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What eating too much salt does to your body Darrell Miller 3/19/17
10 Amazing Benefits That Make Green Tea The Healthiest Drink In The World Darrell Miller 3/18/17
What Are The Benefits Of Purple Tea (Camellia sinensis) Darrell Miller 10/6/16
Astaxanthin Protects The Eye And More! Darrell Miller 11/13/13
Green Tea Darrell Miller 11/24/12
What is Oligonol Good for and How Does It Boost My Health? Darrell Miller 3/22/11
How Does the Herb Holy Basil Help with My Health? Darrell Miller 3/10/11
Can N-Acetyl Cysteine Boost Liver Health And Function? Darrell Miller 2/10/11
Caralluma extract Darrell Miller 8/24/09
Green Tea Extract Darrell Miller 10/23/08
Neptune Krill Oil - EPA and DHA Rich! Darrell Miller 7/2/07
Revita Darrell Miller 3/8/07
Mangoni - Complete SuperFruit Food 1oz equals 3 servings of Vegetables Darrell Miller 12/27/06
Air Defense from Now Foods Darrell Miller 10/3/06
Best Sugar Balance Svetol (green coffee extract) Darrell Miller 5/5/06
Benefits of Best Alpha Lipoic 35! Darrell Miller 2/12/06
Astaxanthin - PHYTONUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANT Darrell Miller 12/28/05
Your Cells Supercharge Your Cells Darrell Miller 12/20/05
Tru-E Bio Complex Darrell Miller 12/8/05
Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant Darrell Miller 12/7/05
Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid Darrell Miller 10/13/05
Zeaxanthin with Lutein - The clearly-seen benefits of advanced eye protection Darrell Miller 8/3/05
Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids Darrell Miller 7/27/05
Anti-Aging Nutrients Darrell Miller 6/18/05
Summer Sports Nutrition Guide Darrell Miller 6/11/05
Nutrients for Longevity Darrell Miller 6/10/05
Drinks Everywhere Darrell Miller 6/10/05
VITAMIN A and CAROTENOIDS - What are they good for? Darrell Miller 6/9/05
Pycnogenol Complex - The Next Generation of Antioxidant Protection Darrell Miller 6/4/05
Mega H- Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life Darrell Miller 6/3/05
LYCOPENE - Tomatoes Like You’ve Never Seen Them Before ... Darrell Miller 6/3/05
Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ... Darrell Miller 6/2/05



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What eating too much salt does to your body
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Date: March 19, 2017 01:44 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What eating too much salt does to your body





Salt is good for you in the right quantities but having too much is not healthy at all. Salt is hidden in many foods as well. You have to watch for it. This explains exactly what will happen if too much is consumed so that you can be more aware of it.

Key Takeaways:

  • While sodium is needed to carry out normal bodily functions, there is such a thing as overdoing it
  • Too much salt could cause High blood pressure, UnQuenchable thirst, Osteoporosis, and Persistent bloating.
  • Cook as much as you can from scratch, processed foods have too much salt.

"While sodium is needed to carry out normal bodily functions, there is such a thing as overdoing it – and adding it to your cooking, shaking it habitually onto your potatoes or snubbing the warnings on supermarket packaging can come with a price."



Reference:

https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=//home.bt.com/lifestyle/health/healthy-eating/what-eating-too-much-salt-does-to-your-body-11364164547999&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGmU0N2NhMzY3ZTc4ODMzY2U6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNFxA9CgTmA4UWlGpRBrGS4uE6khGA

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10 Amazing Benefits That Make Green Tea The Healthiest Drink In The World
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Date: March 18, 2017 03:44 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: 10 Amazing Benefits That Make Green Tea The Healthiest Drink In The World





Green tea is a popular drink nowadays and lots of information is known about it. It is served in many restaurants and is also available at many stores. This explains 10 reasons why it's very good for you. It will definitely make you want to drink it more often if you don't already.

Key Takeaways:

  • Aside from being a thirst-Quencher, Green Tea is also being widely used around the world for medicinal purposes.
  • And its effects are backed by several studies, which is why green tea has earned the distinction of being the healthiest drink in the entire world.
  • Based on several independent studies, those who drink green tea have lesser risk of developing certain types of cancer like breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and prostate cancer.

"Drinking green tea helps decrease blood sugar levels, which in turn reduces the amount of insulin needed by the body."



Reference:

https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=//wallstreetpit.com/113088-10-amazing-benefits-green-tea-healthiest-drink-world/&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGmE1ZjVlMDc0YzcwMWFjZWI6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNEPlXR4vQTrZKWvifwWcjJKEhKI5Q

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=4209)


What Are The Benefits Of Purple Tea (Camellia sinensis)
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Date: October 06, 2016 01:22 PM
Author: Darrell Miller
Subject: What Are The Benefits Of Purple Tea (Camellia sinensis)

Currently cultivated in the Kenyan rich volcanic mountain soils is the rare purple tea that has a pleasant aroma. It is known for not only its health benefits but is also said to have beautifying properties. Purple tea has a sweet taste that gives it a stronger flavor and provides a rare thirst Quenching element compared to other teas.

Purple tea health benefits include:

  • - Purple tea has a high antioxidant content that provides for anti-cancer benefits.
  • -It contains anthocyanins which help reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.
  • -Its' lower caffeine content enhances the blood sugar metabolism, improves vision and cholesterol.
  • -Regular consumption of its extracts has been said to aid in weight reduction (reduce obesity).

 It also promotes good digestion and an increased metabolism rate that may lead to weight loss. Purple tea will enhance women's' looks. Its extracts have beauty benefits such as; prevention of hair loss, anti-ageing properties and enhances skin tone. It is simple to prepare and the results are visible after a short time making the body feel less tired, look better and feel healthier.

Try Purple Tea for Your Self!

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=3324)


Astaxanthin Protects The Eye And More!
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Date: November 13, 2013 02:52 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Astaxanthin Protects The Eye And More!

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid that is commonly found in the marine environment. It is naturally found in salmon, krill, trout, crayfish, shrimp, crustaceans and yeast. It is the chemical that is responsible for the red color in cooked shellfish and salmon meat. The algae Haematoccus has the richest natural source of astaxanthin.

Astaxanthin can also be produced synthetically, but due to the synthetic product consisting of different steriosmers it is not preferred to be used in some cases.

Unlike beta-carotene it has two more oxygenated groups on each of its ring structure, these additional functional groups make it a highly potent antioxidant and give it a configuration that is more polar than that of other carotenoids. Vitamin E has been known as the strongest antioxidant both in topical use in cosmetics and in internal use, but research has shown that astaxanthin has a greater antioxidant strength than Vitamin E. For example in the Quenching of singlet oxygen it has an antioxidant strength five hundred times stronger than Vitamin E.

Unlike many other antioxidants it has the ability of crossing the blood-brain barrier and enter into the eyes, brain and central nervous system (CNS). Most diseases of the CNS and eye are caused by increased generation of free radicals or by a decrease in the ability to remove free radicals from the body. Some of the diseases that are caused by problems with inflammation and oxidation include Glaucoma, Cataracts, and Huntington’s disease. These can be prevented by taking astaxanthin.

It has anti-inflammatory properties that are related to its strong antioxidants properties. It suppresses some of the inflammatory mediators such as, prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), tumor necrosis factor –alpha (TNF-a), and nitric oxide. Unlike other anti-inflammatory drugs like acetaminophen that can damage the liver and aspirin that may cause stomach bleeding, astaxanthin doesn’t have any side effects.

In people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome it has the ability of reducing pain. Studies have shown that it is able to reduce pain in rheumatoid arthritis by 40% after 8 weeks of continuous use.

It prevents Ultra Violet induces oxidative stress of the skin and prevents the photo aging of the skin. It prevents UV induced formation of wrinkles and collagen degradation in the skin. It may be applied on the skin or taken orally.

In people participating in sports it eliminates the soreness of joints after exercise, and reduces the pain caused by inflammation. This enables athletes to train harder and as a result increase their endurance, skill, and strength. This is through its ant-inflammatory and ant-oxidant effects in the mitochondria (energy producing organelle).

It strengthens the immune system, research by scientists has shown that it causes increase in production of T cells, stimulates the proliferation of lymphocytes, amplify the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells, decrease damage of DNA, and increases significantly delayed type hypersensitivity syndrome.

It prevents heart disease and reduces the risk of people already suffering from heart disease form getting a stroke or heart attack. It improves the blood lipid profiles by increasing HDL (high density lipoprotein) and decreasing LDL (low density lipoprotein).

The liver main function of the liver and kidney is the detoxification and removal of harmful substances in the body. These activities lead to the formation of free radicals. Astaxanthin being a strong antioxidant helps by destroying these free radicals hence it eliminates their oxidative effects.

As a result of its immune benefits Astaxanthin also has anti-tumor properties and as a result it prevents the development of cancer. Its prevention of cancer is also caused by its antioxidant properties and by it regulating gene expression.

References

1. //www.peakhealthadvocate.com/2826/astaxanthin-benefits-include-eye-heart-health/

2. //articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/02/10/cysewki-discloses-astaxanthin-benefits.aspx

3. //www.lef.org/magazine/mag2013/apr2013_Astaxanthin-Provides-Broad-Spectrum-Protection_01.htm

4. //www.vitguide.com/astaxanthin-benefits/

5. //www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/astaxanthin-supercharged-health-benefits

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2890)


Green Tea
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Date: November 24, 2012 10:28 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Green Tea

History of Green Tea.

Green tea originated in China and it has been used as a beverage and for medicinal reasons in China and most of Asia. In Asia besides China, green tea is common in Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. The book written by 'Lu Yu' from the Tang Dynasty in China is to date considered as the most important book in the history of Green tea. The book is called the " Cha Jing" or "Tea Classic". It was written between 600 and 900 AD.

The book details the medicinal qualities of green tea which include, Easing effects on alcohol, curing blotchiness, acting as a stimulant, Quenching thirst, curing the beriberi disease, eliminating indigestion, improving the brain and urinary functions and also preventing fatigue. Green tea was used in Asia to help in almost everything, that is from, helping to heal wounds and bleeding to regulating the body temperatures and blood sugars. It was even used to promote digestion.

Recently, green tea has become popular in the west where Black tea was mainly consumed. Green tea today is being used as a raw material for extracts mostly used in beverages, dietary supplements, healthy foods and even in cosmetic items. Green tea varies in varieties depending on the country its grown, the growing conditions, the desired type of green tea, the production process and the harvesting time.

How its made.

The general process of making a cup of green tea entails, using 2 grams of green tea leaves for 100ml of water or rather, a teaspoon of green tea leaves per a 5 ounce cup of water. When making green tea, the hottest temperature for the water should be between 81 degrees and 87 degrees and the lowest temperature should be between 61 degrees and 69 degrees. Low quality green leaves will mostly require more heating or steeping time than high quality tea leaves, however if you steep or heat for too long it may result in a bitter taste regardless of the quality of the tea leaves.

Benefits Of Green Tea.

Green tea contains a variety of amino acids, carbohydrates, enzymes, vitamins, sterols, lipids,carotenoids, polyphenols, tecopherols and caffeine among others. In a 2012 scientific study, it was concluded that green tea actually does help in reducing certain types of cancer like prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. the study concluded that a compound contained in green tea not only inhibits the growth of cancer cells but also kills then without causing harm to the healthy body cells. A study in the university of Geneva in Switzerland found out that people who drank caffeinated green tea lost more calories than those who drank regular tea which means it can be of great help to dieters.

Cholesterol

Drinking green tea also helps lower the total levels of cholesterol and improve the ratio of HDL cholesterol (Good) to the LDL cholesterol (Bad). A Dutch study has shown that the more one consumes green tea the less severe the clogging of the heart's blood vessels especially in women. The green tea antioxidants help improve the flexibility of the blood vessels thus making them less vulnerable to clogging. Other studies have shown that green tea can also help prevent tooth decay since it has the ability to destroy bacteria.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2736)


What is Oligonol Good for and How Does It Boost My Health?
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Date: March 22, 2011 03:42 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What is Oligonol Good for and How Does It Boost My Health?

Oligonol is the first ever nutritional supplement to contain low molecule polyphenolic oligomers. These polyphenols are derived from the plant Litchi chinensis, also known as lychee in the vernacular. The name oliginol is a portmanteau for oligomer polyphenol, which is widely touted to display bioavailability far superior to high molecular weight polyphenols present in most antioxidant supplements and the plants that they are extracted from. It boasts the most recent innovation of producing higher biological activity by using the low molecule technology developed by the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Nagasaki University in collaboration with Amino Up Chemical Co. Ltd.

Polyphenols have long been known to create health effects that are antioxidant in nature. These organic compounds have been tied to Quenching reactive oxygen species, or ROS, a natural by-product of oxygen metabolism. ROS like free radicals are in fact deployed by cells in response to potential threats such as invasive pathogens. Given the high reactivity of free radicals, each cell releases endogenous antioxidants to scavenge ROS. However, the body’s antioxidant defense becomes compromised with continued exposure to stress.

At the cellular level, an imbalance between ROS and antioxidants creates a chain reaction termed oxidative stress, which damages cellular organelles and even DNA. This is when antioxidant supplements come to the rescue. Plant-based polyphenols such as those found in teas is widely believed to neutralize free radicals. Those found in lychee are of special note in that they are particularly helpful against oxidative stress. The proprietary low molecule technology of Amino Up Chemical Co. Ltd. processes these already potent polyphenols into more effective monomers and short-chain oligomers.

Protects Cardiovascular Health

Since oligonol was made available nearly two years ago, there have been a number of studies looking into its medicinal potential. A few of the earliest researches were double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that investigated its effects on the cardiovascular system. It has been observed that oligonol appears to lower platelet reactivity, contributing to dilation of peripheral vessels. By so doing, it effectively promotes blood flow, which results in an increase in body temperature.

Counteracts Physical Fatigue

Recovery to fatigue induced by physical exertion is one of the benefits of oligonol that have been well investigated. In one single blind, placebo controlled study involving 47 participants, intake of oligonol lowered post exercise fatigue. The oligonol group of amateur athletes between 18 and 22 of age took two 100-mg oligonol capsules in two 26-day periods with a 9-day wash-out period and saw a noticeable improvement in fatigue recovery in comparison with the control group.

Reduces Visceral Fat

Oligonol continues to excite researchers from around the world with the publication of the study on its effects on visceral fat. There are cell-signaling protein molecules released by adipose tissues that are considered deleterious to human health, and thus called bad factor. Adiposity has been tied to higher mortality, with people having larger waists especially susceptible to many known diseases. Supplementation of oligonol has seen a sharp decrease in abdominal circumference and overall subcutaneous fat.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=2255)


How Does the Herb Holy Basil Help with My Health?
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Date: March 10, 2011 02:04 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How Does the Herb Holy Basil Help with My Health?

Holy Basil And Cholesterol, Inflammation, and more

Ocimum tenuiflorum, known as Holy Basil in the vernacular, is an herbal plant indigenous to South Asia, where it is called Tulsi. It is widely distributed across the subcontinent of India and surrounding countries and is primarily cultivated for its age-old medicinal benefits in addition to its religious significance to Vaishnavite practices of Hinduism. It has earned popularity as a health tonic over the centuries, and recent studies have supported its positive effects on human health. Today it is often associated with lowering cholesterol and glucose, acting as an antioxidant, and regulating inflammatory intermediaries.holy basil plant

Counteracts Stress Factors

The juice of holy basil has long been reputed to display adaptogenic properties. There have been countless accounts of its effectiveness in combating stress. In fact, the most compelling of all anecdotal evidence has something to do with its ability to create a feeling of wellness right after ingestion, the same tonic benefits attributed to ginseng. To date studies point to its homeostatic effects on the stress hormone cortisol, creating homeostatic effects on its metabolites and their interactions with compounds released in response to stress.

Neutralizes Free Radicals

Holy basil has been observed to show antioxidant activities, and this is one of its mechanisms in allaying symptoms brought on by fatigue. Free radicals are released by the body to dispose of pathogens, but are in turn disposed of by endogenous antioxidants. Oxidative stress ensues when there is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to neutralize them. The polyphenols found in holy basil helps the body Quench excesses of free radicals.

Lowers Bad Cholesterol

There has been a growing body of literature devoted to the lipid-lowering properties of holy basil. The phytochemicals found in holy basil have been cited to affect the metabolic pathway that produces very-low-density lipoproteins, which is a precursor to low-density lipoproteins, or bad cholesterol, and bring about an increase in high-density lipoproteins, dubbed good cholesterol. Also, it has been associated to the overall decrease of lipids present in the bloodstream, notably free fatty acids.

Reduces Blood Glucose

One of the earliest observations on the health effects of holy basil is its properties that counter the progression of diabetes. It has been reported many times to have helped patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which results from the compromised ability of cells to respond to the hormone insulin. The use of holy basil extracts has yielded promising results on promoting the glucose uptake of cells, and, of course, the consequent decrease in glucose present in the blood.

Influences Inflammation

Holy basil has been extensively studied for its anti-inflammatory benefits. The most recent research has pointed out that organic compounds found in holy basil may inhibit the enzyme called COX-2, which facilitates the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Eicosanoids are endogenous substances produced by local tissues during inflammation, and a special group called prostanoids is responsible for the pain tied to inflammation. By targeting COX-2, holy basil greatly aids against inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.

What is stopping you from giving holy basil a try today?

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Can N-Acetyl Cysteine Boost Liver Health And Function?
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Date: February 10, 2011 12:31 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can N-Acetyl Cysteine Boost Liver Health And Function?

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) And The Liver

N-Acetyl Cysteine or NAC is an antidote for poisonous effects of paracetamol overdose. It targets the cells in the liver, raising their capacity to deal with harmful metabolites. There are a number of researches well underway that scrutinizes a variety of medical conditions for which this compound could be of use. It is a known precursor of antioxidants and in itself a scavenger of peroxides and free radicals.

Hepatocytes are the cells that take on most of the functions of the liver and account for more than 70 per cent of the liver’s total mass. These cells are responsible for the presystematic metabolism of drugs, also known as the first-pass effect, rendering most drugs innocuous before they are released into the bloodstream. The total amounts of bioactive substances that are distributed to the rest of the body are also largely regulated by hepatocytes, notably carbohydrates. In addition, they are involved in the biosynthesis of protein, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile salts as well as the functional reserves for protein.

Hepatocytes and Toxins

Certain drugs produce toxins when broken down by hepatocytes. A classic example is the metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde, which is a toxic compound, a probable carcinogen, and an air pollutant emitted by combustion of cars and tobacco smoking. While hepatocytes are known for their detoxifying responses to toxic substances entering the body, the metabolism of toxins actually takes up a great deal of time, resulting in certain toxins getting released into the bloodstream prior to first-pass effect.

That being said, continued exposure to toxins wears down hepatocytes, and high concentrations of what we refer to as poisons is certain to bring damage to the liver. This is what happens during overdose of paracetamol, or acetaminophen. In an effort to metabolized excessive amounts of the drug, the liver cells produce by-products that are essentially poisons, which under normal circumstances can be contained well.

NAC and Glutathione Production

The major antioxidant synthesized by the human body called glutathione comes to the liver’s defense when toxic by-products are produced. Hepatocytes in particular are so dependent on glutathione in the Quenching of toxins that it has been observed that any challenge to the manufacture of this endogenous antioxidant will ultimately result in liver failure.

Glutathione is released by hepatocytes in large amounts especially during the metabolism of alcohol and drugs, but during overdose the ravaging activities of ethanol or drug metabolites overwhelm the detoxifying effects of antioxidant reserves in the body. Simply put, the defense mechanisms in the employ of the body have limits. NAC resolves this problem.

The presence of NAC in the body augments the liver’s ability to produce the needed amounts of glutathione to effectively counter the harmful properties of invasive substances. In fact, the liver completely recuperates in a matter of weeks even after life-threatening conditions given that NAC is introduced in the human body in time to avoid subsequent damages to other vital organs. Indeed its application has proven to save lives in fatal cases of paracetamol poisoning.

N-Acetyl Cysteine is available at your local or internet vitamin store in capsule or tablet forms. Always choose name brands like Source Naturals to ensure quality and purity of the product you buy for better liver health.

Have you had your NAC today?

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Caralluma extract
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Date: August 24, 2009 11:32 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Caralluma extract

Caralluma is a succulent plant that is part of the cactus family. It can be found growing wild in Africa, the Canary Islands, India, and southern Europe, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan. The herb has been used in Indian for centuries in order to curb appetite. It is a portable food for hunting and also an endurance enhancer. This herb was also used during periods of famine in order to curb appetite.

The caralluma plant is part of the Apoxynaceae family. It has been eaten in rural Indian for centuries, raw, as a vegetable with spices, or preserved in chutneys and pickles. It is often found as a roadside shrub or boundary marker. Caralluma has been used as a portable food and thirst Quencher for hunting. Caralluma is mainly used for its ability to suppress hunger and appetite, while enhancing stamina. Tribesmen on a daily hunt will often only pack some caralluma to sustain themselves, which is why it is commonly known as a famine food in India.

The working class in India used this plant not only as an appetite suppressant, but also to increase energy and endurance. Caralluma can be coked as a vegetable, pickled, used in chutneys, or eaten raw.

This herb seems to block the activity of many fat-promoting enzymes in the body. It forces fat reserves to be burned. One double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial on caralluma extract, which involved fifty people, showed significant reductions in all key indicators of weight loss.

This plant is also believed to affect the appetite-control mechanism that is found in the brain. When we eat, nerves in our stomach send a signal to the brain’s hypothalamus. This is the appetite-controlling center. When the stomach is full, the hypothalamus informs the brain that it can stop eating. When a person feels hunger, it is the result of the hypothalamus sending a signal to the brain to eat. The interference with these signals, or even creating a sign of its own, is done by caralluma. Through this, the brain is tricked into thinking that the stomach is full, even if the person has not eaten.

Patients who use caralluma have reported having more energy. Additionally, they tend to gain lean muscle mass while they lose fat. This herb not only reduces fat synthesis, but it also boosts the burning of fat. This makes more energy available for the body as a whole.

The plant has no known toxicity or side effects. However, it is wise to consult a health care professional before supplementing with this, or any nutrient while on prescription medications.

The entire caralluma plant is used to provide anorectic and energy boosting properties. The primary nutrients found in this herb are bitters principles, flavones glycosides, megastigmane glycosides, pregnane glycosides, and seponins. Primarily, this herb is extremely beneficial in dealing with low energy and obesity. It also acts as an appetite suppressant. For more information on the many beneficial effects provided by caralluma, please feel free to contact a representative from your local health food store.

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Green Tea Extract
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Date: October 23, 2008 01:43 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Green Tea Extract



To understand the truth behind the medical claims for green tea and the antioxidant properties of EGCG, it is first necessary to have a close look at what green tea is, and why these claims are being made.

Green tea is a form of tea made from the leaves of the Carmellia Sinensis, a shrub that is native to China and has spread to other areas of Asia including Japan and the Middle East. Drinking it is believed to impart many health benefits, including the prevention of obesity, heart disease and some forms of cancer and it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 400 years.

Tea is known to have been consumed in China for around 5,000 years, and used, not only in Chinese medicine, but also in that of Japan, Thailand and India for a number of ailments including regulating blood sugar, treating wounds and digestive problems. The drinking of green tea to benefit the heart and other vital organs is described in the Kissa Yojoki (Book of Tea), written in 1191 by Eisai, a Japanese Zen priest.

This two-part book talks about the various medicinal benefits of green tea, such as preventing fatigue, curing beriberi, Quenching thirst, clearing the thoughts, maintaining health of the urinary tract and improving digestive problems. It also explains how to grow tea and how to prepare and use the leaves. The methods of treatment of various ailments and medical conditions are described in the second part of the book.

The active ingredients in green tea are catechins, polyphenols with strong anti-oxidant properties. Antioxidants are important components of your diet due to their effect on free radicals. These are small molecules, generally oxygenated, such the superoxide cation and hydrogen peroxide that are generated during normal metabolic processes and also ingested in pollutants such as traffic and factory fumes and insecticides. Free radicals are also formed by the effect of the ultra-violet component of sunlight on your skin and other tissues.

The effect of free radicals on your body can be devastating, and they not only destroy cell membranes but also oxidize such molecules as the low density lipids (LDL) that carry cholesterol around your bloodstream. This allows the LDLs to be absorbed by the white blood cells and then deposited as fatty plaques in the walls of your arteries. The end result is a thickening and hardening of the arteries that leads to a condition known as atherosclerosis, where the blood supply to the brain and heart muscle is restricted, which can in turn lead to strokes and heart disease.

Their effect on your cells is to cause cancer and premature aging, among others, and free radicals are also believed to play a part in conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and also inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and diabetes. They can also cause damage to your DNA.

It is essential, therefore, that these free radicals are destroyed as quickly as they are generated, and that is what antioxidants do. You might be more familiar with the antioxidants Vitamins A, C and E, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and carotenoids, but there are many substances available to you that are even more powerful such as the polyphenols found in green tea.

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most powerful of these with antioxidant properties at least twenty five times that of Vitamin E, and 100 times that of Vitamin C. EGCG comprises around 10-50% of the total catechin content of the tea and studies indicate that it likely helps to protect against DNA damage by free radicals, to protect against oxidation of LDL, provide protection against the damage of ultra-violet radiation and to protect you from the free radicals that are generated by smoking tobacco and general airborne pollution.

There are suggestions that the bioavailability of EGCG can be increased by consuming black pepper when drinking green tea, possibly due to the presence of piperine in the pepper. The piperine appears to retard the intestinal glucuronidation of EGCG and so allow more of it to be absorbed as opposed to excreted. So if you are using green tea for health reasons, spice up your food with a small amount of black pepper - that's all it needs. You don't have to smother your food in it! It should be stressed that these tests were carried out on animals, although the biochemistry involved is much the same.

The oxidation of fat by your metabolism to provide energy is a very important factor in weight control. If the contribution of the fats you ingest to the energy generated by your metabolism is low, then the fats can go on to be deposited in your body. This is not only unsightly, in that it can basically make you look 'fat', but is also dangerous to your health. Fat deposits around your midriff and round the major organs of your body can be extremely damaging and a severe risk to your health.

It has been shown by a recent study in the UK (Birmingham University) that those taking green tree extract displayed a 17% increase in fat oxidation over those given a placebo. Not only that, but the ratio of fat oxidation to the overall energy expenditure showed a similar differential between the study and the control group. This provides evidence of green tea extract being able to control your weight by burning fat, and also to improve the tolerance to glucose and sensitivity to insulin of healthy people.

Many other health claims have been made for green tea extract, although many of these have little, if any, scientific basis. Among these are the claims that it can treat multiple sclerosis and be used to treat cancer, although claims that it can prevent the destruction of cell membranes due to its oxidative effect are supported by the biochemistry, if not the medical proof. There are cases where theoretical biochemistry can explain many of the applications of ancient remedies without needing modern day studies to support it.

Some of the research supporting the green tea theories include:

1. In 2006, a study was announced that had followed over 40,500 Japanese men and women, aged between 40 and 79, that had no history of coronary heart disease, stroke or cancer starting in 1994. It was found that those who drank at least 5 cups of tea per day had a 16% lower risk of dying from any cause and a 26% less risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than those that drank less than one cup of tea each day. Since cardiovascular disease and cancer are the major causes of death world-wide, these are significant results.

2. Again in 2006, it was reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that studies indicated that a higher consumption of green tea was associated with a reduction in human mental impairment when compared to the average.

3. Yale University School of Medicine reported later that year that, in spite of smoking more than their western counterparts, Asians suffered lower rates of cancer and heart disease, and put that down to them drinking over 4 pints of green tea daily. It was the polyphenol content of green tea and its antioxidant effect that was proposed for this result, known commonly as the 'Asian paradox'. A specific reason given for this was the antioxidant effect preventing the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, and its subsequent deposition in the artery walls.

4. Another component of green tea is the amino acid L-Theanine that promotes relaxation, and it is believed that this could help to fight stress by inhibiting the excitation of cortical neurons.

There is a lot more evidence for the health benefits of green tea, and once again it appears that the ancients have been proved correct. Perhaps we should pay more attention to ancient remedies, although without the proper evidence much of it is ignored - for the time being at least. Green tea, however, has generally been accepted due to the research and studies carried out on ECGC (Epigallocatechin gallate) and in additional to the traditional form, is also available as a dietary supplement.



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Vitanet ®, LLC

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Neptune Krill Oil - EPA and DHA Rich!
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Date: July 02, 2007 12:43 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Neptune Krill Oil - EPA and DHA Rich!

Complete List of Now Vitamins Starting at 40% OFF.

The oil of Atlantic Krill, a zooplankton crustacean, contains one of the most unique nutrient profiles ever discovered. In addition to rich concentrations of EPA and DHA, krill also boasts an impressive amount of phospholipids, all-trans retinol vitamin A, natural vitamin E, and omega-9 fatty acids. The oil is an excellent source of esterified astaxanthin—a powerful, immune supporting carotenoid that has been clinically proven to Quench singlet oxygen radicals within cell membranes. The potent arrangement of naturally occurring compounds exhibits strong synergist properties that support and protect many of the body’s most vital system.*

At the most basic level, krill oil contains compounds that the body needs in order to construct healthy cell membranes. By nature, omega-3 essential fatty acids can be particularly sensitive to oxidation. Atlantic krill, however, contain antioxidants and Carotenoids that bind to these fatty acids, thus improving the biological stability. Accordingly, studies have shown that as much as 95% - 95% of the EPA and DHA in krill oil is capable of being absorbed for use throughout the body.

Among its most impressive qualities, Neptune Krill Oil contains phospholipids that are rich in EPA and DHA, and structurally similar to those produced by the human brain. The most significant include phosphatidyl Choline, phosphatidyl Inositol, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Researchers believe that their unique structure and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier make it possible for those compounds to support brain and cognitive health.* Now Vitamins Neptune Krill Oil is manufactured under the strict quality control, and tested to be free of potentially harmful levels of mercury and other heavy metals, PCB’s, dioxins and other contaminants.

100% Pure Neptune Krill Oil
Support Joint Health and Cardiovascular Function*
And Excellent Source of Antioxidants



--
Pure Neptune Krill Oil at Vitanet, LLC

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Revita
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Date: March 08, 2007 12:27 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Revita

Revita, the most efficient hair growth stimulating shampoo available in the market is the final result of DS Laboratories efforts on cutting edge research. Revita is a powerful and unique SLS/SLES free combination of active ingredients specially designed to maintain scalp vitality and act on folicle dysfunctions in order to achieve best results in short periods of time. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate, commonly used low cost detergents in shampoos and cleansers, are linked to skin irritation, skin drying and hair loss due to follicle attack. Revita is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate free, providing a high quality scalp skin safe shampoo product.

Revita was developed with a cost-no-object approach. Revita’s compounds have been chosen based exclusively on their properties, quality and efficacy (in the opposite of the majority of available products, which are usually developed with production costs in mind). The final result is a very high quality shampoo product with absolutely no equivalent competitor in the market. Revita combines costly first line compounds at high concentrations like Caffeine at 4.0%, Pyrus Malus (Apple) Seed Extract at 1.0% and Spin Traps (SOD Mimic) at 0.1% with other top level ingredients which make Revita a unique product in its class.

To improve the efficacy of this synergic combination, DS Laboratories developed a unique “chemical free” extraction process that keeps original properties and clinical efficacy of final components. Through gentle mechanical compression, Revita’s compounds are obtained as pure and chemically preserved active molecules.

Revita starts acting on your scalp and hair follicle since the first day of use. The time you will need to note the first results will depend of the severity and duration of your hair loss. No matter how long or how intense your hair loss is, using Revita on daily basis will improve the vitality of your scalp, maintaining the quality of your hair and stimulating new hair growth.

Through the synergic interaction of very effective compounds, Revita brings you a highly effective product designed to maintain scalp vitality and act on hair loss. By combining an antioxidant effect, anti-DHT properties, powerful hydrating molecules, hair growth stimulants and structural amino acids, Revita brings you the most effective hair growth stimulating shampoo available.

Apple Polyphenol (procyanidin B2 and C1) - phytochemical concentrate found in the skin of unripe apples that acts as potent antioxidant. It protects cells against free radicals, reactive atoms that contribute to tissue damage in the body. These chemical compounds are being studied extensively in labs around the world for their health effects in major diseases including treatment of hair growth. Studies showed that after sequential use, an increase of almost 80% of hair diameter and an increase in number of total hairs was shown, with no side effects.

In 2000, Japanese researchers presented their findings to the international community on the hair growth effects of apple polyphenols - specifically one known as procyanidin B-2. They identified two successful compounds- one from chardonnay grapes, and one extracted from unripe apples. The procyanidin B-2 fraction clearly outperformed the grape extract. "Procyanidin B-2 purified from apples," stated the research team, "shows the highest activity of more than 300% relative to controls."

In the same year, in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, nineteen men with male pattern baldness were studied with a daily topical application of a 1% procyanidin B-2 solution, extracted from apples. Ten other balding men served as controls, receiving a placebo solution. After 6 months, the study concluded:

• The increase in number of total hairs and terminal hairs in the procyanidin B-2 group subjects was significantly greater than controls.

• 78.9% of subjects showed an increased mean value of hair diameter.

• "Procyanidin B-2 therapy shows promise as a cure for male pattern baldness."

Following the revelations, an attempt was made to further understand the mechanism by which the remarkable hair growth effects occurred. The results were published in the prestigious British Journal of Dermatology: Procyanidin B-2, extracted from apples, promotes hair growth: a laboratory study, Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):41-51. In this study, the researchers concluded that procyanidin B-2 acts to diminish protein kinase C isozymes, which play an important role in the hair growth cycle. Procyanidin B-2 seems to promote hair growth by down regulating PKC in both the anagen (active growth phase) and telogen (resting phase) of the hair follicle. When the anagen phase is prolonged, and the telogen phase is shortened, increased hair growth results.

Two more clinical trials and a total of seven published studies have now confirmed the surprising hair growth-promoting effects of apple procyanidins. Here is a summary of those findings:

• Total Number of Hairs: Significantly Increased

• Total Number of Terminal Hairs: Significantly Greater

• Increase in Hair Diameter: 78.9% Positive • Ratio of Thicker (terminal) Hairs: Significantly Higher

• Hair Follicle Activation: Intensive

In the most exciting development yet, Japanese researchers released a new study late in 2005. Once again, procyanidin therapy was proven successful in regrowing hair in subjects with male pattern baldness. The new study, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, confirmed the findings of earlier studies, showing clear improvement in the number of hairs and the density of hairs in the treated area. Building on the success of earlier trials, the study was extended to 12 months in the procyanidin group, and proved that longer term procyanidin therapy was even more successful than prior 4 and 6 month trials.

Cooper Peptides - Cooper Peptides have two main properties: (1) potent tissue protective anti-inflammatory agents that limit oxidative damage after tissue injury, and (2) tissue remodeling activation agents, that is, the processes for removal of damaged protein and scar tissue and their replacement by normal tissue. Studies at numerous universities and research institutes have found copper-peptides to improve hair transplant success, increase hair follicle size, stimulate hair growth and reduce hair loss.

Research scientists at the University of San Francisco Wound Center stumbled upon very interesting results. Their discovery was made while applying a synthetically formulated compound, Copper Peptide, to severe wound areas on several patients. During this process something unusual happened. Not only did the wounds heal about 30 percent faster, but a significant stimulation of the follicular cells occurred. As a side effect, these tripeptide complexes actually grew hair around the wound area.

The discovery was so startling that they then applied the same Copper Peptide complex to a female patient who had suffered roughly 90 percent alopecia (hair loss) for years. After about six months of use, she had recovered almost 100 percent of her hair. Dr. Loren Pickart, the leading authority in Copper Peptide technology, describes it as being like a protein injection to the scalp.

Tests were then conducted with chemotherapy patients and recent hair transplant recipients, all with great success in stimulating newer and stronger hair follicles.

Spin traps – are very special compounds that were originally utilized in measuring free radical activity because they react with free radicals both in vitro and in vivo, producing stable complexes. The most commonly used spin trap and the standard which measures new ones is PBN - alpha-phenyl- N-tert butyl nitrone. Hundreds of studies have been conducted over the last ten years that have tested PBN and other “spin traps” in numerous conditions. Later it was discovered that these spin traps had powerful free radical Quenching abilities in living systems and could treat a variety of conditions. Spin traps could provide unique protection against free radical damage that complements and enhances the activities of the classical antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E.

Spin traps modulate NF kappa-B regulated cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthases that are implicated in pro-inflammatory disease conditions. A method for ameliorating a cellular dysfunction of a tissue such as the treatment of hair loss and stimulation of hair growth comprises administering a nitroso or nitrone spin trap to the affected tissue. These agents inhibit the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide to produce peroxinitrite. Scientists discovered that nitrone and nitroso spin traps have properties in the body for ameliorating cellular dysfunction in tissue attributed, in part, to high energy oxygen and hydroxyl free radicals, and enhancing recuperation of the tissue. Alpha-phenyl-N-tert butyl nitrone (PBN) can be administered, for example, as an anti-alopecia agent to stimulate hair growth.

Spin traps can be administered to the skin to be treated, such as the scalp. Depending on the type of hair loss or alopecia being treated and the conditions thereof, the stimulation of hair growth can usually be obtained by topical application, preferably repeated daily application. The utility of topically applied spin traps is not limited thereto, however, and the stimulation of hair growth can include an increased rate of growth, increased hair diameter, follicular neogenesis, and the like; inhibiting hair loss or alopecia from progressing.

Ketoconazole - Topical ketoconazole shows itself to have an anti-DHT binding effect in the scalp. Nevertheless, it is likely that ketoconazole exhibits other methods to its anti-hair-loss effect. One such theory of ketoconazole anti-alopecia effects may be on its activity upon the removal of sebum, a fatty substance that accumulates in the scalp around the hair follicles. In addition, ketoconazole is an antifungal medication and is significant for people combating hair loss since acting as an antifungal agent it reduces scalp irritation caused by fungal colonization or infection. Reduction of the inflammatory process that occurs in male pattern alopecia is crucial.

If we first examine the role of androgens, specifically dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we find that this hormone has been thought to slowly "choke" the growth of the hair follicle by inhibiting the function of an enzyme in the hair follicle called adenylate cyclase. Suffice it to say that when DHT concentrations remain high in the scalp, we see terminal (thick, coarse) scalp hair become reduced to vellus hair (fine, thin peach fuzz). On March 04, 2001, at the American Academy of Dermatology Meeting in Washington DC, scientists presented the findings of a study done on 1% ketoconazole shampoo which had good news for hair loss sufferers. In the study presented, one hundred male volunteers with mild to moderate dandruff and somewhat oily scalp, were using in a double-blind fashion either a 1% ketoconazole shampoo or a 1% zinc pyrithione shampoo, 2-3 times a week for 6 months.

Analysis of the different parameters set up in the study shows that the hair diameter gradually increased with ketoconazole use (+8.46%) over a 6 month period, whereas the diameter showed a trend to decrease with zinc pyrithione use over the same period (-2.28%). The sebum excretion rate was reduced with ketoconazole (-6.54%) while it increased with zinc pyrithione (+8.2%) over the same period of time. The number of hairs shed over a 24-hour period was reduced by 16.46% with ketoconazole and 6.02% with zinc pyrithione after 6 months. Finally, the percentage of hairs in the anagen phase increased by 6.4% and 8.4% respectively during the study.

The results are similar to a previous study done on 2% prescription strength Ketokonazole where it was shown that use of 2% ketoconazol yielded an increase in hair shaft diameter similar to what was achieved by the control group using 2% Minoxidil and a non-medicated shampoo.

Rooibos - Rooibos or Red Bush Tea - a hardy shrub indigenous to the North Western Cape of South Africa – is an exciting new botanical ingredient with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties well documented in medical literature. In alternative medicine Rooibos is often prescribed for nervous tension, allergies, stomach and digestive problems. Results from an independent study also showed a significant improvement in hair loss. Studies were initiated at an independent laboratory (Dermascan, France) to study the effect of the use of Rooibos in a hair lotion on a group of healthy persons who were suffering from the problem of hair loss. A 90 day trial was conducted comparing a hair lotion containing Rooibos with a placebo lotion.

After 90 days results showed a significant increase of the hair growth in the lotion containing Rooibos compared with the placebo. An increase in the hair growth was observed with 89% of the volunteers with no undesirable reactions (irritation or allergy). The participants were next asked to fill in a questionnaire. When the results were tallied, 67 percent rated their hair loss as zero or low, 78 percent saw a low to medium improvement, 45 percent saw a low to medium regrowth of hair, and 63 percent considered their hair had become smoother and shinier.

Conclusion: results show that most of the volunteers had a remarkable improvement in both the increase of hair growth and the decrease in hair loss.

MSM - Sulphur is present in protein-rich foods containing high levels of the amino acids methionine and cysteine. These foods include meat, fish, legumes, nuts, eggs, and vegetables, especially onions. However, sulphur has recently become a popular nutritional supplement and topical treatment thanks to the discovery of methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM.

The use of MSM as a nutritional supplement and topical application is relatively recent. An American chemist named Robert Herschler, began studying MSM in 1955. However, another man, Dr. Stanley Jacob with Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, is considered by many to be the father of MSM. Dr. Jacob found that simple marine life like algae and plankton convert inorganic sulphur to organic sulphur compounds. These compounds are known as dimethylsulfonium salts. These salts are transformed into dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is released into the atmosphere and is converted by ultraviolet light into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). When DMSO oxidizes, it turns into MSM and is absorbed by plants that become food for animals and humans. MSM is a white, crystalline powder that is odorless and nearly tasteless. When taken as a dietary supplement, MSM proved to have the same health benefits as DMSO without side-effects such as bad breath, itchy skin, nasal congestion, and shortness of breath. Why does MSM help with the development of stronger hair? Various scientific studies have proven that MSM contributes a definite normalizing effect on body functions. The sulfur normally provided to the body by MSM is required for healthy collagen and keratin which are essential for healthy hair, skin and nails. MSM also has proven antioxidant benefits which can disrupt or alter damaging chain reactions of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

MSM has been widely used as a dietary supplement without any reports of allergy or intolerance related to its use. Supplements of MSM are comfortably assimilated without side effects. There are no known contraindications.

Caffeine 4% - Active caffeine ingredient helps to regulate the effects of testosterone levels. Male pattern baldness is known to occur in individuals with sensitivity to testosterone, causing damage to hair follicles that eventually leads to baldness. Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.

The independent study at the University of Jena used hair samples from the scalps of young men entering into the first stages of hormone-related hair loss. The study relied on a hair organ culture that used four different types of testing samples. The first was a nutrient-based sample, the second a testosterone only sample, the third was a caffeine only sample and the fourth a mixture of caffeine and testosterone.

According to the research, the results showed that the samples containing the caffeine nutrient helped to stave off hair loss and encouraged new hair growth, while the sample that relied on testosterone only led to increased hair loss. But perhaps the most impressive was the testosterone and caffeine sample, which helped to prevent further hair loss.

The results showed that using the caffeine treatment average growth was increased by around 46 per cent and the life cycle of the hair was extended by 37 per cent, when compared to the control study.

Carnitine Tartrate - L-Carnitine, a vitamin-like nutrient, occurs naturally in the human body and is essential for turning fat into energy. Active energy metabolism is an essential prerequisite for the growth of strong and healthy hair. In biological systems ATP acts as the universal energy currency. One of the most potent bio-actives that significantly increases cellular ATP content is carnitine tartrate.

Statistical evaluation demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate, showing that carnitine tartrate is an ideal ingredient for hair care formulations, providing energy for the optimal environment to produce strong and healthy hair. Throughout the test period ATP content within plucked hair follicles was determined twice daily using a commercially available test kit. Statistical evaluation of baseline adjusted values demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate. These effects were absent in the placebo group, thus underlining the stimulating activity of carnitine tartrate.

The outstanding bio-activity of carnitine tartrate was furthermore demonstrated in a second study, assessing the effects after a single application of a shampoo formulation supplemented with carnitine tartrate. Again, ATP levels in plucked human hair follicles were significantly increased.

Amino Acids: Ornitine, Taurine, Cysteine - Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, from which hair is created. They are assembled in the correct sequence by stem cells to form keratin, a complex and immensely strong hair protein. Vital amino acids have to be replaced consistently, as damage is accumulated over time. We can replace a combination of these lost amino acids directly into the hair, where they are shown to provide significant tensile benefits to the hair shaft.

Hair is composed primarily of proteins (88%). These proteins are of a hard fibrous type known as keratin. Keratin protein is comprised of what we call "polypeptide chains.” The word, polypeptide, comes from the Greek word "poly" meaning many and "peptos" meaning digested or broken down. In essence, if we break down protein, we have individual amino acids.

Many (poly) amino acids joined together form a "polypeptide chain". Two amino acids are joined together by a "peptide bond", and the correct number of amino acids placed in their correct order will form a specific protein; i.e. keratin, insulin, collagen and so on. The "alpha helix" is the descriptive term given to the polypeptide chain that forms the keratin protein found in human hair. Its structure is a coiled coil. The amino acids link together to form the coil and there are approximately 3.6 amino acids per turn of the helix (coil). Each amino acid is connected together by a "peptide bond". The peptide bond is located between the carbon atom of one amino acid extending to bond with the nitrogen atom of the next amino acid. In many individuals the extremities, including the top of the head, are the most difficult places to maintain blood flow. Follicles which are constantly deprived of blood, and therefore nutrients, cannot produce hair properly. Lack of proper nutrients, amino acids, minerals and vitamins can certainly hamper hair growth.

L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid synthesized by the body from L-Ornithine. Arginine + Ornithine support protein synthesis because they are involved in the transport and storage of nitrogen. The usage of taurine corrects the "rigidification" of the connective sheath that surrounds the Pilosebaceous unit and hair follicles, specifically those affected by pattern hair loss. This is a novel and previously undisclosed angle on hair loss treatment that has yet to be touched upon in any of the medical literature or prior publications.

The amino acid, l-cysteine speeds up hair growth and increases hair shaft diameter resulting in fuller hair. L-cysteine has been reported to facilitate longer hair growth, beyond what is genetically programmed. L-cysteine also provides potent antioxidant protection to the hair follicle. Users of topical n-acetyl-cysteine have reported hair regrowth.

Emu Oil - The emu, dromaius nova hollandiae, is a flightless bird part of a group called ratites which also includes the ostrich and the kiwi. Modern Australians learned early on from the Aborigines the many valuable qualities in the emu and its oil. The earliest research studies in emu oil come from Australia, and Australia continues to export emu oil to this day.

In the United States today there is a growing network of research labs interested in emus and their incredible oil. Emu oil is rendered from a thick pad of fat on the back of the bird that was apparently provided by nature to protect the animal from the extreme temperatures in its Australian homeland. Emu oil is deep penetrating and super hydrating to the skin - an all-natural tissue nutrient. Michael Hollick, MD, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Physiology, and Dermatology at Boston University School of Medicine conducted a study involving emu oil and hair growth. His study found that there was a 20% increase in growth activity of skin that received emu oil compared to skin that received corn oil. Looking at the hair follicles Dr. Hollick realized they were much more robust, the skin thickness was remarkably increased suggesting that emu oil stimulated skin growth and hair growth. Additionally, the study showed that over 80% of hair follicles that had been "asleep" were woken up, and began growing.

Emu oil is anti-inflammatory, which may be in part why it stimulates hair growth. Emu Oil has also been shown to be a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor in target tissues when topically applied, which likely contributes significantly to its hair growth properties. A third important property of emu oil is that it is bacteriostatic.

Emu Oil contains a multitude of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) which helps to "feed" the skin. Consumers who suffer from natural forms of baldness have reported hair re-growth. Since Alopecia Areata only suppresses the hair follicle (vs. killing the hair follicle), emu oil may have an effect to assist with hair regrowth.

Biotin – Biotin is a member of the B-vitamin family and a major component in the natural hair manufacturing process -- it is essential to not only grow new hair, but it also plays a major role in the overall health of skin and nails. The beneficial effects of biotin on hair may be linked to its ability to improve the metabolism of scalp oils. Biotin when absorbed by the scalp may promote hair growth and it is able to penetrate the hair shaft making it expand which actually thickens the hair cuticle.

Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in the Krebs Cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food. Biotin is so important to hair health, that many dermatologists prescribe biotin supplements to their patients as part of their medical treatment for hair loss.

After applying Revita with a gentle massage, you should leave it on the scalp from 1 – 2 minutes before rinsing. Then repeat and leave on the scalp for 3 – 5 minutes. If desired, follow with a high quality conditioner. For optimal results, Revita should be used at least 5 times per week.

This formulation is contraindicated in individuals with a history of sensitivity reactions to any of its components. It should be discontinued if hypersensitivity to any of its ingredients is noted.

Q. Is Revita safe ?

A. Revita primarily contains compounds that are not only safe in topical use, but actually dramatically enhance overall skin health. The other active ingredients such as Ketoconazole have been tested in clinical studies and have been shown safe.

Q: Can I use hair sprays, mousses, gels, etc.?

A: Hair spray, gel, and other styling aids are not recommended since they tend to clog the hair shaft. However, you can use them while using Revita.

Q: Can I have my hair colored or permed while using Revita ?

A: While there is no evidence that coloring or perming hair can lead to or even worsen hair loss, it is generally not recommended for people with hair loss. If you are experiencing hair loss then perming and coloring hair is not recommended. However, this will not interfere with Revita.

Q: What is SLS/SLES free ?

A: SLS means Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and SLES means Sodium Laureth Sulfate, commonly used low cost detergents in shampoos and cleansers. They are linked to skin irritation, skin drying and hair loss due to follicle attack. Revita is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate free, and that means that Revita does not irritate you scalp and preserves your hair follicale health.

Q: Can I blow dry my hair after using Revita ?

A: Extreme heat damages the proteins in the hairs making them fragile. Nevertheless, if you need or want to blow dry your hair, you can do it after using Revita.

Q: Who is a candidate for Revita ?

A: Ideal candidate is someone with little hair loss or at the beginning stages of hair loss, since it is much easier to prevent hair loss then to grow new hair. Someone who is concerned with hair loss prevention should start using Revita immediately.

Q: What type of results should I expect with Revita ?

A: When deciding to use Revita, it is important to have realistic expectations. Depending of severity and duration of your hair loss, it could take some time to see hair growth. In fact, during the first 2 weeks of treatment you may actually notice increased hair loss as old hairs are being pushed out and the hair follicles start growing new hair. Do not become alarmed with this and just stick to the treatment.

Q. Does Revita have any systemic side effects ?

A. No, when used as directed, Revita active ingredients have a long history of use both orally and topically.

Q. Does Revita work for women?

A. Yes. In most cases, the cause of hair loss in women is surprisingly similar to men. Fortunately for women, estrogen helps to protect the hair follicle from the destructive effects of DHT. However, many women develop thinning hair and loss due to fluctuation of estrogen levels and/or over production of DHT. Revita can help protect the hair follicle from DHT resulting in a thicker, fuller and healthier hair.

Q. I am using other topical treatments. Can I use Revita at the same time ?

A. Yes. Revita has no side effects and does not cross react with other topical treatments. You can safely opt to use Revita with other products, and we strongly recommend the association with Spectral.DNC for more severe hair loss or Spectral.RS for thinning hair.

Q. Do I need to use Revita for a long time ?

A. Once you have reached the desired results, you should continue to use Revita as your regular shampoo to maintain the revitalized hairs and a healthy scalp.

Q: Is stress a factor in hair loss?

A: When the body is under significant physical and emotional stress it is possible that the immune system will produce anti-bodies that attack hair follicles, and this results in bald patches or diffuse loss. Stress-induced loss will respond very well to Revita and you should keep using Revita as your regular daily shampoo to keep your scalp healthy.

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Mangoni - Complete SuperFruit Food 1oz equals 3 servings of Vegetables
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Date: December 27, 2006 12:26 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Mangoni - Complete SuperFruit Food 1oz equals 3 servings of Vegetables

Mangoni SuperFruit Antioxidant Cocktail

NOW Mangoni is the one-of-a-kind “SuperFruit” antioxidant cocktail that unites 8 of the most antioxidant rich, hi-ORAC fruits on the planet. This completely unique formula boasts 3 times the polyphenol levels of even the most popular mangosteen products and has an ORAC value of over 80,000. Working together within the body, this unique arrangement of hi-ORAC fruit extracts offers unparalleled antioxidant support.*

Mangosteen

The Mangosteen’s rind and white inner fruit are rich in some of the most powerful antioxidants ever discovered. Among them are Xanthones—highly bioactive polyphenols that have been shown to possess remarkable antioxidant properties.*

Acai berries are high in anthocyanins, a powerful class of flavonoids with well established free radical fighting abilities. One serving can contain as much as 33 times the anthocyanin content as a glass of red wine!*

Goji Berry

For nearly 2,000 years this fire-red berry has been a staple in Tibetan medicine. Goji’s diverse nutrient profile includes antioxidants and phytonutrients, linoleic acid, polysaccharides, all 18 amino acids, vitamins A, E, C and B, and 21 trace minerals!*

Pomegranate

Ancient Egyptians called it the “Fruit of Immortality.” Today, we know it as one of the most effective antioxidants ever discovered. Pomegranate has been shown in numerous studies to support healthy cardiovascular and optimal cellular function.*

Noni

With a nutrient profile that includes anthraquinones, organic acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals, the fruit from Morinda citrifolia has been consumed throughout the ages to boost stamina and promote good health.*

CoffeeBerry

Before they find their way to your favorite barista, coffee beans display bright red berries that are teeming with polysaccharides, nutrients, and polyphenols—a hi-ORAC plant antioxidant that Quenches free radicals and fights oxidation.*

VitaBerry is bursting with antioxidant phytochemicals such as anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, quinic acid and resveratrol. When combined, these hi-ORAC fruit antioxidants work synergistically to prevent oxidation and free radical attacks.*

Raspberry

Rich in Vitamin C, manganese, fiber, and ellagitannins, raspberries possess strong antioxidant properties that help healthy cells from the damage caused by free radicals.*

  • Over 80,000 ORAC Value per 32 oz Bottle
  • Competitive Products Typically Have an ORAC Value of 17,000 - 35,000 per Bottle
  • 300% Higher Polyphenol Content
  • Superior Antioxidant Protection
  • Exotic, Tropical Taste
  • Each 1 oz Serving is Equivalent to 3 Servings of Fruit

Mangoni SuperFruit Antioxidant Cocktail
Mangoni SuperFruit Antioxidant Cocktail
Mangoni SuperFruit Antioxidant Cocktail
Mangoni SuperFruit Antioxidant Cocktail



--
Buy Now Foods Mangoni at Vitanet ®

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Air Defense from Now Foods
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Date: October 03, 2006 01:36 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Air Defense from Now Foods

When it comes to good health, you are constantly on the frontline of defense against an Army of environmental invaders. Exhaust, smoke, airborne toxins and a flurry of other environmental antagonists can make it difficult for even the healthiest of individuals to keep their guard up. Factor this into today’s fast paced, on the go lifestyles, and the need for powerful immune supporting nutrition becomes all to real.

Introducing New Air Defense Immune Booster, from Now Foods. This optimally balanced immune system supplement was scientifically formulated to provide some of the industry’s most trusted cellular safeguards, in one convenient, easy to use formula. One of its most impressive compounds is Paractin – a patented extract of Andrographis Paniculata that has been shown in studies to significantly increase the immune system’s production of interferon gamma (IFNg). Interleukin-s (IL-2), and T-cells. Collectively, these infection-fighting cells make up the body’s primary line of defense against scores of everyday threats.*

Many experts agree that the upcoming flue season could potentially be one of the most devastating and widespread on record. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated Paractin’s ability to significantly increase cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in response to stresses, such as those commonly encountered during seasonal changes. By stimulating the body’s natural defense mechanisms, Paractin has been shown to increase the body’s production of cytokines – a key factor in healthy immune system response.*

Each serving delivers an impressive 1,000 mg of free radical Quenching vitamin C along with an herbal complex of Astragalus, Elderberry, Echinacea, ImmunEnhancer AG (Arabinogalactan, from Larch Tree) and Olive Leaf. Our expert formulators have also included immune-supporting minerals, such as Zinc and Selenium. This advanced, one-of-a-kind formula unites some of the most trusted nutritional compounds available today, and was scientifically formulated to support healthy immune function during seasonal changes and year-around!



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Best Sugar Balance Svetol (green coffee extract)
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Date: May 05, 2006 06:30 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Best Sugar Balance Svetol (green coffee extract)

Ingredients

Best Sugar Balance featuring Svetol® Svetol® is an extract of green coffee obtained by the use of a traditional patented extraction process from the beans of the species Coffea canephora robusta Pierre. This species is particularly rich in the constituent known as chlorogenic acid. Svetol® green coffee extract contains less than 2% caffeine. The extract is standardized to contain between 45-50% chlorogenic acids.

In vitro (test tube) and in vivo research suggests that chlorogenic acids present in coffee may have the ability to regulate blood sugar concentrations after meals by acting on the intestinal absorption of glucose and improving the body's glucose tolerance. Clinical evidence also suggests that Svetol® green coffee extract may help to maintain a healthy blood sugar level when used as a part of the diet.*

Benefits

Maintains healthy blood sugar levels when used as a part of the diet*

CHLOROGENIC ACIDS

Chlorogenic acid is the major polyphenol compound found in Svetol® green coffee bean extract. In vitro and animal studies have been conducted to determine the potential actions of this polyphenol. Studies report that chlorogenic acid and related compounds have significant antioxidant potential and are responsible for the high reported antioxidant benefit of green coffee. Several studies suggest that consumption of coffee in the diet is one factor that is correlated to the maintenance of healthy neural function and healthy aging. Coffee has also been shown in vitro to suppress the production of various free radicals. The chlorogenic acid content of coffee has been determined to be a major factor in the free radical Quenching properties of coffee. A study was conducted to assess the activity of coffee extracts against the production of hydroxyl radicals in an in vitro system. It was found that coffee extracts possessed significant suppressive activity against hydroxyl radicals. Of the compounds assumed to be responsible for this effect, the researchers concluded that the chlorogenic acids played a major role with some contributions from other compounds found in the extract. This compound may also strongly contribute to any potential neuroprotective effects seen with coffee consumption.1

Two further studies highlight a possible mechanism by which chlorogenic acid mediates its antioxidant activity. In one study, the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assay was used to measure and compare the iron-reducing capacity of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. It was shown that the chlorogenic acid content of the samples tested was highly correlated with iron-reducing activity in this assay. Moreover, lighter roasted coffee samples (closer in nature to green coffee) had the highest iron-reducing activity. Caffeine did not influence the iron-reducing activity of the coffee samples.2 Iron compounds are known to mediate the production of radicals and often serve as catalysts for their production in the body. A second study shows that chlorogenic acid can bind to and Chelate certain iron compounds, preventing them from catalyzing radical-producing reactions. In this way, chlorogenic acid acts as a powerful antioxidant.3

Chlorogenic acid and related compounds have a dual effect on the production and suppression of free radicals. In the case of the hydroxyl radical, studies outlined previously suggest that chlorogenic acid suppresses the production of the radical due to its ability to chelate iron compounds, while other studies suggest that chlorogenic acid has direct scavenging effects on the hydroxyl radical.4 Dietary intake of this potent polyphenol may confer multiple benefits to human health.

Several studies further suggest that chlorogenic acid in coffee can have a beneficial effect on blood sugar levels when consumed as a part of the diet. A recent study assessed the effects of coffee and tea consumption on glucose tolerance in middle-aged Japanese men. In this study, the relationship between daily intakes of green tea or coffee and glucose tolerance status was measured by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). More than 3,400 men participated in the study in which fasting glucose was measured before and 2 hours after administration of an oral glucose load. A self-administered questionnaire was used to establish daily levels of dietary coffee and green tea consumption over the past year. The results showed that those individuals who consumed the highest levels of coffee per day had lower fasting glucose levels (by 1.5%) and lower post-test glucose concentrations (4.3% lower) than those who did not consume coffee Chlorogenic acid and related compounds have a dual effect on the production and suppression of free radicals. In the case of the hydroxyl radical, studies outlined previously suggest that chlorogenic acid suppresses the production of the radical due to its ability to chelate iron compounds, while other studies suggest that chlorogenic acid has direct scavenging effects on the hydroxyl radical.4 Dietary intake of this potent polyphenol may confer multiple benefits to human health.

Several studies further suggest that chlorogenic acid in coffee can have a beneficial effect on blood sugar levels when consumed as a part of the diet. A recent study assessed the effects of coffee and tea consumption on glucose tolerance in middle-aged Japanese men. In this study, the relationship between daily intakes of green tea or coffee and glucose tolerance status was measured by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

More than 3,400 men participated in the study in which fasting glucose was measured before and 2 hours after administration of an oral glucose load. A self-administered questionnaire was used to establish daily levels of dietary coffee and green tea consumption over the past year.

The results showed that those individuals who consumed the highest levels of coffee per day had lower fasting glucose levels (by 1.5%) and lower post-test glucose concentrations (4.3% lower) than those who did not consume coffee on a daily basis. In this study, green tea consumption was not associated with any benefits on glucose concentrations.5

It is likely that the chlorogenic acid found in coffee plays a role in supporting healthy glucose metabolism, whereas the role of caffeine is not clear, with some reports suggesting an adverse effect on sugar metabolism.

A second study further confirms an effect of chlorogenic acid at inhibiting the absorption of glucose from the diet. This effect occurs in the small intestine. In this study, nine healthy fasted volunteers consumed 25 grams of glucose in 400 ml of water (the control group), caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee. Frequent blood samples were taken over the next 3 hours. It was found that glucose and insulin concentrations were higher 30 minutes after the consumption of caffeinated coffee than with either decaffeinated coffee or control (water).While caffeine has specific biological effects on raising glucose levels and impacting insulin profiles, chlorogenic acid was shown to have an antagonistic effect on glucose transport. Previous studies have also shown that chlorogenic acid significantly delays glucose uptake from the small intestine.6

RESEARCH ON SVETOL®

Svetol® is a unique extract of Coffea canephora robusta green coffee beans containing between 45 and 50% chlorogenic acids with less than 2% total caffeine concentration. As outlined above, many studies highlight the potential benefits of coffee compounds, including chlorogenic acid, for providing protection against free radicals and promoting healthy glucose metabolism. A number of other potential benefits have been discovered for these compounds. Svetol® has also been the subject of preliminary clinical studies that have shown exciting results.

In a pilot study, the effect of Svetol® on sugar concentrations after meals was evaluated in 15 individuals. In the same trial, the longer-term effects of Svetol® on weight management were also evaluated. Blood sugar concentrations were measured on two separate occasions. Patients were administered an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which they consumed a standard amount of sugar and had their blood sugar levels measured 1 hour after sugar intake. The first measurement was made on day 1 prior to taking Svetol® and the second OGTT was performed on day 2, after beginning the Svetol® regimen in which one tablet (200 mg per tablet) was administered 3 times during the day. Patients were fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the testing. The results showed that Svetol® was able to reduce blood sugar concentrations in 60% of the subjects. The mean reduction of blood sugar concentration in these individuals was 50%. The treatment was continued following the same regimen for 6 weeks to assess the impact of Svetol® on weight. The average weight loss of the participants was 1.5 kg (3.3 lbs) over the treatment period. 7

Based on the studies mentioned above and other related research on the ingredients in Svetol®, scientists have proposed two mechanisms of action whereby Svetol® may influence the metabolism and processing of glucose. The first mechanism seems to be an inhibitory action on glucose absorption from the diet. Svetol® may affect the uptake of glucose in the small intestine by modulating factors needed for sugar absorption.

The second mechanism relates to possible effects of Svetol® in the liver's ability to produce glucose. Chlorogenic acids have been shown in vitro and in animal studies to modulate the effects of certain enzymes in the liver that catalyze the production of glucose. By having this dual effect on sugar absorption and sugar production, Svetol® is an effective product for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels when used as a part of the diet.*

SAFETY

Svetol® is a natural food extract from green coffee beans containing a standardized amount of chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that chlorogenic acid (up to 500 mg/kg/day) given to pregnant rats from the 5th through 12th day of gestation caused no maternal or fetal mortality and no adverse effects on the nervous system. Chlorogenic acids have also been shown to be non-mutagenic in tests on bacteria such as the Ames test. The LD50 of chlorogenic acids has been determined to be higher than 2500 mg/kg body weight. Svetol® is also extremely low in caffeine, with less than 2% caffeine contained in the extract, and is not expected to have any of caffeine's stimulant effects. Svetol® is extremely safe with no adverse effects having been reported while taking Svetol® at the recommended dosage.7

*This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Scientific References

1) Daglia M, Racchi M, Papetti A, Lanni C, Govoni S,Gazzani G. In vitro and ex vivo antihydroxyl radical activity of green and roasted coffee. J Agric Food Chem.2004 Mar 24;52(6):1700-4.

2) Moreira DP, Monteiro MC, Ribeiro-Alves M, Donangelo CM, Trugo LC. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1399-402.

3) Kono Y, Kashine S,Yoneyama T, Sakamoto Y, Matsui Y, Shibata H. Iron chelation by chlorogenic acid as a natural antioxidant. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 Jan;62(1):22-7.

4) Zang LY, Cosma G, Gardner H, Castranova V, Vallyathan V. Effect of chlorogenic acid on hydroxyl radical. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 May;247(1-2):205-10.

5) Yamaji T, Mizoue T, Tabata S, Ogawa S, Yamaguchi K, Shimizu E, Mineshita M, Kono S. Coffee consumption and glucose tolerance status in middle-aged Japanese men.Diabetologia. 2004 Dec;47(12):2145-51. Epub 2004 Dec 15.

6) Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):728-33.

7) Berkem.Text on Svetol®.Gardonne, France: November 2005. Best Sugar Balance Svetol Green Coffee Extract



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Benefits of Best Alpha Lipoic 35!
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Date: February 12, 2006 03:11 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of Best Alpha Lipoic 35!

Benefits

Supports the Body’s Defense Against Free Radicals*

Recycles Antioxidant Nutrients such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E*
Helps Maintain a Healthy Blood Sugar Level when used as part of the diet*

Alpha-lipoic Acid––the "Ideal Antioxidant"
The antioxidant potential of a substance is based on a number of criteria, including:
1) Ability to Quench specific free-radicals.
2) Ability to bind or "chelate" metal ions that can generate free radicals.
3) Supports function of other antioxidants.
4) Absorption/bioavailability.
5) Concentration in tissues, cells and extra cellular fluids.
6) Ability to function as an antioxidant in fatty and watery environments.


The "ideal antioxidant" would meet all the above criteria. Very few antioxidants do, yet a particular antioxidant with but a few of the characteristics is still valuable and effective. Vitamin E, for example, is one of the most important dietary antioxidants, yet it only works in fatty environments such as cell membranes.

As a team, ALA and DHLA come close to the ideal, for the following reasons:1,2,3
1) ALA is easily absorbed when consumed orally.
2) ALA is readily converted to DHLA in various tissues.
3) As a pair, ALA and DHLA neutralize superoxide, hydroxyl, peroxyl, and hypochlorus radicals.
4) ALA and DHLA form stable complexes with metal ions such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc ions.
5) ALA and DHLA scavenge free radicals in fatty environments and watery environments.
6) DHLA recycles other important antioxidants.


DHLA-regenerates vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione

Within the cell, antioxidants work as a team to keep free radicals from damaging cell structures. In order to neutralize a free radical, an antioxidant such as vitamin C must give up an electron, which mean it becomes oxidized. Before it can function as an antioxidant once again, it must be regenerated back to its "reduced" form, by gaining an electron to replace the donated electron. For this, it needs the help of other antioxidants. Vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione are key antioxidants that can be generated by cycling between their oxidized and reduce forms. This is necessary to maintain the balance between oxidation and its reverse––the neutralization of free radicals by antioxidants.

DHLA is an essential component in the interaction between these antioxidants.4 Studies show that addition of alpha-lipoic acid to liver tissues results in increased vitamin C levels. It has been found that DHLA is responsible for regenerating vitamin C, which in turn regenerates vitamin E.3 DHLA also converts glutathione from its oxidized form back into its free radical scavenging reduced form.3,5 The ALA/DHLA pair is thus vital for prevention of "oxidative stress," which occurs which the balance is tipped in favor of oxidation in cells.4 DHLA helps preserve antioxidants in both the watery cell interior and the fatty structure of cell membranes.6 Evidence from animal studies suggests that DHLA protects the brain against free radical damage.7

Alpha-lipoic Acid and Blood Sugar

Alpha-lipoic acid is a key factor in the cellular process that metabolizes glucose to produce energy for cellular functions. The importance of ALA’s role in blood sugar metabolism is evidenced in studies on ALA and type-2 diabetes. In a small pilot study, 13 people with type-2 diabetes showed improved utilization of glucose in muscle tissue in response to intravenous administration of ALA.8 In a four week controlled multicenter trial, 74 people with type-2 diabetes took ALA in oral doses of 600, 1200 or 1800 mg per day. After 4 weeks, the normal lowering of blood sugar levels in response to insulin improved.9 In vitro studies have shown that ALA has a positive effect on insulin-stimulated uptake of glucose by muscle cells.10



Safety

Suggested Adult Use: One to six capsules daily with food.

Alpha-lipoic acid is considered safe, and no adverse effects have been seen with long-term supplementation.1

Scientific References
1. Packer, L.. Witt, E., Tritschler, H. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1995;19(2):227-50.
2. Suzuki, Y., et al. Thioctic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are novel antioxidants which interact with reactive oxygen species. Free Rad. Res. Comms. 15(5):255-63.
3. Biewenga, G., Haenen, G., Bast, A. The pharmacology of lipoic acid. Gen. Pharmac. 29(3):315-31.
4. Serbinova, E. Maitra, I., Packer, L. The synergy between vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid--–possible relationship against oxidative stress in vivo. Life Chemistry Reports 1994;12:17-21.
5. Bast, A. Haenen, G. Interplay between lipoic acid and glutathione in the protection against microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1988; 963:558-561.
6. Kagan, V. et al. Dihydrolipoic acid––a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. Reduction of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44(8):1637.
7. Prehn, J. et al. Dihydrolipoate reduces neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;12(1):78-87.
8. Jacob, S. et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type-2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45(8):872-4.
9. Jacob, S et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 1999;27(3/4):309-14.
10. Estrada, D. et al. Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha-lipoic acid/thioctic acid: participation of elements of the insulin signaling pathway. Diabetes 1996;45(12):1798-804.


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Astaxanthin - PHYTONUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANT
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Date: December 28, 2005 10:20 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Astaxanthin - PHYTONUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANT

"PHYTONUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANT" Astaxanthin

  • Potent Natural Antioxidant
  • More Powerful Than Vitamin E And Other Carotenoids
  • Supports Healthy Immune and Cardiovascular Function
  • Well-Researched With Documented Results
  • High Quality BioAstin® Astaxanthin

Carotenoids are a class of lipid-soluble natural pigments found in plants, as well as in phytoplankton and certain fungi and bacteria. The red, orange and yellow colors seen in fruits and vegetables are from carotenoids. When various aquatic animals such as salmon and shrimp eat plants containing some of the over 700 compounds that make up the carotenoid class, those animals are also decorated with the same brilliant colors. However, carotenoids do more than provide color - they’re powerful phytonutrient antioxidants. Beta carotene, lutein, and lycopene are some of the more well-known carotenoids, but the most powerful found to date is astaxanthin.

Astaxanthin is a fat-soluble carotenoid with a unique molecular structure that makes it an extremely effective antioxidant. The PDR® Medical Dictionary 2nd Edition defines an antioxidant as, “An agent that inhibits oxidation; any of numerous chemical substances, including certain natural body products and nutrients, that can neutralize the oxidant effect of free radicals and other substances.” Not only is astaxanthin a potent free radical scavenger, but it also can protect against oxidation, which limits the number of free radicals produced. Additionally, it’s very effective at Quenching a molecule called singlet oxygen, a harmful reactive oxygen species formed through normal biological processes. Singlet oxygen possesses a high amount of excess energy that must be released to keep it from damaging other cells. Astaxanthin absorbs this energy and dissipates it as heat, and in the process returns the singlet oxygen to a grounded state.

A growing body of research is showing that astaxanthin is the creme de la creme of phytonutrient antioxidants. Studies comparing astaxanthin to other carotenoids have shown it to possess antioxidant activity up to 10 times stronger than that of beta carotene, canthaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin.4 A study published in 1990 conducted by Kurashige and associates compared the effectiveness of vitamin E and astaxanthin for the prevention of lipid peroxidation. The results showed that astaxanthin is 100-500 times more effective in preventing lipid peroxidation in vivo than vitamin E.5

Astaxanthin in algae provides protection against the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, and studies are showing that this protective effect is also imparted with dietary astaxanthin. Scientists believe that astaxanthin effectively scavenges the oxygen radicals produced through photo-oxidation caused by UV exposure. A 1995 study by Savoure and associates studied the protective effects of astaxanthin, beta carotene and retinol against UVinduced photo-oxidative stress. The results showed that astaxanthin is extremely effective in preventing increases of certain polyamines created through photo-oxidation, which damages skin. A particular polyamine was found to increase only 1.5-fold in subjects fed astaxanthin, whereas subjects in the control group experienced a significant 4.1- fold increase. It was concluded that astaxanthin works through a particular enzyme, increasing this enzyme’s consumption of polyamines in response to irradiation.

Research has shown that astaxanthin also offers cardioprotective effects through its ability to decrease oxidation of HDL (“good” cholesterol), which is a cholesterol transporter in the blood. It‘s well established that high levels of HDL and low levels of LDL (“bad” cholesterol) are desirable for healthy cardiovascular function, so protecting HDL from oxidation means there’s more circulating in the bloodstream. In a 1992 study by Murillo, subjects were fed dietary astaxanthin for 30 days. HDL cholesterol increased 57mg/dL, compared to the control diet (42.4 mg/dL). LDL cholesterol decreased from 12.5 mg/dL to 9.6 mg/dL. Clearly, astaxanthin exhibited an influence on the ratio of these two lipoproteins.

We can thank the lobster for the discovery of astaxanthin. Researchers working with an extract of the lobster Homarus astacus first characterized astaxanthin in 1938. It was soon discovered that astaxanthin is abundant in nature, although mostly in very low concentrations. The greatest source found is in green algae called Haematococcus pluvialis, which also contains other carotenoids such as beta carotene and lutein. NOW® Foods Astaxanthin supplies 4mg of this effective phytonutrient antioxidant and is an excellent source of this outstanding member of the carotenoid family. The astaxanthin used for our product is BioAstin® supplied by the Cyanotech Corporation, one of the premier suppliers of highquality astaxanthin taken from Haematococcus pluvialis, the richest natural source discovered. In addition to Astaxanthin, NOW® offers other carotenoids, including Lutein, Beta Carotene and Lycopene. Research continues to support the inclusion of carotenoids in the diet to support overall health. This is even truer for those with less than perfect diets and for those who smoke or spend any time with someone who does.

References
1) Hawkins, E.B.; Astaxanthin and Oxidative Stress; Natural Pharmacy, October 2003, pp. 20-21
2) Lorenz, R.T.; Astaxanthin, Nature’s Super Carotenoid; Bioastin® Technical Bulletin #062, Cyanotech Corporation, October 2000, pp.1-19
3) Lorenz, R.T.; Bioastin®, Nature’s Premier Astaxanthin Source; NatuRose™ Technical Bulletin #078; Cyanotech Corporation, October 2000, pp. 1-13
4) Naguib, Y.M.A.; Antioxidant Activities of Astaxanthin and Related Carotenoids, Journal of Agricultural Chemicals, 2000, 48, pp. 1150-1154
5) Kurashige, M. et. al.; Inhibition of oxidative injury of biological membranes by astaxanthin, Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, 1990, 22 (1), pp.27-38



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Your Cells Supercharge Your Cells
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Date: December 20, 2005 11:30 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Your Cells Supercharge Your Cells

Your Cells Supercharge Your Cells

The differences between aging and growing old are poles apart. Sure, they may sound similar in nature. But when you think about it, the two are as different as night and day. Growing old is about retirement and travel and enjoying what you’ve worked an entire life for. Aging, on the other hand, summons images of wrinkled skin, brittle joints, cloudy minds and medicine cabinets full of prescriptions. It’s safe to assume that the majority of us want to look, live, and feel better as we grow old. Not the opposite. Many of us are on the right track - committed to a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and a well-balanced diet. And yes, these do serve as a solid foundation for good health during our golden years. It is our cells, however, that ultimately determine who grows old, and who just ages.

Still, slowing the proverbial hands of time is not all about health clubs and organic produce. If you want to grow old gracefully, you must nurture the ten trillion cells that defi ne you physically. Why? Because these cells are constantly under attack by free radicals - unstable molecules that either lack, or have an unpaired number of electrons. They scour the body in search of stable cells, and do whatever they can to rob them of their electrons, a process more formally known as oxidation. Considering that it’s environmentally impossible to completely avoid contact with the billions of airborne toxins that cause free radicals, the only other option is to safeguard your healthy cells. Making the commitment to a healthy lifestyle is the fi rst step in the process, and can be accomplished by eating healthier foods, exercising on a regular basis, and paying close attention to what you are exposed to environmentally.

The next step is to nourish and protect your cells. The best way to do this is to consume foods that are rich in antioxidants and other cell-friendly nutrients. Unfortunately, this task is often much easier said than done. Today’s average adult is busier than ever, making it far more diffi cult to consume fresh, unprocessed meals 100% of the time. This does not, however, imply that all hope is lost. Over the years, the nutritional sciences have made stunning advances that afford you the opportunity to live your life while still safeguarding the integrity of your most basic building blocks. Here are a few of the best.

Antioxidants

Antioxidants work at the cellular level to paralyze the free radicals that cause oxidation throughout the body. Some of today’s most popular nutrients and dietary supplements fall into this category. They include vitamins A, E, and C, Selenium, Zinc, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Lycopene, Lutein, CoQ10, in addition to a host of others. And though similar in function, each of these free radical fi ghters has a unique role within the body.

Take CoQ10 for example. It’s present in every cell of the body, and is especially important for cardiovascular support. Lutein has been used extensively to prevent oxidation in the macular regions of the eyes. Zinc is a powerful immune system booster that has become extremely popular during cold and fl u season. Alpha Lipoic Acid is both fat and water soluble, and is commonly referred to as the “universal” antioxidant based on its ability to Quench free radicals anywhere in the body.

Immune Boosting Herbs

Herbs such as Astragalus, Olive Leaf, Rhodiola, Echinacea, Panax Ginseng and Ashwaganda have been used for centuries to help support healthy cells and strong, responsive immune systems. They’ve also been shown to exhibit natural synergistic effects when used together. Today, they remain one of the most popular ways to naturally promote all-around wellbeing. When it comes to supporting healthy cells, NOW is pleased to offer one of the best selections of antioxidants, herbs and immune support formulas. Be sure to look for these and other great products at fi ne health food retailers, nationwide.*

OPCs

OPCs (proanthocyanidins) are high-powered polyphenol antioxidants that belong to the fl avonoid family. Grape seed extract, pine bark extracts such as pycnogenol and enzogenol, bilberry, gingko biloba, resveratrol and others all fall into this category. Research continues to suggest that OPCs work in the same manner that traditional antioxidants do, however their ability to eradicate free radicals is much greater and more versatile. Equally appealing, OPCs can easily cross the blood barrier of the brain to help protect brain and neural tissues from the damage caused by oxidative stress.

Mushroom Extracts

Throughout history, many civilizations have relied on organic mushroom extracts to encourage wellness. What we know now is that mushrooms such as Shiitake, Maitake, Reishi and others are rich in 1,3 Beta-glucans - soluble fi ber compounds that help support both innate and adaptive immunity. In addition, the active compounds in some mushrooms have been shown to stimulate the production of microphages, T cells, and other natural killer cells. These biological warriors serve at the front line when it comes to responding to bacterial attacks. They are of immeasurable value to the immune system, though drastically lacking in today’s average diet. In just the past few years, more and more healthconscious individuals have learned fi rst-hand how benefi cial they can be in the preservation of healthy cells.



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Tru-E Bio Complex
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Date: December 08, 2005 04:58 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Tru-E Bio Complex

Tru-E Bio Complex TM

Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 7/27/05

LIKELY USERS: Most Americans are deficient in Vitamin E 8,9,10; People needing superior antioxidant protection3,5,6; People needing cardiovascular or cholesterol support27,30,31; People needing nervous system support7; Those wanting healthier skin6; Diabetics may need additional Vitamin E24 KEY INGREDIENTS: Tocopherols from IP-Preserved, non-GMO Soy; Tocotrienols and tocopherols from non-GMO virgin palm; Tocotrienols from non-GMO annatto seed

MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: NOW Tru-E Bio ComplexTM is a unique biologically balanced, patent-pending formula designed to provide optimal Vitamin E activity. This product features 100% natural, Non-Genetically Modified sources of all 8 isomers (forms) of the Vitamin E “family” in ratios similar to what is found in a healthy diet. It provides the superior benefits of foodsource Vitamin E versus those obtained from traditional E supplements.

NOW® Tru-E Bio ComplexTM has been carefully blended to supply high levels of the natural gamma and delta “desmethyl” forms of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. This is important because recent research indicates that these isomers work best as a team to Quench the lipid and nitrogen free radicals known to cause injury to cells and tissues. This product supports a healthy cardiovascular system, youthful skin and nervous system function with potent antioxidants. This science-based natural Vitamin E supplement is unlike any other and the first to combine all of these benefits in one convenient non-GMO formula! 25-32

Recent research indicates that these isomers work best as a team to Quench the lipid and nitrogen free radicals known to cause injury to cells and tissues.1-4, 25-32

This product supports a healthy cardiovascular system, youthful skin and nervous system function with potent antioxidants.1,4-7

Levels of Vitamin E above 100 IU daily are associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and certain types of cellular disorders, as well as enhancement of immune function. These vitamin E intakes are considerably above levels obtainable from diet alone. 11,12,13

ADDITIONAL PRODUCT USE INFORMATION & QUALITY ISSUES:

This is a product that is Patent Pending, based on months of research into optimal forms, potencies and ratios of the 8 isomers of natural Vitamin E. All of the Vitamin E formulas currently on the market use potencies of tocopherols that are very dissimilar to what is found in a healthy diet, with either too low or too high amounts of gamma and alpha tocopherols for a good balance. Some do not even include tocotrienols.

All of the Vitamin E formulas on the market that do contain a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols tend to use either 400 IU or 100 IU of alpha tocopherol, some as little as 50-60 IU, combined with varying doses of gamma tocopherol. We have reduced the alpha tocopherol from the standard 400 IU per capsule to 200 IU, allowing more gamma tocopherol in the capsule to follow the typical ratio in a healthy diet. Other brands either cut the alpha tocopherol too low (to keep the gamma tocopherol at a good level) or else cut the gamma and other tocopherols too low (to keep the alpha tocopherol at 400 IU).

Special care was used to maintain a certain ratio of tocopherols and of tocotrienols that is unique and from natural sources. Our formula is also unique in mixing sources of tocotrienols to achieve our desired balance, whereas other formulas include only one source, despite the dissimilarity of the mixture to what is found in a healthy, varied diet.

Other formulas use either Vitamin E derived from genetically engineered soybeans and/or add soybean oil from similar sources as a base. NOW uses expensive non-GMO sources, the first formula to do so, with no soybean oil added. This enhances the quality of our product compared to every other formula on the market.

We use the expensive virgin palm oil rather than the cheap palm distillates because it is un-denatured and contributes additional, valuable oil nutrients such as CoQ10, Squalene and Sterols. Also, much of the clinical research done on tocotrienols was done using virgin palm oil sources 32

Natural Vitamin E is more effective than synthetic Vitamin E.14 - 23

SERVING SIZE & HOW TO TAKE IT: One or two capsules per day, preferably with meal(s). Oils enhance the absorption of Vitamin E. Concentrated fiber supplements may decrease the absorption of Vitamin E, so it is best not to take both at the same meal.

SYNERGISTS: Antioxidants (Alpha Lipoic Acid, Vitamin C Complex, Pine or Grapeseed Extracts, VitaBerry Plus+, CoQ10, etc.), Plant Sterols, Fish Oil, Flaxseed Oil, GliSODin, EGCg Green Tea Extract, Lecithin, Nuts and Seeds

CAUTIONS: None.

SPECIFIC: Aspirin and blood thinners should not be taken with Vitamin E without physician’s approval. Many other pharmaceutical drugs deplete Vitamin E, adding to the likelihood that a person will be deficient.

GENERAL: Pregnant and lactating women and people using prescription drugs should consult their physician before taking any dietary supplement. This information is based on my own knowledge and references, and should not be used as diagnosis, prescription or as a specific product claim. This document has not been reviewed by the FDA or by the company posting it. Information given here may vary from what is shown on the product label because this represents my own professional experience and understanding of the science underlying the formula and ingredients. When taking any new formula, use common sense and cautiously increase to the full dose over time.

REFERENCES:

1. Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN (2001) g-Tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr 74:714-722.
2. Schneider C (2005) Chemistry and biology of vitamin E. Mol Nutr Food Res 49(1):7-30.
3. Pfluger P, Kluth D, Landes N, Bumke-Vogt C, Brigelius-Flohe R (2004) Vitamin E: underestimated as an antioxidant. Redox Rep 9(5):249-254.
4. Liu M, Wallin R, Saldeen (2002) Effect of mixed tocopherols on ecNOS, SOD, and PKC in leukocytes in human subjects. Nutr Res 22:1253-1263.
5. Saldeen T, Li D, Mehta JL (1999) Differential Effects of a- and g-Tocopherol on Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation, Superoxide Activity, Platelet Aggregation and Arterial Thrombogenesis. J Am Coll Cardiol 34:1208-1215.
6. "Packer L, Valacchi G. (2002) Antioxidants and the response of skin to oxidative stress: vitamin E as a key indicator. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 15(5):282-90."
7. Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S. (2004) Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Ann N Y Acad Sci 1031:127-42.
8. Dial S, Eitenmiller RR. 1995. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in key foods in the U.S. diet. In: Ong ASH, Niki E, Packer L, eds. Nutrition, Lipids, Health, and Disease. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. Pp. 327–342.
9. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000). Institute of Medicine
10. JASPREET K.C. AHUJA, JOSEPH D. GOLDMAN, and ALANNA J. MOSHFEGH. Current Status of Vitamin E Nutriture. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004 1031: 387-390.
11. Bauernfeind, J. Tocopherols in Foods. In: Vitamin E: A Comprehensive Treatise. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York and Basel, pp. 99-167, 1980.
12. Horwitt, M.K. The Promotion of Vitamin E. J. Nutr. 116:1371-1377, 1986.
13. Weber, P., Bendich, A. and Machlin, L.J. Vitamin E and Human Health: Rationale for Determining Recommended Intake Levels. Nutrition 13:450-460, 1997.
14. Acuff RV et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998;67:459-64
15. Acuff RV et al, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994, 60:397-402
16. Behrens, W.A. and Madere, R. Tissue Discrimination between Dietary RRR-Alpha- and All-Rac-Alpha-Tocopherols in Rats. J. Nutr. 121:454-459, 1991.
17. Burton G et al, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998,67:669-84
18. Ferslew, K.E., Acuff, R.V., Daigneault, E.A., Woolley, T.W. and Stanton, P.E. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the RRR and All Racemic Stereoisomers of Alpha-Tocopherol in Humans after Single Oral Administration. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 33:84-88, 1993.
19. Horwitt, M.K. The Promotion of Vitamin E. J. Nutr. 116:1371-1377, 1986.
20. Ogihara, T., Nishida, Y., Miki, M. and Mino, M. Comparative Changes in Plasma and RBC Alpha-Tocopherol after Administration of dl-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate and d-Alpha-Tocopherol. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 31:169-177, 1985.
21. Traber M et al, FEBS Letters 1998,437:145-148
22. Traber MG, et al. J Lipid Res. 1990,31(4):675-85
23. Weiser, H. and Vecchi, M. Stereoisomers of Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate. II. Biopotencies of All Eight Stereoisomers, Individually or in Mixtures, as Determined by Rat Resorption-Gestation Tests. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 52:351-370, 1982.
24. Polidori MC, Mecocci P, Stahl W, et al. Plasma levels of lipophilic antioxidants in very old patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000;16:15–9.
25. Cooney RV, Franke AA, Harwood PJ, Hatch-Pigott V, Custer LJ, and Mordan LJ. gamma-Tocopherol Detoxification of Nitrogen Dioxide: Superiority to alpha-Tocopherol. PNAS 1993; 90: 1771-1775.
26. Morris MC, Evans DA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Wilson RS, Aggarwal NT, Scherr PA. Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):508-14. PMID: 15699242
27. Inokuchi H, Hirokane H, Tsuzuki T, Nakagawa K, Igarashi M, Miyazawa T. Anti-angiogenic activity of tocotrienol. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Jul;67(7):1623-7. PMID: 12913317
28. Kline K, Yu w, Sander BG, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols. (1999), Nutr Cancer, 33 : pp : 26 – 32
29. The Chicago Health and Aging Project, Martha Clare Morris, Denis A Evans, Christine C Tangney, Julia L Bienias, Robert S Wilson, Neelum T Aggarwal and Paul A Scherr. Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 2, 508-514, February 2005
30. Parker RA, Pearce BC, Clark RW, Gordon DA, Wright JJ. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25;268(15):11230-8. PMID: 8388388
31. Pearce BC, Parker RA, Deason ME, Qureshi AA, Wright JJ. Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J Med Chem. 1992 Oct 2;35(20):3595-606. PMID: 1433170
32. Soelaiman IN, Ahmad NS, Khalid BA. Palm oil tocotrienol mixture is better than alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bones against free-radical induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;13(Suppl):



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Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant
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Date: December 07, 2005 05:43 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant

Vitaberry Plus +™ Super Fruit Antioxidant

By Nilesh Patel, NOW Quality Assurance, April 20, 2005 Why are FRUITS AND VEGETABLES important? “Diets rich in FRUITS AND VEGETABLES may reduce the risk of some types of cancer and other chronic diseases.”- National Cancer Institute. OXYGEN AND ANTIOXIDANTS As we all know, “Oxygen is critical to life,” but is itself a double-edged sword. While oxygen is necessary to sustain life and for natural defense against microbes, too much oxygen in our cells can lead to the production of “free radicals” (mitochondrial respiratory chain) or ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Free radicals come in many forms - singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, superoxideperoxynitrite, to name a few - but all have one commonality. Each has an unpaired (unbalanced) electron, a situation it remedies by stealing an electron from a stable molecule. This sets off a domino effect of oxidation, a chain reaction that usually ends up damaging cellular integrity and compromising overall health. Nature has a defense system in place to protect these processes in the form of antioxidants. Whether endogenous (produced by the body, such as liver enzymes, SOD, coenzymes and sulfur-containing compounds) or exogenous (obtained through the diet, such as vitamins C & E, bioflavonoids, carotenes, etc.), antioxidants “Quench” free radicals by donating an electron to stabilize a molecule, thus controling the chain reaction and stopping the oxidation “domino effect”. ANTIOXIDANT-RICH FOODS Research suggests that eating plenty of foods high in antioxidants helps to slow the processes associated with aging and protect against many chronic diseases. Maximizing one’s antioxidant power will enhance overall health. Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and non-nutritive factors that can affect oxidative damage and enzymatic defense and might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. A new “6-a-day” study looked into the effects of fruits and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers by The Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research in Denmark. The study found that fruits and vegetables increase erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and resistance of plasma lipoproteins to oxidation more efficiently than do the nutritive factors (vitamins and minerals) that the fruits and vegetables are also known to contain. Certain berries, such as blackberries, also contain salicylates, which are also linked to heart health and prevention of atherosclerosis. The protective effects of fruits and vegetables intake on both heart disease death and deaths in general have previously been demonstrated but researchers at the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston. Quercetin is an anti-oxidizing flavonoid found in many berries (such as cranberries, bilberries, blueberries, strawberries, etc.) and can prevent CVDs (coronary vascular diseases), according to a recent Finnish study. All these natural plant polyphenols are responsible for the colors of many red and purple berries, fruits, vegetables and flowers. GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES The new federal guidelines released earlier this year by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommend eating more fruits and vegetables, combined, than any other food group -- five cups or about 10 servings a day for most adults. The amount of fruits and vegetables recommended has increased for men and women of every age. “Fruits and vegetables are the "good news" story of the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans for food-loving consumers, the industry and America's public health”, stated the Produce for Better Health Foundation (PBH). Eating a variety of colorful phytochemical-rich fruits and vegetables has been associated with lower risk of some chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Many authoritative organizations such as the National Cancer Institute and The American Heart Association recommend getting phytochemicals from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables, rather than from individual component supplements. The Scottish government is promoting healthy eating through a scheme designed to increase purchasing of fruit and nutritional foods. Scottish health minister Andy Kerr said, "This initiative shows that healthy eating can be good for customers and good for business." Scottish women are said to have the highest rates of death from lung cancer in the world as well as the highest rates in Europe for coronary heart disease. They also have low consumption of fruits and vegetables, shown in studies to help protect against some cancers and benefit heart health. ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) Free radicals and oxygen free radicals play an important role in the development and progression of many brain disorders such as brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and Down syndrome. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes & is also linked to other host of degenerative health conditions. Fortunately, antioxidants are available to support the body’s defense and fight disease and aging. Examples of “Fast acting antioxidants” in the body (serum) are: uric acid (polyphenols), ascorbate, bilirubin, vitamin E (the later two are lipid soluble). Examples of “Slow acting antioxidants” are glucose, urea nitrogen etc. In short, free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated as by-products of normal cellular metabolism. Their deleterious effects are minimized in vivo (in the body) by the presence of antioxidant systems. How do Antioxidants work? Antioxidants are substances in plants that help maintain health. Antioxidants protect against damage to cells caused by too many “free oxygen radicals,” which form because of the effects of oxidation. Smoking, sunlight, heavy exercise, and pollution all increase oxidation in the body. Most people would benefit by eating more (five to nine or more servings) fruits and vegetables & colorful plant foods, such as purple, dark green, yellow, orange, blue, and red ones, each day. These have healthful pigments along with antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C, carotenoids, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, selenium, flavonoids, and other beneficial substances. There are numerous ways in which these antioxidants affect, but can be explained in two groups: Alpha (a) Effects: This refers to the scavenging or neutralizing of free radicals. These effects do not change the way humans (or animals) feel. There are also no noticeable health, psychological or emotional benefits. While there are no obvious changes, increased total antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased tumor rates, prevention of heart attacks and increased longevity. Beta (ß) Effects: These are the changes on health, psychological or emotional state that you or others will notice. In this case, the antioxidant is affecting metabolic processes (enzymes) with consequent changes in the physical (improvement in joint movements, improved skin condition, tissue damage recovery), emotional (better ability to cope with stress) or psychological state (increased alertness). The ORAC value Because most of the active nutritional components in fruits and vegetables are antioxidants, accurate measurement of antioxidant activity serves as a good indicator of potential health benefit. Scientific opinion runs high that ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity) will eventually become a government standard of reference for overall daily fruits and vegetables intake. ORAC units are a measurement of the ability of food to stop oxidation. It is most generally expressed in terms of Trolox equivalent per gram (µmole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). POPULATION DATA A survey done by the National Research Council indicates that only 10% of the US population consumes the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The equivalent to eating 5 mixed servings of fruits and vegetables per day is about 1,670 ORAC units. Based on scientific evidence it is suggested that daily antioxidant intake should be increased to between 3,000 and 5,000 ORAC units per day, per human subject, in order to reach a significant antioxidant capacity in blood plasma and other tissues. WHAT IS NOW DOING TO HELP? In accord with our mission, “To provide value in products and services that empower people to lead healthier lives,” NOW® Foods is introducing an ALL-FRUIT-DERIVED antioxidant product called VitaBerry Plus +™ Super Fruit Antioxidant Vcaps (vegetarian capsules) (product number #3336). At time of manufacture this product provides an ORAC value of at least 2,500 units per serving from a full-spectrum antioxidant blend of fruits containing phytochemicals and phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, quinic acid, resveratrol , many organic acids, resveratrol and vitamin C. VitaBerry Plus +™ is formulated with VitaBerry™ Hi-ORAC Fruit Blend [a proprietary blend of fruit extracts & concentrated powders containing Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) extract, Grape (Vitis vinifera) & Grape seed extract, Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) & Raspberry seed extract, Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Prune (Prunus domestica), Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus), Wild Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extract & Strawberry (Fragaria virginia)], Hi-Active™ Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Pomegranate (Punica granatum) min. 40% ellagic acid fruit extract. One gram of VitaBerry™ Hi-ORAC Fruit Blend provides at least 6,000 ORAC units (i.e., µmole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). (Also watch for an upcoming antioxidant product from NOW called Enzogenol® (Pinus radiata bark extract from New Zealand) with Rutin (a flavonoid from South American fruit of Dimorphandra mollis) and Grapeseed extract. IS IT EFFECTIVE? Total ORAC value includes both lipophilic and hydrophilic components. VitaBerry Plus +™ contains only water/hydroethanol based extracts and concentrated (100:1 to 125:1) freeze-dried fresh fruit blends, so the lipophilic ORAC value is mere 2-4% of the total ORAC value. Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium-containing enzyme that decreases cell death from brain injuries. It also acts as a critical first-line antioxidant defense on the airway (respiratory) epithelial surface against ROS and RNS (reactive nitrogen species. Genetics research has found that the glutathione S-transferase gene controls the onset of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease etc. Taking glutathione (GSH) itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since it breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells. So glutathione precursor dietary supplements (such as NAC and GliSODin), along with fruits and vegetables, are effective in boosting intracellular levels of GSH. The lungs have a defense system against the ROS oxidants consisting of low molecular weight antioxidants such as GSH and intracellular enzymes such as SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase to protect against the toxic effects of oxidants generated within the cells. Some of the primary effects of VitaBerry Plus +™ against the common reactive free-radical species or ROS are as follows: - Superoxide dismutase-SOD (destroys Superoxide radicals),
- Catalase (neutralizes peroxides),
- Functions similar to reduced Glutathione (GSH),
- Glutathione peroxidase enzyme (detoxifies peroxides, using GSH as a reducing agent),
- Functions similar to Glutathione S-transferase (GST),
- Nullifies Superoxide-generating NADH/NADPH oxidase system In conclusion More concentrated than fresh berries, with over 6000 ORAC units per gram, VitaBerry Plus +™ provides consumers with the antioxidant power of almost 15 servings per day of FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ina convenient vegetarian capsule form! VitaBerry™ PLUS +™ (# 3336) provides a powerful, convenient way to supplement diets that do not include sufficient fruit and vegetable antioxidants Selected References: USDA/HHS guidelines report at: etaryguidelines/dga2005/document/

ls.com/proprietary/pdf/VitaberryBrochure.pdf g Kaplan M., Hayek T. , Raz A., Coleman R. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice supplementation to apolipoprotein E deficient mice with extensive atherosclerosis reduces macrophages lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis. J. Nutr. 131: 2082-2089 (2001) Lars O Dragsted et. al., The 6-a-day study:effects if fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1060-1072, June 2004 Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Polyphenols and flavaonoids protects LDL against atherogenic modifications.In: Handbook of Antioxidants Biochemical, Nutritional and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Edition. Cadenas E & Packer L (Eds.) Marcel Dekker, NY(Pub.). 16:303-336 (2001) Wood, Jacqueline, et al. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 77 (2002) 155-161 Aviram M. Pomegranate juice as a major source for polyphenolic flavonoids and it is most potent antioxidant against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Free Radical Research 36 (Supplement 1): 71-72 (2002) Jennifer Schraag, Antioxidants: Nature’s Way of Balancing Life. HSR Health Supplement Retailer, Vol. 11, No. 2, 24-27, February 2005 com/news/printNewsBis.asp?id=58665 com/news/printNewsBis.asp?id=58697

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Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid
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Date: October 13, 2005 05:08 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid

Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid

  • Supports the Body’s Defense Against Free Radicals*
  • Recycles Antioxidant Nutrients such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E*
  • Helps Maintain a Healthy Blood Sugar Level when used as part of the diet*

    Alpha-lipoic Acid––the "Ideal Antioxidant"

    The antioxidant potential of a substance is based on a number of criteria, including:
    1) Ability to Quench specific free-radicals.
    2) Ability to bind or "chelate" metal ions that can generate free radicals.
    3) Supports function of other antioxidants.
    4) Absorption/bioavailability.
    5) Concentration in tissues, cells and extra cellular fluids.
    6) Ability to function as an antioxidant in fatty and watery environments.

    The "ideal antioxidant" would meet all the above criteria. Very few antioxidants do, yet a particular antioxidant with but a few of the characteristics is still valuable and effective. Vitamin E, for example, is one of the most important dietary antioxidants, yet it only works in fatty environments such as cell membranes.

    As a team, ALA and DHLA come close to the ideal, for the following reasons:1,2,3
    1) ALA is easily absorbed when consumed orally.
    2) ALA is readily converted to DHLA in various tissues.
    3) As a pair, ALA and DHLA neutralize superoxide, hydroxyl, peroxyl, and hypochlorus radicals.
    4) ALA and DHLA form stable complexes with metal ions such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc ions.
    5) ALA and DHLA scavenge free radicals in fatty environments and watery environments.
    6) DHLA recycles other important antioxidants.

    DHLA-regenerates vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione

    Within the cell, antioxidants work as a team to keep free radicals from damaging cell structures. In order to neutralize a free radical, an antioxidant such as vitamin C must give up an electron, which mean it becomes oxidized. Before it can function as an antioxidant once again, it must be regenerated back to its "reduced" form, by gaining an electron to replace the donated electron. For this, it needs the help of other antioxidants. Vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione are key antioxidants that can be generated by cycling between their oxidized and reduce forms. This is necessary to maintain the balance between oxidation and its reverse––the neutralization of free radicals by antioxidants.

    DHLA is an essential component in the interaction between these antioxidants.4 Studies show that addition of alpha-lipoic acid to liver tissues results in increased vitamin C levels. It has been found that DHLA is responsible for regenerating vitamin C, which in turn regenerates vitamin E.3 DHLA also converts glutathione from its oxidized form back into its free radical scavenging reduced form.3,5 The ALA/DHLA pair is thus vital for prevention of "oxidative stress," which occurs which the balance is tipped in favor of oxidation in cells.4 DHLA helps preserve antioxidants in both the watery cell interior and the fatty structure of cell membranes.6 Evidence from animal studies suggests that DHLA protects the brain against free radical damage.7

    Alpha-lipoic Acid and Blood Sugar

    Alpha-lipoic acid is a key factor in the cellular process that metabolizes glucose to produce energy for cellular functions. The importance of ALA’s role in blood sugar metabolism is evidenced in studies on ALA and type-2 diabetes. In a small pilot study, 13 people with type-2 diabetes showed improved utilization of glucose in muscle tissue in response to intravenous administration of ALA.8 In a four week controlled multicenter trial, 74 people with type-2 diabetes took ALA in oral doses of 600, 1200 or 1800 mg per day. After 4 weeks, the normal lowering of blood sugar levels in response to insulin improved.9 In vitro studies have shown that ALA has a positive effect on insulin-stimulated uptake of glucose by muscle cells.10

    Scientific References

    1. Packer, L.. Witt, E., Tritschler, H. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1995;19(2):227-50.

    2. Suzuki, Y., et al. Thioctic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are novel antioxidants which interact with reactive oxygen species. Free Rad. Res. Comms. 15(5):255-63.

    3. Biewenga, G., Haenen, G., Bast, A. The pharmacology of lipoic acid. Gen. Pharmac. 29(3):315-31.

    4. Serbinova, E. Maitra, I., Packer, L. The synergy between vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid--–possible relationship against oxidative stress in vivo. Life Chemistry Reports 1994;12:17-21.

    5. Bast, A. Haenen, G. Interplay between lipoic acid and glutathione in the protection against microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1988; 963:558-561.

    6. Kagan, V. et al. Dihydrolipoic acid––a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. Reduction of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44(8):1637.

    7. Prehn, J. et al. Dihydrolipoate reduces neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;12(1):78-87.

    8. Jacob, S. et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type-2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45(8):872-4.

    9. Jacob, S et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 1999;27(3/4):309-14.

    10. Estrada, D. et al. Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha-lipoic acid/thioctic acid: participation of elements of the insulin signaling pathway. Diabetes 1996;45(12):1798-804.



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    Zeaxanthin with Lutein - The clearly-seen benefits of advanced eye protection
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    Date: August 03, 2005 06:27 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Zeaxanthin with Lutein - The clearly-seen benefits of advanced eye protection

    Zeaxanthin with Lutein

    The clearly-seen benefits of advanced eye protection

    In the U.S. and other developed nations, the worst enemy of eyesight is not disease, it is the natural aging process. But even if the advance of years is unstoppable, new research shows that eyesight can be protected as we age. Two little-known carotenoids have been found to protect eyesight and combat the effects of aging upon the retina. Zeaxanthin and lutein, naturally found in many fruits and vegetables, form a natural filter on the retina, protecting the delicate photoreceptor cells from the damaging effects of blue-wave light and the UV radiation of sunlight. The two nutrients have also been found to be a natural antioxidant, further protecting the retina from the oxidation that arises from normal body functions as well as exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollutants, radiation, and environmental toxins.

    Source Naturals unites the benefits of both of these nutrients in ZEAXANTHIN WITH LUTEIN, offering one of the most advanced approaches to eye protection available.

    Key to Healthy Vision
    Vision is the conversion of light into image signals that the brain can understand. The macula, a tiny area at the center of the retina on the back wall of the eye, is a collection of photoreceptor cells, mostly cone cells, responsible for turning light into color images. This receptor area is protected from light and oxidation by a thin layer of yellow pigment composed of the two carotenoids, zeaxanthin and lutein. As long as this pigment filter is undamaged and dense, it protects the retina cells from the damage of near-to-UV blue light, the most damaging wavelength of light.

    Vision-Specific Nutrients
    Carotenoids are a family of nutrients found abundantly in fruits, vegetables, and green plants. Of the more than 600 carotenoids found in nature, only about 20 are found in human plasma and tissue. Of these, only lutein and zeaxanthin are specifically located in the macula of the retina of the eye. Zeaxanthin and lutein occur naturally in a healthy diet?lutein is found in foods such as broccoli, collard greens, kale, and spinach, zeaxanthin in oranges and corn. Many carotenoids are also antioxidants, which inactivate certain oxygen radicals by physical or chemical Quenching. In the eye, the molecular properties of zeaxanthin and lutein maintain the integrity of the macula and the blood vessels by combating degenerative oxygenative reactions.

    Pigment Density
    The amount of zeaxanthin and lutein in the diet affects macular pigment density, a factor in good eyesight. Although there are many contributing factors to clear vision—inherited factors among them?some of the factors can be controlled. The density of the macular pigment, the natural protection of the macula and the photoreceptor cells of the retina, are increased by the addition of zeaxanthin and lutein in the diet.

    A Harvard-led study found that eating lutein-rich foods five days per week meant subjects were eight times more likely to have healthy macular pigment density than those who consumed the same foods just once a month. Another study at the University of Florida found that diets rich in lutein and zeaxanthin could substantially (82%) protect the macula. A number of companies offer either lutein or zeaxanthin, Source Naturals combines the benefits of both, just as both are used in the eye.

    Part of Your Wellness Program
    Maintain your healthy eyesight now, because once lost, many functions of the eye cannot be repaired. Source Naturals offers you ZEAXANTHIN WITH LUTEIN as part of our commitment to developing natural products that empower you to take charge of your health. Make sure Source Naturals ZEAXANTHIN WITH LUTEIN is a part of your wellness program, an advanced approach to eye protection.

    -30-

    Bone, RA, et al. (2003). Journal of Nutrition. 133:992-998. Gail, C, et al. (2003).Investigative Opthalmology & Vis. Sci. 44:2461-246. Krinsky N, et al (2003). Annual Review of Nutrition. 23:171-201.

    Source Naturals Strategies for Wellness sm

    The above information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.



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    Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids
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    Date: July 27, 2005 11:31 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Best Mangosteen 10% Extract with xanthone flavonoids

    Benefits

    • Defends Against Free Radicals*

    The xanthone flavonoids and other compounds in mangosteen fruit are responsible for its high level of antioxidant activity. In vitro tests have been conducted on XanoMax? mangosteen 10% extract to determine the level of free radical scavenging ability in both watery and fatty environments. A major test recognized as the industry standard for measuring antioxidant activity is known as the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay.

    The ORAC test is an in vitro assay that works by measuring the amount of free radical damage done to a fluorescent probe (measured by a change in probe intensity). Antioxidants lessen the damage to the probe fluorescence, which indicates a reduction in free radical damage. This measure is used to quantify the antioxidant’s (or combination of antioxidants) capacity to Quench free radicals. This quantification is known as the total ORAC value. The total ORAC value provides a relative measure of total antioxidant strength of any substance, allowing for comparison of different mixtures. A high ORAC value corresponds to a high total in vitro antioxidant capacity.

    The development of the ORAC test has led to a number of commonly eaten foods being assessed in terms of total ORAC scores per serving. Similarly, particular combinations of antioxidants, such as those in nutritional formulas, can also be assessed for their total ORAC scores. This has led to the ability to determine the potential usefulness of a particular supplement in increasing overall antioxidant capacity.

    When XanoMax? mangosteen 10% extract was tested for ORAC value, the resulting antioxidant potential was over 3,500 ORAC units per gram of extract. This result is extremely high. ORAC values of compounds vary with their nutrient concentration, moisture content and other factors. For comparison purposes, whole blueberries, considered to be a rich source of antioxidants, had an ORAC value of 61 units per gram, while pomegranate tested at 105 ORAC units per gram.1 XanoMax? mangosteen extract is a potentially rich source of beneficial antioxidants*

    • Maintains Healthy Immune Function*

    Evidence from several animal and in vitro studies on various cell lines suggests that components of mangosteen fruit extract may play a role in modulating several factors important to healthy immune function. Of the active components, xanthone derivatives seem to play the major role in influencing parameters of immune function in animals and in vitro models. Mangostin is the xanthone derivative that most of these studies have focused on.

    A study published in 2002 assessed the effects of mangosteen extracts on the release of histamine from rat cell lines. The comparison was made to extracts of a plant frequently used in Japan, Rubus suavissimus, which is a known inhibitor of IgE-mediated histamine release from these cells. The assay showed that the mangosteen extracts used inhibited the release of histamine from these cells more potently than the extract of Rubus suavissimus. In addition, the authors compared the two herbs for prostaglandin E2 synthesis in another rat cell line and found that the mangosteen extract potently inhibited prostaglandin E2 synthesis in this in vitro trial, whereas the other herb had no effect.2

    An earlier study was performed in guinea pig tracheal and rabbit thoracic aortal tissue. In this study, alpha mangostin prevented histamine-induced contraction and was shown to be a competitive histamine receptor antagonist in the smooth muscle tissue of the trachea and aorta of the animals selected. The results seen in this laboratory study were determined to be concentration-dependent. The authors suggested that alpha mangostin should undergo further studies to determine its effects on the modulation of the histamine response.3

    Further in vitro assessments point to potential actions of mangosteen components in modulating effectors of occasional inflammation in the immune system. Studies in rat glioma cells suggest that mangostins inhibit enzymatic reactions that can lead to the production of specific prostaglandins.4,5 By inhibiting these reactions, mangostins may play a role in modulating overall immune function, promoting healthy immunity.

    Mangosteen and its constituents hold much promise for their potential ability to enhance immune function and promote health. In addition to being a highly nutritious food, mangosteen extract is full of antioxidant activity. It has an extremely high ORAC value and a great potential for enhancing free radical defenses in the body. Best Mangosteen 10% extract contains XanoMax ™, which is standardized to a high level of active mangostin, the class of compounds shown in in vitro studies to benefit certain aspects of immune function. Safety Scientific References

    1. XanoMax ™: High-potency extract of Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana. Renaissance Herbs. From www.renaissanceherbs.com
    2. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1137-41.
    3. Chairungsrilerd N, et al. Pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Oct 31;314(3):351-6.
    4. Nakatani K, et al. Gamma-Mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Sep;66(3):667-74.
    5. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9.

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    Anti-Aging Nutrients
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    Date: June 18, 2005 09:07 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Anti-Aging Nutrients

    Anti-Aging Nutrients by Edward C. Wallace, DC, ND Energy Times, February 3, 2000

    What's the big deal about trying to live longer? As you grow older (and the American population grows older alongside you) you may want to postpone the inevitable. Few wish to hasten "the journey from which no traveler returns." But as we approach that final bon voyage, chances are we desire clear sailing-aging without disability and with a peaceful, easy feeling.

    How Do We Age?

    Science has long puzzled about what causes the wrinkles, pains and deterioration of aging. In the search for causes, two basic theories have won over the most proponents: The first holds that cells are programmed with biological clocks that predetermine how many times they can reproduce before becoming non-functional. This theory has been largely formulated by the researcher Leonard Hayflick, MD.

    The second basic theory, introduced by Denham Harman, MD, PhD, in the mid 1950s, holds that cells eventually break down due to attack by caustic molecules called free radicals that cause oxidative stress.

    Programmed Cell Theory

    In the early '60s, Dr. Hayflick observed that human fibroblasts (cells from connective tissue) in the laboratory refused to divide more than about 50 times. Dr. Hayflick also found that even if he froze the fibroblasts after 20 divisions, they would remember that they only had 30 divisions left after thawing.

    Fifty cell divisions have been called the "Hayflick limit." Based on this research, scientists theorize that cells maintain a genetic clock that winds down as old age ensues. Many researchers believe the hypothalamus gland is the force behind our aging clocks, signaling the pituitary gland to release hormones that cause aging.

    Free Radical/Oxidative Stress Theory

    The other popular theory of aging pictures the human body as a cellular battlefield where attackers called free radicals damage our cells and tissues, making them age. In this scenario, a process called oxidation is the chief aging villain. On a microscopic level, oxidation generally entails molecules or atoms losing electrons. (Gaining electrons is called reduction.) The molecules or atoms that take these electrons are oxidizing agents.

    Free radicals are substances that can exist with missing electrons, making them readily able to donate or accept electrons and damage structures in cells. As such, they are highly reactive, binding with and destroying important cellular compounds. Most of the free radicals in your body are made during metabolic processes. More are added from the food you eat and environmental pollution. Most of these free radicals contain oxygen molecules. As each cell makes energy in little structures called mitochondria, free radicals result. These oxidant by-products can damage DNA, proteins and lipids (fats). Consequently, toxic by-products of lipid peroxidation may cause cancer, inhibit enzyme activity and produce mutations in genetic material that make you age faster.

    DNA Repair Theory

    Free radical damage to DNA can cause cells to mutate or die. Your body makes enzymes that can repair this damage and slow aging. But, over time, the amount of damage overwhelms the body's ability to fix things. As cells grow older, their ability to patch up DNA diminishes and the rate of damage proceeds faster than repair. The result: We age and eventually die.

    What Can We Do?

    The free radical theory of aging suggests that taking antioxidants (compounds known to prevent free radical damage) in our food or as supplements may slow aging.

    In the publication Age (18 [51] 1995: 62), it was reported that "aging appears to be caused by free radicals initiated by the mitochondria at an increasing rate with age. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals formed by the mitochondria during normal metabolism are major risk factors for disease and death after about the age of 28 in developed countries. Antioxidants from the diet lower the production of free radicals without impairing essential reactions to maintain body function."

    Antioxidant Protection

    Common dietary antioxidants include: vitamins E and C, carotenes, sulphur containing amino acids, co-enzyme Q10 and flavonoids (a group of plant compounds or pigments responsible for the color in fruits and flowers). In addition, melatonin, DHEA and the amino acid compound glutathione may also prove of benefit.

    Glutathione along with the enzyme glutathione peroxidase are an essential part of free radical "Quenching." (Quenching means changing free radicals into benign substances no longer capable of harm.) Deficiencies may suggest a decreased capacity to maintain detoxification and metabolic reactions in which glutathione plays a role, resulting in increased free radical stress and/or lipid peroxidation. Drinking too many alcoholic beverages can result in glutathione deficiency.

    In a study in which 39 healthy men and 130 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 94 were evaluated for glutathione levels, the older subjects had significantly decreased levels (especially in the 60 to 79-year-old group). The authors felt that physical health and longevity were closely related to glutathione levels (Jrnl Lab & Clin Sci 120(5), Nov. 1992: 720-725). Poor nutrition and/or deficiencies in essential micronutrients and many prescription medications may contribute significantly to detoxification capacity in an aged individual. All of these circumstances are common in the elderly.

    Eating a poor diet that contains too many processed foods without many fruits and vegetables can compromise your body's ability to detoxify pollutants, toxins and other harmful compounds. That can set off metabolic processes capable of fomenting large increases in free radical stress that can accelerate aging. Unfortunately, even in a country as prosperous as our own, nutrient deficiencies are frequent, especially in older citizens.

    Nutrition Deficiencies

    A study that looked at what elderly people consumed compared their reported intake with the 1989 Recommended Dietary Amount (RDA) and 1980 RDA: One of four people consumed only two-thirds of the RDA for calories and 60% consumed less than two-thirds of the RDA for vitamin D. As for other nutrients, 50% were found to have inadequate zinc levels (less than two-thirds of the RDA), 31% lacked calcium, 27% were short of vitamin B6, 25% didn't get enough magnesium, 7% missed out on folate and 6% ate less than two-thirds of the requirement for vitamin C (Nutrition Reviews (II), September 1995: S9-S15).

    When researchers examine what everyone in the U.S. eats, they find that only 9% of Americans consume the recommended five servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sept 1993).

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables is naturally high in antioxidant compounds and is believed to help you live longer. Unfortunately, if you buy your produce in the supermarket, those fruits and vegetables may also be rich in pesticide and herbicide residues (Consumer Reports, March 1999). Obviously, organic produce lacks these residues. But, in any case, research continues to indicate that a diet low in meats and animal fat and high in vegetables protects against antioxidant damage.

    Longevity Diets

    A six-year study of 182 people over age 70 in rural Greek villages found that those following their traditional diet of olive oil, whole grain breads, fresh fruits and vegetables and wine were less likely to die during the study than those who consumed more red meat and saturated fat. The most important foods in lowering the risk of early death included fruits, vegetables, legumes (peas and beans), nuts, dairy products and cereals (BMJ 311, 1995: 1457-1460).

    Another article in Epidemiology highlights the evidence that eating a vegetarian diet increases your chances of living longer. Included in this survey is a recent country-wide study of diet and health in China, showing that the traditional near vegetarian diet of 10% to 15% of calories coming from dietary fat reduced the chances of heart disease, diabetes and many types of cancers (Epidemiology 3[5], 1992: 389-391).

    Staying Alive

    Staying skinny and limiting what you eat may also increase longevity. Scientific studies have previously shown that being overweight can theoretically curtail your life, increasing the risk of heart disease, diabetes and other life-shortening conditions. Animal studies have also shown that restricting food can slow diseases associated with aging. Researchers believe that cutting calories helps your immune system stay younger by reducing the formation of substances that are called proinflammatory cytokines.

    Specifically reducing your intake of fatty foods may decrease your chance of coming down with autoimmune diseases. Researchers think omega-6 fatty acid vegetable oils (like corn oil) may increase free radical formation and decrease levels of antioxidant enzyme messenger RNA in addition to other effects (Nutrition Reviews 53[4], 1995: S72-S79). Another study found that cutting calories lowers the levels of oxidative stress and damage, retards age-associated changes and extends maximum life span in mammals (Science 273, July 5, 1996: 59-63).

    In yet another study, it was shown that caloric restriction early in the life of lab animals increased their life span by a whopping 40% (Australian Family Physician 23[7], July 1994: 1297-1305). Today's modern higher-fat, low-fiber diet with substantial sugar consumption represents everything the longevity researchers say you shouldn't eat.

    Longevity and Exercise

    Exercise may slow aging. When researchers looked at the exercise habits of 17,000 men, average age of 46, they found that those who took part in vigorous activity lived longer.

    Exercise can improve both cardiac and metabolic functions within the body, while also decreasing heart disease risk. Even modest exercise has been shown to improve cholesterol and blood sugar levels (JAMA 273[15], April 19, 1995: 1179-1184). In a study of how exercise affects your chances of living longer, 9,773 men underwent preventive medicine examinations on two different occasions. When the researchers looked at who lived longest, they found the highest death rate was in men who were unfit during both physical exams.

    The Treadmill of Life

    The lowest death rate was in the men who worked out and were in good shape. The researchers concluded that for each minute increase in how long a man could keep treading on a treadmill (between the first and second exam) there was a corresponding 7.9% decrease in the risk of dying (JAMA 273 [14], April 12, 1995: 1093-1098).

    Since exercise can increase oxygen consumption up to 10 times, boosting the rate of production of free radicals, researchers believe that older individuals need more antioxidant nutrients to protect them. In a paper published in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (1997), researchers stated that if you regularly exercise in your golden years, you should take more antioxidant vitamins to compensate for this risk.

    Longevity Supplementation

    Melatonin is not often thought of as an antioxidant, but, instead, as a sleep aid. Melatonin, however, is an effective and efficient free radical scavenger and may help stave off the effects of aging. Melatonin protects against what are called hydroxyl free radicals. Research shows that older people's lack of melatonin may make them more susceptible to oxidative stress. In one study, researchers felt that new therapies aimed at stimulating melatonin synthesis may eventually lead to therapies for the prevention of diseases related to premature aging (Aging and Clinical Experimental Research 7[5], 1995: 338-339). Melatonin was shown to provide antioxidant protection in several ways.

    Toning Down Enzymes

    Melatonin can ease the effects of enzymes that generate free radicals, enhance the production of glutathione peroxidase (an antioxidant) and defuse the caustic action of free radicals that contain hydroxyls. In several studies, DHEA supplementation has been shown to potentially revive immune function in older adults (Exp. Opin. Invest. Drugs 4[2], 1995: 147-154).

    In a study of 138 persons older than 85 years compared to 64 persons 20 to 40 years of age, scientists found that the younger people had four times as much DHEA in their bodies.

    The researchers believe that our bodies make less and less DHEA as we get older. The authors of this study raise the possibility that declining DHEA may be partly to blame for our biological clocks running down (New York Academy of Sciences 1994: 543-552).

    Vitamins E & C

    A growing body of research also supports the benefits of taking vitamins E and C to hold off the effects of getting old. Researchers writing in Free Radicals and Aging (1992: 411-418) point out that as you get older your body is home to more and more free radical reactions that may lead to degenerative diseases like heart disease and arthritis. Research has found that in older people with exercise-induced oxidative stress, taking vitamin E every day may significantly fight off free radicals. (To investigate this effect, scientists measured waste products in urine that result from free radical reactions.) Their conclusion: Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin E may be beneficial.

    Chronological Age Vs.Biological Age

    Vitamin C also looks to scientists like a good anti-aging bet. Research in the Journal of Advancement in Medicine, (7[1], Spring 1994: 31-41) showed that folks consuming larger amounts of vitamin C were less likely to experience clinical problems at all ages. Those taking in less than 100 mg of vitamin C per day also suffered the most problems.

    In this research, individuals over 50 years of age who daily consumed the largest amount of vitamin C were as healthy or healthier than the 40 year olds who were taking the least amount of vitamin C.

    Similar Relationship

    A similar relationship appears to exist for vitamin E and serum cholesterol levels. In a study of 360 physicians and their spouses, researchers found that people in their 50s who consumed more vitamin E had lower cholesterol than those in their 30s who were taking less.

    And the longevity beat goes on: In a study evaluating environmental tobacco smoke and oxidative stress, researchers divided 103 people into three groups. Researchers blew smoke at 37 of these folks without protection while 30 of them got to breathe tobacco smoke but took antioxidant supplementation. Another 36 of them merely had to read magazines from doctors' offices. The results: After 60 days of supplementation the antioxidant folks had a 62% reduction in evidence of oxidative damage to their DNA. Cholesterol levels dropped and so did antioxidant enzyme activities. The researchers concluded that taking antioxidants provided a modicum of protection against environmental poisons.

    The range of antioxidant nutrients used in this study included: beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc and selenium as well as copper (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, November 1998: 981-988).

    Carotenoids

    When you mention carotene or carotenoids, most people think of the beta carotene that makes carrots orange. But more than 600 carotenoids are present in colorful vegetables and many of these misunderstood substances are more potent antioxidants than beta-carotene.

    Carotenoids have been shown to destroy oxygen free radicals in lipids (fats), help protect our cells from the sun's ultra violet radiation and enhance our natural immune response (J. Nutr 119[1], Jan. 1989: 112-115).

    Some evidence seems to show that how much carotenoids you (and other mammals) have in your cells may be the predominant factor in determining life span (Proc Natl Acad Sci 82 [4], 1985: 798-802). Therefore, a diet rich in carotenoids (leafy green vegetables, carrots, yams, sweet potatoes, squash, citrus fruits and tomatoes) along with supplementation seems to be just what the fountain of youth ordered.

    Flavonoids

    Flavonoids, a group of antioxidant plant pigments, seem to be able to protect specific organs. For instance, the flavonoids in milk thistle (Silybum marianum) have been used for ages for liver problems. Bilberry has been found protective for the eye and hawthorn for the heart and circulatory system.

    Numerous studies have shown the many beneficial effects of flavonoids with perhaps the best known being the ability of anthocyanidins in wine and grape seed extract to help protect your blood vessels and capillaries from oxidative damage (Phytotherapy 42, 1986: 11-14; Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1995: 549-54).

    Flavonoids are found in vegetables and such fruits as blackberries, blueberries, cherries and grapes. A diet rich in these foods helps ensure an adequate intake of these important nutrient compounds.

    Amino Acid Health

    Methionine and cysteine are sulphur containing amino acids (protein building blocks), both of which are essential in maintaining levels of glutathione, a substance that plays a major role in quelling free radicals. Studies have found that as we age, the level of these important amino acids in our bodies decreases. (NEJM 312 [1], 1985: 159-68). As it has been shown that adding cysteine to the diet of test animals can increase their life expectancy considerably, researchers believe these amino acids can help us live longer too.

    Attitude & Behavior

    Get more sleep! A recent study showed that men who habitually napped were less likely to have a heart attack. The men in this research who regularly napped for at least 30 minutes per day had about a 30% reduction in heart problems while those who napped for a full hour had a 50% reduction compared to non nappers. Naps of longer duration did not seem to increase the benefit. In the same research, investigators also found that spending time with a pet or merely contemplating nature could also improve cardiac health. Sensuality, optimism and altruism also appeared to have health benefits (Family Practice News, December 15, 1998: 14-15).

    In another study, this one in American Psychologist, researchers from the University of California found that people who are self-indulgent, pampered and achieve by running roughshod over the competition are less likely to outlive their healthy peers. Being egocentric, impulsive, undependable and tough-minded were predictors of poor physical health and a shorter life. So loosen up and be nice to your fellow humans! (U.C. Davis Magazine, Fall 1995: 14).

    Longevity at Last

    While no one has suggested that taking supplements, eating vegetables or exercising can, as of yet, extend the human life span past the generally recognized limit of about 120 years, researchers believe they can improve your odds of longer life. And by staying healthier, your old age will be more enjoyable, too.



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    Summer Sports Nutrition Guide
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    Date: June 11, 2005 03:54 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Summer Sports Nutrition Guide

    Summer Sports Nutrition Guide by Joyce Dewon Energy Times, June 18, 2004

    If you're hooked on exercise you're probably just as hooked on using top-notch equipment when you work out. Those who are serious about staying in shape buy the best running shoes, carefully pick out the best bikes and tread on durable treadmills. But do you pay just as much attention to your nutrition?

    Scientists who have studied exercise have found that what you eat before, during and after workouts is crucial to maintaining your health, getting into shape and staying fit. To achieve your best athletic performance without getting injured or sick depends on optimum nutrition. When you carefully plan what to feed your exercised body, it rewards you by feeling and looking better.

    Short 'n Sweet

    If you thought long exercise sessions were the only ways to get decent exercise benefits, take notice: small doses of exercise during the week can go a long way. " The important thing, apparently, is just do it," says Howard D. Sesso, ScD, author of an American Heart Association study on exercise and heart disease. In his study, exercisers demonstrated that several short sessions of exercise were as good for the body as a single long session (Circ 8/00; 102:975-80). " Short sessions lasting 15 minutes long appear to be helpful,"Dr. Sesso explains. Even walking about three miles per week, which is a moderate level of exercise, lowers your risk of heart disease by 10%.

    No Sweat?

    Some people glorify in working up a sweat; others curse the dampness. But putting in extra effort in even short bursts of activity pays off: experts have found that intense exercise burns more calories than more relaxed sessions, more effectively reduces your risk of cardiovascular disease and helps stabilize blood sugar levels. In addition, it stimulates production of human growth hormone, which offsets some of the effects of aging (Exp Biol Med 2004 Mar; 229(3):240-6).

    But don't go crazy if you haven't worked out in a long time. The intensity of the workout should match your physical fitness. According to the American Heart Association, when people exercise at a comfortable pace, their heart rate and level of exertion stay within a safe range, but still high enough to benefit their health. Strenuous activities, for those who can handle them, produce the most physiological bang for the jog. But brisk walking within your own level of fitness still offers significant benefits.

    Feeding Your Muscles

    When you exercise, you work and develop your muscles, which are made primarily out of protein. Despite this fact, many exercise experts have advocated high-carb diets for athletes. But, as John Ivy, PhD, and Robert Portman, PhD, point out in their book The Performance Zone (Basic Health), "[While] there is no doubt that aerobic athletes require more carbohydrate than strength athletes...we are now discovering that the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement offers significant benefits to aerobic athletes."

    That is why researchers believe that consuming plenty of protein along with carbohydrates offers the best fitness benefits. Protein helps fuel activity more efficiently and aids in recovery after a session at the gym, allowing your body to repair muscle damage and build up muscle fibers.

    During exercise, you break down muscle tissue. It is during recovery, after your exercise session ends, that muscles are rebuilt. At the same time, other cellular processes take place that adapt the body to working out.

    According to Ivy and Portman, timing your intake of nutrients after exercise is crucial: "The ability of the muscle machinery to regenerate itself decreases very rapidly after a workout, so that the nutrients consumed more than 45 minutes after exercise will have far less impact in helping the muscles regenerate than nutrients consumed earlier."

    Stresses and Tears

    Engaging in athletics can cause microscopic muscle tears. These tears can cause a range of problems that, when you exercise excessively, can cause pain and injury.

    Inflammation is the body's response to cellular damage. The damaged area can swell as the body sends white blood cells and other cells to repair the injured area. Unfortunately, the swelling can further damage the muscle cells.

    Since inflammation can take 24 hours or more to cause the collection of cells in the injured area, it can be a day or two before the resulting muscle soreness reaches its peak painfulness and then starts to subside.

    Cortisol, a hormone produced when you exercise strenuously, which can result in muscle fiber damage. Cortisol boosts protein breakdown, so it can be used to fuel muscle movement. But the more protein breaks down, the more potential exists for muscle fiber injury. Free radicals are caustic molecules that are created when the mitochondria (small structures in cells) create energy; these marauders can also cause microscopic shredding of muscle strands. As you increase your use of energy during exercise, you simultaneously increase the production of free radicals. This collection of free radicals can outstrip the body's antioxidant defenses, leading to extensive muscle damage and dampening of the immune system.

    All of these cellular events can make you sore. They are also the reasons that athletes who overdo it day after day are liable to come down with nagging colds and a variety of infections.

    Muscle Fuel

    Your muscles use different substances for fuel depending on what you ask them to do. Lift a heavy weight and muscles recruit two processes called the creatine phosphate system and glycolysis to generate a large amount of quick energy. These are known as anaerobic types of energy production.

    But if you jog, swim, bike or perform any other aerobic activity, the cells use oxygen in what is called cellular respiration to supply energy to working muscles.

    When you exercise aerobically for extended periods of time, the energy available is generally limited by how much oxygen your body is capable of taking in and supplying to the muscles, where it takes part in energy production. In athletic circles, this upper limit is known as your VO2max.

    The carbohydrates your body burns for energy during aerobic activity are taken from blood sugar and carbohydrate reserves called glycogen. (The muscles store glycogen, as does the liver.) During a workout session, your glycogen supply is limited to what is stored with your muscles. But blood glucose can be boosted by carbohydrate drinks, energy gels or bars.

    Most people who work out have enough glycogen and blood sugar to fuel moderate aerobic activity for about two hours. After that, the body turns mostly to fat and protein stores to fuel exercise.

    Fat Into the Fire

    In contrast to the body's quickly diminishing supply of glycogen and blood sugar, fat can last for hours and hours of exercise. According to Portman and Ivy, a 200-pound man with 15% body fat has, theoretically, enough fat energy to run from Washington DC down to Miami Beach-and still has enough energy left over to jump into the ocean.

    But using fat for energy is complicated; fat is stored in fat tissue and not readily available to working muscles. Plus, to burn fat for energy, the body needs carbohydrate-it cannot burn fat all by itself. What's more, the conversion of fat into energy doesn't go as quickly as carb conversion.

    Protein is also used for energy when carbs run low. But the more you use protein for energy, the more you risk soreness as muscle fibers break down.

    Prepare to Energize

    To maximize your energy during exercise and minimize soreness, Portman and Ivy recommend some simple nutritional steps:

  • • Drink 14 to 20 ounces of water or a sports drink with electrolytes about a half hour before you work out. Consuming fluid helps stave off dehydration longer, helps you sweat more (which cools your body) and moderates the rise in body temperature that takes place during exercise. Portman and Ivy favor sports drinks to help you retain fluid and maintain your mineral balance.
  • • Eat carbohydrates an hour before exercising, which boosts glycogen and increases blood sugar and insulin. Portman and Ivy add that, alternatively, you can also consume a protein/carbohydrate sports drink about half an hour before working out. The protein helps protect muscle protein from being broken down.
  • • Drink small amounts of fluid frequently as you exercise to replace water lost through sweating. While some experts recommend only drinking enough to Quench your thirst, most researchers agree that a sports drink with electrolytes is best to ensure proper mineral balance in your body.
  • • Consume carbs and protein during exercise. Portman and Ivy note that soccer players who consume sports drinks that contain electrolytes, carbohydrates and a bit of protein can perform more effectively. Cyclists who go on bike rides of three hours or more enjoy more endurance when they eat energy bars or consume other sources of carb and protein. Portman and Ivy advocate drinks that contain carbs and protein in a 4:1 ratio.

    Limit Soreness

    Taking protein and carbs while working out can limit muscle damage and curtail soreness. Carbs apparently drop your cortisol levels, and thereby limit muscle injuries linked to this hormone. While the mechanism that helps protein limit muscle soreness is not completely understood, it is possible that taking in protein while working out keeps the body from shredding muscle tissue in search of fuel.

    Supplements that contain antioxidants such as natural vitamin E and vitamin C (Portman and Ivy think you should take these during exercise) may limit free radical damage to muscle fibers.

    Muscle Reconstruction Plan

    If you want to help your exercise plan make you stronger, you should focus your after-exercise sports nutrition plan on these steps:

  • • Help your muscles recover from damage during activity and stimulate the rebuilding process
  • • Replace glycogen (carbohydrates) the muscles have used up during your workout
  • • Reinforce your immune system
  • • Replace water and minerals lost in sweat Even after you stop exercising, your muscles are still breaking down, according to Ivy and Portman. The key to putting the brakes on this breakdown and initiating the rebuilding process is by consuming a combination of protein and carbohydrate within 45 minutes after your workout is completed.

    The protein part of the equation is vital: don't merely indulge in only carbs after exercising. A recent study found that while carbs could help muscles rebuild, adding protein can make a big difference in improving your fitness (J App Phys 2/04).

    This combination of nutrients stimulates the pancreas so that it releases insulin. The release of insulin is the key, initial step that sets off a cascade of physiological events that speeds muscle recovery. Although many people think of insulin as an undesirable hormone-if you never exercise, too much insulin may help drive your blood sugar down and cause other problems-for exercisers, this hormone plays a crucial function in benefiting from exercise.

    By eating carbohydrate and protein soon after working out and stimulating insulin, according to Ivy and Portman, you help your body boost its synthesis of protein by:

  • • Increasing the amount of amino acids (protein building blocks) that get into the muscles-this can increase by up to 50%
  • • Increasing the production of protein synthesizing enzymes by up to two-thirds
  • • Slowing the breakdown of muscle proteins

    Drinking for Exercise The most obvious nutrient you lose during intensive exercise is water in your perspiration. However, that perspiration also contains an array of minerals known as electrolytes. So, for optimal performance and health, experts recommend you replace both the water and its minerals.

    Merely drinking water-instead of electrolyte-filled sports drinks-during prolonged aerobic activity can be dangerous. It leaves you vulnerable to a condition called hyponatremia, which can occur when your blood levels of sodium and other electrolytes drop, but your blood volume stays steady or increases because you drink lots of water.

    According to Edmund Burke, PhD, in his book Optimal Muscle Performance and Recovery (Avery), one out of four athletes who seek medical attention after a long race are suffering hyponatremia.

    " Typically," he says, "conscientious athletes get in trouble because they adhere too diligently to one recommendation: the need to drink lots of fluids. They tend to ignore another recommendation: The need to keep electrolytes up...for most endurance athletes the real problem is drinking too much water." Dr. Burke warns that you can possibly suffer hyponatremia even if you don't drink a lot of water.

    Signs of hyponatremia can be similar to those of heat exhaustion. But, while resting and cooling down can help alleviate heat exhaustion, that doesn't help hyponatremia. " To protect yourself against hyponatremia, start by paying attention to how much you sweat," Dr. Burke says. If your sweat seems very salty, burns your eyes or leaves an evident, white residue on your skin, you may be losing a great deal of sodium and should be diligent about eating salty foods. " You can also make sure you're getting enough sodium by drinking sports drinks instead of plain water during long (exercise) events," Dr. Burke notes.

    Exercise Matters

    Of course, no matter what you decide to eat or drink while exercising, the most important factor for your well-being is to get out to the gym, onto the track, or just on to the sidewalk, and do something, even if you only want to go out for a walk. No matter how old you are or what kind of shape you're in, you'll benefit from exercise.

    " It's solid evidence that across-the-board declines occur when people stop exercising," says Charles Emery, PhD, professor of psychology at Ohio State University (Health Psychology 3/04).

    Don't decline or remain supine. Let your fitness climb.



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    Nutrients for Longevity
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    Date: June 10, 2005 09:59 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Nutrients for Longevity

    Nutrients for Longevity by Edward C. Wallace, ND, DC Energy Times, September 1, 1999

    What's the big deal about trying to live longer? As you grow older (and the American population grows older alongside you) you may want to postpone the inevitable. Few wish to hasten "the journey from which no traveler returns." But as we approach that final bon voyage, chances are we desire clear sailing-aging without disability and with a peaceful easy feeling.

    How Do We Age

    Science has long puzzled about what causes the wrinkles, pains and deterioration of aging. In the search for causes, two basic theories have won over the most proponents: The first holds that cells are programmed with biological clocks that predetermine how many times they can reproduce before becoming non-functional. This theory has been largely formulated by the researcher Leonard Hayflick, MD.

    The second basic theory, introduced by Denham Harman, MD, PhD, in the mid 1950s, holds that cells eventually break down due to attack by caustic molecules called free radicals that cause oxidative stress.

    Programmed Cell Theory

    In the early '60s, Dr. Hayflick observed that human fibroblasts (cells from connective tissue) in the laboratory refused to divide more than about 50 times. Dr. Hayflick also found that even if he froze the fibroblasts after 20 divisions, they would remember that they only had 30 divisions left after thawing.

    Fifty cell divisions have been called the "Hayflick limit." Based on this research, scientists theorize that cells maintain a genetic clock that winds down as old age ensues. Many researchers believe the hypothalamus gland is the force behind our aging clocks, signaling the pituitary gland to release hormones that cause aging.

    Free Radical/Oxidative Stress Theory

    The other popular theory of aging pictures the human body as a cellular battlefield where attackers called free radicals damage our cells and tissues, making them age. In this scenario, a process called oxidation is the chief aging villain.

    On a microscopic level, oxidation generally entails molecules or atoms losing electrons. (Gaining electrons is called reduction.) The molecules or atoms that take these electrons are oxidizing agents. Free radicals are substances that can exist with missing electrons, making them readily able to donate or accept electrons and damage structures in cells. As such, they are highly reactive, binding with and destroying important cellular compounds. Most of the free radicals in your body are made during metabolic processes. More are added from the food you eat and environmental pollution.

    Most of these free radicals contain oxygen molecules. As each cell makes energy in little structures called mitochondria, free radicals result. These oxidant by-products can damage DNA, proteins and lipids (fats). Consequently, toxic by-products of lipid peroxidation may cause cancer, inhibit enzyme activity and produce mutations in genetic material that make you age faster.

    DNA Repair Theory

    Free radical damage to DNA can cause cells to mutate or die. Your body makes enzymes that can repair this damage and slow aging. But, over time, the amount of damage overwhelms the body's ability to fix things. As cells grow older, their ability to patch up DNA diminishes and the rate of damage proceeds faster than repair. The result: We age and eventually die.

    What Can We Do

    The free radical theory of aging suggests that taking antioxidants (compounds known to prevent free radical damage) in our food or as supplements may slow aging.

    In the publication Age (18 [51] 1995: 62), it was reported that "aging appears to be caused by free radicals initiated by the mitochondria at an increasing rate with age. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals formed by the mitochondria during normal metabolism are major risk factors for disease and death after about the age of 28 in developed countries. Antioxidants from the diet lower the production of free radicals without impairing essential reactions to maintain body function."

    Antioxidant Protection

    Common dietary antioxidants include: vitamins E and C, carotenes, sulphur containing amino acids, co-enzyme Q10 and flavonoids (a group of plant compounds or pigments responsible for the color in fruits and flowers). In addition, melatonin, DHEA and the amino acid compound glutathione may also prove of benefit.

    Glutathione along with the enzyme glutathione peroxidase are an essential part of free radical "Quenching." (Quenching means changing free radicals into benign substances no longer capable of harm.)

    Deficiencies may suggest a decreased capacity to maintain detoxification and metabolic reactions in which glutathione plays a role, resulting in increased free radical stress and/or lipid peroxidation. Drinking too many alcoholic beverages can result in glutathione deficiency.

    In a study in which 39 healthy men and 130 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 94 were evaluated for glutathione levels, the older subjects had significantly decreased levels (especially in the 60 to 79-year-old group). The authors felt that physical health and longevity were closely related to glutathione levels (Jrnl Lab & Clin Sci 120(5), Nov. 1992: 720-725).

    Poor nutrition and/or deficiencies in essential micronutrients and many prescription medications may contribute significantly to detoxification capacity in an aged individual. All of these circumstances are common in the elderly.

    Eating a poor diet that contains too many processed foods without many fruits and vegetables can compromise your body's ability to detoxify pollutants, toxins and other harmful compounds. That can set off metabolic processes capable of fomenting large increases in free radical stress that can accelerate aging. Unfortunately, even in a country as prosperous as our own, nutrient deficiencies are frequent, especially in older citizens.

    Nutrition Deficiencies

    A study that looked at what elderly people consumed compared their reported intake with the 1989 Recommended Dietary Amount (RDA) and 1980 RDA: One of four people consumed only two-thirds of the RDA for calories and 60% consumed less than two-thirds of the RDA for vitamin D. As for other nutrients, 50% were found to have inadequate zinc levels (less than two-thirds of the RDA), 31% lacked calcium, 27% were short of vitamin B6, 25% didn't get enough magnesium, 7% missed out on folate and 6% ate less than two-thirds of the requirement for vitamin C (Nutrition Reviews (II), September 1995: S9-S15).

    When researchers examine what everyone in the U.S. eats, they find that only 9% of Americans consume the recommended five servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sept 1993).

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables is naturally high in antioxidant compounds and is believed to help you live longer. Unfortunately, if you buy your produce in the supermarket, those fruits and vegetables may also be rich in pesticide and herbicide residues (Consumer Reports, March 1999). Obviously, organic produce lacks these residues. But, in any case, research continues to indicate that a diet low in meats and animal fat and high in vegetables protects against antioxidant damage.

    Longevity Diets

    A six-year study of 182 people over age 70 in rural Greek villages found that those following their traditional diet of olive oil, whole grain breads, fresh fruits and vegetables and wine were less likely to die during the study than those who consumed more red meat and saturated fat. The most important foods in lowering the risk of early death included fruits, vegetables, legumes (peas and beans), nuts, dairy products and cereals (BMJ 311, 1995: 1457-1460)

    Another article in Epidemiology highlights the evidence that eating a vegetarian diet increases your chances of living longer. Included in this survey is a recent country-wide study of diet and health in China, showing that the traditional near vegetarian diet of 10% to 15% of calories coming from dietary fat reduced the chances of heart disease, diabetes and many types of cancers. (Epidemiology 3[5], 1992: 389-391).

    Staying Alive

    Staying skinny and limiting what you eat may also increase longevity. Scientific studies have previously shown that being overweight can theoretically curtail your life, increasing the risk of heart disease, diabetes and other life-shortening conditions. Animal studies have also shown that restricting food can slow diseases associated with aging. Researchers believe that cutting calories helps your immune system stay younger by reducing the formation of substances that are called proinflammatory cytokines.

    Specifically reducing your intake of fatty foods may decrease your chance of coming down with autoimmune diseases. Researchers think omega-6 fatty acid vegetable oils (like corn oil) may increase free radical formation and decrease levels of antioxidant enzyme messenger RNA in addition to other effects. (Nutrition Reviews 53[4], 1995: S72-S79). Another study found that cutting calories lowers the levels of oxidative stress and damage, retards age-associated changes and extends maximum life span in mammals (Science 273, July 5, 1996: 59-63).

    In yet another study, it was shown that caloric restriction early in the life of lab animals increased their life span by a whopping 40% (Australian Family Physician 23[7], July 1994: 1297-1305). Today's modern higher-fat, low-fiber diet with substantial sugar consumption represents everything the longevity researchers say you shouldn't eat.

    Longevity and Exercise:

    Exercise may slow aging. When researchers looked at the exercise habits of 17,000 men, average age of 46, they found that those who took part in vigorous activity lived longer.

    Exercise can improve both cardiac and metabolic functions within the body, while also decreasing heart disease risk. Even modest exercise has been shown to improve cholesterol and blood sugar levels (JAMA 273[15], April 19, 1995: 1179-1184).

    In a study of how exercise affects your chances of living longer, 9,773 men underwent preventive medicine examinations on two different occasions. When the researchers looked at who lived longest, they found the highest death rate was in men who were unfit during both physical exams.

    The Treadmill of Life

    The lowest death rate was in the men who worked out and were in good shape. The researchers concluded that for each minute increase in how long a man could keep treading on a treadmill (between the first and second exam) there was a corresponding 7.9% decrease in the risk of dying. (JAMA 273 [14], April 12, 1995: 1093-1098).

    Since exercise can increase oxygen consumption up to 10 times, boosting the rate of production of free radicals, researchers believe that older individuals need more antioxidant nutrients to protect them. In a paper published in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (1997), researchers stated that if you regularly exercise in your golden years, you should take more antioxidant vitamins to compensate for this risk.

    Longevity Supplementation

    Melatonin is not often thought of as an antioxidant, but, instead, as a sleep aid. Melatonin, however, is an effective and efficient free radical scavenger and may help stave off the effects of aging.

    Melatonin protects against what are called hydroxyl free radicals. Research shows that older people's lack of melatonin may make them more susceptible to oxidative stress. In one study, researchers felt that new therapies aimed at stimulating melatonin synthesis may eventually lead to therapies for the prevention of diseases related to premature aging (Aging and Clinical Experimental Research 7[5], 1995: 338-339). Melatonin was shown to provide antioxidant protection in several ways.

    Toning Down Enzymes

    Melatonin can ease the effects of enzymes that generate free radicals, enhance the production of glutathione peroxidase (an antioxidant) and defuse the caustic action of free radicals that contain hydroxyls.

    In several studies, DHEA supplementation has been shown to potentially revive immune function in older adults (Exp. Opin. Invest. Drugs 4[2], 1995: 147-154).

    In a study of 138 persons older than 85 years compared to 64 persons 20 to 40 years of age, scientists found that the younger people had four times as much DHEA in their bodies.

    The researchers believe that our bodies make less and less DHEA as we get older. The authors of this study raise the possibility that declining DHEA may be partly to blame for our biological clocks running down (New York Academy of Sciences 1994: 543-552).

    Vitamins E & C

    A growing body of research also supports the benefits of taking vitamins E and C to hold off the effects of getting old. Researchers writing in Free Radicals and Aging (1992: 411-418) point out that as you get older your body is home to more and more free radical reactions that may lead to degenerative diseases like heart disease and arthritis. Research has found that in older people with exercise-induced oxidative stress, taking vitamin E every day may significantly fight off free radicals. (To investigate this effect, scientists measured waste products in urine that result from free radical reactions.) Their conclusion: Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin E may be beneficial.

    Chronological Age Vs. Biological Age

    Vitamin C also looks to scientists like a good anti-aging bet. Research in the Journal of Advancement in Medicine, (7[1], Spring 1994: 31-41) showed that folks consuming larger amounts of vitamin C were less likely to experience clinical problems at all ages. Those taking in less than 100 mg of vitamin C per day also suffered the most problems. In this research, individuals over 50 years of age who daily consumed the largest amount of vitamin C were as healthy or healthier than the 40 year olds who were taking the least amount of vitamin C.

    Similar Relationship

    A similar relationship appears to exist for vitamin E and serum cholesterol levels. In a study of 360 physicians and their spouses, researchers found that people in their 50s who consumed more vitamin E had lower cholesterol than those in their 30s who were taking less. And the longevity beat goes on: In a study evaluating environmental tobacco smoke and oxidative stress, researchers divided 103 people into three groups. Researchers blew smoke at 37 of these folks without protection while 30 of them got to breathe tobacco smoke but took antioxidant supplementation. Another 36 of them merely had to read magazines from doctors' offices. The results: After 60 days of supplementation the antioxidant folks had a 62% reduction in evidence of oxidative damage to their DNA. Cholesterol levels dropped and so did antioxidant enzyme activities. The researchers concluded that taking antioxidants provided a modicum of protection against environmental poisons.

    The range of antioxidant nutrients used in this study included: beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc and selenium as well as copper (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, November 1998: 981-988).

    Carotenoids

    When you mention carotene or carotenoids, most people think of the beta carotene that makes carrots orange. But more than 600 carotenoids are present in colorful vegetables and many of these misunderstood substances are more potent antioxidants than beta-carotene.

    Carotenoids have been shown to destroy oxygen free radicals in lipids (fats), help protect our cells from the sun's ultra violet radiation and enhance our natural immune response (J. Nutr 119(1), Jan. 1989: 112-115).

    Some evidence seems to show that how much carotenoids you (and other mammals) have in your cells may be the predominant factor in determining life span (Proc Natl Acad Sci 82 [4], 1985: 798-802). Therefore, a diet rich in carotenoids (leafy green vegetables, carrots, yams, sweet potatoes, squash, citrus fruits and tomatoes) along with supplementation seems to be just what the fountain of youth ordered.

    Flavonoids

    Flavonoids, a group of antioxidant plant pigments, seem to be able to protect specific organs.

    For instance, the flavonoids in milk thistle (Silybum marianum) have been used for ages for liver problems. Bilberry has been found protective for the eye and hawthorn for the heart and circulatory system.

    Numerous studies have shown the many beneficial effects of flavonoids with perhaps the best known being the ability of anthocyanidins in wine and grape seed extract to help protect your blood vessels and capillaries from oxidative damage (Phytotherapy 42, 1986: 11-14; Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1995: 549-54).

    Flavonoids are found in vegetables and such fruits as blackberries, blueberries, cherries and grapes. A diet rich in these foods helps ensure an adequate intake of these important nutrient compounds.

    Amino Acid Health

    Methionine and cysteine are sulphur containing amino acids (protein building blocks), both of which are essential in maintaining levels of glutathione, a substance that plays a major role in quelling free radicals. Studies have found that as we age, the level of these important amino acids in our bodies decreases. (NEJM 312 [1], 1985: 159-68).

    As it has been shown that adding cysteine to the diet of test animals can increase their life expectancy considerably, researchers believe these amino acids can help us live longer too.

    Attitude & Behavior

    Get more sleep! A recent study showed that men who habitually napped were less likely to have a heart attack. The men in this research who regularly napped for at least 30 minutes per day had about a 30% reduction in heart problems while those who napped for a full hour had a 50% reduction compared to non nappers. Naps of longer duration did not seem to increase the benefit.

    In the same research, investigators also found that spending time with a pet or merely contemplating nature could also improve cardiac health. Sensuality, optimism and altruism also appeared to have health benefits (Family Practice News, December 15, 1998: 14-15).

    In another study, this one in American Psychologist, researchers from the University of California found that people who are self-indulgent, pampered and achieve by running roughshod over the competition are less likely to outlive their healthy peers. Being egocentric, impulsive, undependable and tough-minded were predictors of poor physical health and a shorter life. So loosen up and be nice to your fellow humans! (U.C. Davis Magazine, Fall 1995: 14).

    Longevity at Last

    While no one has suggested that taking supplements, eating vegetables or exercising can, as of yet, extend the human life span past the generally recognized limit of about 120 years, researchers believe they can improve your odds of living longer. An added benefit: By staying healthier, your old age won't only be longer, it will be more enjoyable, too.

    And, who knows, if you hang around long enough, taking your nutrients and getting a comfortable amount of consistent exercise, while meditating and refusing to succumb to stress, that magic bullet that will keep you alive for centuries may be discovered. Some day a new antioxidant or other substance may finally prove to provide the elusive fountain of youth. Stay tuned.



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    Drinks Everywhere
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    Date: June 10, 2005 04:05 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Drinks Everywhere

    Drinks Everywhere

    by John Olan Energy Times, January 7, 2002

    Water keeps you alive. About 50% to 70% of your cells are made of water. So when you talk about drinks, you're talking about water plus... But, oh, what a plus!

    While water is crucial for survival, those pluses can add a waterfall of desirable ingredients to your diet, health and beverage indulgence. Even though water is the basic ingredient when you need a drink, healthy drinking has come to mean much more than H2O. The drink scene has bubbled up to include a new universe of usual and unusual liquids. When your thirst bursts upon the scene, you now have a tremendous choice of ways to Quench.

    Soy Drinks

    The soy revolution in American nutrition has convincingly attacked the drink world. No matter what your age, nutritional requirements or taste preferences, it seems as though someone, somewhere, has designed a soy drink with you in mind. The most convincing health benefit of soy and soy drinks is its boost to heart health. Since 1999, the Food and Drug Administration has allowed soy drinks (and other soy products) to list soy's heart benefits. In so doing, the FDA reviewed 27 studies that demonstrated soy protein could help lower total cholesterol and LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol that can significantly raise heart disease risk. To be allowed the heart disease benefit on their labels, drinks, or other foods, must contain at least 6.25 grams of soy protein per serving, contain less than 3 grams of fat, less than a gram of saturated fat, less than 20 mg of cholesterol and not much salt. According to the FDA, if you consume four daily servings of soy, you can drop your LDL by up to 10%. That's great for heart health: each 1% reduction in total cholesterol can mean about a 2% drop in your risk of heart disease. The key research the FDA looked at included a two month study at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center that showed soy can help reduce your total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol without lowering your HDL. HDL, the so-called "good" cholesterol, protects heart health and keeps your heart disease risk down (Arch Int Med, 9/27/99). Meanwhile, another study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (8/3/95) found that soy produces "significant reductions" in cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, blood fats that can otherwise put your cardiovascular sysem at risk. Isoflavones, natural chemicals found in soy, are phytoestrogens, a weak form of estrogen that is believed by many researchers to produce health benefits. Some studies show that by producing what's called a "weak estrogenic effect," these chemicals may prevent the body's own estrogen from initiating cancer. While studies exist supporting these effects, this claim for cancer prevention is still controversial. A study of Asian women who moved to the United States found that the more soy they ate, the less their risk of breast cancer (Second Intl Symp on Soy and Tr Chron Dis 9/15/96). In any case, soy protein provides complete protein: all the amino acids, or protein building blocks, that the body needs to form its own proteins are found in soy. All of this good soy news has sent sales of soy drinks and other soy foods soaring. While sales of soy foods reached a little more $850 million in 1992, by next year they are expected to climb to well over $3.7 billion. Multivitamin Water For vitamin takers on the run, water is now available fortified with a wide collection of micronutrients. The key benefit: possible health enhancement by supplying vitamins your diet may omit. As Walter Willet, MD, points out in Eat, Drink and Be Healthy (Simon & Schuster), "research is pointing ever more strongly to the fact that several ingredients in a standard multivitamin.... are essential players in preventing heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis and other chronic disease... It's the best nutritional bang for your buck." In a Russian study, a group of children, aged four to 14, with gastrointestinal diseases were fed multivitamin-infused drinks and beta carotene. The children experienced vast improvements, leading researchers to suggest fortifying the diets of folks suffering from gastrointestinal diseases with vitamin-containing drinks.

    Green with Health

    Everyone from mom to the US surgeon general tells you to eat dark green vegetables every day. The truth is, many of us just don't do it. Spirulina, wheat grass, barley grass and chlorella are often referred to as "green foods." Spirulina, a popular food supplement in Japan, is a vitamin and mineral powerhouse available in the US in powder and ready-to-drink shakes. Rich in protein, spirulina contains chlorophyll, carotenoids, minerals, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and unique pigments called phycobilins (PDR For Nutritional Supplements, Medical Economics). It's these same healthful pigments that give spirulina its blue/green color. In studies, spirulina has been shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-allergic and immune-boosting properties (Free Rad Biol Med. 2000; 28:1051-1055; Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1071-1076; Inflamm Res 1998; 47:36-41; Spirulina platensis 1996; 59:83-87). Evidence exists that spirulina may favorably affect immune functions, inhibit some allergic reactions and lower cholesterol. Blended into shakes and drinks, spirulina can add a healthful boost to your day. Now, when Aunt May asks if you've had your green vegetables, just lift your glass, look her in the eye, tell her yes and mean it.



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    VITAMIN A and CAROTENOIDS - What are they good for?
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    Date: June 09, 2005 09:27 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: VITAMIN A and CAROTENOIDS - What are they good for?

    Vitamins

    In 1912, Casimir Funk coined the term 'vitamine' to refer to a 'vital factor' he proposed was an essential component present in foods. His conjecture dovetailed with other research, leading to the isolation in the 1930's and 40's of the compounds we now call vitamins.

    Vitamins are chemical substances which play a variety of roles in the human body. They are core components of any nutritional supplementation program.

    While many people are aware of vitamins as necessary substances for good nutrition, few have a grasp of the extraordinary complexity of the roles they play in our bodies. As you'll see below, vitamins are involved in trillions of biochemical interactions every minute to keep us alive and functioning. For example, B-vitamins are converted into coenzymes which are directly necessary for the production of ATP energy from food, a process that goes on continuously in every cell in the body and which in turn fuels myriad physiological events such as muscle contraction, brain activity or tissue repair.

    Source Naturals offers a full line of vitamins in bioactive forms, allowing you to tailor a nutritional supplementation plan to your individual needs.

    VITAMIN A and CAROTENOIDS

    Vitamin A

    Vitamin A is a generic term for a class of fat-soluble substances called retinoids, which can either be consumed preformed or synthesized by the liver from plant pigments called carotenoids (see 'Carotenoids', below). An essential nutrient, vitamin A is perhaps best known for its role in vision.

    The outer segments of the rods, a type of light-sensitive cell in the retina of the eye, contain a pigment called rhodopsin (or 'visual purple') that mediates vision in dim light. Cone cells mediate color vision via three additional pigments. Both rods and cones are surrounded by pigmented epithelial cells that store vitamin A. Rhodopsin is formed from a protein called opsin and a vitamin A-dependent compound called 11-cis retinal. As light strikes the rods and cones it is absorbed by the pigment molecules, and retinal is split off from opsin. This chemical change allows an electrical impulse to be sent to the optic nerve and thus to the brain. The pigment must then be regenerated from opsin and retinal. Repeated small losses of retinal during this process require a constant replenishment of vitamin A to the eyes.

    Vitamin A also plays an extremely important role in epithelial cell differentiation. Cell differentiation is the process by which a cell undergoes a change to a specialized cell type, allowing it to perform particular functions in the body. It is not yet understood precisely how vitamin A is involved in this process. One hypothesis is that it directly affects gene expression through its interaction with chromatin, a complex of DNA, RNA and protein in the cell nucleus. These interactions affect the process of transcription of DNA to messenger RNA, leading to synthesis of a specific group of cellular proteins.

    Each one of us carries in our DNA a unique genetic blueprint. This genetic material is the same in every cell of our bodies. It is only because of this mysterious and magical process of differentiation that we have specialized cell types - and therefore eyes, ears, lungs and hearts.

    Vitamin A is necessary, either directly or indirectly, for the healthy growth and functioning of many of our tissues and organ systems, including the eyes, the skin, the bones, the reproductive system, and the natural defenses. It is not yet known whether this requirement is due to the role of vitamin A in cell differentiation or whether there are other physiological processes for which vitamin A is essential.

    Carotenoids

    Vitamin A is related to a class of nutrients called carotenoids, including alpha and beta carotene, lycopene and lutein. Carotenoids are botanical pigments whose colors range from red to orange to yellow. Some carotenoids, particularly beta carotene, can be converted into vitamin A predominantly in the intestinal mucosa and to some extent in the liver. Carotenoids are completely non-toxic; their conversion into vitamin A is well-regulated by the body, making them extremely safe sources of this essential nutrient.

    In addition to their role as safe sources of vitamin A, carotenoids are powerful nutrients in their own right. Their primary claim to fame is their powerful antioxidant action, particularly against singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen is an 'excited' ion of oxygen which, while not technically a free radical, is nonetheless highly reactive. It causes 'oxidative' reactions which can impair or destroy membranes, enzymes and DNA. It can also lead to the formation of free radicals which can cause additional damage.

    Certain carotenoids such as beta carotene, because of their chemical structure, can neutralize singlet oxygen by absorbing its extra energy and dissipating it throughout the carotenoid molecule, releasing the energy as heat and converting the singlet oxygen back to 'normal' oxygen. One molecule of beta carotene can Quench up to 1000 molecules of singlet oxygen.

    In addition to their role as singlet oxygen Quenchers, carotenes provide antioxidant protection against free radicals as well. In nature, they protect plants from photo-oxidative reactions; in humans, certain carotenoids, notably beta carotene, may help protect the skin from such reactions. Other carotenoids may provide more localized protection to particular organs. Lutein and zeaxanthin, for example, are selectively concentrated in the retina of the eye. Along with vitamins C and E, carotenes are among the most important nutrient antioxidants in the human body.



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    Pycnogenol Complex - The Next Generation of Antioxidant Protection
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    Date: June 04, 2005 02:14 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Pycnogenol Complex - The Next Generation of Antioxidant Protection

    Pycnogenol Complex

    If there’s one factor that has the greatest negative impact on our health, it is the damage done to our cells by free radicals. These highly unstable molecules disrupt the biochemical processes that regulate life. Although a natural product of oxygen metabolism in the body, free radicals are also produced in vast quantities by modern technology. Our bodies’ natural defenses simply have not been able to keep up with the onslaught of these dangerous products of civilization. On the other hand, technology has offered help by identifying some of nature’s most powerful weapons against free radical attack. Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX is an unprecedented combination of these extremely potent plantbased antioxidants, or Plantioxidants™. Consider them your antidote to the industrial revolution.

    How free radicals are formed and their effect on the body

    Oxygen both makes life, and takes life. The energy that animates us comes from the biochemical reactions that burn oxygen within our cells. And though carefully regulated by the body, this biological combustion, over time, inevitably leads to cellular damage. If oxidation is not carefully controlled, tissues are damaged faster than the body can repair them. This is caused by an excess of over-reactive, electron hungry molecules called oxidants or “free radicals,” which tend to disrupt normal cellular activity. Free radicals attack a cell’s membrane and can even damage its hereditary blueprint (DNA). Since free radicals are a natural result of certain metabolic reactions, the body synthesizes several types of antioxidant enzymes to neutralize them. In addition, we get essential antioxidants from the foods we eat. Vitamins C, E and beta carotene are the ones found most often in our diet. During this century, our environment has become a perpetual source of free radical contamination, primarily from radiation and the chemical pollution in our air, water and food. Today, we are literally overwhelmed with more free radicals than our bodies are accustomed to handling. Fortunately, science has found that certain plants contain special antioxidants that are far more powerful than the vitamins we typically get in our diet. With this knowledge, Source Naturals formulated PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX, the most advanced combination of Plantioxidants available today in one product. Pycnogenol® is the proprietary name of a natural plant product made from the bark of the European coastal pine, Pinus maritima.

    Natural protection against free radicals

    Pycnogenol® Complex – A Cornucopia of Health Our knowledge of pine bark goes back nearly 500 years, to when the French explorer, Jacques Cartier, reported that a tea made from pine tree bark by Native Americans saved the lives of his crew who were dying of scurvy. Nutrition scientists have since isolated the extraordinary antioxidant compounds of pine bark. They have also discovered many other unique antioxidants throughout the plant kingdom. Plants have evolved bioflavonoids to protect themselves from free radical damage. One of the most abundant compounds in the plant kingdom, bioflavonoids are found in the pigments of bark, rinds, seeds, leaves and flowers.

    Natural antioxidants in Pycnogenol® Complex

    The active ingredients of Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX are derived from a diverse range of nature’s plenty: pine bark, green tea, turmeric spice, rosemary, grape seeds, milk thistle seeds, bilberries, hawthorn berries and ginkgo leaves. Each of these Plantioxidants is an exceptional free radical scavenger, and each has a tendency to concentrate in a different organ of the body, thus providing targeted protection. And since their primary function is to capture free radicals, these Plantioxidants free up vitamin C, so it can perform its many other vital functions.

    Defense Plants The two headliners of Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX are the pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, and an extract from grape seeds, Proanthodyn™. Their unsurpassed antioxidant activity – up to 20 times that of Vitamin C and up to 50 times that of Vitamin E – comes from a high concentration of proanthocyanidins.

    Why Pycnogenol® Complex is formulated with extracts of pine bark and grape seed

    These highly bioavailable flavonoids are able to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier, and can stay in the bloodstream for up to 72 hours. Few other nutritional antioxidants cross this barrier, and none do it as well. Proanthocyanidins therefore offer the brain and central nervous system unparalleled antioxidant protection. In particular, proanthocyanidins may help reduce the formation of lipofuscin, a brown waste material made of free radical-damaged proteins and fats. Over time, lipofuscin deposits form in the brain, heart, and skin. The “age” or “liver” spots that develop on the backs of some elderly peoples’ hands are made of lipofuscin. Because they’re rich in unsaturated fatty acids, cell membranes are the primary site of free radical attack. Proanthocyanidins are able to protect against both water- and fat-soluble free radicals. Also, their chemical structure is incorporated within cell membranes, making proanthocyanidins very effective in preventing damage to the cell’s interior. This is vital, because if a cell’s DNA is disrupted, it could lead to the abnormal reproduction of that cell. For many years now, Europeans have used pine bark and grape seed extracts to maintain vein and capillary health. Proanthocyanidins support the circulatory system by helping to keep collagen and elastin, the essential constituents of vessel walls, from breaking down during times of imbalance. And most importantly, proanthocyanidins can help prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream. Scientists now recognize that it’s not cholesterol itself, but the oxidation of cholesterol that can be problematic.

    How Plantioxidants benefit different organs in the body

    The Power of Diversity

    In addition to the broad protection offered by Pycnogenol® and Proanthodyn, Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX offers an outstanding array of other Plantioxidants. Each has unique abilities to protect the body from oxidants. For several thousand years, Green Tea has been enjoyed in the Orient, not only for its taste, but also as a health tonic. Upon analysis, it contains several strong antioxidants, called Polyphenols, with exceptional free radical scavenging abilities. Polyphenols have been shown to be over 200 times more effective than vitamin E in preventing oxidative damage to brain cells. Source Naturals uses a potent extract of green tea that concentrates 2,000 pounds of fresh green tea leaves into one pound of finished product. This extract has been awarded 30 patents for its protective effects. The ancient Ginkgo Biloba tree has long been prized for its beneficial qualities. Like proanthocyanidins, ginkgo’s compounds are able to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier, and support cell membrane and capillary integrity. Its particular antioxidant constituents have been associated with superior oxygen transport to the brain. This is important because the brain uses 20% of all inhaled oxygen. Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX uses a superior 50 to 1 extract, providing 24% Ginkgoflavoneglycosides and 6% Terpenoids. Bilberries were first studied for their capacity to heighten visual acuity in normal subjects under poor light conditions. In fact, to increase their night vision, RAF pilots ate bilberry jam during WW II. Its antioxidant compounds, Anthocyanosides, have an affinity for delicate eye tissues, where it Quenches free radicals and supports capillary strength. Source Naturals utilizes a standardized bilberry extract with 25% anthocyanosides, 80 times more potent than regular bilberry.

    The wide range of natural antioxidants in Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX

    Milk Thistle Seed Extract has been researched and used for over 20 years in Europe. Its antioxidant compound, called Silymarin, has a special preference for the liver. It’s one of the few nutrients that can support the liver’s natural regenerative processes. By enhancing DNA activity, liver cells can regenerate up to five times faster. Turmeric Extract contains 95% Curcumin, the active ingredient of this traditional East Indian spice. Curcumin promotes the body’s own production of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, an important protector of the liver. Curcumin also increases the production and secretion of bile, which is used to remove cholesterol from the body. Quercetin has been well-researched for its free radical scavenging activity. Because of its ability to stabilize cell membranes, quercetin helps prevent damage and discomfort from reactionary (histamine- and leukotriene-related) processes in the body. Source Naturals quercetin has been isolated from plant sources. Rosemary and Hawthorn Berries both contain bioflavonoid antioxidants that have the unique ability to neutralize the hydroxyl radical, a particularly dangerous type of free radical. Hydroxyls are produced by exposure to excessive radiation and pollution from burned fossil fuels. The body has no innate defense system against it. Vitamin C is one of the most active and abundant antioxidants in the body, so it must be frequently replenished. Since it works in conjunction with bioflavonoids, each tablet of Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX contains 500 mg of vitamin C, bound to Magnesium for increased bioavailability.

    A World of Help

    As we better understand how free radicals affect our health and well being, it’s important that we take advantage of the wonderful protective qualities found in certain plants. These Plantioxidants provide the appropriate means to counteract the destructive effects of excessive free radicals, which have become part and parcel of modern life. Source Naturals PYCNOGENOL® COMPLEX brings the diverse and concentrated power of the plant world into your world of wellness.

    References
    • Masquelier, J. Natural Products as Medicinal Agents . Stutgart, Germany: Hippokrates Verlag, 1981. • Middleton, E. Jrnl. of Immunology 127 (1981): 546-50. • Muzes, G., et al. Acta-Physiologica-Hungary, 78.1 (1991): 3-9. • Oguni, I., et al. Orig. Res., Univ. of Shizuoka, Japan, 1990. PYCNOGENOL® is a registered trademark of Horphag Research, Ltd. Protected by U.S. Patent No. 4,698,360.



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    Mega H- Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life
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    Date: June 03, 2005 05:00 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Mega H- Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life

    Our universe is composed of millions of compounds, all derived from just 106 atoms. Of these elements, hydrogen is the first and most fundamental.

    Hydrogen is also the most abundant element, comprising 90% of all atoms in the cosmos. In our sun and stars, hydrogen nuclei fuse to produce helium, the second element. This generates the enormous energy that powers life on earth. And just as hydrogen fuels the sun, so, in the human body, it is the essential factor in the electrochemical process that produces ATP, the energy molecule. Virtually all the millions of biochemical processes that occur every second of our lives are powered by ATP. These facts are well established. But they are so basic that, until now, they have been overlooked in the world of nutritional science. It took the dedicated research of Dr. Patrick Flanagan to harness the power of active hydrogen for health and human development.

    Introducing a revolutionary breakthrough in the field of nutritional science: MEGA H-™ Active Hydrogen (H-), the Fuel of Life.

    The Creation of Mega H-

    For 30 years Dr. Patrick Flanagan’s life work has been to discover the health and longevity secrets of the Hunza people of the Himalayas. It is believed a much greater percentage of people there live past the age of 100, with far less of the diseases that ravage the West. The locals claimed that their secret was the cloudy, mineral-rich water that rushes down from the Himalayan glaciers. In studying the properties of this Hunza water, Dr. Flanagan found that silica crystals dissolved in the water were able to hold negatively charged hydrogen ions (H-). These compounds are technically called silica hydrides. This makes Hunza water a power source, filled with the same active H- that powers the human body.

    Typically hydrogen has one positively charged proton in the nucleus and one negatively charged electron orbiting the nucleus. The two opposite charges balance each other, resulting in no charge. Active hydrogen, on the other hand, contains two electrons orbiting the nucleus, creating a negative charge. It is this active hydrogen in its charged form that the body needs to carry out its crucial functions. Dr. Flanagan has recreated this silica hydride compound as MEGA H-™.

    Cellular Energy: ATP, Hydrogen and Mega H-™

    ATP, adenosine triphosphate, is composed of three phosphates. The breaking of the bond between the second and third phosphates releases the energy to power virtually all cellular processes. Amazingly, we all generate enough metabolic energy to produce our own body weight in ATP every day just to function! Every second, each of our approximately 50 trillion cells consumes and regenerates 10 million molecules of ATP.

    This massive energy generation (ATP production) is the fundamental core function of every human cell. Without it, basic activities such as cellular repair, and protein, enzyme, hormone and neurotransmitter synthesis would not occur. DNA repair and cell reproduction would cease. Thoughts, feelings, communication, and our ability to experience the world through our senses and change it through our actions would stop. The negative implication of poor energy generation for our health and vitality levels is significant. Many factors such as aging, poor nutrition and pollution can impede this critical energy generation. Negatively charged electrons from hydrogen are the source of the energy needed to generate this staggering amount of ATP. This energy production takes place in the mitochondria of the cells at the final stage of the Krebs Cycle, called the electron transport chain. Typically, the hydrogen comes from the breakdown of carbohydrates from food, which yields hydrogen as well as carbon and oxygen. But MEGA H-™ is an alternative, electron- rich source of hydrogen to power energy generation. In fact, MEGA H-™ has been shown to double the production of ATP and NADH, according to in vitro studies. (NADH is the coenzyme form of vitamin B-3, niacin, that carries hydrogen to the production site of ATP.) If this alone was all that MEGA H-™ could accomplish, it would be the most significant nutritional compound yet discovered. But its properties go far beyond energy generation. It is the body’s most efficient and effective antioxidant. MEGA H-™ also increases cellular hydration and the uptake of nutrients into each cell by lowering the surface tension of water (making water “wetter”). And it can improve athletic performance by lowering lactic acid levels after strenuous workouts.

    Aging and Antioxidant Defense

    Energy Decline: As we age, there is a decrease in our bodies’ ability to generate cellular energy—and oxidative damage may be a primary factor. Many scientists now accept the theory of aging first proposed by noted scientist Denham Harman, M.D., Ph.D., who argued that “aging changes are induced by free radical reactions, largely initiated by the mitochondria … the rate of damage to the mitochondria determines our life span.” Why is this? While oxygen is necessary for human life, the very act of breathing generates free radicals. Our mitochondria— tiny energy production plants—are the chief source of oxidants produced in our bodies. It is believed these oxidants damage the mitochondria in which they are produced, including the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the site of ATP production. This would seriously impair the ability of mitochondria to meet cellular energy demands. The result: signs of normal aging such as impaired memory, hearing, vision and stamina.

    DNA Damage: Oxidants also can damage the cell’s DNA. Hydroxyl radicals cause DNA strands to break; if breaks occur in both strands of DNA, the cell cannot repair the damage and will die. Normally, the body has mechanisms to correct or remove damaged cells. However, as we age and cellular energy production declines, the ability to correct these errors is significantly reduced. Left unrepaired, DNA errors may be passed on when cells divide. Over time, these errors can silently accumulate, leading to cellular changes that go unnoticed until body system imbalances become evident.

    World’s Most Elemental Antioxidant

    MEGA H-™ may be the world’s most powerful antioxidant. It is possible to measure the Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) of any compound. This rating, which measures the number of electrons present in relation to protons, ranges from (plus) +1,200 to (minus) -800 millivolts; the stronger an antioxidant is, the closer its ORP would be to -800. The more positive the ORP reading, the fewer the number of available electrons from active hydrogen. In chemistry, active hydrogen is defined as hydrogen with an extra electron, also known as the hydrogen anion, negative hydrogen or H-. The strongest natural antioxidants up until now, such as grape seed and green tea, have ORP’s of -100. But Mega H-™ has an ORP of -778 millivolts, as compared to distilled water, making it the most potent natural antioxidant available today. What’s more, MEGA H-™ is in a class by itself, compared to other antioxidants, due to its electrochemical structure. Free radi-cals—unstable molecules that are missing one or more electrons—damage cells by taking electrons from healthy molecules to balance themselves. When other antioxidants donate electrons to Quench free radicals, they in turn become reactive free radicals and require electrons from other antioxidants to become stable. The new antioxidant also requires an electron to return to stability. This process continues, resulting in an inefficient and energy-consuming free radical cascade. But MEGA H-™’s negatively charged hydrogen molecule possesses two electrons instead of the typical one. This extra electron can be donated without generating the inefficient free radical cascade. Dr. Flanagan’s profound contribution was his discovery of a method for stabilizing and delivering negatively charged hydrogen (H-). Unlike taking other antioxidants, supplementing with MEGA H-™ provides a net gain of free radical-Quenching electrons into the system.

    Additional Health Benefits

    MEGA H-™ has been the subject of additional positive research: Increases Cellular Hydration: Water is important to cells, interstitial fluids (surrounding joints, muscles and organs), and the matrix of blood. As the body’s primary fluid, water serves as a solvent for nutrients. Since water is used to carry nutrients into the cell, it is theorized that increased cellular hydration also increases the bioavailability of nutrients. Water also eliminates toxins and waste products from the body. From energy production to joint lubrication, all our systems depend on water. It has been theorized that aging results in cell dehydration. A study done by Gary Osborn and H. Salinas, M.D. of the Texas Institute of Functional Medicines suggests that silica hydride supplements like MEGA H-™ increase intracellular, extracellular and total body water levels. It is theorized they work by decreasing water’s surface tension, which allows water and nutrients to more easily enter cells and become available for use by the body. Assists In Exercise Recovery: During strenuous exercise, the oxygen supply to muscle cells is insufficient to meet energy demands. Muscle cells then turn to anaerobic respiration to continue to generate energy. This creates lactic acid, which diffuses into the blood, causing muscle fatigue, soreness and loss of endurance. A placebo-controlled study on six healthy males showed that blood lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise when silica hydride supplements were taken for one week before an exercise trial.

    The Scientist Behind Mega H-™

    This revolutionary approach to nutrition and health is the brain child of Dr. Patrick Flanagan. Dr. Flanagan was a child prodigy with an intense interest in electronics, biochemistry and physics. At the age of 12, he invented a guided missile and atom bomb detector. This technology was subsequently adopted for use by the U.S. government. At 14 he developed the Neurophone®. This device transmits acoustic information to the brain by means of radio waves into the skin, bypassing the eighth cranial nerve, and may allow some deaf people to hear. By the age of 18, he was named one of the Top Ten most promising young scientists in America by Life Magazine. Dr. Flanagan’s work with MEGA H-™ has its roots in his collaboration with Dr. Henri Coanda, a respected scientist who died in 1972. Dr. Coanda passed along his investigation into Hunza water to Dr. Flanagan. MEGA H- is the culmination of decades of research to bring the energizing and anti-aging benefits of active hydrogen (H-) to the world.

    Mega H-™

    Hydrogen (H-)The Fuel of Life

  • • The first active hydrogen supplement (H-), a rich source of electrons.
  • • Electrons from H- are a source of energy to generate the body’s staggering amounts of ATP (energy molecule).
  • • MEGA H-™ doubles cellular ATP and NADH in vitro.
  • • Theorized to be the most potent antioxidant in vitro.
  • • May decrease lactic acid levels after exercise.
  • • May increase cellular hydration.

    MEGA H-™ is the first supplement available in the natural foods industry to provide a large reservoir of freely available electrons to power the body’s diverse energy functions.



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    LYCOPENE - Tomatoes Like You’ve Never Seen Them Before ...
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    Date: June 03, 2005 10:51 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: LYCOPENE - Tomatoes Like You’ve Never Seen Them Before ...

    Lycopene

    It’s hard to imagine that the ancestor of the beefsteak tomato was a tiny yellow fruit first harvested by the Incas. Tomatoes have come a long way since their origin in the Andes, becoming more popular than any other fruit or vegetable in America. (Botanically, the tomato is really a fruit, despite the Supreme Court’s 1893 ruling that it’s a vegetable.) Today, our appreciation of this dietary staple is entering a new chapter. Modern nutrition science has delved into the biochemistry of the tomato and discovered unique phytonutrients with powerful influences on the human body. Utilizing this research, Source Naturals has introduced a concentrated form of the tomato’s most vital nutritional compound: Lycopene.

    Tomatoes and their Healthy Red Color

    Lycopene is the pigment that gives tomatoes, watermelons and some grapefruits their healthy red color. Found most abundantly in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esulentum), lycopene is a member of the carotenoid family. This group of phytonutrients are major contributors to the health of the human race. (Phyto is derived from the Greek word for plant.)

    Over 500 different carotenoids have been identified by science, and almost 10% of them are found in human blood and tissue. Best known is beta-carotene, whose important benefits have been well-documented. Other familiar phytonutrients include allicin from garlic, and capsaicin from chili peppers. Lycopene, lutein, alpha-carotene and betacarotene are the most abundant of the carotenoids present in human blood and tissues. Human breast milk has been found to contain 19 carotenoids, including lycopene. Like many carotenoids, lycopene has evolved as an integral part of human biochemistry, with many benefits to our well-being. Since mammals cannot synthesize it, lycopene must be obtained from the diet.

    Lycopene and Prostate Function

    One of the most interesting aspects of the way phytonutrients interact with the human body – beyond their broad spectrum antioxidant activity – is their tendency to be “organ specific.” Different carotenoids have an affinity for different organs in the body! In the case of lycopene, it’s the most plentiful carotenoid in the prostate gland. Studies have explored the link between diets high in lycopene and proper prostate function.

    Lycopene Protects Cells

    Research has shown that lycopene may protect DNA by its powerful antioxidant activity against singlet oxygen free radicals, dangerous forerunners to cellular damage. Lycopene was found to be the most efficient biological carotenoid to neutralize singlet oxygen – almost 3 times more powerful than beta-carotene. Also, lycopene has a “sparing effect” for beta-carotene: lycopene sacrifices itself to free radicals so that beta-carotene can be reserved for conversion to vitamin A. Lycopene has another ability that has excited further investigation. It increases gap junctional intercellular communication, which is the chemical and electrical coupling between neighboring cells. This enables a healthy exchange of the signals that regulate normal growth – thereby offering a protective influence on cellular reproduction.

    Getting the Most From Tomatoes

    Until recently, lycopene was not commercially available, and hasn’t been studied as extensively as has beta-carotene. But now, thanks to a unique (non-chemical) proprietary process, lycopene can be obtained from specially bred and cultivated tomato varieties that are rich in lycopene, and very red. Source Naturals LYCOPENE is standardized to 5% lycopene in a base of vegetable oil. It also contains small amounts of other carotenoids, naturally present in tomatoes. While it’s important to continue eating fruits and vegetables, we can also benefit from the fruits of nutritional research. This is especially important since so much of our food supply has become denatured, lacking the traditional nutrition our bodies require. Source Naturals LYCOPENE is a significant step toward reclaiming the nutrients we need to help create a life of health and vitality. Get a taste of the 21st Century – Source Naturals LYCOPENE.

    References:

  • • Khachik, F., et al. (1995). Lutein, Lycopene, and their oxidative metabolites... Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Suppl. 22, 236-46.
  • • Mascio, P., et al. (1989). Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen Quencher. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 274(2), 532-38.
  • • Zhang, L., et al. (1991). Carotenoids enhance gap junctional communication... Carcinogenesis, 12(11), 2109-14.



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    Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ...
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    Date: June 02, 2005 12:07 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Heart Science - A Five-Tiered Approach to Heart Health ...

    Heart Science 30 tabs

    Your heart is crucial to every function of your body. It is the sole organ which pumps oxygen-rich blood through the entire circulatory system, feeding your cells and making life possible. Only recently are Americans realizing the importance of a proper low-fat diet, regular exercise, giving up cigarette smoking, and cutting down alcohol consumption to maintaining a healthy heart. Unfortunately, there has been a huge gap in the number of nutritional supplements which provide nutrients and herbs to support normal heart function. That’s where Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE comes in. Two years in the making, and backed by numerous scientific studies, the nutrients in HEART SCIENCE are some of the most soundly researched of all. Combining high potencies of these super-nutrients, HEART SCIENCE is the most comprehensive, cutting edge nutritional approach to proper heart care available.

    Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE— The Five Tiered Approach to Heart Health

    Your heart never rests. Even while you sleep, your heart must keep working, relying on the constant generation of energy by the body for its very survival. If this vital organ stops beating for even a short amount of time, all bodily functions cease and life ends. Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE helps support heart function on the chemical, cellular, structural, and energetic levels. This broad spectrum formula includes ingredients specifically geared for
    1) generating energy,
    2) decreasing harmful homocysteine levels,
    3) fighting oxidized cholesterol,
    4) maintaining the heart’s electrical rhythm, and
    5) protecting artery and capillary linings.

    Energy Generators for An Energetic Organ

    Every day, the human heart beats about 104,000 times, pumping over 8,000 liters of blood through the body! Because it requires so much energy to perform efficiently, the experts at Source Naturals included specialty nutrients in HEART SCIENCE such as Coenzyme Q10 and L-Carnitine — integral factors in the body’s energy production cycles — to enhance the body’s energy supply.

    There are three main interconnected energy generating cycles in our cells — the Glycolytic (sugar-burning) cycle, the Krebs’ (citric acid) cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain. Together they supply about 90 to 95% of our body’s entire energy supply, using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the non-vitamin nutrients needed to maximally convert food into ATP (the energy producing molecule). It is the vital connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport Chain, the next step in energy generation after the Krebs’ cycle. Using the raw materials generated by the Krebs’ cycle, the Electron Transport Chain produces most of the body’s total energy! The heart is one of the bodily organs which contains the highest levels of CoQ10, precisely because it needs so much energy to function efficiently.

    CoQ10 is one of the most promising nutrients for the heart under investigation today. It has been postulated that as a result of its participation in energy production, CoQ10 improves heart muscle metabolism and the electrical functioning of the heart by enhancing its pumping capacity.8 Many factors such as a high fat diet, lack of exercise, and cigarette smoking can lead to suboptimal functioning of the heart, and therefore failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood. Interestingly, people whose lifestyles reflect the above factors also tend to have depleted levels of CoQ10 in the heart muscle.10

    Researchers suggest taking between 10-100 mg per day of CoQ10;18,29 HEART SCIENCE provides an impressive 60 mg of CoQ10 per 6 tablets. Similar to CoQ10, L-Carnitine is important for energy production in heart cells. It is a natural amino acid-like substance which plays a key role in transporting fatty acids, the heart’s main source of energy, to the mitochondria, the “power plants” of each cell, where they are utilized for the production of ATP. Heart and skeletal muscles are particularly vulnerable to L-Carnitine deficiency. Studies have shown that supplementation with LCarnitine improves exercise tolerance in individuals with suboptimal heart and circulatory function, and seems to lower blood lipid status and increase HDL (good) cholesterol.16, 22 Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE contains 500 mg of this extremely important compound.

    Like CoQ10 and L-Carnitine, B Vitamins help improve the ability of the heart muscle to function optimally. Each B Vitamin, after being converted to its active coenzyme form, acts as a catalytic “spark plug” for the body’s production of energy. Vitamin B-1, for example, is converted to Cocarboxylase, which serves as a critical link between the Glycolytic and Krebs’ Cycles, and also participates in the conversion of amino acids into energy. A deficiency of B coenzymes within contracting muscle cells can lead to a weakened pumping of the heart.21

    HEART SCIENCE is formulated with high quantities of the most absorbable forms of B Vitamins providing maximum nutrition for the high energy demands of heart cells.

    Homocysteine Regulators

    B Vitamins also play a crucial role in the conversion of homocysteine, a group of potentially harmful amino acids produced by the body, to methionine, another more beneficial amino acid. While it is normal for the body to produce some homocysteine, even a small elevation in homocysteine levels can have negative implications. It is well documented that individuals who are genetically predisposed to having elevated homocysteine levels (homocysteinemics) tend to have excessive plaque accumulation in the arteries and premature damage to endothelial cells (cells lining the blood vessels and heart).26 Researchers have found that even those without this genetic abnormality, whose homocysteine levels are much lower than those of homocysteinemics, still have an increased risk for premature endothelial damage and the development of plaque in the arteries.24, 26 One study conducted among normal men and women found that those with the highest levels of homocysteine were twice as likely to have clogged arteries as were those with the lowest levels.24 Furthermore, it was found that the lower the research subjects’ blood levels of folate and B-6, the higher their homocysteine levels.24 Another study found that Folic Acid administered to normal men and women who were not even deficient in folate caused a significant reduction in plasma concentrations of homocysteine!3 In order to regulate homocysteine levels, it is critical to provide the body with sufficient amounts of B-6, B-12, and Folate, whether through the diet or through supplementation. HEART SCIENCE includes high levels of these three nutrients, providing B-6 in the regular and coenzyme form for maximum utilization.

    The Dangers of Oxidized LDL Cholesterol

    While many people have heard that high cholesterol levels may negatively affect normal heart function, few people understand exactly what cholesterol is, or how it can become harmful. Cholesterol is a white, waxy substance produced in the liver by all animals, and used for a variety of necessary activities in the body. Your liver also manufactures two main kinds of carrier molecules which transport cholesterol throughout the system: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Cholesterol is either carried out by LDL from the liver to all tissues in the body where it is deposited, or carried back by HDLs which remove cholesterol deposits from the arteries and carry them to the liver for disposal. Because of this, LDL cholesterol is considered damaging, while HDL is considered protective. Problems occur when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the body and not enough HDL.

    When the body becomes overloaded with fat, an over-abundance of LDL particles are manufactured to process it, and they in turn become elevated in the body to a degree that the liver cannot handle. Rich in fatty acids and cholesterol, these particles are highly susceptible to free radical attack (oxidation). Once oxidized, LDL particles are no longer recognized by the body, which attacks them with immune cells. Immune cells which are bloated by oxidized lipids (called foam cells) are a key factor in the development of “fatty streaks” — the first sign of excess arterial fat accumulation. The bloated immune cells accumulate in artery lesions and create plaque in blood vessels, leading to obstruction and constriction of the vessels. Plus, these lodged foam cells continue to secrete free radicals into the bloodstream, making the problem worse.

    The development of lesions in the arteries is not an uncommon problem. Arterial (and all blood vessel) walls are composed of a chemical matrix which holds the endothelial cells in place. That endothelial layer is the first and most important line of defense in preventing large molecules, such as cholesterol and fat, from entering the vessel wall. This matrix is composed of proteins, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans (amino sugars). Arterial lesions can be caused by suboptimal collagen and elastin synthesis due to three factors: 1. Vitamin C deficiency (since Vitamin C is a key building block for collagen and elastin); 2. excessive consumption of rancid fats, or heavy usage of alcohol or cigarettes; and 3. free radical damage. Once these lesions are created, the body attempts to repair them by depositing LDL cholesterol — similar to the way one would patch a tire. If that cholesterol is not oxidized, i.e. chemically changed to a harmful, unstable molecule, then this process does not create a problem. But when arterial lesions are “patched” with foam cells, arterial walls suffer page 3 page 4 even more damage, because those foam cells release free radicals which can further damage cell membranes.

    Unfortunately, most people have a lot of oxidized cholesterol floating through the bloodstream. The typical American diet, with its low antioxidant intake and overconsumption of fried and overcooked foods, contributes to the overall levels of harmful oxidized cholesterol. In fact, the average American intake of antioxidants is low even by USRDA standards, making Americans particularly prone to having high levels of oxidized cholesterol.

    Cholesterol Fighters

    Fortunately, there are concrete steps you can take to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol, and its subsequent ill effects on health. In addition to cutting out high-cholesterol and fatty foods, supplementation can protect existing cholesterol and all tissue cells — from oxidation. Antioxidants, substances which scavenge and neutralize free radicals, protect the cardiovascular system by halting the oxidation of cholesterol, and helping to prevent plaque accumulation in the arteries and the continual secretion of free radicals by foam cells. Supplementing the diet with high amounts of Vitamin C, a key antioxidant, also encourages a more healthy “patching” of existing lesions by using collagen (made from Vitamin C) instead of cholesterol. HEART SCIENCE contains generous amounts of the following antioxidants for their protective benefits:

  • • Beta Carotene, a plant pigment, is the naturally occurring precursor to Vitamin A. When the body takes in high enough amounts of Beta Carotene, this lipid-soluble free radical scavenger concentrates in circulating lipoproteins and atherosclerotic plaques, where it performs its antioxidant functions. Beta Carotene is particularly unique and powerful as an antioxidant because it is capable of trapping a very toxic form of di-oxygen, called singlet oxygen, which can result in severe tissue damage. Beta Carotene is one of the most efficient Quenchers of singlet oxygen thus far discovered. Six tablets of HEART SCIENCE provide an unprecedented 45,000 IU of Beta Carotene!
  • • Vitamin C is found in plasma, the watery component of blood, where it functions as a potent antioxidant. In addition to strengthening artery linings through collagen manufacture, Vitamin C is involved in the regeneration of Vitamin E within LDL particles. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids by the liver, a crucial step in reducing blood cholesterol levels. Once converted into bile acids, and then into bile salts, cholesterol can be excreted from the body, preventing build-up. Supplementation with Vitamin C may lower levels of LDL cholesterol and increase those of HDL cholesterol.25 It may also have a part in actually removing cholesterol deposits from artery walls — good news for people who are already experiencing plaque buildup.25 Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE provides 1,500 mg of Vitamin C in its bioactive mineral ascorbate form.
  • • Vitamin E, together with Beta Carotene, protects lipids from free radical attack. It is the major antioxidant vitamin that is carried in the lipid fraction of the LDL particle, where it protects the LDL particle from damaging oxidation. Within an LDL particle, one molecule of Vitamin E has the ability to protect about 200 molecules of polyunsaturated fatty acids from free radical damage! Vitamin E also aids in protecting the heart by interfering with the abnormal clumping of blood cell fragments, called platelets, within blood vessels.4 It has been shown to inhibit the formation of thromboxanes and increase the production of prostacyclins, which together decrease abnormal platelet aggregation.11 A high potency of Vitamin E — 400 IU’s — is included in six tablets of HEART SCIENCE in the natural d-alpha succinate form, recognized by scientific researchers to be the most absorbable form!
  • • Selenium is an important mineral which has only recently gained attention. When incorporated into the enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase, it has highly powerful free radical-scavenging abilities, and has been shown to work synergistically with Vitamins A, C, and E. An essential mineral, Selenium used to be derived from eating foods grown in Selenium-rich soil. However, modern agricultural practices have depleted soil of its natural Selenium content, leaving many Americans deficient in this vital nutrient. Several epidemiological studies show that the incidence of advanced fatty deposits in blood vessels is much greater in individuals living in geographic areas of the United States and other parts of the world where the Selenium content of the soil is very low.27
  • Proanthodyn,™ an extract of grape seeds, is being called the most powerful antioxidant yet discovered. This highly potent, water-soluble bioflavonoid contains between 93-95% proanthocyanidins, the highest concentration of any nutrient available today. The protective actions of proanthocyanidins may help to prevent the development of plaque in artery walls by inhibiting the free radicals which are produced during the oxidation of cholesterol. The optimal daily amount (100 mg) of Proanthodyn is included in six tablets of HEART SCIENCE. In addition to the protective actions of antioxidants, several other nutrients can contribute to healthier cholesterol ratios.
  • • Chromium is a trace mineral which functions to aid the entrance of glucose into cells. Six tablets of HEART SCIENCE provide 300 mcg of Chromium in the form of Chromate® Chromium Polynicotinate and Chromium Picolinate — the most bioactive forms of Chromium. Not many people are familiar with the vital role Copper plays in the body. This trace mineral is found in all tissues of the body, and is particularly concentrated in the heart. Copper is part of several enzymes, and, in this capacity, is necessary for the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system, including the heart, arteries, and other blood vessels. Because of its role in elastin production, Copper deficiency can severely damage blood vessels and heart tissue. In fact, researchers have found an inverse relationship between Copper status and increased risk for heart damage.10
  • • L-Proline and L-Lysine are two natural amino acids which show exciting promise in helping to prevent fatty deposits in blood vessels. Researchers have recently identified a particle associated with LDL called apoprotein (a) which is believed to be a main culprit in plaque development. 17 Scientific investigation has revealed that the lipoprotein (a) particle has an adhesive quality that makes the lipoprotein fat globule stick inside blood vessels. The sticky fat globules accumulate, leading to fatty deposits in blood vessels and the subsequent clogging of the arteries. L-Proline and L-Lysine tend to form a barrierlike layer around the apoprotein (a) particle, helping to push it away from the blood vessel wall, and impeding deposit.21

    The Regulating Trio

    Three nutrients — Magnesium, Potassium, and Taurine — work closely together in the body to help maintain the normal electrical rhythm of the heart, promote proper fluid balance, and prevent excessive Calcium levels from building up in the heart and artery linings.

  • • Magnesium is one of the single most important nutrients for maintaining a healthy heart. It plays an extremely vital role in maintaining the electrical and physical integrity of the heart muscle. It has been well established that Magnesium deficiency predisposes humans to serious disruptions of normal cardiac rhythm. One theory is that because Magnesium has a relaxing effect on muscle tissue, inadequate Magnesium stores may make the coronary arteries more susceptible to muscle spasm.10 Too little Magnesium can cause a Calcium/Magnesium imbalance, which can lead to the influx of too much Calcium into heart cells, and potentiate spasms in heart tissue. Another point for consideration is that because it relaxes the blood vessels, Magnesium keeps these vessels open, allowing for maximum blood flow to the heart. Magnesium also has the unique ability to stop unnecessary blood clotting by helping to reduce platelet adhesion.31 Blood clots are naturally produced by the body as a protective device to stop excessive blood flow when the body is injured. The clotting response happens when the body senses that the normally smooth blood vessel linings are rough, indicating that there is a cut. However, sometimes the body mistakes the rough surface of plaque-covered arteries as cuts, and creates unnecessary blood clots. Or, if a high fat meal has just been eaten, tiny fat globules called chylomicrons enter the bloodstream and can cause platelets to become abnormally sticky, possibly creating clots. When these clots flow through the bloodstream and reach a part of the artery which has plaque buildup, normal blood flow is blocked, and the amount of blood which reaches the heart is severely compromised. Magnesium is also crucial for the entrance of Potassium — a key mineral for many bodily functions — into the cells. Even if the body’s Potassium stores are high, without enough Magnesium, the Potassium will not be able to enter the cells and be utilized by the body. 300 mg of Magnesium (75% of the U.S.RDA) are contained in each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE. Along with Magnesium, Potassium helps to regulate normal heartbeat and blood pressure, and is necessary for the contraction and relaxation of muscle tissue. Potassium and Sodium are present in all body fluids; Potassium is found primarily within cell fluids, while Sodium is usually present in fluids surrounding cells. Together, they function to maintain the normal balance and distribution of fluids throughout the body. The body ideally should have a Potassium/Sodium balance of about 1:1; however, because the body holds onto Sodium, yet eliminates Potassium quickly, it is important that the dietary ratio of these two minerals be at least 3:1. Unfortunately, the typical American diet, with its emphasis on processed, salty (Sodiumrich) foods and lack of fresh fruits and vegetables, severely alters the body’s natural Potassium/ Sodium balance. Diets in the United States are extremely high in Sodium — sometimes containing as much as 15 times the recommended daily intake! A high Sodium/low Potassium diet interferes with the normal regulation of heartbeat and blood pressure, and has been linked with elevated blood pressure.25 Taurine is an amino acid which helps normalize electrical and mechanical activity of the heart muscle by regulating Potassium flux in and out of the heart muscle cells.

    Artery Lining Protectors

    Your arteries form an integral part of your cardiovascular system, carrying blood away from the heart to nourish other parts of the body. In a healthy heart, blood surges through the arteries with every beat of the heart. The arteries expand with each pulse to accommodate the flow of blood. When arteries become hardened and narrowed by the build-up of plaque, they can’t expand and are not able to transport blood efficiently throughout the body. This inability to open up increases blood pressure, putting a strain on the heart as well as the arteries. HEART SCIENCE includes ingredients specifically geared to protect against plaque formation within arteries and maintain the flexibility of these vital blood vessels. N-Acetyl Glucosamine (NAG) is a key amino sugar which forms the building blocks of mucopolysaccharides. Mucopolysaccharides, which are long chain sugars, are an integral component of connective tissue. They combine to form gel-like matrixes which are present throughout tissues in the body, helping to maintain the elasticity of blood vessels which must continually adapt to the changing pressures of blood flow. Each daily dose of HEART SCIENCE provides 500 mg — a substantial amount — of this vital tissue building block. There is evidence indicating that Silicon, a natural mineral, may protect against plaque formation in the arteries. Silicon is found mainly in connective tissues, where it helps bind the body’s chemical matrix. Bound Silicon is found in high amounts in arterial walls. Researchers have found that there is a steady decline in the Silicon content of the aorta and other arteries as we age. This may be due to the low fiber content of the typical American diet, since fiber is a key dietary source of Silicon.23 HEART SCIENCE includes 400 mg of Horsetail herb extract, a natural source of Silicon. Hawthorn Berry is without question the herb most widely used to encourage normal heart function. The beneficial actions of Hawthorn Berry on cardiac function have been repeatedly demonstrated in experimental studies. Supplementation with Hawthorn Berry has been shown to improve both the blood supply to the heart by dilating coronary vessels, and the metabolic processes in the heart, resulting in normal, strong contractions of the heart muscle.34 Also, Hawthorn may inhibit the angiotensen converting enzyme, which is responsible for converting angiotensen I to angiotensen II, a powerful constrictor of blood vessels.34 Bromelain, a natural enzyme derived from pineapples, has become well-known for its neuromuscular relaxing properties. Researchers have reported favorable results when using Bromelain for soothing vascular linings. Initial research also indicates that Bromelain may break down fibrin, the glue which holds platelets together to form blood clots.6

    Capillary Strengtheners

    Capillaries are the smallest, yet some of the most important, blood vessels. If you think of your cardiovascular system as a series of roads which transport blood and oxygen, then your arteries are akin to interstate highways, your arterioles are the main city boulevards, and your capillaries are local residential streets. Capillaries are so small, in fact, that single red blood cells actually have to fold up to fit through them. Because of their tiny size and the intricate nature of their network throughout the body, capillaries are responsible for actually nourishing each individual tissue cell! Along the length of the capillaries are small openings called slit pores through which oxygen, glucose, and nutrients leave the capillaries and enter the surrounding interstitial fluid. From there, they cross cell membranes and nourish the cells. Similarly, the waste products of cells enter the fluid and cross over into the capillaries, where they are then transported to the liver and kidneys for disposal. If the capillary slit pores are torn or have lesions, then blood proteins and Sodium will leak out and cause the interstitial fluid to take on a more gel-like nature. This makes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the cells more difficult, as well as the disposal of cell waste products, turning the fluid into a stagnant swamp instead of a flowing river. In addition to its powerful antioxidant actions, Proanthodyn also helps protect collagen and elastin, the main constituents of tissue in the capillaries, and throughout the body. It is absolutely essential for capillary walls — which are only one cell thick — to be strong and stable, so that they do not allow blood proteins to leak into the interstitial fluid. Once the interstitial fluid takes on a gel-like consistency, the surrounding cells literally become starved from lack of nutrition. The exciting news is that the proanthocyanidins contained in Proanthodyn are among the few substances yet discovered which can help strengthen capillary walls, ensuring the liquid nature of the interstitial fluid.2 Plus, proanthocyanidins help keep capillary and artery walls flexible, allowing for proper blood flow to the heart.

    Heart Smarts

    The 1990’s mark a decade of increased awareness among Americans of important health issues. Much of the discussion has revolved around protecting that precious center of life we call the heart. Simple lifestyle change is one of the most effective ways to maintain and protect the functioning of the cardiovascular system. In order to take a holistic approach to heart care, make sure you include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables (organic, if possible) in your diet, and cut down on fatty and cholesterol-forming foods. Reduce your salt and alcohol intake to a minimum. Try to get regular, sustained aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes three times a week. Don’t smoke – or if you do smoke, try to eat even more fresh fruits and antioxidant-rich vegetables to counter the amount of free radicals being produced in your body. Lastly, consider adding Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE to your health regimen. HEART SCIENCE, the most comprehensive formula of its kind, provides targeted protection to the entire cardiovascular system. By approaching the promotion of normal heart function on five different levels — through the inclusion of ingredients which supply energy, decrease harmful homocysteine levels, fight cholesterol build-up, help regulate electrical rhythm, and protect artery and capillary linings — HEART SCIENCE is the perfect addition to a holistic approach to heart care.

    Source Naturals HEART SCIENCE™


    The Five Tiered Approach to Heart Health
    Six tablets contain:
    Vitamins and Minerals %USRDA
    Pro-Vit A (Beta Carotene) 45,000 IU 900%
    Vit B1 (Thiamine) 50 mg 3333%
    Vit B3 (Inositol Hexanicotinate) 500 mg 2500%
    Vit B6 (Pyridoxine HCl) 25 mg 1250%
    Coenzyme B6 (Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate)
    25 mg yielding: 16.9 mg of Vit B6 845% (Total Vitamin B6 Activity) (41.9 mg) (2095%)
    Vit B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 500 mcg 8333%
    Folic Acid 800 mcg 200%
    Vit C (Magnesium Ascorbate) 1500 mg 2500%
    Vit E (d-alpha Tocopheryl Succinate) 400 IU 1333%
    Chromium (ChromeMate® †Polynicotinate-150 mcg & Chromium Picolinate††-150 mcg) 300 mcg *
    Copper (Sebacate) 750 mcg 37.5%
    Magnesium (Ascorbate, Taurinate & Oxide) 300 mg 75%
    Potassium (Citrate) 99 mg *
    Selenium (L-Selenomethionine) 200 mcg *
    Silicon (From 400 mg of Horsetail Extract) 13mg *
    * U.S. RDA not established.
    Other Ingredients and Herbs
    Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone) 60 mg
    L-Carnitine (L-Tartrate) 500 mg
    Hawthorn Berry Extract 400 mg
    Proanthodyn™ (Yielding 95 mg of Proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract) 100 mg
    L-Proline 500 mg
    L-Lysine (HCl) 500 mg
    NAG™ (N-Acetyl Glucosamine) 500 mg
    Bromelain (2000 G.D.U. per gram) 1200 G.D.U.
    Taurine (Magnesium Taurinate) 500 mg
    Horsetail Extract (Yielding 31 mg of Silica) 400 mg
    Inositol (Hexanicotinate) 50 mg

    Reference:
    1. Azuma, J., Sawamura, A., & Awata, N. (1992, Jan). “Usefulness of Taurine... and its Prospective Application.” Japanese Circulation Journal, 56(1), 95-9.
    2. Blazso, G and Gabor, M. (1980). “Odema-inhibiting Effect of Procyanidin.” Acta Physiologica Academiae ScientiarumHungaricae, 56(2), 235-240.
    3. Brattstrom, E. L, Hultberg, L. B., & Hardebo, E. J. (1985, Nov.). “Folic Acid Responsive Postmenopausal Homocysteinemia.” Metabolism, (34)11, 1073-1077.
    4. Colette, C., et al., (1988). “Platelet Function in Type I Diabetes: Effects of Supplementation with Large Doses of Vitamin E.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 256-61.
    5. England, M. R., et al. (1992, Nov. 4). “Magnesium Administration and Dysrhythmias...A Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Randomized Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(17), 2395-402.
    6. Felton, G. E. (1980, Nov.). “Fibrinolytic and Antithrombotic Action of Bromelain...” Medical Hypotheses (11)6, 1123-33.
    7. Grundy, S. M. (1993, Apr.). “Oxidized LDL and Atherogenesis: Relation to Risk Factors...” Clinical Cardiology, 16 (4 Suppl.I), I3-5.
    8. Hano, O. et al. (1994, June). “Coenzyme Q10 Enhances Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Recovery and Reduces Ca2+ Overload during Postischemic Reperfusion.” American Journal of Physiology, 266(6 Pt 2), H2174-81.
    9. Heineke, et al. (1972). “Effect of Bromelain (Ananase) on Human Platelet Aggregation.” Experientia V. 23, 844-45.
    10. Hendler, S. S. (1991). The Doctors’ Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia. NewYork: Fireside.
    11. Jandak, et al. (1988, Dec. 15). “Reduction of Platelet Adhesiveness by Vitamin E Supplementation in Humans.” Thrombosis Research 49(4), 393-404.
    12. Jialal, I., et al. (1991, Oct. 15). “Beta-Carotene Inhibits the Oxidative Modification of Low-density Lipoprotein.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1086(1), 134-8.
    13. Jialal, I. & Fuller, C. J. (1993, Apr. 16). “Oxidized LDL and Antioxidants.” Clinical Cardiology, Vol. 16 (Suppl. I), I6-9.
    14. Jialal, I., & Grundy, S.M. (1991, Feb.). “Preservation of the Endogenous Antioxidants in Low Density Lipoprotein...” Journal of Clinical Investigation, 87(2), 597-601.
    15. Kamikawa, T., et al. (1985). “Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on Exercise Tolerance...” American Journal of Cardiology, 56, 247-251.
    16. Kosolcharoen, P., et al. (1981, Nov.). “Improved Exercise Tolerance after Administration of Carnitine.” Current Therapeutic Research, 753-764.
    17. Lawn, R. (1992, June). “Lipoprotein (a) in ...” Medicine, 12-18.
    18. Mortensen, S.A.et al. (1985). “Long-term coenzyme Q10 therapy: A major advance in the management of resistant myocardial failure.” Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 11(8), 581-93.
    19. Nayler, W. G. (1980). “The Use of Coenzyme Q10 to Protect Ischemic Heart Muscle.” In: Yamamura Y., Folkners K., Ito Y., eds. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, Vol. 2, Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biochemical Press, 409-425.
    20. Press, R.I., & Geller, J., (1990, Jan.). “The Effect of Chromium Picolinate on Serum Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein Fractions in Human Subjects.” Western Journal of Medicine, 152, 41-45.
    21. Rath, M. (1993). Eradicating Heart Disease. San Francisco: Health Now.
    22. Rossi, C. S., & Silliprandi, N. (1982, Feb.). “Effect of Carnitine on Serum HDL Cholesterol: Report of Two Cases.” Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, 150(2), 51-4.
    23. Schwarz, K. (1977, Feb. 2). “Silicon, Fibre, and Atherosclerosis.” The Lancet, 454-456.
    24. Selhub, J., et al. (1995, Feb. 2). “Association Between Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Extracranial Carotid-artery Stenosis.” New England Journal of Medicine, 332(5), 286-291.
    25. Somer, Elizabeth. (1992). The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. New York: Health Media of America.
    26. Stampfer, M. J., et al. (1992, Aug. 19). “A Prospective Study of Plasma Homocyst(e)ine...” Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(7), 877-881.
    27. Suadicani, P., Hein, H. O., & Gyntelberg, F. (1992, Sept.). “Serum Selenium Concentration...in a Prospective Cohort Study of 3000 Males.” Atherosclerosis, 96(1), 33-42.
    28. Thomas, C. L. (Eds.). (1985). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, (15th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
    29. Tsuyusaki, T. et al. “Mechanocardiography of ischemic or hypertensive heart failure,” in Yamaura Y et al., Biomed. & Clin. Aspects of Coenzyme Q.2 Amsterdam, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, 273-88.
    30. Verlangieri, A. J., & Stevens, J. W. (1979). “L-Ascorbic Acid: Effects on Aortic Glycosaminoglycan S Incorporation...” Blood Vessels, 16(4), 177-185.
    31. Werbach, M. R. (1987). Nutritional Influences on Illness: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research. New Canaan: Keats Publishing, Inc.
    32. White, R.R., et al. (1988, Jul-Aug.). “Bioavailability of 125I Bromelain after Oral Administration to Rats.” Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition, 9(4), 397-403.
    33. Whitney, E. N., Hamilton, Nunnelly, E. M. (1984). Understanding Nutrition, (3rd ed.). St. Paul: West Publishing Company.
    34. Willard, Terry, Ph.D. (1992). Textbook of Advanced Herbology. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Wild Rose College of Natural Healing.
    35. Xiang, H., Heyliger, et al. (1988, Nov.). “Effect of Myo-inositol and T3 on Myocardial Lipids and Cardiac Function in Streptozocin-induced Diabetic Rats.” Diabetes, 37(11), 1542-8.



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