 1984.
    3) Kamikawa, T. et al., American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 56, August 1, 1985, p. 247-250.
    4) Nohara et al., Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Elsevier, 1984.
    5) Packer, L., Oxidative Stress and Aging, Birkhauser Verlad, 1995.
    6) Stocker, et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 88, pp 1646-1650, March 1991.
    7) Tortora, G. Principles of Human Anatomy, 4th Ed., Harper & Row, New York, 1986, p. 301.
    8) Wilkinson and Arnold, Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Elsevier, 1977.
    9) Yamagami et al., Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Elsevier, 1977.



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