Search Term: " Phospholipids "

  Messages 1-35 from 35 matching the search criteria.
Vitamin E: A Closer Look at Tocotrienols Darrell Miller 10/21/17
Importance of Phospholipids and Peptides found in Fish oil Darrell Miller 10/20/15
Combat Depression With Fish Oil Darrell Miller 1/21/15
Improve Your Skin Naturally with Tamanu Oil Darrell Miller 5/18/14
Various health Benefits of lecithin Darrell Miller 12/22/13
What Is Solaray Phosphatidyl Serine? Darrell Miller 1/4/13
What Makes Neptune Krill Oil So Good For Your Health? Darrell Miller 3/24/12
Lecithin And Its Brain Boosting Properties Darrell Miller 3/2/12
What Makes Vectomega The Better Fish Oil Choice? Darrell Miller 10/20/11
Can Alpha GPC Really Help With Memory And Growth ? Darrell Miller 9/29/11
Can N-Acetyl Cysteine Boost Liver Health And Function? Darrell Miller 2/10/11
L-Methionine Darrell Miller 5/2/09
PhosphatidylSerine/DHA Optimized Darrell Miller 5/28/08
VectOmega Darrell Miller 5/13/08
Neptune Krill Oil - EPA and DHA Rich! Darrell Miller 7/2/07
Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Darrell Miller 2/12/06
Omega man Darrell Miller 1/21/06
Phosphatidyl Serine - HEALTHY COGNITION BRAIN FUNCTION Darrell Miller 12/21/05
SAMe (S-Adenosylmethionine) Darrell Miller 12/17/05
Omega Man - For Men Interested in Optimal Health Darrell Miller 8/12/05
Quercetin and Bromelain - for better health. Darrell Miller 7/4/05
ALPHA GPC - Improves Mental Performance Darrell Miller 6/28/05
REFERENCES Darrell Miller 6/25/05
GPC (GlyceroPhosphoCholine) Versatile Life Support Nutrient .... Darrell Miller 6/21/05
Essential Fatty Acids - Lipids, Cell Memgranes & Eicosanoids Darrell Miller 6/9/05
SAMe - Supports Joint Comfort, Function and Mobility ... Darrell Miller 6/6/05
PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) - Maintain healthy cells ... Darrell Miller 6/4/05
Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) - for Healthy Heart, Joints, and other Body systems Darrell Miller 6/3/05
Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Gluco Sciense - Take Control of your Blood Sugar ... Darrell Miller 6/2/05
Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Darrell Miller 6/1/05
Go Deep to the Underlying Cause of Symptoms* Darrell Miller 5/31/05
Attentive Child - Enhances Mental Concentration ... Darrell Miller 5/31/05
PhosChol® PPC - Polyenylphosphatidylcholine for memory and liver function ... Darrell Miller 5/26/05
Under-Reported (and Underappreciated) Cholesterol control. Darrell Miller 5/12/05

Vitamin E: A Closer Look at Tocotrienols

Date: October 21, 2017 10:14 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Vitamin E: A Closer Look at Tocotrienols

Researchers have made an estimate and guessed that there are 75 trillion cells in the body. Each of those cells is surrounded by a membrane that is bean shaped. This membrane is made up of dense rows of fatty acids. These require protection from lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E is one of the popular antioxidants. Vitamin E is shaped like a tadpole, which is the perfect shape to do this job. There are two forms of Vitamin E.

Key Takeaways:

  • Researchers estimate that the human body could contain as many as 75 trillion cells. Each of those cells is surrounded by a bean-shaped membrane made up of dense rows
  • Vitamin E comes in the perfect molecular shape to do this job—like a tadpole, with a head and tail, similar to the phospholipids that complement the cell membrane.
  • While alpha-tocopherol research still occurs at a much greater level than tocotrienol research, there has been a downward trend in alpha-tocopherol research alongside an increase in understanding.

"In this study, researchers found that alpha-tocopherol, when co-administered with tocotrienols, reduced tocotrienols’ inhibitory effect on HMGR."

Read more:


Importance of Phospholipids and Peptides found in Fish oil

Date: October 20, 2015 06:21 AM
Author: Darrell Miller
Subject: Importance of Phospholipids and Peptides found in Fish oil

The demand for fish in the world keeps on increasing as a result of health advantages associated with fish oil. Fish oil is the oil extracted from the tissues of the oily fish, and this oil is known to have some benefits and one of them being the reduction of inflammation in the body. Although fish oil doesn’t contain the omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil supplements contain these acids that are essential in the body.

Peptides found in fish oil are organic compounds that are groups of amino acids. The peptides have various medicinal benefits that include the following.

The fish peptides found in fish oil help reduce vasoconstriction that gets defined as the narrowing of one’s blood vessels as a result of contraction of the muscular wall. These fish peptides also help to reduce the thickness of the inner walls of the blood vessels that will affect blood circulation. Lastly, fish peptides found in fish oil always inhibit the aggregation of blood.

Fish peptides work in various ways. In their circulatory pressure function, the peptides inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme. When the formation of angiotensin II gets inhibited, fish peptides help relax arteries and reduce fluid volume hence improving circulation.

When one combines fish oil together with fish peptides, it provides higher cardio-protective advantages than using pure fish oil.

Fish Oil

The advantages of the fish oil supplement like krill oil revolve around their natural composition. It’s bioavailable as it has omega-3 fatty acids always attached to Phospholipids. It, therefore, makes the supplement more effective and enables the body in absorbing more omega-3. The krill oil that contain Phospholipids has several advantages. It always promotes one’s cardiovascular health. The main omega-3 fats include EPA and DHA that help to combat inflammation mainly in the blood vessels. In a way, it also helps to lower blood pressure and to some extent prevent strokes and heart attacks.

When taken in large quantity during pregnancy, the omega-3 found in these supplements helps a lot in improving neurological development in the newborns. They will help in the child’s development of the eyes, central nervous system and the brain.

The Phospholipids that contain omega-3 fatty acids are said to be water dispersible. As a result, this makes them gentler on one’s stomach, hence, the body absorbs them more easily. These Phospholipids are also natural and important parts of the cells compared to other marine oil omega-3s.

They help in both the heart and brain health. As a result of proper blood circulation, it ensures that oxygen is also well supplied within the body. They also have the advantages of a healthy inflammation and play a major role in women’s health. Lastly, Phospholipids are safe for taking into the body as they are natural supplements.

Phospholipids are absorbed into the body at a faster rate compared to triglycerides found in fish oil. They have a superior absorption rate, and they are more effective in the body. The other reason you should go for Phospholipids is that they aren’t chemically altered and are therefore safe for consumption.

In conclusion, the benefits of peptides found in the fish oil and Phospholipids include protection of one’s brain from oxidative damage, improve focus as well as mental agility and reduce any depression symptoms. They also strengthen the blood vessels and the arteries.






Combat Depression With Fish Oil

Date: January 21, 2015 05:19 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Combat Depression With Fish Oil

Fish oilWhat is a depression?

Depression can occur at any age and is a disorder of affective state, which leads to a state of sadness or hopelessness for a period. Depression is thought to be disease of the century as more and more researchers are trying to find an effective remedy to combat this disease. Lately, several studies are trying to prove that fish oil can affect a person’s mood and is an effective remedy for preventing and treating depression.

About fish oils

According to a Japanese study published in September in the journal Pediatrics, fish oil especially that obtained from sardines and salmon helps male teens feel less depressed.

Omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found mainly in fish oil. Because these nutrients play an important role in brain function, many researchers wanted to find out if a higher consumption of EPA and DHA leads to a decrease in the risk of depression. The results showed that an increased consumption of EPA and DHA influences positively the mental state and mood of adolescents.

According to Japanese researchers, fish oil has not the same effect in the case of adolescent girls. The different effect of fish oil in boys and girls is difficult to explain, a possible cause being that women show a genetic risk of depression significantly higher than men do.

Norwegian researchers found that a dose of 15 ml of fish oil administered daily might decrease by 30% the risk of developing depression. The study involved 22,000 people aged over 40 who provided information about their eating habits and health care. The study results revealed that people who rarely or never ate fish oil showed more probability of suffering from depression due to stress or anxiety."The possible protective effect may be associated with the content of omega-3 fatty acids from fish", say the researchers.

Source of Omega 3 fatty acid

Omega 3 fatty acids improve the functionality of the brain in children, reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and prevent cancer. This fatty acid are found in fish such as trout, salmon and mackerel, in nuts, linseed oil and rapeseed oil. Fish oil is the best source of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Since our body is unable to synthesize EPA and DHA, in order to prevent depression, is necessary to supplement our diet with supplements rich in these acids. Experts recommend a daily intake of 0.5 grams of omega-3- the equivalent of four meals of fish consumed over a week.

In the UK, about a fifth of population is affected at some point by depression and antidepressants prescription has reached record numbers.

Recently, doctors have put on the list of antidepressants, the fish oil. Their argument is that the human brain is almost entirely made from fat - about 60%, especially DHA and Phospholipids. Fish oil has in its composition the precious DHA and for this reason, many doctors recommend it as an antidepressant. The arguments of doctors are strengthened by studies, which show that people who consume omega 3 fatty acids are more optimistic and cheerful.

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Improve Your Skin Naturally with Tamanu Oil

Date: May 18, 2014 11:36 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Improve Your Skin Naturally with Tamanu Oil

tamanu plantWhat is a tamanu?

Tamanu oil is originated from Polynesia and prefers a salty and sandy soil, which is why it grows profusely near the sea. According to the native people, the best Tamanu oil comes from trees that grow near the coastal regions, better than those that grow inland.

Benefits of tamanu oil

The Tamanu oil is well known because of its healing properties, which can actually equal or even surpass contemporary skin care products. There are already scientific studies that the oil produce new skin tissues, as well as studies that support the natural antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neuralgic, and antioxidant properties. Some of the ailments that Tamanu oil can treat include ringworm, itching, athlete's foot, dermaphytosis of the scalp or beard, burns and wounds. It also has a superb cicatrizing capacity that is far from other substances.

Cicatrization is the term coined for the process of forming new tissue. It is also amazingly effective for healing acne and acne scars, stretch marks, psoriasis, diabetic sores, blisters, sunburn, abrasions, cuts, burns, eczema, insect bites, herpes sores, fissures, and dry or scaly skin. It can even reduce or completely remove age spots!

One of the leading reasons tamanu oil profits skin is because of the oil holding an extent of lipids, including glycolipids, nonpartisan lipids and Phospholipids, notwithstanding an exhibit of components not normally connected with different oils, including calophyllolide, that helps stop aggravation, lactone, which performs like an anti-infection, and calophyllic corrosive, which is an extraordinary type of vital unsaturated fat. An alternate segment, coumarin, adds to the mitigating impact of this astounding oil.

Generally, tamanu oil has received as being a germicide, a diuretic, an expectorant, an astringent in addition to a laxative. An alternate of the various tamanu oil ascribes is its ability to help mend skin conditions including sunburn, rankles, players foot, dermatitis, pimple inflammation, dried-out skin, rash, little cuts and bug chomps.

In Europe, now and again called Domba oil, it is been demonstrated to have a 70 to 75 percent rate of achievement in diminishing stiffness and scabies. In the Philippines, it’s utilized as an astringent for hemorrhoids. It is likewise significant on for administering to gout and ringworm. Loads of individuals additionally rub this oil into your skin to help for the torment coming about because of neuralgia; in addition to it can positively help decrease the visual appearance of scars and stretch imprints. It can help to treat diaper rash on a child.

Tamanu oil is normally utilized in numerous diverse skincare items as it is overall ingested by the skin and serves to keep skin feeling delicate. Unlike some other crucial oils, tamanu oil does not desert an oily film once you utilize it, in addition, it will not exacerbate slick skin. Some methods you do not generally need to hold up quite a while so you can get dressed in the wake of utilizing it to help make skin look velvety. Many individuals think about the emanation of this oil as being satisfying, then again it is just a mellow fragrance so it will not clash with any viable aroma you decide to utilize. Against maturing items, some of the time holds tamanu oils, because they are accepted to help recover your skin.



Various health Benefits of lecithin

Date: December 22, 2013 04:45 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Various health Benefits of lecithin

lecithinWhat is Lecithin

When we talk about fat, most of us presume that this is not good for health and we should avoid all kind of fat to heave a healthy life. However, this is not true because fat substances are essential for healthy body and Lecithin is one of those important fat substances that make sure your body remains healthy and protected from a variety of problems.

Talking about the Lecithin it is a specific fat that is commonly known Phospholipids that is available in every cell of human body. This phospholipid is responsible for maintenance of cell membrane structure and if Lecithin goes below the required amount, then cell membrane may not perform properly and it may not protect or nourish the cell.

Benefits of Lecithin

If we talk about all the benefits of Lecithin, we can make a long list of all the benefits of this particular fat substance. However, improvement in brain function, healthy weight loss, reducing of cholesterol level, increasing of liver health, and prevention of various diseases are few of the most important benefits of Lecithin.

In order to improve the function of brain Lecithin break down the phosphatidylcholine into choline that is well known for prevention of memory loss. Talking about the weight loss effect, it emulsifies the fat in a very natural way that makes it a healthy weight loss solution as well. Other than this it also help the blood stream to absorb the nutrients from body that give extra energy to body and a person can do more exercise so he can reduce the weight and can get into shape.In addition to this it can detoxify all the harmful elements as well from your body that give extra strength to your liver and you get a better and healthy body along with a strong and healthy liver.


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What Is Solaray Phosphatidyl Serine?

Date: January 04, 2013 01:00 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: What Is Solaray Phosphatidyl Serine?

Phosphatidyl Serine : What are its Health Benefits?

Phosphatidyl serine is a popular medication for people who need to improve their memory and mental well-being. Not only does it work to improve your memory, it also has other health benefits to your body.

What is Phosphatidyl serine?

Each cell in your body has a membrane that protects its internal contents from the surrounding environment as well as control what enters the cell and what goes out. This serine is one of four major Phospholipids that make up part of this membrane. This lipid is found in high concentrations in the cell membrane that surrounds the hippocampus of the brain, which is associated with your memory.

How does Phosphatidyl serine supplementation benefit you?

As you age, the cells around the hippocampus also lose their potential to fully function. This makes your mental processes to slow down. Providing your body with this serine will provide material necessary to rejuvenate the cell membrane, thus improving your memory. This compound is useful in stressful situations. Some situations need you to concentrate on what you are doing and yet you may be tired.

For example, you may face an exam which needs you to be at full concentration and be alert at all times. This serine helps boost your memory and concentration, which in turn increases your focus thus improve learning. When you get stressed, your body releases cortisol which damages the tissues of the hypothalamus in your brain. To reduce the effects of this hormone, you need Phosphatidyl serine to repair the tissues that have been damaged. This helps you to retain your memory after a stressful situation.

For your body to function properly, the cell membrane surrounding various organs has to be in good health. Phosphatidyl serine will work to improve the health of various membranes, such as myelin sheaths found in the central nervous system. The compound is found in small amounts in foods such as liver and soy, therefore it is advisable to use supplements which provide a high level of the compound.


What Makes Neptune Krill Oil So Good For Your Health?

Date: March 24, 2012 05:32 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: What Makes Neptune Krill Oil So Good For Your Health?

Neptune Krill Oil

Neptune Krill Oil is a dietary supplement that is made from the a species of Krill, a small crustacean that is quite similar to a shrimp. Neptune krill oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These krills are supposed to be the largest biomass in the world and are found in the Antartic and North Pacific Oceans. While these shrimp like creatures are small in size, there is an estimate of 500mn tons of krill in the ocean. Neptune Technology has the patent for krill oil extraction and hence the krill oil that is found as supplement comes from Neptune Technologies only. As Krill form important part of the food chain, especially in the Antartic region, there have been many krill farms being setup for harvesting of krill.

Health Benefits

Krill oil has many health benefits and is used as a dietary supplement as it contains important nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids similar to those found in fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids conjugated to Phospholipids and astaxanthin. Lets us see what benefits of Neptune krill oil are:

Blood Sugar and Hyperlipidemia: Recent studies have shown the beneficial effects of krill oil in lowering blood sugar levels and totalcholesterol. Neptune Krill oil helps in lowering bad cholesterol (LDL), blood sugar, triglycerides and total cholesterol:HDL ratio. Hence it keeps your heart healthy and fit.

Premenstrual Syndrome: Neptune Krill oil is an effective and natural way to manage the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. It not just gives relief from the physical symptoms such as bloating, breast tenderness and fatigue, but also helps in controlling the emotional symptoms (irritability, stress and depression) experienced by many women during their menses.

Inflammation relief: Studies have indicated that daily intake of krill oil helps in improving the joint health and thus helps in reducing inflammation and pain of arthritis.

Reduces risk of Cancer: Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-carcinogenic properties. Consumption of Neptune krill oil could reduce the risk of cancer. Studies have even shown that krill oil helps slowing down the growth of cancerous tumors.

Fish oil versus Krill oil: Which one is better?

Fish oil vs Krill oil is the most common debate that is becoming popular among health enthusiasts. This is because both Fish oil and Krill oil are the daily nutritious supplements that are loaded with potential health benefits. In essence, both of these oils share same characteristics in terms of their composition and their properties but still the comparisons between these two healthy oils continue. Let us discuss the pros and cons of fish oil vs krill oil and compare different parameters to decide it by ourselves, which one is better?

1. Krill oil contains higher amounts of anti-oxidants (astaxanthin) that are quite beneficial for health while many manufacturers add anti-oxidants from outside in fish oil.

2. Both the oils are rich source of omega 3 fatty acids, but fish oil contains high concentration of harmful metals that can cause unwanted side-effects if consumed.

3. Fish oil is made commercially from farm raised fish, which lacks useful nutrients, whereas krill oil is made from the pristine waters of Antarctica.

Krill oil is nature's rich source of important nutrients. Neptune krill oil is a vital supplement that has many health benefits.


Lecithin And Its Brain Boosting Properties

Date: March 02, 2012 07:10 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Lecithin And Its Brain Boosting Properties


Lecithin is a group of fatty substances, which occur in the tissues of plants and animals. It composed of fatty acids, choline, phosphoric acid, triglycerides, glycolipids, B vitamins, glycerol, and Phospholipids. Liver produces this substance daily if you follow a complete nutritional diet. Lecithin is also inevitable for all cells in your body,protecting your cells from oxidation, and it is a major building block of cell membranes. It also supports the circulatory system of your body because it is a fat emulsifier too.

Its Discovery

The first isolation of lecithin was done by a French pharmacist and chemist, Theodore Gobley in 1846 and he named phosphatidylcholine Lechithine in 1850. He isolated it originally from egg yolk. Today, lecithin can very easily be extracted mechanically or chemically from soybean, grape seed, and sunflower. However, in plants, the most common source of lecithin is soybean. This substance is used for medicinal purposes and as a food supplement. Sometimes, it is used as an emulsifier in cooking for preventing sticking.

Your body gets adequate amount of lecithin from your diet because it is naturally found in foods such as soybeans, egg yolk, peanuts, yeast, legumes, fish, wheat germ, grains, etc. It is also available in the market in the form of capsules, granules, and powder. This is also used as a supplement for promoting weight loss. Besides, you can also take lecithin in the form of pill or mixed in health shakes.

Health benefits of lecithin

It is believed that lecithin is beneficial for solving a number of health problems. So it is effective for:

* Cell communication,
* Healthy skin and hair,
* Improvement in memory, reaction time and learning,
* Treatment for gallstones,
* Reproduction,
* Child development,
* Fat metabolism and transport,
* Liver and cell function,
* Cardiovascular health,
* Relief of arthritis,
* Physical performance,
* Neurological problems,
* Treatment for memory disorders,
* Muscle endurance, etc.

Brain Boosting Properties of Lecithin

The major brain chemical for improving memory is acetycholine and the deficiency of this chemical is the major cause of declining memory. This chemical can be derived from nutrient choline. Fish is a rich source of acetylcholine. It can also be obtained from eggs, nuts, peanuts, soy beans, liver, etc. Eating more egg is beneficial for enhancing your memory.

There are lots of studies has been conducted for finding the effectiveness of lecithin in improving the memory. As per the findings of experts, lecithin is highly effective for improving concentration, memory, and for preventing Alzheimer's disease and maniac depression (bipolar disorder). Lecithin helps to run your brain smoothly by improving insulation around the nerves. A major part of cell membranes consists of lecithin and it is essential for the proper functioning and growth of nerve. Organ meats and egg yolks are rich sources of lecithin but the usage of these products is very less due to the fear of cholesterol. Experts think that this is the major reason for the increase of concentration and memory problems.

If you use lecithin properly, you can improve your concentration, memory, mind and nerves.


What Makes Vectomega The Better Fish Oil Choice?

Date: October 20, 2011 01:44 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: What Makes Vectomega The Better Fish Oil Choice?

Fish Oil Whats Best?

The body requires various nutrients to be able to maintain health and prevent diseases. One of the most important nutrients that are essential to the body is the Omega-3 fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids include Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These essential fatty acids (EFA) cannot be produced by the body but can be derived from fish oils. Fatty acids are important in the growth and development of the central nervous system. It is also useful in the prevention of certain cardiovascular diseases because of its cholesterol - lowering property. One of the most popular essential fatty acid supplements is the product called Vectomega. This supplement is a natural Omega-3 fatty acid complex which consists of DHA, EPA, essential Phospholipids and amino acids.

Vectomega is an excellent supplement for individuals who do not acquire Omega-3 fatty acids in their daily regular meals. Some of its advantages are:

1. ALL NATURAL. This fatty acid supplement is completely all – natural. In addition, clinical studies revealed that it has the most level of natural oils in the commercial world of essential fatty acid supplements. This product has undergone a process which is patented and is free of synthetic chemicals. The process only utilizes natural enzymes and cold water as solvent.

2. INCREASED ABSORPTION RATE. Chemically, Vectomega has been found to be 50 times more absorbable than any other essential fatty acid supplements.

3. NO FISHY TASTE AND SMELL. Another advantage of this supplement is that though it is extracted from fish oils, it has no fishy aftertaste and won’t give you a breath smelling like you have just eaten fish for meal.

4. NO REFLUX. Unlike the other kind of fatty acid supplements, it cannot produce a disturbing gastric reflux after taking.

5. MORE SOLUBLE AND BIOAVAILABLE. It is also more soluble and is considered to be the most bio-available among the other fish oil supplements. It has been graded high in terms of active bioavailability among Omega -3 fatty acids under phospholipid reaction.

6. MORE PRACTICAL. It is a practical choice. One renowned pharmaceutical association stated that 2 tablets of Vectomega are equivalent to 12 to 16 capsules of another fish oil supplement.

7. ANTIOXIDANT. Not to mention, it is effective not only as essential fatty acid supplement but also an anti – aging agent because of its potent antioxidant property.

Vectomega have undergone many thorough clinical studies. It has been claimed to be safe and effective to supply the body with sufficient amount of essential fatty acids. However, health experts still suggest that it would be best and most safe to seek medical consultation first before starting supplementation. This would significantly prevent any untoward effects and abnormal interactions with other medications and supplements you are taking. The recommended dosage of this supplement is 2 tablets everyday for 30 days and then only one tablet daily for the next months and so on. However, if you wish, it is still safe to continue with 2 tablets per day for a more improved benefit.


Can Alpha GPC Really Help With Memory And Growth ?

Date: September 29, 2011 11:52 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Can Alpha GPC Really Help With Memory And Growth ?

What Are The Benefits Of Alpha GPC?

L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine, or abbreviated as Alpha GPC, is a natural compound which is choline in nature. It is considered to be an acetylcholine precursor which is now being studied as a treatment for the degenerative disease called Alzheimer’s disease. This chemical compound also has a parasympathomimetic property and is widely used as a nutritional supplement for enhancing memory and concentration. The other name of Alpha GPC is Choline Alfoscerate. Alpha GPC has the capacity to rapidly transport choline to the central nervous system by passing through the blood - brain barrier. Alpha GPC can be extracted from highly distilled soy Phospholipids such as lecithin. Inside the body, this chemical compound can be found in high quantity in neuronal membranes. Some of its benefits are:

1. IMPROVES ACETYLCHOLINE LEVEL. As mentioned earlier, Alpha GPC can cross the blood – brain barrier. Once inside the brain, it positively influences brain activity by enhancing the production of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which is responsible for improving the individual’s learning process. Acetylcholine acts on both the peripheral and central nervous system. In the former, this neurotransmitter functions as the main neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. It is also involved in the contraction of body muscles. In the latter, acetylcholine acts as an anti – excitatory chemical in the cholinergic system.

2. MEMBRANE COMPONENT. Another health benefit of Alpha GPC is that it can effectively protect nerve cells thus improving the transmission of impulse. Aside from maintaining the integrity of the nerves and nerve cells, Alpha GPC also serves as a precursor of the Phospholipids found on membranes.

3. INCREASE HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Studies on Alpha GPC have revealed that it can relatively influence the action of the body’s Growth Hormone – Releasing Hormone (GHrH), thus improving the release of growth hormones. In addition, it can also enhance the effects of human growth hormone especially among young individuals.

4. A MODALITY FOR DEMENTIA. Alpha GPC has been long studied for the treatment of senile dementia. Initial result of such studies revealed that patients supplemented with Alpha GPC showed improvement but on a smaller extent. Further studies are still being conducted so that efficacy and safety as well as the appropriate dosage will be determined.

5. INFLUENCES GABA. Studies reveal that Alpha GPC significantly increase the synthesis and release of Gamma Amino – Butyric Acid or GABA. Increased synthesis of GABA is also potentiated by atropine. GABA is considered as the principal inhibitory brain chemical among mammals. It has a significant role in controlling neuronal excitation all over the nervous system. Like acetylcholine, GABA is also one of the primary responsible chemicals for the control of muscle tone.

Alpha GPC is formulated as supplement. It is available in 300 to 1,200 milligram oral supplements. Though it is generally safe, it is important that you should consult your doctor first before using this supplement. This would significantly avoid the occurrence of adverse effects and drug interactions. Appropriate dosage will also be determined by your doctor. Remember, any medication or supplement varies from person to person on its therapeutic and adverse effects.


Can N-Acetyl Cysteine Boost Liver Health And Function?

Date: February 10, 2011 12:31 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Can N-Acetyl Cysteine Boost Liver Health And Function?

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) And The Liver

N-Acetyl Cysteine or NAC is an antidote for poisonous effects of paracetamol overdose. It targets the cells in the liver, raising their capacity to deal with harmful metabolites. There are a number of researches well underway that scrutinizes a variety of medical conditions for which this compound could be of use. It is a known precursor of antioxidants and in itself a scavenger of peroxides and free radicals.

Hepatocytes are the cells that take on most of the functions of the liver and account for more than 70 per cent of the liver’s total mass. These cells are responsible for the presystematic metabolism of drugs, also known as the first-pass effect, rendering most drugs innocuous before they are released into the bloodstream. The total amounts of bioactive substances that are distributed to the rest of the body are also largely regulated by hepatocytes, notably carbohydrates. In addition, they are involved in the biosynthesis of protein, cholesterol, Phospholipids, and bile salts as well as the functional reserves for protein.

Hepatocytes and Toxins

Certain drugs produce toxins when broken down by hepatocytes. A classic example is the metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde, which is a toxic compound, a probable carcinogen, and an air pollutant emitted by combustion of cars and tobacco smoking. While hepatocytes are known for their detoxifying responses to toxic substances entering the body, the metabolism of toxins actually takes up a great deal of time, resulting in certain toxins getting released into the bloodstream prior to first-pass effect.

That being said, continued exposure to toxins wears down hepatocytes, and high concentrations of what we refer to as poisons is certain to bring damage to the liver. This is what happens during overdose of paracetamol, or acetaminophen. In an effort to metabolized excessive amounts of the drug, the liver cells produce by-products that are essentially poisons, which under normal circumstances can be contained well.

NAC and Glutathione Production

The major antioxidant synthesized by the human body called glutathione comes to the liver’s defense when toxic by-products are produced. Hepatocytes in particular are so dependent on glutathione in the quenching of toxins that it has been observed that any challenge to the manufacture of this endogenous antioxidant will ultimately result in liver failure.

Glutathione is released by hepatocytes in large amounts especially during the metabolism of alcohol and drugs, but during overdose the ravaging activities of ethanol or drug metabolites overwhelm the detoxifying effects of antioxidant reserves in the body. Simply put, the defense mechanisms in the employ of the body have limits. NAC resolves this problem.

The presence of NAC in the body augments the liver’s ability to produce the needed amounts of glutathione to effectively counter the harmful properties of invasive substances. In fact, the liver completely recuperates in a matter of weeks even after life-threatening conditions given that NAC is introduced in the human body in time to avoid subsequent damages to other vital organs. Indeed its application has proven to save lives in fatal cases of paracetamol poisoning.

N-Acetyl Cysteine is available at your local or internet vitamin store in capsule or tablet forms. Always choose name brands like Source Naturals to ensure quality and purity of the product you buy for better liver health.

Have you had your NAC today?



Date: May 02, 2009 11:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: L-Methionine

Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning that it is not synthesized by the body, and so has to be taken as part of your diet. It also contains sulfur, one of two sulfur-containing amino acids that can form proteins, the other being cysteine. It is a precursor for taurine, which is an aminosulphonic acid, and not strictly an amino acid, which together with cysteine supports the health of your cardiovascular system and helps to eliminate toxins from the body.

Maintenance of Cell Membranes

It is also an important intermediary in the maintenance of cell membranes. Phospholipids are fat-soluble components of the cell membrane, phosphatidylcholine being a very important example. Also known as lecithin, this substance is derived from choline, itself biosynthesized in a chemical pathway involving S-adenosylmethionine.

This substance is made in the body from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and methionine with the help of the enzyme methionine adensosyltransferase. Known as SAM (or SAM-e), S-adenosylmethionine employs a number of metabolic pathways in its reaction, though generally aminopropylation, transmethylation and transsulfuration. These add aminopropyl, sulfo and methyl groups to a number of substances, the most common being the methylation of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.

Phosphatidylcholine is produced by the enzyme-catalyzed sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, SAM donating the methyl groups. The maintenance of the integrity of the cellular membrane by phosphatidylcholine is critical to all of the basic processes in human biology, including communication between cells, flow of information and bioenergetics.

A by-product of this reaction is homocysteine, formed in the liver from the S-adenosylhomocysteine that SAM is changed to after donating methyl groups. Excess homocysteine in the blood can create the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. SAM is also of use in the treatment of depression and of arthritis.

Muscle Development

Creatine is a substance well known to athletes as being useful in provide short-term energy for high-intensity training. Although available in the diet, about 50% creatine used by the body is biosynthesized from methionine and two other amino acids, glycine and arginine. It allows a burst of energy lasting about 10 seconds, carried out without the use of glycogen reserves or fatty tissue.

Glycine and arginine combine to release ornithine as a by-product, and form guanidino acetate. SAM donates a methyl group to the latter to form creatine, about 95% of which is then stored in the skeletal muscle tissue. The stored creatine phosphate has the effect of allowing the muscle cells to hold more water, which also enables an enhanced level of protein synthesis, and hence an increase in muscle bulk, which also results from the increased blood flow resulting from the short-term high-intensity exercise that creatine allows.

Creatine can also increase the levels of MRF4 (myogenic transcription factor), resulting in an increasing in the myonuclei provided by satellite cells to damaged muscle tissue, that not only repair damaged muscle fibers, but also increase their ability to grow.

Detoxification of the Liver

Substances that help the liver to process fats, or lipids, are known as lipotropic, and the important lipotropics in human biochemistry are imositol, betaine, choline and methionine. They prevent fat from accumulating in the liver, and methionine is also useful in its effect of glutathione. This is a substance that helps the liver to neutralize toxins, such as excessive doses of acetaminophen, and its supplies are regulated by methionine.

Methionine and Autism

Research into autism is closely studying the Methionine/Glutathione Transsulfuration Pathway. This pathway is a very important biochemical means of detoxification, whereby toxins are methylated and then excreted. This pathway seems to be disrupted in autistic individuals.

Not only that, but disruption can lead to oxidative stress which results in many health problems. An example of this is the build-up of the oxidant homocysteine when there is insufficient Vitamin B6 to convert it into cysteine. This has been discussed previously, and is discussed again below.

Miscellaneous Benefits

Although research is in its infancy, it appears that AIDS sufferers also have decreased levels of methionine in their blood. It is believed that the process of AIDS could be linked to this, particularly the dementia that can occur as a result of the deterioration of the nervous system.

It is also hoped that it can help with some symptoms of Parkinson's disease, and pancreatitis. Initial research into this use of methionine has been very promising, as are studies into its use for urinary tract infections. It appears to operate like cranberry in this respect, preventing bacteria from attaching to the cell walls and multiplying in the urinary tract.

Methionine is believed to be essential for the formation of collagen, and for healthy pliable skin, hair, nails and other forms of connective tissue. For this reason it is often used as a supplement for the treatment of arthritis, although an excess should be avoided for reasons discussed above. S-Adenosylmethionine generates homocysteine during the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, and this can cause cardiovascular problems.

So stick to the recommended doses when you use methionine as a supplement. Used properly, and according to instructions, it offers many health benefits, and can also be used to bulk up your muscle tissue and give increased energy when you need it most.

Dietary sources include fish, eggs, lentils, onions, garlic, meat, seeds, spinach and yoghurt. A good supplement would be from 800mg - 1000mg per day, and is best taken along with a B vitamin complex, or at least folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12, in order to prevent the increased generation of homocysteine.

Methionine also promotes the excretion of estrogen, so is a possible supplement for women on oral contraceptives that lower the production of this hormone. The elderly might also benefit from a supplement although, if taken for any specific condition, your health professional should be consulted first, as they should be for any supplement.

Nevertheless, methionine is a very useful supplement, and can be taken to prevent a large number of conditions. Research is continuing on its effect on AIDS patients, and Parkinson's, and it is hopeful that it will one day be recommended to help people suffering from these conditions.


PhosphatidylSerine/DHA Optimized

Date: May 28, 2008 03:25 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: PhosphatidylSerine/DHA Optimized

Phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid, and DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, are major components of cell membranes, particularly the membranes of nerve cells. They facilitate the electric signals that are the basis of neuron communication, supporting memory, mood, concentration, stress control and other cognitive functions. This DHA conjugate form of PS is believed to increase the delivery of this vital compound to the brain, supporting advanced brain protection and enhanced cell function.

• PhosphatidylSerine is a phospholipid essential to the brain’s structure and function. DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid, well known for supporting healthy cognitive function.

• The combination of PS and DHA is designed to function like animal Phospholipids: supporting healthy cognitive function including memory, learning, comprehension, and word recall.

• With Phospatidylserine/Dha Optimized, P-S from soy is conjoined with DHA from fish oil. This replicates our natural, healthy neuron membranes.

1 capsule contains:
Vitamin C (naturally occurring) 2 mg
Sharp-PS™ Gold 222 mg
Proprietary Soybean Extract and Fish Oil Conjugate Yielding: 45%
Phosphatidylserine 100 mg
Total DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) 8 mg
Conjugated DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) 5 mg

Suggested Use: 1 capsule three times daily with meals for the first 8 weeks, then 1 capsule daily with a meal thereafter.



Date: May 13, 2008 04:52 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: VectOmega

Vectomega uses a patented biological innovation that extracts naturally occurring marine Phospholipids with the omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA. Very high yields of marine oil extraction are obtained from a proprietary enzymatic process of proteinaceous tissues found in the salmon heads. This enzymatic reaction is carried out in less than an hour in an inert atmosphere at a temperature lower than 60°C. The full amount of oil can be extracted using this patented process while keeping the marine oil’s natural proportions and composition. This patented innovation, called vectorization, uses a gentle, cold water and enzyme process, avoiding heat, solvents, and chemical modifications that are utilized to process other fish oils. This is a very advanced and "green" technology that delivers a great natural representation.


Neptune Krill Oil - EPA and DHA Rich!

Date: July 02, 2007 12:43 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Neptune Krill Oil - EPA and DHA Rich!

Complete List of Now Vitamins Starting at 40% OFF.

The oil of Atlantic Krill, a zooplankton crustacean, contains one of the most unique nutrient profiles ever discovered. In addition to rich concentrations of EPA and DHA, krill also boasts an impressive amount of Phospholipids, all-trans retinol vitamin A, natural vitamin E, and omega-9 fatty acids. The oil is an excellent source of esterified astaxanthin—a powerful, immune supporting carotenoid that has been clinically proven to quench singlet oxygen radicals within cell membranes. The potent arrangement of naturally occurring compounds exhibits strong synergist properties that support and protect many of the body’s most vital system.*

At the most basic level, krill oil contains compounds that the body needs in order to construct healthy cell membranes. By nature, omega-3 essential fatty acids can be particularly sensitive to oxidation. Atlantic krill, however, contain antioxidants and Carotenoids that bind to these fatty acids, thus improving the biological stability. Accordingly, studies have shown that as much as 95% - 95% of the EPA and DHA in krill oil is capable of being absorbed for use throughout the body.

Among its most impressive qualities, Neptune Krill Oil contains Phospholipids that are rich in EPA and DHA, and structurally similar to those produced by the human brain. The most significant include phosphatidyl Choline, phosphatidyl Inositol, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Researchers believe that their unique structure and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier make it possible for those compounds to support brain and cognitive health.* Now Vitamins Neptune Krill Oil is manufactured under the strict quality control, and tested to be free of potentially harmful levels of mercury and other heavy metals, PCB’s, dioxins and other contaminants.

100% Pure Neptune Krill Oil
Support Joint Health and Cardiovascular Function*
And Excellent Source of Antioxidants

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Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Date: February 12, 2006 01:55 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Benefits of Acetyl-L-Carnitine


Supports cognitive function*

ALC has been studied for its effect on cognitive performance and emotional health in the elderly. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 481 elderly subjects exhibiting mild memory impairment improved their scores on a memory test after taking 1500 mg of ALC a day for 90 days.2 Hospitalized elderly people taking ALC have shown improvements in mental outlook.3 While ALC is not a treatment or cure for Alzheimer's disease, double-blind studies suggest it may help slow the rate at which early-stage Alzheimer's patients deteriorate.4 In particular, ALC seems to benefit short-term memory in these patients.5

Supports biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for brain and nerve function* Brain function requires coordinated communication between brain cells. Brain and nerve cells ("neurons") communicate across tiny cell-to-cell gaps called "synapses." The passage of an electrical impulse from one neuron to the next requires a "neurotransmitter." When an electrical signal arrives at the synaptic junction, the neuron releases a neurotransmitter into the synapse. The neuron on the other side of the synapse contains receptors for the neurotransmitter; these receptors bind the neurotransmitter, triggering a series of chemical events that sends a new electrical signal down the membrane of the receiving neuron. Neurotransmitters work together like an orchestra to transmit information throughout the brain and nervous system. Acetylcholine is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the body, regulating activities of vital organs, blood vessels and communication between nerves and muscles. In the brain, acetylcholine helps facilitate memory and learning as well as influence emotions. ALC is structurally similar to acetylcholine, and brain neurons stimulated by acetylcholine are receptive to stimulation by ALC.6 It has been shown experimentally that ALC supplies acetyl groups for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.7 ALC's hypothesized cholinomimetic (acts like acetylcholine) activity has led researchers to investigate its effects on mental function and emotional health.8

Helps supply the brain with energy by improving energetics in the mitochondrion*

The acetyl groups donated by ALC can be used to synthesize acetyl-CoA, the key substrate for energy metabolism in the mitochondrion. 9 Acetyl-CoA enters the Krebs cycle, the mitochondrial mechanism that generates cellular energy in the form of ATP. ALC easily crosses the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to play various roles in maintaining brain neuron (nerve cell) function. When given by oral administration, the concentration of ALC is increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.10

Stabilizes intracellular membranes*

ALC was found to improve membrane phospholipid metabolism in early-stage Alzheimer's patients.11 Phospholipids are structural components of brain cell membranes that regulate neuron function. ALC donates acetyl groups that can be used to modify the functional activity of proteins in neuronal membranes.12 ALC thus plays a role in maintaining membrane function. ALC also increases membrane stability and structural integrity.13

Increases nerve growth factor production*

The body produces various specialized proteins called "growth factors" which are essential to growth and repair of tissue. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) protects neurons from death, prolonging survival of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is theorized that aging of the central nervous system is associated with a loss of NGF. ALC has shown the ability to reverse age-related decrease in the binding of NGF to its receptors in neuron membranes.14 Given to aged rats, ALC increases the level and utilization of NGF in the rats. ALC protects cholinergic neurons (nerve cells stimulated by acetylcholine) in rats from degeneration due to lack of NGF.15 These results, together with other data from animal studies, suggest that ALC positively influences NGF activity.16

Has a protective influence on brain neurons*

Several animal studies have revealed that ALC exerts a protective effect on neurons. In one experiment, brain cells from rats exposed to NMDA, a known neurotoxin, were protected by being simultaneously exposed to ALC.17 Rats injected with ALC were protected from mortality caused by the neurotoxin MPP+.18 ALC has been shown to raise levels of glutathione, a highly valuable antioxidant, in isolated mouse brain tissue.19 ALC prevents buildup of malondyhaldeyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation.20 ALC is also a chelator of iron, which can generate free radicals. It also reinforces antioxidant mechanisms in the brain.21 As a whole, data from test tube and animal studies, showing that ALC has a protective, restorative effect on brain neurons and neuronal energetic processes, suggest that ALC is an anti-aging nutrient for the brain. This hypothesis is supported by human studies demonstrating measurable benefits for brain function in elderly persons taking ALC by oral consumption.

Suggested Adult Use: 1 to 4 capsules daily.
ALC is considered safe and well-tolerated when consumed orally. ALC has been administered in doses as high as 3 grams per day for periods of two to six months, with no reports of serious side effects. Some patients have experienced occasional mild abdominal discomfort, nausea, skin rash, restlessness, vertigo and headache. The severity and incidence of these side effects are reported as minor.22

Scientific References
1. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
2. Salvioli, G. Neri , M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1994; 20(4):169-76.
3. Tempesta, E, et al. L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs. placebo. Drugs Exptl. Clin. Res. 1987;8(7):417-23.
4. Spagnoli, A et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1991;41:1726-32.
5. Rai, G et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Curr. Med Res. Opin. 1990;11:638-47.
6. Falchetto, S, Kato, G, Provini, L. The action of carnitines on cortical neurons. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1971; 49(1):1:7.
7. Dolezal, V., Tucek, S. Utilization of citrate, acetylcarnitine, acetate, pyruvate and glucose for the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat brain slices. J Neurochem 1981;36(4):1323.30.
8. Passeri, M, et al. Mental impairment in aging: selection of patients, methods of evaluation and therapeutic possibilities of acetyl-L-carnitine. Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. 1988;8(5):367-76.
9. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
10. Parnetti, L, et al. Pharmacokinetics of IV and oral acetyl-L-carnitine in multiple dose regimen in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Eur. J. Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:89-93.
11. Pettegrew, JW, et al. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging 1995;16(1):1-4.
12. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
13. Arduni, A, et al. Effect of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on the human erythrocyte membrane stability and deformability. Life Sci 1990;47(26):2395-2400.
14. Taglialatela, G, et al. Stimulation of nerve growth factor receptors in PC12 by acetyl-L-carnitine. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44(3):577-85.
15. Taglialatela, G, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment increases nerve growth factor levels and choline acetyltransferase activity in the central nervous system of aged rats. Exp Gerontol 1994;29(1):55-56.
16. Pettegrew, JW, Levine, J, McClure, RJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression. Molecular Psychiatry 2000;5:616-32.
17. Forloni, G, Angeretti, N, Smiroldo, S. Neuroprotective activity of acetyl-L-carnitine: studies in vitro. J Neurosci Res 1994;37(1):92-6.
18. Steffen, V, et al. Effect of intraventricular injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: protection by acetyl-L-carnitine. Hum Exp Toxicol 1995;14(11):865-71.
19. Fariello, RG, et al. Systemic acetyl-L-carnitine elevates nigral levels of glutathione and GABA. Life Sci 1988;43(3):289-92.
20. Calvani, M, et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ny Acad Sci 1992;663:483-86.
21. Calvani, M, Carta, A. Clues to the mechanism of action of acetyl-L-carnitine in the central nervous system. Dementia 1991;2:1-6.
22. Zdanowicz, M. Acetyl-L-carnitine's healing potential. Continuing Education Module. New Hope Institute of Retailing. October, 2001.

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Best Acetyl-L-Carnitine
Best Acetyl-L-Carnitine


Omega man

Date: January 21, 2006 01:10 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Omega man

Omega Man is the ideal essential fatty acid and plant phytochemical formula to support optimal health, life and vitality at any age. From the athletic pursuits of your early 20’s to the health concerns of your 50’s, 60’s, and beyond, Omega Man is your answer. Let Omega Man unlock the door to a new, more vibrant, healthier you.

The Omega Man Formula

Organic Flaxseed Oil
Barlean’s award-winning organic flaxseed oil makes up the base of this formula providing the richest and freshest source of essential omega-3 fatty acid essential for overall health and vitality.

Omega Man contains high-in-lignan flaxseed particulate. Numerous studies have reported on the role of lignans in support of heart and hormonal health including the preservation of healthy prostate tissue. Lignans once abundant in a whole foods, plant based diet are now sparse in our modern-day diet making supplementation so important.

Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil
Barlean’s went to the edge of the earth to procure the seeds of a rare and unique pumpkin found only in the region of southeast Austria. It is reputed for its extraordinary and high levels of phytosterols, important super vitamins that have been shown to speed exercise recovery, soothe painful joints, and increase vitality. Phytosterols are also important in the support of heart and prostate health.

Phospholipid Concentrates
Phospholipids are an important component of every single cell in your body. Phospholipid supplementation has been shown to promote heart, digestive, liver, immune and brain health. Omega Man delivers the ideal dosage of Phospholipids for your good health.

Plant Phytosterol Complex
Phytosterols are all natural plant chemicals derived primarily from seed oils. Omega Man contains three important types of phytosterols—Beta Sitosterol, Campesterol, and Stigmasterol. These powerhouses are important for the healthy support of the prostate, colon, and cardiovascular system. Phytosterols are also a favorite of high performance athletes.

Organic flaxseed oil, organic flaxseed particulate, styrian pumpkin seed oil, Phospholipids concentrates, plant phytosterols, rosemary/ascorbic acid blend. Free of Genetically Modified Organisms.

Buy Barlean's at Vitanet ®



Date: December 21, 2005 11:04 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (

“To the dull mind, nature is leaden. To the illumined mind, the whole world burns and sparkles with light.” Ralph Waldo Emerson

From the moment we rise to the moment we rest, our brain is in a decision-making frenzy. When we’re thirsty, our brain tells us that we need water. When we’re hungry, it reminds us that we have a refrigerator full of food. When we’re tired, it lets us know that we need to sleep, and so on. But despite the thousands of decisions we make everyday, our brain still hasn’t figured out a way to let us know what it needs to func¬tion.

Though ironic, this raises a very serious issue. The human brain, like every other organ in the body, demands nutrition - period. Unfortunately, it leaves that up to us to figure out. Thanks to notable advance¬ments in research, we’re finally learning which nutri¬ents are most important for optimal brain function. Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a perfect example. This naturally occurring phospholipid has been the subject of numerous studies regarding its ability to boost cognitive function and delay (or potentially reverse) memory deterioration, and suggests that PS may be able to increase the effectiveness of neural transmissions. Interestingly, PS accounts for roughly 15% of the brain’s phospholipid supply. This is enor¬mous because Phospholipids play a significant role in the billions of neurotransmissions that take place every second. Yes, billions.

Brain cells are constantly communicating with one another, and send astonishing amounts of impulses throughout the nervous system. This is accomplished via neurotransmitters - chemical messengers that send and receive impulses over the synapses of the brain and throughout the body. Mentally, we’re function¬ing at our best when these cells are well nourished. We can think more clearly, recall memories with ease and operate with greater efficiency. However, a de¬ficiency in neural-nutrients can prevent these mind messengers from functioning as they should. For¬tunately, PS has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier to deliver critical nutrients and remove mind-slowing waste.

Consider this. The brain functions in the same man¬ner that a major airport does around the holidays. There are millions of actions taking place. Impulses departing, nutrients arriving, endless communication, the occasional problem and more reactions than any¬one could possibly count. There’s confusion, delay and emotion, not to mention the endless series of transmissions that take place every second. Imagine PS as that ultra-motivated employee who shows up to work everyday anxious to expedite everything in sight. It helps neural travelers get to and from their respec¬tive gates, ensures that they have everything they need, simplifies processes that could result in breakdown, and clears isles that are cluttered with junk. Simply stated, PS is the brain’s overachieving go-getter.

PS can help us think more clearly.

It’s 3:06 in the afternoon and you’re scrambling to get to a meeting that you’re already late for. That fluster could be the result of poor neurotransmission caused by a deficiency in essential nutrients like PS. Moreover, these innocent brain-bursts can exhaust our PS reserves, leaving us somewhere hovering be¬tween frantic and sluggish. Every impulse, thought, action, reaction, movement, emotion and desire is the end result of neurotransmitters in action. PS is a major supporter of these actions. Therefore, as we increase the amount of PS in our system, we gain the ability to think and act with greater ease.

PS can reduce the adverse impacts of stress on our body and mind.

What do we do when we’re down in the dumps? While plopping down on the sofa with a snack might be an easy solution, it comes with a price. Not only does stress interfere with mood, but it can also inspire inactivity, over-eating and sluggishness. This is due largely in part to cortisol - a catabolic hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to emotional stress. Studies done to determine the effectiveness of PS on cortisol suppression have shown that it works by suppressing the hormones that produce cortisol. As a result, supplementing with PS may be able to help reduce the amount of stress related hormones that ultimately leave us singing the blues.

PS can expedite post workout recovery time.

Endurance athletes who carefully monitor their body’s response levels are increasingly turning to PS. Immediately following strenuous activity, the body responds by releasing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) – a hormone that discourages testosterone and encourages cortisol. By limiting ACTH pro¬duction, PS reduces the amount of muscle tissue breakdown that occurs during exercise. A common misconception is that muscles grow during exercise - wrong. In fact, muscles are torn down during ex¬ercise and grow in-between workouts – hence the term recovery. During recovery, PS helps prevent the activity of growth-inhibiting hormones. This helps athletes recover faster so their gains are realized more quickly.

In short, Phosphatidyl Serine appears to be a completely safe and beneficial dietary supple¬ment that can offer a wide range of physical and mental health benefits. NOW® Phosphatidyl Serine is derived from soy leci¬thin, and includes Choline and Inositol – two metabolites that work synergistically to help in¬crease circulation and cognitive response.

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SAMe (S-Adenosylmethionine)

Date: December 17, 2005 09:42 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: SAMe (S-Adenosylmethionine)

Supports Healthy Nervous System and Joint Function Vital For Over 35 Biochemical Reactions Necessary For Optimum Health Promotes a Healthy Mood

As the building blocks of protein, amino acids are vital to health. Next to water, amino acids in the form of proteins make up the greatest portion of our body weight. They comprise tendons, muscles and ligaments; organs and glands; hair and nails; important bodily fluids, and are a necessary part of every cell in the body.

There are over 20 amino acids, separated into two categories – essential and non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be manufactured by your body, hence, it is essential that you obtain them from your diet. Non-essential amino acids can be manufactured by your body, however, your body must have the right combination of essential amino acids and supporting nutrients to optimize healthy protein maintenance, so supplementation may be desirable.

Amino acids are not only absolutely integral to life, they can have a profound impact upon how clearly we think and how well we feel.

SAMe (S-Adenosylmethionine)

SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) is a naturally occurring combination of the amino acid methionine and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the body’s primary energy molecule. In this form it is sometimes referred to as “active methionine”. Research indicates that SAMe plays a vital role in nervous system health and normal cognitive function.*

SAMe may support nervous system function by increasing the synthesis and recycling of certain neurotransmitters and enhancing the sensitivity of nerve receptors. SAMe is believed to positively affect a number of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and norepinephrine. Although the mechanism for SAMe’s impact upon neural function is not fully understood, there is no doubt that SAMe’s capacity as a methyl donor is of critical importance.

As a methyl donor SAMe assists the body in the creation of complex organic compounds necessary for normal healthy function. Your body uses these new compounds for numerous purposes, including brain function and detoxification. This process, known as methylation or transmethylation, is vital to your body’s maintenance. SAMe may be the most effective of all methyl donors discovered to date. Research has shown that SAMe is the only methyl donor with the potential to increase transmethylation in the brain, which helps to protect it from homocysteine damage as well as increasing production of glutathione, one of the body’s most effective antioxidants.

Research into the biosynthesis of SAMe has established a clear link between SAMe and folic acid, or folate. Folic Acid has been proven to provide support for healthy nervous system function and a healthy mood, and researchers believe these two nutrients work together to beneficially affect monoamine systems, which directly affect mood and cognitive function.* SAMe has also been shown to improve the synthesis of Phospholipids for use in the brain, probably one of the most beneficial effects SAMe has on brain health. The benefits of SAMe extend beyond the brain and throughout the human body. For example, it may also aid in the repair of myelin, the sheath of fatty material that surrounds nerves and nerve cells everywhere in our nervous system. It’s found in all human tissue and organs and is available for use by your body in over 35 different biochemical reactions necessary for optimal health.

SAMe may support joint health through transulfuration, a process that takes a certain amount of sulfur from SAMe to create glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates. This enhances proteoglycan synthesis, the molecule responsible for keeping articular (joint) cartilage lubricated. As mentioned earlier, SAMe is also important for the production of glutathione, a powerful free radical scavenger that defends your body from toxic agents and is necessary for liver detoxification.

SAMe was first isolated in 1952 by G.L. Cantoni at the Laboratory of Cellular Pharmacology at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Four years later, Cantoni and a co-worker found that SAMe synthesis involves methionine and ATP. They also found that it exists in the human body only temporarily, making production in a supplemental form difficult. It took nearly ten years until improvements in technology permitted SAMe research to advance. With the discovery of a method to stabilize SAMe that overcame these manufacturing problems, U.S. patents were granted to allow the production of SAMe in a stabilized form.

SAMe in its ion form, as found in human cells, has a very short life span and is rapidly metabolized into other necessary compounds as needed. Therefore, it must be manufactured in a stabilized form to prevent rapid degradation as a supplement. Once tableted, it must be enteric coated to preserve stability.

This technology was not readily available until the 1990’s, hence SAMe’s long road to mainstream popularity. Dr. Joseph Zhou, Director of Laboratory Methods here at NOW, is credited with significantly improving the analytical methodology used to assure potency levels in supplemental SAMe. His work is one of the reasons SAMe is available as a supplemental with stable, guaranteed

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Omega Man - For Men Interested in Optimal Health

Date: August 12, 2005 11:10 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Omega Man - For Men Interested in Optimal Health

Omega Man

For Men Interested in Optimal Health, Vitality and Staying Young

Scientists have discovered the key that unlocks the door to a longer life, healthy weight, optimal athletic performance, and overall well-being. That key is composed of essential fats, called omega-3 fatty acids. You need these fats to balance the effects of the male hormone testosterone. Found in flax, pumpkin seeds, and other plants, omega-3 fats are essential to well-being, vitality, and optimal fitness; yet most men are deficient in the omega-3s.

The low-fat and nonfat fads of the 1980s and 1990s taught nutrition experts a lot about the importance of omega-3 fats. As food manufacturers created one nonfat product after another, a strange thing happened- men got fatter and heart disease rates jumped.

Since then, experts at research institutions including Harvard and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have linked nonfat diets with depression, heart disease, weight gain, and poor physical performance.

We now know that all fats are not created equal. Although some fats are indeed bad for our health, other fats are essential to overall health, vitality, and well-being. Most men, however, over consume the wrong fats- those found in processed foods and animal products- and do not consume enough of the right fats. To make matters worse, the good omega-3s are dwindling from the food supply. Food processing has stripped this important fat from our foods, making supplementation necessary.

Thankfully, Omega Man from Barlean’s Organic Oils, a new whole food concentrate for men, will help reduce the risk of some of the most deadly and common men’s health problems. All men will benefit from Omega Man. Its blend of essential fats from flax, Styrian pumpkin seeds, and other sources complement one another, providing the optimal mix of the right types of fats, which promises to promote health and vitality no matter what your age.

From the athletic pursuits of your early twenties to the health concerns of your fifties and beyond, Omega Man is an important part of a man’s healthy diet and will unlock the door to a new, more vibrant, healthier you.

Recently, we’ve begun to report on the importance of certain men’s power foods and nutrients. By putting optimal amounts of these into men’s diets, men can ensure greater health and longevity.

Super Health Blend

Omega Man’s unique blend of flax, pumpkin and other fatty acid sources is an optimal formula for men’s health and vitality.

Organic Flaxseed Oil

Barlean’s award-winning organic omega-3 and lignan-rich flaxseed oil makes up the base of this formula and provides the richest and best-absorbed source of omega-3 fatty acids available. Other popular sources of omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, may contain contaminants such as mercury and industrial chemicals. Barlean’s flaxseed oil, on the other hand, comes from organic seeds grown in optimal conditions with no chemicals, pesticides, or other contaminants. You can feel safe knowing that all of Barlean’s flaxseed oil products, including Omega Man, are pure and fresh. They help you promote optimal health without polluting your body.


In addition to omega-3 fatty acids, Barlean’s lignan-rich flax oil is one of the world’s richest sources of lignans, important plant chemicals that act like hormones in the body. Lignans have been shown to bind to existing hormones in the body, bringing your hormones into the optimal balance needed for good health. Few men consume the amount of lignans needed to promote hormonal balance, making supplementation so important.

Lignans serve in the body to block two critical enzyme systems that serve to initiate prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The first is aromatase, an enzyme that converts testosterone to a powerful testosterone derivative that is five times more powerful than its precursor in promoting prostatic disease. The second is 5-alpha reductase, and enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen. Despite popular belief, estrogen is much more powerful in provoking prostate disease than testosterone. In fact, the ratio of testosterone to estrogen begins to weigh in favor of estrogen in the aging male. As testosterone levels decline with age, estrogen levels appear to remain relatively stable. Compared to younger men, the ratio of estrogen to testosterone is up to 40 percent higher in older men.

Breakthrough research is implicating the imbalance between testosterone to estrogen as a primary cause of prostate disease. Flying in the face of past misconceptions, it would actually serve the aging male to increase testosterone at the expense of estrogen. It appears that this is exactly what lignans do in blocking the enzyme necessary for converting testosterone to estrogen. When the enzyme is blocked, testosterone is spared because it is not being converted to estrogen. In what you could visualize as a seesaw-like action, the ratio of testosterone to estrogen begins to move back in favor of testosterone.

The action of lignans in sparing testosterone may hold greater implications than the obvious. Lack or loss of sexual desire in men and women is oftentimes associated with low testosterone levels. By preserving testosterone, many men and women may be able to retain or regain their sexual vigor. In fact, agents that block the conversion of testosterone to estrogen have been showing to increase testosterone levels by as much as 10 percent. (Speaking of sexuality, the surgical treatment of choice for prostatic disease (prostectomy) is the leading cause of impotency in men over 50. This fact alone should be powerful motivation for men of all ages to consider a supplemental regime to include lignans to lower the incidence of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy.)

The full significance of a “high-in-lignan” diet may be realized by the fact that lignans have been found isolated within prostatic fluids. Analytical work performed at a prominent cancer research center has indicated that the level of lignan in expressed prostatic fluid can be remarkable high, suggesting that it could well exercise a physiologic role within the gland. The glandular cells are certainly bathed in prostatic secretion for some considerable period, during which they could well influence cell biology. It has been established that the higher the intake of dietary lignans, the higher the physiologic lignan concentration in urine, blood plasma and prostatic secretions. The inference here is that the more dietary lignans that are ingested the more protection is offered in bathing the prostate gland in fluids high in protective lignans.

Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil

Barlean’s went to the edge of the earth to procure the seeds of a rare and unique pumpkin found only in the region of southeast Austria. It is reputed for its extraordinary wealth of vitamins A, C, E, and K and high levels of phytosterols, all important for reducing risk of enlarged prostate and in the fight again cancer and heart disease.

Phospholipid Concentrate

Nearly every part of your body, from your internal organs to your cell membranes to your brain, contains Phospholipids. Phospholipid supplementation has been shown to promote heart, digestive, liver, and brain health. Omega Man contains the optimal amounts of Phospholipids for your health.

Plant Phytosterol Complex

Omega man is a rich source of the plant phytosterols betasitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. If men have not begun to put phytosterols into their diet, then they’re missing out on an important natural food constituent that offers protection against toe most common cancers, that is an excellent remedy for enlarges prostate, and lowers cholesterol. Phytosterols are used widely in Europe to treat enlarge prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) and are known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease by interfering with cholesterol absorption. Omega Man contains an optimal blend.

Vitanet ®


Quercetin and Bromelain - for better health.

Date: July 04, 2005 10:28 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (
Subject: Quercetin and Bromelain - for better health.

  • Maintains Tissue Comfort by Regulating Enzymes*
  • Helps Maintain Normal Blood Viscosity*
  • Bromelain May Enhance Quercetin Absorption
  • Benefits

    Down-regulates the Body’s Response to Environmental Challenges Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family, a diverse group of low molecular-weight compounds found throughout the plant kingdom. Flavonoids exhibit numerous biological activities, many of which are directly beneficial to human health. Quercetin, which belongs to the “flavonol” subgroup, is one of the most versatile and important flavonoids. Quercetin has a broad range of activity, much of which stems from its interaction with calmodulin, a calcium-regulatory protein.1 Calmodulin transports calcium ions across cellular membranes, initiating numerous cellular processes. Quercetin appears to act as a calmodulin antagonist.1 Through this mechanism, quercetin functions at the cell-membrane level with a membrane-stabilizing action.2 Quercetin inhibits calmodulin-dependent enzymes present at cell membranes such as ATPases and phospholipase, thereby influencing membrane permeability.3 Quercetin affects other calmodulin-dependent enzymes that control various cellular functions, including the secretion of histamine from mast cells.4 A number of investigations have corroborated quercetin’s ability to reduce histamine secretion from mast cells in various tissues, and also from basophils.5,6,7,8,9,10

    Quercetin modifies the body’s response to antigenic substances.* Suppression of histamine secretion from mast cells is one of quercetin’s most clinically important effects. Quercetin acts on ATPase at the membranes of histamine-containing granules in mast cells.3 Mast-cell degranulation and subsequent release of histamine into the bloodstream is an integral part of the body’s response to environmental challenges.

    Maintains Tissue Comfort by Regulating Enzymes*

    Quercetin’s enzyme-inhibiting action extends to enzymes such as phospholipase, which catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid from Phospholipids stored in cell membranes.4,10 Arachidonic acid serves as the key substrate for substances such as thromboxanes, inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In addition, quercetin inhibits the enzymes cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, which catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into its metabolites.4,10,11,12 Reducing levels of these metabolites, as well as histamine levels, is beneficial in maintaining the normal comfort level of body tissues and structures.

    Quercetin has also been shown to limit the function of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.13 Adhesion molecules are involved in physiologic processes that influence tissue comfort.13

    Bromelain is a complex substance derived from the pineapple stem largely composed of proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzymes. Bromelain acts by a variety of mechanisms to help maintain tissues in a normal state of comfort.14,15 Several investigators, including Taussig16 and Ako, et. al.,17 have presented evidence that bromelain is a fibrinolytic agent, i.e., it induces the breakdown of fibrin, a plasma protein that blocks tissue drainage. The generally accepted mechanisms involve direct proteolysis of fibrin by bromelain and activation of plasmin, a serum protease.16 Plasmin acts on fibrinogen (the precursor to fibrin), forming peptides which stimulate PGE1, a prostaglandin that helps maintain tissue comfort.16

    Helps Maintain Health of Blood Vessels by Modifying Oxidation of LDL Cholesterol* — Quercetin’s Antioxidant Action Quercetin is a versatile and effective antioxidant that scavenges a variety of free-radicals such as hydroxyl and lipid peroxy radicals.18 Quercetin also chelates ions of transition metals such as iron, which can initiate formation of oxygen free radicals.18 LDL cholesterol is vulnerable to oxidation by lipid peroxides. Oxidized LDL is absorbed by macrophages and arterial endothelial cells, leading to the formation of “foam cells,” and eventually plaque deposits, in arterial walls. Quercetin has been shown to protect LDL from oxidation, both by lipid peroxides and transition metal ions.19

    Helps Maintain Normal Blood Viscosity*

    Quercetin inhibits blood platelet aggregation (clumping), by potentiating PGI2, an anti-aggregatory prostaglandin, and by raising platelet cyclic AMP levels.20 Human studies have revealed that bromelain also reduces platelet aggregation.21 These properties qualify both quercetin and bromelain as valuable dietary ingredients for maintaining cardiovascular health.*

    Bromelain May Enhance Quercetin Absorption

    In addition to the actions described above that support the effects of quercetin, bromelain may also assist the absorption of quercetin in the G.I. tract. (Quercetin is generally believed to be poorly absorbed, although a recent study by Hollman et. al.,22 which concluded that humans do in fact absorb appreciable amounts of quercetin, contradicts this assumption.) Studies have shown that bromelain enhances absorption of antibiotics, presumably by increasing permeability of the gut wall.23, 24 Given that quercetin is a low molecular-weight compound, it is plausible that simultaneously ingested bromelain likewise enhances quercetin absorption.

  • *This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
  • Scientific References

    1. Nishino, H., et. al., “Quercetin interacts with calmodulin, a calcium regulatory protein.” Experientia 1984;40:184-5.
    2. Busse, W.W., Kopp, D.E., Middleton, E., “Flavonoid modulation of human neutrophil function.” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1984;73:801-9.
    3. Havsteen, B,. “Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency.” Biochemical Pharmacology 1983;32(7):1141-48.
    4. Middleton, E., “The Flavonoids.” Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences 1984;5:335-8.
    5. Otsuka, H. et. al., “Histochemical and functional characteristics of metachromatic cells in the nasal epithelium in allergic rhinitis: Studies of nasal scrapings and their dispersed cells.” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.1995;96:528-36.
    6. Fox, C.C., et. al., “Comparison of human lung and intestinal mast cells.” J. Allergy and Clin. Immunol. 1988;81:89-94.
    7. Pearce, F.L., Befus, A.D., Bienenstock, J., “Mucosal mast cells III. Effect of quercetin and other flavonoids on antigen-induced histamine secretion from rat intestinal mast cells.” J. Allergy and Clin. Immunol. 1984;73:819-23.
    8. Middleton, E. Drzewiecki, G., Krishnarao, D., “Quercetin: an inhibitor of antigen-induced human basophil histamine release.” J. of Immunology 1981;127(2):546-50.
    9. Bennett, J.P., Gomperts, B.D., Wollenweber, E.,“ Inhibitory effects of natural flavonoids on secretion from mast cell and neutrophils.” Arzneim. Forsch/Drug Res. 1981;31(3):433-7.
    10. Middleton, E. Drzewiecki G., “Naturally occurring flavonoids and human basophil histamine release.” Int. Archs Allergy appl. Immun. 1985;77:155-7.
    11. Yoshimoto, T. et. al., “Flavonoids: potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1983;116(2):612-18.
    12. Della Loggia, R., et. al., “Anti-inflammatory activity of benzopyrones that are inhibitors of cyclo- and lipo-oxygenase.” Pharmacological Research Communications 1988; 20(Supp. V):91-94.
    13. Middleton, E., Suresh, A., “Quercetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of endothelial cell intracellular adhesion molecule-1.” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 1995;107:435-6.
    14. Taussig, S.J., Batkin, S., “Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application.” An Update Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1988;22:191-203.
    15. Lotz-Winter, H., “On the pharmacology of bromelain: An update with special regard to animal studies on dose-dependent effects.” Planta Medica 1990;56:249-53.
    16. Taussig, S.J., “The mechanism of the physiological action of bromelain” Medical Hypothesis 1980;6:99-104.
    17. Ako, H. Cheung, A.H.S., Matsuura, P.K., “Isolation of a fibrinolysis activator from commercial bromelain.” Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 1981;284:157-67.
    18. Afanas’ev, I.B. et. al., “Chelating and free radical scavenging mechanisms of inhibitory action of rutin and quercetin in lipid peroxidation.” Biochemical Pharmacology 1989;38(11):1763-69.
    19. De Whalley, C.V., “Flavonoids inhibit the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins by macrophages.” Biochemical Pharmacology 39(11):1743-50.
    20. Beretz, A. Stierle, A., Anton, R. Cazenave, J., “Role of cyclic AMP in the inhibition of human platelet aggregation by quercetin, a flavonoid that potentiates the effect of prostacyclin.” Biochemical Pharmacology 1981;31(22):3597-600.
    21. Heinicke, R. van der Wal, L. Yokoyama, M., “Effect of bromelain (Ananase®) on human platelet aggregation. ”Experientia 1972;28(7):844.
    22. Hollma, P. et. al., “Absorption of dietary quercetin glycosides and quercetin in healthy ileostomy volunteers.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995;62:1276-82.
    23. Giller, F.B., “The effects of bromelain on levels of penicillin in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits.” A., J. Pharm. 1962;134:238-244.
    24. Bodi, T., “The effect of oral bromelain on tissue permeability to antibiotics and pain response to bradykinin; double-blind studies on human subjects.” Clin. Med. 1965;72:61-65

    Vitanet ®


    ALPHA GPC - Improves Mental Performance

    Date: June 28, 2005 06:21 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: ALPHA GPC - Improves Mental Performance

    The quality of our life experience—and our ability to live life to the fullest—is a direct result of optimal brain function. Only a few years ago, nothing could be done to stem the tide of poor circulation, forgetfulness and “mental fog.” But neurological science exploration has identified a fundamental brain compound critical to attention, learning, memory, and even the higher cognitive functions of reasoning and intuition. Research confirms that L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (called Alpha-GPC for convenience) is crucial to neuronal function and structure. Derived from purified soy lecithin, Source Naturals ALPHA-GPC readily converts to acetylcholine in the brain, helping to maintain neuronal structure integrity. Source Naturals provides an easy and convenient means to profoundly impact the very nexus of our body and mind.

    GPC Is Unique

    No other nutritional compound comes close to GPC in its ability to boost critically important acetylcholine levels. Found in both the brain and the peripheral nervous system (including the nerve-muscle junctions), acetylcholine is a key nerve messenger molecule, or neurotransmitter. Aging brains are characterized by functional deficiencies in both acetylcholine and its cholinergic receptors. GPC is a highly bioavailable supplement that boosts acetylcholine levels to improve cognitive function. It is also a major choline reservoir, helping to protect the brain against damage from poor circulation and potentially toxic metabolites.

    Deficiencies in acetylcholine can cause the body to break down phosphatidylcholine for its choline content, leading to the death of brain cells. Yet in controlled clinical trials of middle-aged subjects taking GPC, reaction time was enhanced and there was improved energy generation and electrical coordination in the brain. For older subjects, double-blind trials demonstrated that GPC had superior benefits over certain other brain nutrients for mental focus, recall, verbal fluency—a unique, marked overall enhancement of mental performance. GPC is an example of what the great Linus Pauling referred to as “orthomolecules,” that is, molecules that are “orthodox” or “correct” for the body. GPC excels as a protective nutraceutical for memory loss and mood enhancement. It protects cells of the brain (and other organs) from damage, shielding a range of important biomolecules against toxin build-up.

    Extensive Clinical Testing

    In clinical trials that involved more than 5,000 patients, GPC showed marked improvement in overall brain performance. Depending on the particular trial, 50-70 percent of the patients who received GPC had their mental functions improved to a degree “meaningful to life quality.” GPC has shown revitalizing effects on the declining brain, and preliminary evidence suggests GPC may act on the pituitary gland to partially restore its capacity to make vital for cell maintenance and longevity. Other unique brain features of GPC are its benefits for attention and recall in young healthy adults, and its superior bioavailability. GPC readily crosses the bloodbrain barrier to raise brain choline levels within a few hours following oral intake. GPC helps with body-mind integration by being a ready reservoir for acetylcholine. This neurotransmitter is ubiquitous in brain circuit maturation, expansion, renewal and repair, as well as in the “agility” or adjustments of the circuitry that occur during adult life. In addition, an animal study has shown that GPC increases the release of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the most important and abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It acts as a “balancer” for the brain and helps induce relaxation and sleep. Without sufficient GABA, neurons fire at random, unable to make sense of incoming signals. GABA helps minimize “neural noise,” making it easier to focus and concentrate.

    Why you should take GPC:

  • • Mental performance is improved at all ages (including attention, concentration and recall).
  • • GPC supports mind-body “focus,” including reflexes, response time, and endurance.
  • • GPC has benefits for healthy aging.
  • • GPC protects all the body’s cells through its unique osmolyte capacities.
  • • GPC is naturally present in very high concentrations in healthy cells, and also in mother’s milk, where it is the major source of choline for the developing brain. While it may be the single best nutrient for the brain, GPC is also a broader supplement for active living and healthy aging because it supports optimal metabolic function in all the organs. GPC has a metabolically privileged relationship with DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, omega-3). These are combined to make cell membrane Phospholipids essential to metabolic efficiency in kidney, liver, and muscle function, and for sperm maturation. These body-wide functions, combined with its known brain benefits, allow GPC to support the functional integration of the brain with the other organs. Don’t pass up this newly discovered option to enhance the quality of your life, health and higher mental functions. Explore your nearby natural food outlet and utilize discoveries such as GPC, which has already improved the health and chances of longevity for the millions who have been wise enough to join the Wellness Revolution.

    Parnetti L, Amenta F, Gallai V. 2001. Choline alfoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechs Aging Dev. 22: 2041. Canal N, et al. 1993. Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with choline alfoscerate, idebenone, aniracetam and placebo on scopolamine-induced amnesia. Le Basi Raz Ter. 23: 102. De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. 2002. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, doubleblind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 25: 178.

    Vitanet ®



    Date: June 25, 2005 08:13 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: REFERENCES


    1 a. The Surgeon General’s “Nutrition and Health Report.” b. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s “National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES III)” c. The National Academy of Science’s. Diet and Health Report: Health Promotion and Disease Objectives (DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 91-50213, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1990). e. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2 Rolls BJ. Carbohydrates, fats, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61(4 Suppl):960S-967S. 3 McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Alaimo K, et al. Energy and macronutrient intakes of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1:1988-91. Advance data from vital and health statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; No. 255. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics; 1994. 4 Center for Science in the Public Interest and McDonald’s Nutrition and You—A guide to Healthy Eating at McDonald’s: McDonald’s Corp,1991. 5 Bray GA. Appetite Control in Adults. In: Fernstrom JD, Miller GD eds. Appetite and Body Weight Regulation. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994:1-92. 6 Michnovicz JJ. How to Reduce Your Risk of Breast Cancer. New York: Warner Book Inc. 1994:54. 7 Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet. National Research Council Report, National Academy of Sciences, 15 Feb. 1996. 8 Van Tallie TB. Obesity: adverse effects on health and longevity. Am J Clin Nutr 1979:32: 2723-33. 9 Somer E, M.A. R.D. Nutrition for Women. New York: Henry Hold and Company, 1993:273. 10 Swaneck GE, Fishman J. Covalent binding of the endogenous estrogen 16A-hydroxyestrone to estradiol in human breast concer cells: characterization and intranuclear localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988:85;7831-5. 11 Colditz GA. Epidemiology of breast cancer. Findings from the nurses’ health study. Cancer1993;714:1480-9. 12 Hennen WJ. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction. The effects of supplementation with dietary indoles. Unpublished report 1992. 13 Deslypere BJ. Obesity and cancer. Metabolism 1995;44(93):24-7. 14 Somer E, M.A. R.D. Nutrition for Women. New York: Henry Hold and Company, 1993:281. 15 Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, John M. Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87(9):629-31. 16 Key T. Risk factors for prostate cancer. Cancer Survivor 1995;23:63- 77. 17 Kondo Y, Homma Y, Aso Y, Kakizoe T. Promotional effects of twogeneration exposure to a high-fat diet on prostate carcinogenisis in ACI/Seg mice. Cancer Res 1994;54(23):6129-32. 18 Wang Y, Corr JG, Taler HT, Tao Y, Fair WR, Heston WD. Decreased growth of established human prostate LNCaP tumors in nude mice fed a low-fat diet. 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Dietetic influences on the formation and prevention of cholesterol gallstones. Z. Ernahrugswiss. 1994;33(1):2-15. 40 Cicuttini FM, Spector TD. Osteoarthritis in the aged. Epidemiological issues and optimal management. Drugs and Aging. 1995;6(5):409-20. 41 Melnyk MG, Wienstein E. Preventing obesity in black women by targeting adolescents: a literature review. J Am. Diet. Association. 1994;94(4):536-40. 42 Robinson BE, Gjerdingen Dk, Houge DR. Obesity: a move from traditional to more patient-oriented management. J. Am. Board of Family Practice. 1995;8(2):99-108. 43 Dulloo AG, Miller DS. Reversal of Obesity in the Genetically Obese fa/fa Zucker Rat with an Ehpedrine/Methylxanthines Thermogenic Mixture. J. Nutrition. 1987;117:383-9. 44 Dulloo AG, Miller DS. The thermogenic properties of ephedrin/methylxanthine mixtures: animal studies. Am J Clinical Nutr. 1986;43:388-394. 45 Richelsen B. Health risks of obesity. Significance of the regional distri-bution of adipose tissue. Ugeskr. Laeger. 1991;153(13):908-13. 46 Lissner L, Heitmann BL. Dietary fat and obesity: Evidence from epidemiology. European J. Clinical Nutrition. 1995;49(2):79-90. 47 Lissner L, Heitmann BL. The dietary fat: Carbohydrate ratio in relation to body weight, Current Opinion in Lipidology. 1995;6(1):8-13. 48 Ravussin E. Energy metabolism in obesity. Studies in the Pima Indians. Diabetes Care. 1993;16(1):232-8. 49 O’Dea K. Westernisation, insulin resistance and diabetes in Australian aborigines. Med J. Australia. 1991;155(4):258-64. 50 Bailey C. Fit or Fat . Houghton Mifflen, Boston, 1991. 51 McCarty MF. Optimizing Exercise for Fat Loss. Unpublished report. 52 Weinsier RL, Schutz Y, Bracco D. Reexamination of the relationship of resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass and the the metabolically active components of fat-free mass in humans. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition. 1992;55(4):790-4. 53 Evans WJ. Exercise, nutrition and aging. J. Nutrition. 1992;122(3 suppl):796-801. 54 Schlicker SA, Borra ST, Regan C. The weight and fitness status of United States children. Nutrition Reviews. 1994;52(1):11-7. 55 Raben A, Jensen ND, Marckmann P, Sandstrom B and Astrup A. Spontaeous weight loss during 11 weeks’ ad libitum intake of a low fat/high fiber diet in young, normal weight subjects. Stockholm Press. 1995;916-23. 56 Blundell JE, Cotton JR, Delargy H, Green S, Greenough A, King NA, Lawton, CL. The fat paradox: fat-induced satiety signals versus high fat overconsumption. Short Communication 1995:832-835. 57 Reinhold RB. Late results of gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13(4):307-8. 58 McCredie M, Coates M Grulich A. Cancer incidence in migrants to New South Wales (Australia) from the Middle East, 1972-1991. Cancer Causes Control 1994:5(5):414-21. 59 Schiff ER, Dietschy JM. Steatorrhea Associated with Disordered Bile Acid Metabolism. Am. J. Digestive Diseases. 1969;14(6) 60 Nauss JL , Thompson JL and Nagyvary J. The binding of micellar lipids to Chitosan. Lipids. 1983;18(10):714-19. 61 Braconnot H, Sue la natrue ces champignons. Ann Chim Phys 1811;79:265. 62 Odier A. Memoire sur la composition chemique des parties cornees des insectes. Mem Soc Hist Nat Paris 1823;1:29. 63 Johnson EL, Peniston QP. Utilization of shellfish waste for chitin and Chitosan production. Chp 19 In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products. Martin RE, Flick GJ, Hebard CE and Ward DR (eds.) 1982. p.415-. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT. 64 Shahram H. Seafood waste: the potential for industrial use. Kem Kemi 1992;19(3),256-8. 65 Rouget C. Des substances amylacees dans le tissue des animux, specialement les Articules (Chitine). Compt Rend 1859;48:792. Commission on Natural Health Products. 1995 67 Peniston QP and Johnson EL. Method for Treating an Aqueous Medium with Chitosan and Derivatives of Chitin to Remove an Impurity. US Patent 3,533,940. Oct. 30:1970. 68 Poly-D-Glucosamine (Chitosan); Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance. Federal Register. 1995;60(75):19523-4. Rules and Regulations. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 180. April, 19, 1995. 69 Arul J. “Use of Chitosan films to retard post-harvest spoilage of fruits and vegetables,” Chitin Workshop. ICNHP, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. 70 Karlsen J, Skaugrud O. “Excipient properties of Chitosan,” Manufacturing Chemist. 1991;62:18-9. 71 Winterowd JG, Sandford PA. Chitin and Chitosan. In: Food Polysaccharides and their Applications. Ed: Stephen AM. Marcel Dekker 1995. 72 Chitin Workshop. ICNHP, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. 73 Advances in Chitin and Chitosan. Eds: CJ Brine, PA Sandford, JP Zikakis. Elsevier Applied Science. London. 1992. 74 Chitin in Nature and Technology. Eds: R Muzzarelli, C Jeuniaux, GW Gooday. Plenum Press, New York. 1986. 75 Zikakis, JP. Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes. Academic Press, Inc. 1984. 76 Abelin J and Lassus A. Fat binder as a weight reducer in patients with moderate obesity. ARS Medicina, Helsinki, Aug- October, 1994. 77 Kanauchi O, Deuchi K, Imasato Y, Shizukuishi M, Kobayashi E. Increasing effect of a Chitosan and ascorbic acid mixture on fecal dietary fat excretion. Biosci Biotech Biochem 1994;58(9):1617-20. 78 Maezaki Y, Tsuji K, Nakagawa Y, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of Chitosan in adult males. Biosci Biotchnol Biochem1993;57(9):1439-44. 79 Kobayashi T, Otsuka S, Yugari Y. Effect of Chitosan on serum and liver cholesterol levels in cholesterol-fed rats. Nutritional Rep. Int., 1979;19(3):327-34. 80 Sugano M, Fujikawa T, Hiratsuji Y, Hasegawa Y. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Chitosan in cholesterol-fed rats. Nutr Rep. Int. 1978;18(5):531-7. 81 Vahouny G, Satchanandam S, Cassidy M, Lightfoot F, Furda I. Comparative effects of Chitosan and cholestryramine on lymphatic absorption of lipids in the rat. Am J Clin Nutr, 1983;38(2):278-84 82 Suzuki S, Suzuki M, Katayama H. Chitin and Chitosan oligomers as hypolipemics and formulations containing them. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 63 41,422 [88,422] 22 Feb1988. 83 Ikeda I, Tomari Y, Sugano M. Interrelated effects of dietary fiber on lymphatic cholesterol and triglyceride absorption in rats. J Nutr 1989;119(10):1383- 7. 84 LeHoux JG and Grondin F. Some effects of Chitosan on liver function in the rat. Endocrinology. 1993;132(3):1078-84. 85 Fradet G, Brister S, Mulder D, Lough J, Averbach BL. “Evaluation of Chitosan as a New Hemostatic Agent: In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments In Chitin in Nature and Technology. Eds: R Muzzarelli, C Jeuniaux, GW Gooday. Plenum Press, New York. 1986. 86 Malette W, Quigley H, Gaines R, Johnson N, Rainer WG. Chitosan A New Hemostatic. Annals of Thorasic Surgery. 1983;36:55. 87 Malette W, Quigley H, Adickes ED. Chitosan effect in Vascular Surgery, Tissue Culture and Tissue Regeneration. In R Muzzarelli, C Jeuniaux, GW Gooday, Eds: Chitin in Nature and Technology. Plenum Press, New York. 1986. 88 Okamoto Y, Tomita T, Minami S, et al. Effects of Chitosan on experimental abscess with Staphylococcus aureus in dogs. J. Vet. Med., 1995;57(4):765-7. 89 Klokkevold PR, Lew DS, Ellis DG, Bertolami CN. Effect of Chitosan on lingual hemostasis in rabbits. Journal of Oral-Maxillofac-Surg, 1991;Aug. 49(8):858-63. 89 Surgery, Tissue Culture and Tissue Regeneration. In Chitin in Nature and Technology. Eds: R Muzzarelli, C Jeuniaux, GW Gooday. Plenum Press, New York. 1986. 90 Hiroshi S, Makoto K, Shoji A, Yoshikazu S. Antibacterial fiber blended with Chitosan. Sixth International Conference on Chitin and Chitosan. Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland. August 1994;16-19. 91 Shimai Y, Tsukuda K, Seino H. Antiacne preparations containing chitin, Chitosan or their partial degradation products. Jpn. Kikai Tokkyo Koho JP 04,288,017 [92,288,017] 13 Oct 1992. 92 Suzuki K, Okawa Y, Suzuki S, Suzuki M. Candidacidal effect of peritoneal exudate cells in mice administered with chitin or Chitosan: the role of serine protease in the mechanism of oxygen-independent candidacidal effect. Microbiol Immunol. 1987;31(4):375-9. 93 Sawada G, Akaha Y, Naito H, Fujita M. Synergistic food preservatives containing organic acids, Chitosan and citrus seed extracts. Jpn, Kokai Kokkyo Koho JP 04 27,373 [92 27,373] 30 Jan 1992. 94 Min H-K, Hatai K, Bai S. Some inhibitory effects of Chitosan on fishpathogenic oomycete, Saprolegnia parasitic. Gyobyo Kenkyu, 1994;29(2):73-4. 95 Nelson JL, Alexander JW, Gianotti L, Chalk CL, Pyles T. The influence of dietary fiber on microbial growth in vitro and bacterial translocation after burn injury in mice. Nutr 1994;10(1):32-6. 96 Ochiai Y, Kanazawa Y. Chitosan as virucide. Jpn Kokai Tokkyo Koho 79 41,326. 97 Hillyard IW, Doczi J, Kiernan. Antacid and antiulcer properties of the polysaccharide Chitosan in the rat. Proc Soc Expl Biol Med 1964; 115:1108-1112. 98 Shibasaki K, Sano H, MatsukuboT, Takaesu Y. pH response of human dental plaque to chewing gum supplemented with low molecular Chitosan. Bull- Tokyo-Dent-Coll, 1994:35(2): 61-6. 99 Kato H, Okuda H. Chitosan as antihypertensive. Jpn. Kikoi Tokyo Koho JP 06 56,674 [94 56,674] 100 Kato H, Taguchi T. Mechanism of the rise in blood pressure by sodium chloride and decrease effect of Chitosan on blood pressure. Baiosaiensu to Indasutori 1993;51(12):987-8. 101 Muzzarelli R, Biagini G, Pugnaoni A, Filippini O, Baldassarre V, Castaldini C, and Rizzoli C. Reconstruction of Periodontal Tissue with Chitosan. Biomaterials. 1989;10:598-603. 102 Sapelli P, Baldassarre V, Muzzarelli R, Emanuelli M. Chitosan in Dentistry. In Chitin in Nature and Technology. Eds: R Muzzarelli, C Jeuniaux, GW Gooday. Plenum Press, New York. 1986. 103 Borah G, Scott G, Wortham K. Bone induction by Chitosan in endochrondral bones of the extremities. In Advances in Chitin and Chitosan. Eds: CJ Brine, PA Sandford, JP Zikakis. Elsevier Applied Science. London. 1992. 104 Ito F. Role of Chitosan as a supplementary food for osteoporosis. Gekkan Fudo Kemikaru, 1995;11(2):39-44. 105 Nakamura S, Yoshioka T, hamada S, Kimura I. Chitosan for enhancement of bioavailability of calcium. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 07 194,316 [95 194,316] 01 Aug 1995. 106 Maekawa A, Wada M. Food Containing chitin or its derivatives for reduction of blood and urine uric acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 280,852 [91 280,852], 11 Dec 1991. 107 Weisberg M, Gubner R. Compositions for oral administration comprising Chitosan and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Antacid preparations for alleviating gastric hyperacidity. U.S. patent 3257275 108 Kanauchi O, Deuchi K, Imasato Y, Shizukuishi M, Kobayashi E. Mechanism for the inhibition of fat digestion by Chitosan and for the synergistic effect of ascorbate. Biosci Biotech Biochem1995;59(5):786-90. 109 McCausland CW. Fat Binding Properties of Chitosan as Compared to Other Dietary Fibers. Private communication. 24 Jan1995. 110 Deuchi K, Kanauchi O, Imasato Y, Kobayashi E. Biosci Biotech Biochem. 1994:58,1613-6. 111 Ebihara K, Schneeman BO. Interaction of bile acids, Phospholipids, cholesterol and triglyceride with dietary fibers in the small intestine of rats. J Nutr 1989;119(8):1100-6. 112 Weil A, M.D. Natural Health Natural Medicine: Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990:182. 113 Chen Y-H, Riby Y, Srivastava P, Bartholomew J, Denison M, Bjeldanes L. Regualtion of CYP1A1 by indolo[3,2-b]carbazole in murine hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem 1995;270(38):22548-55. 114 Intestinal Absorption of metal ions and chelates. Ashmead HD, Graff DJ, Ashmead HH. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL 1985. 115 Nutrient Interactions. Bodwell CE, Erdman JW Jr. Marcel Dekker New York 1988. 116 Heleniak EP, Aston B. Prostaglandins, Brown Fat and Weight Loss. Medical Hypotheses 1989;28:13-33. 117 Connor WE, DeFrancesco CA, Connor SL. N-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Effects on plasma lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemic patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993;683:16-34. 118 Conte AA. A non-prescription alternative in weight reduction therapy. The Bariatrician Summer 1993:17-19. 119 McCarty MF. Inhibition of citrate lyase may aid aerobic endurance. Unpublished manuscript. 120 Bray GA. Weight homeostasis. Annual Rev Med 1991;42:205-216. 121 Dulloo AG, Miller DS. The thermogenic properties of Ephedrin/Methylxanthine mixtures: Human studies. Intl J Obesity 986;10:467-481. 122 Arai K, Kinumaki T, Fujita, T. Bulletin Tokai Regional Fisheries Res Lab. 1968;No. 56. 123 Bough WA. Private communication. 124 Freidrich EJ, Gehan, EA, Rall DP, Schmidt LH, Skipper HE. Cancer Chemotherapy Reports 1966;50(4):219-244. 125 A Drovanti, AA Bignamini, AL Rovati. Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: A placebo-controlled double-blind investigation. Clinical Therapeutics 1980;3(4):260-272. 126 K Deuchi, O Kanauchi, M Shizukuishi, E Kobayashi. Continuous and massive intake of Chitosan affects mineral and fat-soluble vitamin status in rats fed on a high-fat diet. Biosci. Biotech. Biochemistry. 1995;59(7):1211-6. 127 . BesChitin W in Chitin Wound Healing (video), Unitika Corporation, April 1992.


    GPC (GlyceroPhosphoCholine) Versatile Life Support Nutrient ....

    Date: June 21, 2005 05:25 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: GPC (GlyceroPhosphoCholine) Versatile Life Support Nutrient ....

    GPC (GlyceroPhosphoCholine): Versatile Life Support Nutrient

    Parris Kidd, Ph.D.

  • GPC - Marked Benefits to the Brain
  • GPC Supports Normal Brain Function
  • GPC Works Through Multiple Mechanisms
  • Dosing, Safety, Tolerability, Compatibility
  • GPC: Nutrient for All Ages
  • GPC or GlyceroPhosphoCholine (pronounced gli-sero-fos-fo-ko-lean) is a nutrient with many different roles in human health. It reaches extremely high concentrations within our cells, and its abundance in mother's milk suggests it is crucial to life processes. Clinically, GPC has been most intensively researched for its brain benefits. Biologically, it has great importance for the skeletal "voluntary" muscles, the autonomic nervous system, kidneys, liver, and reproductive organs. GPC goes beyond being a brain nutrient; it is a nutrient for vitality and long life.

    Marked Benefits to the Brain

    As a dietary supplement, GPC's brain benefits are unique. It boosts mental performance in healthy young people, as shown by three double-blind trials. In trials on middle aged subjects, GPC improved several physiologic measures of mental performance: reaction time, visual evoked potential, and EEG delta slow waves. In the elderly, GPC improves mental performance and provides noticeable revitalisation. In 11 human trials with 1,799 patients, memory, attention, and other cognitive measures improved. So did mood (including irritability and emotional lability), and patients often developed renewed interest in relatives and friends. GPC was well tolerated, and generated no bad drug interactions. A large trial on elderly subjects with memory challenges published in 2003 concluded GPC had significant benefits for these individuals.

    GPC Supports Normal Brain Function

    Circulatory deprivation or surgery can challenge healthy brain function. GPC can speed recovery and support improved quality of life. In four trials with GPC on 2,804 subjects who experienced difficulties under these circumstances, up to 95% showed good or excellent improvement. GPC consistently improved space-time orientation, degree of consciousness, language, motor capacity, and overall quality of life. The investigators concluded GPC offered marked benefits, with an excellent benefit-to-risk profile. Up to half of patients who survive bypass surgery experience problems with memory and other mental performance. A double-blind trial conducted with bypass survivors for six months determined that the GPC group had no remaining memory deterioration, while the placebo group failed to improve.

    GPC Works Through Multiple Mechanisms

    GPC supports human health through a variety of mechanisms:

    1. It helps keep choline and acetylcholine available to the tissues. Choline is an essential nutrient and GPC appears to be the body's main choline reservoir. GPC in mother's milk represents the baby's main source of dietary choline. Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important substance employed extensively throughout the body. ACh is a major brain transmitter; the motor nerves use ACh to drive the skeletal ("voluntary") muscles; the autonomic nervous system uses it to pace all the organs. ACh is also central to mental and physical endurance, and mind-body coordination.

    2. GPC is a major cell-level protectant, not as another antioxidant but in pivotal roles of osmotic pressure regulator and metabolic antitoxin. GPC for osmotic regulation can reach very high concentrations in the kidney, bladder, liver, brain, and other organs. As metabolic protectant, GPC shields proteins against urea buildup.

    3. GPC is a major reservoir for cell membrane omega-3 Phospholipids. These substances are the major building blocks for cell membranes. Enzymes couple GPC with the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, to make the phospholipid PC-DHA. This makes membranes especially fluid, enabling membrane proteins to perform with better efficiency. GPC produces PC-DHA in the skeletal muscles, wherein fluidity is essential for contraction. Muscles that function abnormally can show GPC deficiency.

    4. GPC contributes to both male and female in reproduction. As spermatozoa mature, GPC is used to make PC-DHA that makes their membranes fluid to enable motility. With men, the lower their semen GPC the greater the likelihood of poor sperm motility and with it, infertility. Once semen is inserted into the female, an enzyme in uterine secretions breaks down the semen's GPC into substances that energize the sperm to achieve fertilization.

    Dosing, Safety, Tolerability, Compatibility

    Oral intake of GPC in the clinical trials was usually 1,200 milligrams (mg) per day, taken early in the day on an empty stomach. A reasonable dietary supplementation regimen is 1200 mg/day, taken in divided doses (AM and PM) between meals for 15-30 days, and thereafter 600 mg/day for maintenance. Symptomatic subjects can take 1200 mg/day until adequate improvement is achieved. Young, healthy subjects may experience benefit from daily intakes as low as 300 milligrams. GPC is very safe, being compatible with vitamins and nutrients and with pharmaceuticals. In clinical trial comparisons, GPC's benefits surpassed the nutrients acetylcarnitine and CDP-choline.

    GPC: Nutrient for All Ages

    GPC is unmatched for its support of active living and healthy aging. In some 23 clinical trials GPC improved mental performance in all functional categories. GPC can revitalize the aging brain, facilitating growth hormone (GH) release and boosting nerve growth factor actions. GPC's ample presence in human mother's milk suggests it could be conditionally essential. By supporting mental integrity, mind-body integration, the autonomic system, and the body's other organs, GPC enhances the active lifestyle. GPC is remarkable nutritional support for optimal health at any age.

    Parris M. Kidd, PhD is a cell biologist trained at the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco. Since entering the dietary supplement field in 1983, he has published many in-depth reviews of integrative medicine in the journal Alternative Medicine Reviews, and is science columnist for totalhealth magazine. Dr. Kidd is internationally recognized for his accomplishments in dietary supplement product development, documentation and quality control.

    Disclaimer: the above article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or treat a particular illness. The reader is encouraged to seek the advice of a holistically competent licensed professional health care provider.

    Vitanet ®


    Essential Fatty Acids - Lipids, Cell Memgranes & Eicosanoids

    Date: June 09, 2005 09:35 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Essential Fatty Acids - Lipids, Cell Memgranes & Eicosanoids

    Essential Fatty Acids and Phospholipids

    Essential fatty acids & Phospholipids are primary constituents of cell membranes, and as such they are vital to the makeup of the human body. Essential fatty acids are used to generate certain intra-cellular hormone-like substances, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are responsible for regulating key bodily processes. Source Naturals essential fatty acid supplements are potent, effective and chemical-free.


    Almost by definition, life is composed of cells, and cells are defined by membranes. One theory suggests that, around four billion years ago, self-replicating molecules, similar to the ribonucleic acid or RNA in our own cells, were synthesized from organic molecules. These self-replicating molecules adapted to changes in their environment to increase their potential for survival. Thus began the process of evolution that has led, over the eons, to us. One turning point was when these molecules developed membranes - envelopes which could help concentrate chemicals needed for the cell's survival. There existed in the "primordial soup" substances uniquely suited to this purpose: a class of organic compounds we call lipids . Lipids are more commonly called fats, and in this health and image-conscious age people often think of them as something to be avoided. However, the word fat refers to a variety of substances with a diverse range of chemical properties, which are essential for survival and well-being . The simplest lipids, fatty acids such as palmitic acid, consist of a hydrocarbon "tail" connected to a carboxyl group (COOH). The majority of lipids in food and in the human body occur in the form of triglycerides - a molecular configuration in which three fatty acid chains are attached to a 'backbone' of glycerol (an organic alcohol composed of a 3-carbon chain with an alcohol group attached to each carbon). The major roles of lipids can be described as energy and storage, structural, and metabolic.

    Energy and Storage

    Molecules can contain more or less chemical energy. In living systems most of the energy needed to drive chemical reactions is derived from oxidation. Oxygen, the ultimate electron acceptor, is a strong oxidant: it has a marked tendency to attract electrons, becoming reduced in the process. When a molecule undergoes a chemical reaction from a high-energy reduced state to a low-energy oxidized state, energy is released. This is what happens in a fire: the high-energy carbohydrates in wood, such as glucose, react with oxygen, releasing heat and the low-energy molecules of carbon dioxide and water. This is similar to what happens in metabolism.

    Most of the carbon in a fatty acid chain is highly reduced, which makes fats more energy-rich than the other organic molecules that can be burned as food. This is what we mean when we say fats are high in calories - a measure of the amount of energy released when a substance is oxidized. Fats contain more than twice as many calories as carbohydrates. This makes fats an important storage fuel for most of the body.


    Another important class of lipids in the human body consists of the Phospholipids. Like triglycerides, Phospholipids contain fatty acid chains- in this case two, one saturated and one unsaturated, attached to a glycerol backbone. Unlike triglycerides, in Phospholipids the third carbon of the glycerol molecule is attached to a phosphate (a molecular group that contains phosphorus and oxygen), which is in turn attached to either an amino acid or, in the case of phosphatidyl choline, a molecule of the B-vitamin - like substance, choline.

    Their unique molecular structure makes Phospholipids amphipathic, which means 'likes both':

  • The phosphate-containing head group is strongly dipolar (it has positive and negative charges and can mix with water, and thus is hydrophilic, which means 'water-loving').

  • The two fatty acid chains make up a long tail group which is nonpolar (it has no charge and cannot mix with water, and thus is hydrophobic, which means 'water-hating').

    Fats, being hydrophobic, tend to separate out from water. When fat is mixed with Phospholipids in the presence of water, the phospholipid molecules attach themselves to the molecules of fat and bring them into the water solution, enabling the fats to dissolve in water.

    Phospholipids form a structure called a lipid bilayer, a two-ply sheet of phospholipid molecules in which the hydrophilic head groups face outward and are in contact with the water, and the hydrophobic tails face each other on the inside of the bilayer. This structure is one of the key constituents of the cell membranes that surround every living cell.

    The lipid bilayer of cell membranes is a fluid in which membrane-embedded proteins "float." These proteins serve a wide variety of different functions. Some are enzymes, serving to carry out chemical reactions in the adjacent solution. Some are involved in signaling, in which a biochemical action in a cell is 'commanded' by means of a hormone or some such other signaling molecule. Still others are involved in transporting substances across the membrane, into or out of the cell.

    The functions of membrane-embedded proteins are dependent on a very precise balance of Phospholipids for their function. Phosphatidyl serine, for instance, has a negatively-charged head group that associates preferentially with a class of membrane-bound proteins called ATPases. ATPases regulate, among other things, the balance of sodium and potassium in intra- and extracellular fluids, a balance that is necessary for the integrity of our cells and also for the electrochemical impulses that make up our thoughts and feelings. Without phosphatidyl serine, these vitally important membrane-embedded proteins could not function.

    Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is essential to the structure of cell membranes, which depend for their function on a delicate balance between fluidity and solidity. Cholesterol provides a semifluid matrix, as well as enhancing membrane fluidity. About 80% of the cholesterol the body uses is manufactured by the liver; the other 20% is consumed in food. Elevated blood cholesterol levels are associated with heart disease. Saturated fats are converted into cholesterol more readily than unsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats usually depress blood cholesterol concentration to some degree. Researchers have thus recommended that people lower their consumption of saturated fats and increase their consumption of polyunsaturated fats. A process called hydrogenation , in which hydrogen molecules are added, is used to harden these unsaturated fats to create solid spreads, such as margarine. This process causes formation of altered fats called trans fatty acids. Although the results are not conclusive, human and animal studies have pointed to possible deleterious effects from consumption of trans - fatty acids, which are estimated to account for 5.5% of all fats consumed by Americans. These studies include one in men and women that showed harmful effects of trans - fatty acids on blood cholesterol ratios.


    When each link of a fatty acid chain contains an atom of hydrogen, as in palmitic acid, that fatty acid is said to be saturated . If two carbon links are double bonded to each other, each has one less hydrogen atom, and the fatty acid chain is said to be unsaturated. If a fatty acid contains one double bond, it is said to be monounsaturated, and if it has two or more double bonds it is said to be polyunsaturated . Certain polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained from the diet. These nutrients are called essential fatty acids and are necessary for the normal function of all tissues. The essential fatty acids fall into two categories:

  • (1) Those with an unsaturated double bond between the 6th and 7th carbon in the chain, called omega-6 fatty acids, which include linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA).

  • (2) Those with a double bond between the 3rd and 4th carbons, called omega-3 fatty acids, which include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

    In addition to being phospholipid precursors, essential fatty acids can be converted to a class of hormone like intracellular messengers called eicosanoids. The physiologic effects of eicosanoids are potent in minute quantities. Their effects are so powerful that they need to be produced near the site of their action and are quickly inactivated. The important eicosanoids include the thromboxanes, leukotrienes and prostaglandins (PGs ). Prostaglandin molecules consist of a five-carbon ring with two side chains. They can be distinguished from each other by numbers that refer to the number of double bonds in their molecular side chains: 1-series PGs have one double bond, 2-series have two double bonds, and so on. Prostaglandins mediate a variety of bodily processes, including inflammatory reactions, blood vessel contraction and dilation, and platelet aggregation. The different PGs have different effects on the body, and different essential fatty acids act as precursors for different PGs.

    Important essential fatty acids in humans are the omega-6 fatty acids, which include linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA). 1-series PGs are derived from GLA and tend to cause blood vessels to dilate and reduce the stickiness of platelets (cell fragments in the blood that help initiate blood clotting). 2-series PGs are derived from arachidonic acid and tend to increase platelet stickiness and cause blood vessels to constrict. Meat and dairy products are dietary sources of the PG2 precursor, arachidonic acid; American diets tend to be rich in these foods. The rate-limiting step for production of GLA in the human body is an enzyme called delta-6-desaturase (D6D). The action of this important enzyme can be blocked by a number of different lifestyle factors, including a diet high in saturated or trans- fatty acids and chronic alcohol consumption. A modest increase in consumption of GLA will significantly increase the ratio of GLA to AA in the tissues, which may have a beneficial effect on the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, such as flaxseed oil or fish oil, is beneficial for similar reasons. Omega-3 fatty acids are precursors for 3-series PGs, which reduce platelet stickiness. Series-3 PGs also tend to inhibit conversion of AA into its metabolites, the 2-series PGs.

    The lipid composition of our diets has changed radically in the 20th century. Our intake of saturated fats has increased dramatically, and trans fatty acids, which did not exist before the advent of modern food processing technology, now form a major part of our diets. We eat less fish and green leafy vegetables, important sources of omega-3 fatty acids, than our ancestors did. Far from being an inert, homogeneous substance, fat is dynamic and varied - a subtle and interactive matrix for many of the biological processes taking place in our bodies, minute by minute.

    VitaNet ®
    VitaNet ® Staff

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    SAMe - Supports Joint Comfort, Function and Mobility ...

    Date: June 06, 2005 08:30 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: SAMe - Supports Joint Comfort, Function and Mobility ...

    SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine)

    You’ve read about it in the media. Europeans have experienced its health benefits for two decades. Now consumers in the United States have access to a nutrient with groundbreaking potential. SAMe, a natural compound formed in our bodies from the amino acid methionine, is stirring excitement due to its wide-ranging health effects. SAMe plays a critical role in cartilage formation. Dozens of clinical studies have demonstrated that SAMe supports joint comfort, function and mobility in the spine, hips and knees. SAMe has also been found to support a positive outlook. It affects the synthesis and activation of proteins such as mood-boosting neurotransmitters.

    Cutting-Edge Nutrition

    Technological advances have made possible the production of stable, bioavailable forms of a natural nutrient with broad-range potential. Source Naturals now offers you the fruits of that technology.

    A Multipurpose Nutrient

    SAMe, or S-adenosyl L-methionine, is formed when our bodies combine the amino acid L-methionine with ATP, the primary energy-carrying molecule in our cells. SAMe is a multipurpose nutrient, which is present in every living cell. Because SAMe is involved in so many vital processes, it is important that our bodies produce sufficient SAMe. However, SAMe levels tend to decline with age, and also can be affected by dietary imbalances. To produce adequate amounts, we need to consume not only methionine-containing protein foods, but also foods rich in vitamins B-6, B-12 and folic acid, which are needed to ensure the synthesis of SAMe. SAMe also is a highly unstable molecule. A lot of scientific research was needed to make it available as a supplement. Source Naturals has studied the research and offers this vital nutrient in a form your body can use.

    Methylation is the Key

    SAMe is known as a “methyl donor.” This means that it works by giving up a piece of itself (a methyl group consisting of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms) to other molecules. This methylation process affects the synthesis, activation and metabolism of various hormones, neurotransmitters, Phospholipids, nucleic acids, proteins and other biological molecules. Methylation plays a part in many critical functions, including the maintenance of cell membranes, the removal of toxic substances from the body and the production of mood-boosting neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin.

    Effective Joint Support

    SAMe has been used in Europe for two decades for joint support. Dozens of clinical studies have demonstrated that SAMe supports joint comfort, function and mobility in the spine, hips and knees. SAMe is important in a process called transsulfuration. The breakdown of SAMe generates sulfate groups that help maintain joint cartilage. SAMe helps to form proteoglycans, which are used to renew the matrix of cartilage.

    Promotes Mental Well-Being

    Studies also show that SAMe helps support a positive outlook. Although the mechanism by which SAMe promotes mental well-being is not known, we do know it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, where it affects the production of mood-boosting neurotransmitters.

    Clinically Researched Potency

    Source Naturals SAME is offered in the clinically researched potency of 400 mg per suggested daily use (two tablets). The tablets are enteric coated and blister packed to prevent breakdown and inactivation of ingredients. Source Naturals SAME is available in 20-tablet boxes.

    Berger, R. et al. 1987. “A New Medical Approach....” The American Journal of Medicine; 83(5A): 84-88. Carney, MWP et al. 1987. “S-adenosylmethionine....” The American Journal of Medicine; 83(5A): 104-106. Konig, B. 1987. “A long-term (two years) clinical trial of oral S-adenosylmethionine....” The American Journal of Medicine; 83(5A): 89-94. Stramentinoli, G. 1987. “Pharmacological aspects of S-adenosylmethionine.” The American Journal of Medicine; 83(5A):35-42

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    PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) - Maintain healthy cells ...

    Date: June 04, 2005 11:08 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) - Maintain healthy cells ...

    All we have ever known or will ever feel, begins and ends with the hundreds of billions of nerve cells that form our brain. Without them, there can be no experience; for us, nothing would exist. Our mind and personality, the sense of who we are, emanate from this immensely intricate system of nerves. The brain’s remarkable ability to perceive and perform, remember and learn, is severely challenged by today’s social and physical environment. These environmental factors accelerate the decline in nerve cell activity that normally occurs with age. Recent clinical research is revealing how previously unrecognized nutrients can strengthen the body’s natural defenses against age-related cognitive decline. Source Naturals is proud to present the latest breakthrough in nutritional support for the brain: PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE.

    Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a phospholipid which forms an essential part of every human cell, but it’s particularly concentrated in the membranes of nerve cells. Since the electronic messages that communicate and regulate every aspect of our lives travel along nerve cell membranes, the structural integrity of these membranes is imperative to our health. The nerve cell membrane is the site where molecules of sodium and potassium exchange electrons, causing the electrical impulse to be generated. This bio-electric current then travels along the membrane to trigger the release of neurotransmitters. These are the chemical messengers that cross synapses (gaps between nerve cells) to relay information to neighboring nerve cells. This sets other electrical currents in motion– along thousands of other nerve cells. This happens billions of times each second, and is how the brain and nerves coordinate and communicate with the rest of the body. PS has a very important function in the nerve cell membrane. As a key bio-structural molecule, PS provides vital support for the membrane proteins that enable nerve cells to communicate and grow.

    Regulating the Flow

    Unlike other cells in the body, nerve cells do not reproduce. Instead, they repair and rebuild themselves, using proteins called Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). Experiments verify that PS enhances the synthesis and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age.1 PS supplements enhance the cerebral cortex’s output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter associated with our ability to think, reason, and concentrate. PS also stimulates the synthesis and release of dopamine, related to heightened states of attention.2 The brain’s response to stress also appears to be related to PS. When healthy young men were subjected to exercise-induced stress, those taking PS had a lowered stress response. This was measured by blood levels of ACTH, the pituitary hormone that triggers the adrenals to secrete the stress hormone cortisol.3


    Subjects taking PS showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism and scored higher on cognitive tests.4 Behavioral factors were also measured in elderly subjects; PS positively affected their mood states.5 Over 23 clinical trials have investigated the effect of PS supplements on more than 1200 human subjects, ages 40-93. Consistent and statistically significant results suggest that PS supports brain functions that tend to diminish with age.

    Wellness Redefined

    Nutritional research continually reveals new potentials for wellness. Source Naturals is committed to helping people achieve a fulfilling life, and a fully functioning nervous system is central to this aim. Source Naturals PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE can help support your body’s natural regenerative processes, keeping your brain healthy and vital for a long, long time. Experience the difference with Source Naturals PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE.

    1. Aporti, F., et al., 1986. “Age-dependent spontaneous EEG bursts in rats: effects of brain phosphatidylserine.” Neurobiology of Aging 7: 115-120. 2. Caffarra, P., and V. Santamaria, 1987. “The effects of phosphatidylserine in subjects with mild cognitive decline.” Clin. Trials J. 24: 109-114. 3. Heiss, W.D., et al., 1993. “Activation PET as an instrument to determine therapeutic efficacy in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 695: 327-31. 4. Monteleone, P., et al., 1990. “Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans.” Neuroendocrinol. 52: 243-48. 5. Nunzi, M.G., et al., 1990. “Therapeutic properties of phosphatidylserine in the aging brain.” In, Phospholipids: Biochemical, Pharmaceutical and Analytical Considerations (ed. I. Hanin and G. Pepeu). New York: Plenum Press.

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    Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) - for Healthy Heart, Joints, and other Body systems

    Date: June 03, 2005 05:43 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) - for Healthy Heart, Joints, and other Body systems

    Neptune Krill Oil

    Essential fatty acids are enormously important to your health. They are the building blocks for Phospholipids, and Phospholipids are the building blocks for your cell membranes – the protective layer and gatekeeper of your cells. A good essential fatty acid balance provides building blocks for healthy cells, but an imbalance can lead to critical health concerns. Source Naturals introduces NKO™ Neptune Krill Oil, the first product featuring Phospholipids specially integrated with omega-3 essential fatty acids for building healthy cell membranes. It also includes antioxidant protection. In human studies, NKO supplementation supported healthy joints, the heart, lipid and blood sugar levels, energy production, athletic performance and liver function, and eased women’s PMS symptoms.

    Support Your Protective Cell Membranes

    Source Naturals brings you the science of natural NKO™ Neptune Krill Oil, the only product to boast significant healthinducing potencies from three different important nutritional categories: omega- 3 fatty acids, Phospholipids and antioxidants. These three nutrients work together to support healthy cell membranes, joints, the heart and many other body systems. And NKO eases PMS symptoms for women.

    Multiple Benefits of Krill

    NKO™ Neptune Krill Oil has many benefits. Unlike fish oil products, NKO doesn’t contain dangerous levels of mercury or lead, doesn’t go rancid quickly and has a clean, fresh taste. Made from hearty krill, shrimp-like crustaceans that thrive in the harsh Antarctic waters, it is the only product to contain Phospholipids specially integrated with omega-3 essential fatty acids. This unique structure provides important cell membrane building blocks in the ratios used by the body and may be far better utilized than stand-alone phospholipid or omega- 3 products. The result: stronger cell membranes that function better to maintain your health. The desirable composition of NKO, high in omega-3 essential fatty acids, also provides a healthy balance. High levels of omega-6 fatty acids, such as from processed foods, enable your cell membranes to initiate over-production of certain prostaglandins that can lead to cellular irritation, heart system imbalances and other concerns. But omega-3 fatty acids can reverse that trend. Omega-3 fatty acids such as DHA and EPA (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) compete with arachidonic acid for building blocks, such as the COX-2 enzyme, and can instead lead to balanced levels of the many different types of prostaglandins. The result: cellular comfort, heart health and many other healthy body systems. NKO also contains natural antioxidants, which are cell membrane protectors. Each serving contains 100 IU of vitamin A and a very high level, 1.5 mg, of astaxanthin, an immune-supporting carotenoid, which can be used to guard your cell membranes from free radical damage. And NKO 100% pure krill oil is manufactured by Neptune Technologies & Bioresources Inc. in adherence to all environmental harvesting standards. Source Naturals is pleased to partner with your local health food store to bring you NKO™ Neptune Krill Oil. Try this unique, potent and comprehensive product for your better health today.

    Drevon, C. A. (1992). Nutr Rev. (50): 38-45. Horrobin, D. F. (1983). J Reprod Med. (28): 465-468. Simopoulos, A. P. (1991). Am J Clin Nutr. (54): 438-463.

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    Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...

    Date: June 02, 2005 12:18 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...

    Our adult years are the time to reap the fruit of an active, meaningful life – appreciated by family and friends who value our experience and knowledge. For some, however, their later years are clouded by a mental decline that erodes their capacity to enjoy life. More of us are becoming apprehensive about the future health of our minds. Will we still be able to communicate our needs as well as our wisdom? As science focuses its investigative might on the workings of the human brain, new findings suggest that it is possible to enjoy a vital, healthy brain and mind – well into old age. Based on compelling research, Source Naturals formulated HIGHER MIND. It contains the most important Neuroceuticals™ now recognized by nutrition scientists – including phosphatidyl serine, a natural nutrient that promotes cognitive function. The connection is clear: nourish your brain; enrich your life.

    To have a healthy, well-functioning brain and nervous system, we need the correct nutrients. Our diets must provide the necessary raw materials for nerve cells to grow, for the synthesis of neurochemicals, and for the maintenance of nerve cell membranes. Nutritional deficiencies can alter the brain’s metabolism, which is expressed by changes in perception and thinking, behavior and mood.

    Brain Cells – Issued at Birth

    Before birth, neurons (nerve cells) are created at the amazing rate of 15 million per hour. As infants, we have over 100 billion neurons, but this is the most we will ever have because – unlike most other cells in our body – nerve cells do not reproduce. A different strategy is used to replace the neurons that are naturally lost throughout life: nerve cells repair themselves and grow by extending branches of nerve fibers called dendrites (from the Latin word for tree). These are the communication links with other neurons that form the circuitry of the brain. A single neuron may be in contact with up to a hundred thousand others! When the density of this fragile organic communication network decreases, we experience a corresponding decline in mental acuity.

    Brain Cell Membranes

    The membrane is the working surface of a cell. It needs to be strong yet flexible, so the cell can maintain its integrity and be able to move and change shape. The membrane regulates the flow of nutrients into the cell and the removal of waste, plus controls the passage of molecular messages from outside the cell to its interior. Membrane ion pumps use a third of the cell’s energy just to maintain the correct ratio of sodium to potassium. In neurons, a rapid exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the nerve membrane is responsible for their unique ability to generate the electrical impulses that are the basis of all communication in the nervous system. As cells age, their membranes become less fluid and more rigid. Key membrane molecules called Phospholipids are crucial to the health of neuron membranes, allowing the brain to maintain its youthful quality. The Phospholipids in HIGHER MIND – especially phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl choline – are essential nutritional supplements for the aging brain.

    Phosphatidyl Serine – Key to Cognition

    For the past decade, researchers have been investigating the role in brain health of a remarkable neuroceutical, phosphatidyl serine (PS). This key structural molecule is integral to the matrix of fats and proteins that compose cell membranes. Although PS is found in all the cells of the body, its highest concentration is in nerve cell membranes. PS is rarely found in the foods we eat, so the body has to synthesize it, but the process is energy- intensive and becomes less efficient with age. Consequently, our levels of PS tend to decline as we get older. PS taken as a dietary supplement is well-absorbed, readily reaching the brain, where it helps create more effective, well-structured nerve cell membranes. The positive effects of PS supplementation have been demonstrated by 23 clinical studies with over 1200 human subjects, ages 43 to 90. Consistent and statistically significant results have confirmed the value of PS in improving age-related cognitive decline, as well as in improving behavioral aspects such as apathy and withdrawal.1 A major study concluded that for one particular measurable parameter of higher mental functions, PS recipients achieved scores of persons roughly 12 years younger.2 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is one of the most important proteins the body makes. It enables neurons to extend dendrites out to other neurons, allowing the brain to maintain an effective communication network. In experiments, PS enhanced the production and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age.3 The effects of PS at the cellular level are manifest in the performance of the brain as a whole. Subjects taking PS showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism. This enhancement corresponded to higher performances on cognitive tests.4

    The Chemistry of Thought

    Science now understands the role of neurotransmitters in regulating the body’s complex network of behavior. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals used by neurons to communicate with each other. Activated by a neuron’s electrical impulse, neurotransmitters travel between nerve cells, where they excite or inhibit (in various degrees) the electrical impulse in neighboring cells. One of HIGHER MIND’S key strategies is to improve the brain’s ability to produce and use acetylcholine, a key excitatory neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is essential for both the storage and recall of memory, and partly responsible for concentration and focus. It also plays a significant role in muscular coordination. Patients showing cognitive decline may exhibit reduced ability to synthesize and utilize acetylcholine.5 The chemical building blocks of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters are called precursors. The most important one for acetylcholine is DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol). This natural substance is found in various fish, such as anchovies and sardines. Supplements of DMAE (and phosphatidyl choline) promote increased levels of choline in the brain. Acetylcholine is created when an acetyl group is attached to the choline molecule, with the help of choline acetyl transferase (CAT), a key brain enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine is an amino acid that activates this enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine may also help reduce lipofuscin deposits in the brain because of its involvement in the metabolism of fatty acids.6 Lipofuscin is composed of oxidized fats and proteins; the brown “age spots” on the back of an elderly person’s hand are made of lipofuscin. The amino acid L-pyroglutamic acid sensitizes the acetylcholine receptor sites on a neuron membrane. A given amount of acetylcholine will then have a larger, more powerful effect. Studies have shown that supplements of L-pyroglutamic acid seem to enhance the ability to focus, remember, and learn.

    Total Nutrition for the Brain

    The neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenalin are critical to motor coordination, motivation, concentration, and alertness. Like acetylcholine, their production tends to decline with age. The precursors and activators of dopamine and noradrenalin included in HIGHER MIND are the amino acids N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine and DL-phenylalanine (DLPA), plus folic acid, vitamins B-3, B-6, and C. DLPA is also a precursor to PEA, a neuroamine that has a stimulating effect on the brain. Glutamine is an amino acid precursor to glutamic acid, a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in mental activity and learning. Glutamine acts as an alternative fuel source for the brain when blood sugar levels are low. It also helps the brain dispose of waste ammonia, which is a natural result of protein breakdown but is irritating to neurons even at low levels. GABA is a dietary amino acid which is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA works to calm and balance the mind, enhancing mental focus. Along with taurine, these two relaxing neurotransmitters provide a balancing influence to the other, excitatory neurotransmitters. Taurine is found in brain tissue more than anywhere else in the body. It has antioxidant properties and serves as a nerve cell membrane stabilizer, preventing excessive or erratic electrical activity in the brain.

    The Importance of Magnesium

    Magnesium must be present in adequate amounts in the synaptic gaps between neurons or the neurons become hyper-reactive: causing noises to sound excessively loud and emotional reactions to be extreme. Magnesium also activates a key enzyme responsible for maintaining cellular sodium- potassium balance, which is absolutely essential to the electrical activity of nerve cells, as well as to the existence of the cell itself. (Cells would burst if the sodium-potassium ratio were wrong.) Magnesium also helps relax cerebral blood vessels and is important to the manufacture of ATP, the chief energy molecule of the brain. A buildup of aluminum has been found in the brains of some elderly. In 1989, the British medical journal Lancet published a study showing that drinking water with aluminum can increase the risk of damage by up to 50%. An abundant natural element, aluminum is now a common feature in our culture. It’s found in tap water, cookware, deodorants, beverage containers, baked goods, and of course as aluminum foil. In the brain, aluminum breaks down the structure of neurons – causing them to starve – by displacing magnesium from tubulin, a glycoprotein responsible for making microtubules. These tiny pipe-like structures within a neuron provide needed rigidity, as well as transport nutrients from the nucleus down the dendrites to the ends of the nerve cell. Magnesium malate is an excellent form of magnesium that ensures neurons receive this vital mineral.

    B is for Brain Vitamins

    HIGHER MIND also contains a high profile of B vitamins and other key nutrients that are often N A T U R A L S S O U R C E Strategies for Wellness SM ¤ lacking in older individuals. A deficiency in any of the B vitamins can alter nerve function and psychological well-being. Thiamine (B-1), known as the “nerve vitamin,” was first recognized because its deficiency caused beriberi, a degenerative nerve disease. Thiamine is part of the structure of nerve cell membranes and is important to the reparative process that neurons need to offset the stress of continual firing of the electrical impulse. Low amounts of thiamine can cause cell malnutrition in the hypothalamus, the brain’s memory center. 7 NAD and NADH, two coenzyme forms of Niacin (B-3), are the most plentiful coenzymes in the brain. They are essential to hundreds of enzymatic reactions, including ones that produce energy. NADH can stimulate the synthesis of key mood-elevating neurotransmitters. It is also one of the body’s most potent antioxidants. Pantothenic acid (B-5), cyanocobalamin (B-12), and folic acid are required to form the myelin sheath – the insulating covering of nerve fibers. A diet low in pantothenic acid has been shown to make test subjects emotionally upset, irritable, and depressed.7 A lack of B-12 can result in poor concentration and, in severe deficiencies, hallucinations. Pyridoxine (B-6) is precursor to over 60 enzymatic reactions and is involved in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters.

    Brain Power

    Brain cells almost exclusively burn glucose for their energy (other cells can also burn fat), and typically require 50% of all the glucose in the blood. Two B-like vitamins help in the utilization of glucose: PAK (pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate) may potentiate the effects of insulin and improve glucose utilization to the cells;8 Biotin is important for the transformation of glucose into energy in the brain. Lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 are metabolic energizers that help produce ATP, the primary energy molecule in the body. Since the brain uses 20% of the body’s total energy supply, efficient ATP production is vital. Lipoic acid and CoQ10 are also powerful antioxidants that help regenerate other antioxidants in the body. The blood vessels feeding the brain become less efficient as we pass middle age. Since the brain depends on the bloodstream to deliver nutrients and oxygen and to remove waste, the quality of this blood flow is paramount to proper brain nutrition. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown in scientific studies to increase blood flow to the brain by helping vessels to dilate. It also promotes the smoothness and healthy integrity of blood vessel linings.

    For the Life of Your Mind Without proper nutrition, the brain will deteriorate; therefore strategies are needed to both enhance current brain function and protect it throughout life. Based on the latest scientific findings, Source Naturals HIGHER MIND is formulated with neuroceuticals that support the mental functions that tend to decline with age. They give your brain the nourishment it needs to integrate perception, memory, and learning into a more comprehensive awareness – so you can excel for a lifetime.

    1. Palmieri, G., et al. (1987). Clin. Trials J. 24: 73- 83.
    2. Crook, T.H., et al. (1991). Neurol. 41: 644-49.
    3. Nunzi, M.G., et al. In Phospholipids: Biochemical, Pharmaceutical and Analytical Considerations (ed. I. Hanin and G. Pepeu).
    New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
    4. Heiss, W.D., et al. (1993). Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 695: 327-31.
    5. Passeri, M., et al. (1990). Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. X(1/2): 75-79.
    6. Kohjimoto, Y., et al. (1988). Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 48(3): 365-71.
    7. Philpott, William H. Brain Allergies: the Psychonutrient Connection. New Canaan: Keats, 1987.
    8. Passariello, N., et al. (1983). Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 21: 252-56.

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    Gluco Sciense - Take Control of your Blood Sugar ...

    Date: June 02, 2005 10:51 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Gluco Sciense - Take Control of your Blood Sugar ...

    Gluco Sciense for Blood sugar

    Sedentary lifestyles, obesity, and sugar-rich diets are prevalent in our society. The result: challenges to your multiple, interdependent body systems involved with blood sugar levels and insulin activity. Now is the time to learn how a healthy diet and lifestyle can help you maintain healthy blood sugar levels. For further support, Source Naturals offers you GLUCO-SCIENCE™, a breakthrough formula. GLUCO-SCIENCE is uniquely effective because it is a Bio-Aligned Formula™. Source Naturals evaluates the underlying causes of system imbalances. Then we design formulas that provide targeted nutrition to bring your interrelated body systems back into balance. GLUCO-SCIENCE can help bring your body’s systems for carbohydrate metabolism back into alignment.

  • GLUCO-SCIENCE™ Maintains Healthy Blood Sugar Levels When Used as Part of Your Diet

    A Bio-Aligned Formula™

    GLUCO-SCIENCE is a comprehensive herbal-nutrient formula, based on the newest clinical research into key herbs and special ingredients. Source Naturals studied the scientific research, and then designed GLUCO-SCIENCE. This Bio- Aligned Formula provides targeted nutrition to five different body systems involved with healthy blood sugar levels and insulin activity.

    Glucose/Carbohydrate Metabolism

    GLUCO-SCIENCE supports glucose/carbohydrate metabolism with a range of nutrients. B-vitamins are required for glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, the metabolic pathways by which the body converts glucose into cellular energy. Chromium is believed to work closely with insulin to facilitate the uptake of glucose into cells. Manganese is also involved in glucose uptake. The formula also features herbs from several traditions, such as Gymnema sylvestre.

    Insulin/Pancreatic Activity

    Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels after meals. Without insulin, glucose cannot enter cells to provide fuel for cellular energy. Certain nutrients (see chart) support these vital metabolic processes, including mediation of insulin release and activity, and enhancing insulin sensitivity. N-acetyl cysteine protects pancreatic beta cells from oxidative damage in animal studies. In addition, vanadium, zinc, and selenium are notable for their insulin-like actions.

    Heart and Circulatory System

    Vitamin E supports a healthy lipid status, while myricetin has been shown in animal studies to influence triglyceride levels. Gymnema sylvestre and vitamin C are involved with lipid metabolism. Additional heart-healthy ingredients include CoQ10, garlic, fenugreek, and hawthorn.

    Nervous System

    Antioxidants are important for a healthy nervous system. Lipoic acid helps prevent lipid peroxidation, which can impact nerve function. Many B-vitamins are vital to the metabolic processes of the nerves or are present in the Phospholipids of cell membranes. Methylcobalamin, an active form of vitamin B-12, supports the central nervous system. Other supportive ingredients are included (see chart).


    GLUCO-SCIENCE provides antioxidants, nutrients and herbs with an affinity for eyes and the physiological processes involved in sight. Alpha-lipoic acid, quercetin, and vitamin C support healthy lens function. Bilberry, shown to support microcirculation in animal studies, is widely recognized for supporting vision.

    Lifestyle Tips for Healthy Blood Sugar Levels: A Strategy for WellnessSM

  • • Eat a Glucose-Healthy Diet: Fiber: Soluble fiber helps modulate glucose absorption and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Adding 50 grams per day to your diet could help lower blood sugar up to 10%. Foods high in soluble fiber include oranges, grapefruits, raisins, zucchini, oatmeal, oat bran, strawberries and apples. Viscous fibers, including guar gum, psyllium, and galactomannan can be helpful— they should be taken with liquid and mixed with carbohydrate foods. Protein: A high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is associated with healthy blood sugar levels. Fat: Too much fat may increase your risk for heart disease and/or hardening of the arteries, which compromises circulation. Monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, however, are helpful for managing blood sugar. Glycemic Index: Avoid sugar and other foods with a high glycemic index. Different carbohydrates evoke different glycemic responses. Beans, peas, and oats, for example, raise blood glucose levels much less than bread and potatoes. The Glycemic Index, a useful educational tool in choosing foods to help modulate blood glucose levels, is available in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [1995;62:871S-93S (88)], or go to the Internet at
  • • Maintain a Healthy Weight: If you are overweight, lose weight. Although a Body Mass Index (BMI) between 18.5 and 22 is considered “healthy,” problems arise at a BMI of 22, especially for women.
  • • Exercise: Exercise lowers blood sugar and helps reduce risks associated with elevated levels, such as nerve and eye damage. Exercise also improves insulin sensitivity, and supports heart function and circulation. Try to get 20-45 minutes of aerobic exercise at least 3 days per week.
  • • Maintain Healthy Blood Pressure Levels: If your blood pressure is 140 over 90 or higher, you are more likely to experience challenges to healthy blood sugar levels. Eat a “DASH Diet” containing 8-10 servings of fresh fruits and vegetables, 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy products and less than 2,400 mg of sodium per day.
  • • Stop Smoking: Smoking raises glucose levels and aggravates related health problems.
  • • Manage Stress: During stress, the level of many hormones increases and stores of glucose are released into your bloodstream, clogging and weakening vessels and capillaries. You can relax and reverse the hormonal response to stress by practicing deep breathing, meditating or doing yoga, exercising regularly, or talking with friends, family, or a support group.

    Help Maintain Healthy Blood Sugar levels with Gluco-sciense.

    Glucose/Carbohydrate Metabolism American Ginseng, Bitter Melon, Blueberry, Fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, Maitake, Myricetin, Pterocarpus marsupium, Chromium, Magnesium, Manganese, Vitamins B-1, B-2, B-5, B-6 & B-12, Biotin, Inositol, Niacinamide Insulin/Pancreatic Activity alpha-Lipoic Acid, Bitter Melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Maitake Fruit Body, Myricetin, N-acetyl-L-Cysteine, Pterocarpus marsupium, Taurine, Chromium, Manganese, Selenium, Vanadium, Zinc Heart and Circulatory System Bilberry, Blueberry, CoQ10, Fenugreek, Garlic, Grape Seed, Gymnema sylvestre, Hawthorn, Myricetin, Taurine, Siberian Ginseng, Magnesium, Selenium, Vitamins B-6, C & E, Folic Acid, Niacinamide Nervous System alpha-Lipoic acid, Glutamine, Magnesium, Taurine, Vitamins B-1 & B-6, Biotin, Choline, Inositol, Methylcobalamin Vision alpha-Lipoic Acid, Bilberry, Quercetin, Taurine, Zinc, Vitamins B-6, C & E

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    Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement

    Date: June 01, 2005 01:13 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Elan Vital - The Vital Essence of Life - Multi-Vitamin and Mineral Supplement

    Elan Vital Multiple

    What makes ÉLAN VITÀL unique is its unprecedented range of nutriments in high potencies and superior forms. Quite simply, it stands alone among multiples: a quantum leap beyond maintenance...into excellence. Not only does it offer unparalleled antioxidant nutrition and a full-spectrum of essential vitamins and minerals, ÉLAN VITÀL is also formulated with specific nutrients that support:

  • • structural integrity
  • • energy generation
  • • neurotransmitter production
  • • liver health ÉLAN VITÀL brings you the very best from all areas of advanced nutrition for a difference you can feel.

    Today’s inflated levels of stress and pollution give rise to harmful free radicals – unpaired electrons that can damage living cells and compromise the proper function of tissues and organs. Antioxidants serve to protect the body by neutralizing free radicals; in fact, many scientists believe that high levels of antioxidants may prolong the effective working life span of the body’s cells. The primary strategy of ÉLAN VITÀL is to provide a wide range of antioxidants at exceptional levels, from both botanical and biochemical sources.

    Plantioxidant Protection

    ÉLAN VITÀL has the powerful advantage of Plantioxidants™, standardized botanical extracts with unparalleled free radical-scavenging properties. Plantioxidants have the unique quality of providing targeted protection because they tend to be attracted to different organs in the body. Grape Seed extract is rich in potent proanthocyanidins, a special class of highly bioavailable, water-soluble bioflavonoids that have the unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the health of brain cells. Proanthocyanidins have been shown to efficiently scavenge oxygen radicals, as well as optimize the transport of vitamin C. They also have an affinity for collagen and elastin, the structural proteins that are abundant in vessel linings and other connective tissue. ÉLAN VITÀL contains the most concentrated extract of Bilberry available, with at least 25% anthocyanosides – compounds which are similar to proanthocyanidins but with an unusually strong attraction to optical tissue. They have been shown to protect cellular integrity in the delicate structures of the eyes. Ginkgo biloba extract is a standardized concentration of prime quality ginkgo leaves, yielding 24% ginkgoflavoneglycosides. These active compounds are potent antioxidants that have been associated with superior oxygen transport throughout the body with a special affinity for brain capillaries. Silymarin is the name given to a complex of three bioflavonoid-like compounds — silybum, silycristin, and silymarin — extracted and concentrated from milk thistle seeds. Silymarin functions in the body as an antioxidant with a special attraction for the liver. It has been researched and used extensively in Europe, where it is prized for its unique ability to nourish the liver and support its natural regeneration process by speeding up DNA synthesis in liver cells. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid present in some foods, such as onions and blue-green algae. A cousin of rutin, quercetin has been shown to stabilize cell membranes and help prevent free radical damage to this vital but vulnerable part of cells. Bioflavonoids and related compounds do their best antioxidant work when in the presence of Vitamin C, the nutrient they are most often paired with in nature. The vitamin C provided in ÉLAN VITÀL is both water- and fat-soluble. This combination is crucial because the tissues and membranes richest in fatty acids are most at risk to free radical attack. Fat-soluble vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl palmitate has an affinity for these highly vulnerable structures.

    Antioxidant Nutrients

    ÉLAN VITÀL not only provides botanical defense plants to combat free radicals, but also contains tried-and-true antioxidant nutrients: Biochemicals known as vitamins, minerals, and amino acids work together for maximum protection to all the body’s cells. The amino acid, N-Acetyl Cysteine, is a powerful and highly versatile antioxidant that doubles as a precursor to glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, two of the most formidable cell-protective compounds manufactured by the body. Studies have shown that supplemental N-acetyl cysteine enhances internal levels of glutathione far better than supplements of glutathione itself. Methionine also contributes to the synthesis of glutathione, and is an efficient transporter of certain antioxidant minerals, magnifying their activity. Vitamin A is included in both its fat-soluble palmitate form and in its provitamin form, Beta Carotene. While preformed A has long been known to play a role in the body’s defenses, beta carotene itself has recently been shown to possess a powerful ability to scavenge free radicals and contribute to the youthful function of some tissues. Vitamin E is one of the most important antioxidant compounds in nature. It works to prevent harmful oxidation within each cell and is vital in the protection of red blood cells from free radical-induced rupture. Selenium is an extremely powerful antioxidant shown in studies to work synergistically with Vitamins A, C, and E. In combination with cysteine, selenium helps build the glutathione peroxidase molecule. ÉLAN VITÀL offers a 50/50 blend of the two most scientifically supported forms of selenium: L-selenomethionine and sodium selenite. In addition to being an antioxidant itself, Zinc works closely with fat-soluble vitamin A by facilitating its release from the liver to the rest of the body. In ÉLAN VITÀL, Zinc is synergistically bound to methionine for optimal bioavailability. Copper sebacate is a natural compound that can function as the copper-SOD antioxidant system in the body, one of the first lines of defense against free radical attack. Copper sebacate is a highly absorbable form that possesses significant free radical scavenging activity.

    Supporting Structural Integrity

    An important adjunct to antioxidant nutrition is the amino sugar N-Acetyl Glucosamine, or N-A-G™. Amino sugars are essential components of cell membranes and their surface structures, as well as of the “ground substance” that holds body tissues together. They are also a key constituent of the synovial fluid in the joints. Recent research has revealed that amino sugars play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the connective and structural tissues of the body, a property that complements perfectly the actions of antioxidants: where antioxidants may prevent damage from occurring, amino sugars may help the body repair and regenerate damaged tissue. N-A-G’s activity is supported in ÉLAN VITÀL by other nutrients helpful to structural tissue. The mineral Manganese is required for building amino sugars into mucopolysaccharides, the large molecules that make up the ground substance that holds cells together. Choline and Inositol are both components of Phospholipids, principal constituents in cell membranes. Two B vitamins, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12, are important to cell regeneration and to the development of healthy red blood cells.

    Enhanced Energy to Maximize Metabolism

    ÉLAN VITÀL is a potent source of coenzymes, metalloenzymes, and metabolites involved in energy production in the body. There are two main energy production cycles in the cells: the glycolytic cycle and the Krebs’ cycle. Together, they generate about 90-95% of the body’s entire energy supply – using fats, sugars, and amino acids as fuel, with enzymes as facilitators. The enzymes which catalyze energy production function in combination with coenzymes made from vitamins such as B1, B2, B3, B5 and Biotin, plus metalloenzymes made from minerals, including Magnesium, Manganese, and Copper. Biotin, an often overlooked nutrient, may function to help the body maintain a youthful metabolism. The mineral Magnesium aids in energy production, not only by acting as a cofactor to some enzymes, but also as a stabilizer of ATP, the body’s primary energy molecule. Some of the key connecting enzymes in the energy production process require two additional non-vitamin coenzyme nutrients to maximally convert food into energy: Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10. Lipoic acid helps convert the end-product of the glycolytic cycle, pyruvate, into acetyl-CoA, a principal fuel for the higher energy Krebs’ cycle. Coenzyme Q10. is the connecting link for three of the four main enzyme complexes in the Electron Transport System, an off-shoot of the Krebs’ cycle, where ATP molecules are “cashed in” for energy. The muscle-supporting electrolyte mineral Potassium is in the form of Alpha- Ketoglutarate, a critical Krebs’ cycle metabolite that has additional benefits. It has long been used to improve the efficiency of ammonia-clearance from the body, an indispensable function, as ammonia is both exceedingly harmful and constantly produced through the natural metabolism of proteins. Because alpha-ketoglutarate is an organic compound well-recognized by the cells, it is an excellent transporter of potassium into the cells. Succinic Acid, or succinate, is also a metabolite in the Krebs’ cycle. It not only boosts production of ATP energy potential, but also increases the muscle cells’ production of creatine phosphate, another high energy biochemical. Chromium is the essential mineral component of glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, which functions to help insulin (one of the two main blood sugar-controlling hormones in the body) draw sugar molecules from the bloodstream into the cells.

    Smart Nutrients

    ÉLAN VITÀL contains natural substances that sharpen performance beyond just the physical. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is a highly stable and absorbable form of the conditionally essential amino acid L-tyrosine, a precursor to the major excitatory neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. DMAE is a precursor to one of the body’s main neurotransmitters, acetylcholine. From the Plantioxidants comes standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, whose compounds readily cross the blood-brain barrier where they support the integrity of the capillaries in the brain.

    Guarding the Liver

    ÉLAN VITÀL provides several nutrients which collectively support optimal liver function. This is an essential aspect of a multiple, because the liver is responsible for converting nutrients – from food as well as from supplements – into their usable forms. If liver function is compromised in any way, nutrient supplements may be rendered inert in the body. The liver is especially at risk because it must filter out ingested toxins and is continually exposed to chemicals that generate free radicals. N-Acetyl Cysteine and Silymarin have both demonstrated a strong affinity for the liver. Nacetyl cysteine contributes to increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, both of which the liver uses in its natural cleansing function. Silymarin provides unparalleled support to the liver’s natural regeneration process. Because of its many vital functions, the liver uses as much as 12% of the body’s energy supply, even though it represents only 3% of body weight. The liver therefore uses a greater proportion of energy nutrients, especially Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid. Both are highly concentrated in the liver; and lipoic acid in particular has been researched and used heavily in Europe where it is prized for its special protective actions in the liver. Ascorbyl Palmitate is a fat-soluble form of Vitamin C, meaning it can provide antioxidant protection for fatty tissue. This is especially valuable to the liver, which tends to develop fatty streaks that are most vulnerable to damage. Vitamin E has been researched extensively for its antioxidant properties with regard to the liver.

    The Multiple for the 21st Century

    ÉLAN VITÀL is truly a one-of-a-kind multinutrient supplement: one that leaves no nutritional stone unturned. Based on the biochemical principles of nutrition and metabolism – in context of today’s challenges to our health – ÉLAN VITÀL approaches optimal nutrition from several directions...all leading to a lifetime of health and vitality.

    VitaNet ® Staff


    Go Deep to the Underlying Cause of Symptoms*

    Date: May 31, 2005 05:37 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Go Deep to the Underlying Cause of Symptoms*

    Go Deep to the Underlying Cause of Symptoms*

    Bio-Aligned Formulas Balance Your Body Systems

    Source Naturals comprehensive Bio-Aligned Formulas go deep to address the root causes of nutritional symptoms*. Our expert formulators exhaustively review the latest scientific research on nutrition and health. Then they design scientifically based formulas that help bring alignment to your multiple, interdependent body systems. Only this in-depth formulation approach can bring you the most effective formulas possible.

    Cardiovascular Symptoms*

    Your heart function and circulation can be disrupted by factors including diet, stress, and free radicals. Bio-Aligned Formulas supply nutrients to meet the heart’s energy requirements, nutrients necessary for the maintenance of blood vessels, antioxidants to help control cholesterol oxidation, minerals to support normal electrical rhythms, vitamins for regulation of homocysteine levels, and fibers to help with the exertion of cholesterol. The following formulas help align these systems: CHOLES RESPONSE™, CHOLESTREX ®, HEART SCIENCE ™, and POLICOSANOL CHOLESTEROL COMPLEX ™.

    Cognitive & Mood Symptoms*

    Brain health can be affected by nutrition, lifestyle and environmental factors, leaving you susceptible to problems in memory, concentration, and perception. Bio-Aligned Formulas provide ingredients such as neurotransmitters for brain cell communication, Phospholipids that are components of nerve cell membranes, nutrients to fuel the brain’s energy demands, and herbs for stress response. The following formulas help balance these underlying systems: ATTENTIVE CHILD™, CALM THOUGHTS ™ KAVA, HIGHER MIND ™, MEGAMIND ™, MENTAL EDGE®, NIGHT REST ™, POSITIVE THOUGHTS™, and VISUAL EYES™.

  • *The term symptom as used in this literature refers to the effects of nutrient shortages or imbalances and is not related to the diagnosis, treatment, cure or prevention of any disease.
  • Digestive, Eliminative & Metabolic Symptoms* Without adequate nutrition, your liver can’t perform its critical functions: detoxification, metabolism, and conversion of vitamins into usable forms. Bio-Aligned Formulas provide antioxidants, herbs that detoxify and promote bile flow, ingredients for the liver’s energy needs, nutrients that support glucose metabolism and pancreatic activity, and digestive enzymes. The following formulas bring these systems into alignment: ESSENTIAL ENZYMES™, GLUCO-SCIENCE™, HERBAL RE:STORE™, and LIVER GUARD™.

    General Symptomatic Conditions*

    Daily well-being requires nutrition for your major body systems. While typical multiples supply just enough ingredients to meet minimum requirements, Bio-Aligned Formulas provide nutrients to support energy and liver function, heart-friendly botanicals, herbs that promote circulation to the brain, immune-supporting vitamins, minerals for your skeletal system, and antioxidants for general protection. These multiples bio-align your body systems: ÉLAN VITÀL™ MULTIPLE, and LIFE FORCE™ MULTIPLE.

    Immune Symptoms*

    Appropriate immune response is critical for seasonal health and wellness all year around—but it can be compromised by stress, lack of sleep, and poor diet. Bio-Aligned Formulas supply botanicals that modify histamine release, nutrients for the adrenals, clearing herbs, and antioxidants to defend white blood cells. The following formulas help bring these systems into balance: ALLERCETIN™, ALLER-RESPONSE™, CAT’S CLAW DEFENSE COMPLEX™, WELLNESS COLD & FLU™, WELLNESS COUGH SYRUP™, WELLNESS EARACHE™, WELLNESS FORMULA®, and WELLNESS MULTIPLE™.

    Joint, Bone, and Muscular Symptoms*

    Healthy joints, bones, and muscles require continuous nutrition. Bio-Aligned Formulas provide components of joint and connective tissue, bone-building minerals, soothing herbs, and nutrients that support muscular energy. The following formulas help align these systems: FIBRO RESPONSE™, GLUCOSAMEND™, MUSCLE MASS™, ULTRA-CAL NIGHT™, and ULTRA JOINT RESPONSE™.

    Men’s & Women’s Symptoms*

    The health of men and women can be impacted by diet, stress, and aging. Bio-Aligned Formulas provide phytoestrogens for hormonal balance, calming neurotransmitters, ingredients for metabolic support, and nutritional support for skin, hair, and nails. The following formulas help harmonize these systems: LUSTRE™, MALE RESPONSE™, MENOPAUSE MULTIPLE™, MONTHLY COMFORT™, MOOD BALANCE™, PROSTA RESPONSE™, SKIN ETERNAL PLUS™ and ULTRA BONE BALANCE™.

    Choose Your Bio-Aligned Formula

    In a world of dizzying consumer choices, shopping for the right supplement can leave you confused and frustrated. And since few companies disclose the rationale behind their formulas, it’s hard to make an informed choice. The best place to start is at your local health food store. The natural foods industry is unique in its dedication to holistic health, self-care and consumer education. And the Source Naturals Bio-Aligned Formulas Chart Book—now available at participating health food stores as well as online—is an invaluable tool. The Chart Book helps you pick the formula that is appropriate for your nutritional symptoms* by explaining how each formula supports specific, interdependent body systems. Source Naturals Bio-Aligned Formulas are expertly designed using groundbreaking nutrients, clinically substantiated potency levels, cofactors that facilitate the action of key ingredients, bioavailable forms, and effective delivery systems. Together, these ingredients can help bring you the power of Bio-Alignment.

    VitaNet ®
    VitaNet ® Staff


    Attentive Child - Enhances Mental Concentration ...

    Date: May 31, 2005 05:14 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Attentive Child - Enhances Mental Concentration ...

    Most children are creative, energetic and spontaneous, but sometimes they don’t focus on requested activities. Sometimes kids find it difficult to apply themselves to the task at hand. Your child’s brain also may work differently than most people’s brains— just like the 5% of the population that is left-handed. Most people think an ultra-active child means an active brain, but active children may actually need a boost in brain metabolism. Source Naturals ATTENTIVE CHILD is a Bio-Aligned Formula™ designed to address the multiple systems that affect children’s ability to focus: neurotransmitters and brain metabolism, nerve cell communication, antioxidant defense, and essential fatty acid metabolism.

  • Formerly FOCUS CHILD™
  • Comprehensive Brain Support

    Parents are looking for a safe and natural product to support their children’s ability to focus. Source Naturals studied the research and created an experiential formula, based on the latest breakthroughs in cerebral and nervous system biochemistry. Each ingredient in ATTENTIVE CHILD plays a role in brain and nervous system structure or functioning, or is involved in important biochemical pathways. DMAE, a substance normally found in the brain, boosts brain metabolism and has been shown to enhance concentration. L-Aspartate is an amino acid neurotransmitter that stimulates brain activity. Research has shown that some ultra-active children may have special dietary needs for magnesium, zinc and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Magnesium is necessary for the transmission of nerve signals, and, along with zinc, for the processing of essential fatty acids into other vital biochemicals. DHA is an essential fatty acid that is very important for cerebral development and effective communication between nerve cells in the brain. Lecithin contains four Phospholipids—fatty acid building-block molecules in nerve cell membranes. Phosphatidylserine, in particular, is vital in nerve cell communication and the electrical activity of the brain. Grape seed extract is a plant-derived antioxidant that protects the integrity of fatty acids in nerve cell membranes.

    ATTENTIVE DHA™ in Tiny Kid Caps™

    The ATTENTIVE CHILD formula can be supplemented with additional DHA. ATTENTIVE DHA Kid Caps are available in easy-to-swallow, small oval softgels, each containing 100 mg of DHA. For children who can’t swallow caps, simply pierce the gel and mix the oil with food. Sweeteners with Low Impact on Blood Sugar The delicious sweetand- tart taste in ATTENTIVE CHILD wafers comes from natural flavors, specially manufactured without sugar for Source Naturals. Unless specified, most flavors in other products contain maltodextrin, a sugar with a high glycemic index. The ATTENTIVE CHILD wafer itself is sweetened with crystalline fructose (natural fruit sugar) and xylitol (a naturally occurring sweetening agent found in many fruits and vegetables). These select natural sweeteners have a very low glycemic index—so ATTENTIVE CHILD will taste great to your child, but have little effect on blood sugar levels. We recommend carefully reviewing the labels of other products. They may contain honey, glucose, sucrose, maltodextrin, and maltose—all of which have moderate-tohigh glycemic indexes. In addition, maple sugar, molasses, malt syrup, rice syrup, and beet sugar contain varying amounts of high-glycemic-index sugars, which can set off blood sugar fluctuations that may affect concentration. Beware of children’s nutritional bars designed to enhance focus and concentration. Most have over 20 grams of sugar per bar. In contrast, each serving of ATTENTIVE CHILD contains only two grams of crystalline fructose, which has little effect on blood sugar.

    Glycemic Index of Various Sweeteners

    The glycemic index is a ranking of foods based on their immediate effect on blood glucose levels. It measures how much your blood glucose increases over a period of two or three hours after intake. The higher the glycemic index (GI), the greater the fluctuations in blood sugar. Sweetener Glycemic Index†
    Xylitol* 7.0
    Crystalline Fructose* 23.0
    Organic Agave Nectar†† 10.0
    High Fructose Corn Syrup 62.3
    Sucrose 65.0
    Honey 73.0
    Glucose 97.0
    Maltodextrin 105.0
    Maltose 105.0

    *sweeteners used in ATTENTIVE CHILD ™ †based on rate of 100 for glucose ††for information, see website

    Lifestyle Strategies for Your Child

    You can help your child concentrate on schoolwork, chores and other challenges. Start with ATTENTIVE CHILD and ATTENTIVE DHA, and then incorporate a healthy lifestyle and nutrition routine.

    Physical Health

    Have your child’s overall health checked by a welltrained holistic health care professional, such as a naturopathic physician. It is particularly important to examine the functioning of your child’s thyroid gland (the master regulator of the body’s metabolism, which influences mood and energy level), and blood sugar metabolism (the brain depends on a steady supply of glucose to function properly, particularly when you are trying to concentrate).

    Nutritional Health: Feeding the Brain

    Help your child maintain a steady supply of energy and brain fuel by providing a balanced diet. Small, frequent meals are preferable since they dispense a steady level of glucose to the brain. Include foods high in the amino acid tyrosine, a precursor to neurotransmitters that support an alert state. It is found in protein foods, such as meat, poultry, beans, tofu, lentils and seafood. Also include complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables, which are metabolized slowly and yield a steady supply of glucose. The simple sugars found in candy, cookies, sodas and other processed foods can lead to a rapid rise in blood sugar levels, followed by an abrupt decline, and should be discouraged. It is important to include essential fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are abundant in the brain and essential for its development and normal functioning. Supplement with ATTENTIVE DHA, and encourage your child to eat cold-water fish, such as salmon. Avoid the hydrogenated fats found in processed foods and margarine, as well as chemicals and food additives. A nutrition program consisting of fresh, unprocessed natural foods is the healthiest choice for everyone.

    Lifestyle Health

    Some experts believe extended time watching TV and playing video games does not support optimal health or school performance. EEG studies have shown that these activities decrease brain activity rather than activating the brain. Encourage your child to spend time in outdoor physical recreation and in creative, challenging activities.


    ATTENTIVE CHILD is available in bottles of 30 & 60 chewable wafers. ATTENTIVE DHA Kid Caps (algal-source Neuromins®) are available in 30- & 60-softgel bottles. References Amen, D. Windows into the....Mind. Fairfield, CA: MindWorks Press, 1997. Foster-Powell, K. & Miller, J.B. 1995, International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr. 62:871S-93S. Natah, S.S. et al. 1997. Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. Apr; 65(4):947-50. Schmidt, Michael. Smart Fats. Berkeley: Frog, Ltd., 1997. Sears, William. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1998.

    VitaNet ®
    VitaNEt ® Staff

    Solaray - Ultimate Nutrition - Actipet Pet supplements - Action Labs - Sunny Greens - Thompson nutritional - Natural Sport - Veg Life Vegan Line - Premier One - NaturalMax - Kal


    PhosChol® PPC - Polyenylphosphatidylcholine for memory and liver function ...

    Date: May 26, 2005 09:57 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: PhosChol® PPC - Polyenylphosphatidylcholine for memory and liver function ...

    PhosChol ® PPC (30sg,60sg)

  • Polyenylphosphatidylcholine for imporved brain and liver function.
  • All Natural, Pure phosphatidylcholine derived from soy.
  • Improved cellular membrane fluidity.
  • Key compoenent for neuronal (Brain) membrane integrity.
  • Supports healthy Liver, Pancreas, Cardiovasular and gastrointestinal function.
  • One Softgel Contains:
    Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PhosChol®) 900mg

    Suggested Use: 1 softgel, 3 times daily, or as directed by your health care professional.

    PhosChol ® PPC For imporved Brain and Liver Funtion

    Phospholipids are the building blocks for cell membranes--the protective layer and gatekeeper of all cells. A good balance of phosphalipids in the diet provides building blocks for healthy cells, but an imbalance can lead to health concerns for customers.

    Now Source Naturals offers PhosChol ® PPC, an all-natural, soy-derived, 100% pure source of Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC). PPC is a phospholipid found in certain foods and in every cell of your body. It is an integral part of cell membranes, essential for their structual and functional integrity. Studies show that PPC helps to maintain and improve membrane fluidity, supports healthy liver, pancreas, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal health.

    VitaNet ® Staff

    Solaray - Ultimate Nutrition - Actipet Pet supplements - Action Labs - Sunny Greens - Thompson nutritional - Natural Sport - Veg Life Vegan Line - Premier One - NaturalMax - Kal


    Under-Reported (and Underappreciated) Cholesterol control.

    Date: May 12, 2005 10:00 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (
    Subject: Under-Reported (and Underappreciated) Cholesterol control.

    Under-Reported (and Underappreciated) Solutions for Cholesterol and Triglyceride Control

    by Richard Conant, L.Ac., C.N.

    Fat and human existence are inseparable. Setting aside the fear and loathing over fat in the body that pervades our culture, we understand that fat is our friend. We cannot live without fat.

    The human body contains many different kinds of fats and fat-like molecules. Collectively known as "lipids" these fatty substances include fatty acids, lipoproteins, Phospholipids, glycolipids, triglycerides, steroid hormones and the infamous, dreaded cholesterol.

    Lipids (fats) are found everywhere in the body, performing a variety of vital functions. The brain is a fat-rich organ. Brain neurons and all other nerve cells are protected by a myelin sheath, made largely out of fatty material. Cell membranes consist almost entirely of Phospholipids (lipids that contain phosphorus) arranged in a sandwich-like double layer embedded with proteins. Sex hormones are lipids, belonging to the group of complex lipid molecules known as "steroids." Vitamin D is a lipid.

    The body stores and transports fatty acids in the form of triglycerides. A triglyceride contains three fatty acid molecules, which have a chain-like structure, linked to glycerol. (There are also mono- and di-glycerides, which have one and two fatty acid chains, respectively, attached to glycerol.)

    Like many other things necessary to life, fat is a two-edged sword. Fat insulates us from the cold, cushions and protects our vital organs and serves as a storehouse for energy. Yet, when present in excess to the point of obesity, fat threatens health, happiness, self-esteem, social standing and longevity. The same is true of other lipids, most notably triglycerides and cholesterol. Transported throughout the body in the bloodstream, these essential lipids become a health liability when the blood contains too much of them.

    Keeping fat in it its proper place, not eliminating or drastically reducing it, is the goal we should seek. In the blood, lipids must be maintained at healthy levels and ratios. When they are, an important foundation of good health is established.

    How do we keep the blood lipids we need——triglycerides and the various forms of cholesterol——balanced at healthy levels? Diet and exercise are indispensable, these basics must come first. Along with the recommended dietary practices, a number of nutritional approaches offer help for maintaining healthy blood lipids. We will now give several of these a closer look.


    In 1990, an herb used for centuries in the Far East was introduced to U.S. consumers. This herb, called "gum guggul," is proving to be one of the most effective natural cholesterol-lowering agents ever discovered. It also brings triglycerides down and raises HDL, the "good" cholesterol. The changes are substantial; gum guggul single-handedly normalizes the entire blood lipid profile, even in people with high starting levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    Gum guggul, also called simply "guggul," is a gummy resin tapped from the Commiphora tree. A cousin of myrrh gum, guggul has been used by Ayurvedic herbalists of India for at least 3,000 years; texts dating from around 1,000 B.C. mention the herb. Guggul was traditionally given for rheumatism and poor health caused by excess consumption of fatty foods. One ancient Sanskrit text describes in detail what happens in the body when blood fats are out of balance, due to sedentary lifestyle and overeating. The name of this condition has been translated as "coating and obstruction of channels."

    Intrigued by the obvious similarity between "coating and obstruction of channels" and arteries clogged by fatty plaque, Indian researchers initiated a series of experimental and clinical studies in the 1960's to see if gum guggul would lower excess blood lipids.1 Both human and animal studies consistently showed cholesterol and triglyceride reductions.

    Detailed pharmacological studies showed that guggul's lipid-lowering effects are produced by compounds in the resin called "guggulsterones."2 An Indian pharmaceutical firm then patented a standardized extract of gum guggul under the trade name "Gugulipid." The product contains a uniform 2.5 percent guggulsterones, which is higher than guggul resin in its natural state.

    Because Gugulipid guarantees the necessary intake of guggulsterones needed for blood fat reduction, it has become the product used in clinical research. Phase I efficacy safety trials and Phase II efficacy trials have yielded more positive data.3,4,5 Most of the studies on gum guggul have used relatively small numbers of subjects; this tends to make mainstream medical scientists reluctant about natural remedies. A large, well-publicized double-blind Gugulipid trial on 400 to 500 people would go a long way toward giving this herb the credibility it deserves.


    Another effective natural solution for blood fat control that should be better known is a relative of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Pantethine is the active form of pantothenic acid in the body. Pantethine forms CoA, an essential co-enzyme for utilization of fat. CoA transports "active acetate," an important byproduct of fat metabolism that provides fuel for generating cellular energy. By promoting the burning of fats for energy, pantethine helps keep triglyceride levels down.6 Pantethine also helps regulate cholesterol production, by facilitating the conversion of fat into other lipid-based molecules needed in the body.6

    Japanese researchers began studying the effect of pantethine on blood fats nearly twenty years ago. They reported their promising results at the Seventh International Symposium on Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism, held in Milan, Italy in 1980.7 Few in the medical or scientific communities took notice. Italian researchers followed up with several small clinical trials that confirmed the preliminary reports.6,8,9 An excellent cholesterol and triglyceride lowering agent that is safe and free of side-effects, pantethine remains, for the most part, ignored by mainstream science, although its usage is growing in alternative medicine circles. Pantethine it will no doubt prove to be one of the most important supplements for maintaining healthy blood fat levels.


    When taken in high enough doses, niacin (vitamin B3) substantially lowers cholesterol. This has been known to medical science for many years.10 studies on niacin as a cholesterol-lowering agent go back to the 1950's. There was a fair amount of initial enthusiasm for niacin because it improves, unlike most lipid-lowering drugs, all parameters of the blood lipid profile. Niacin reduces total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. It also raises HDL cholesterol quite well. Interest in niacin has faded, in part because the necessary dose, 1200 milligrams a day or more, can cause flushing and gastrointestinal disturbances. Very high doses may be harmful to the liver if taken for too long.

    There is a solution to the side-effect problem with niacin which, again, has failed to gain widespread attention. Inositol hexanicotinate is a flush-free form of niacin composed of six niacin molecules bonded to one molecule of inositol, another B-complex nutrient. Absorbed as an intact structure, inositol hexanicotinate is metabolized slowly, releasing free niacin into the bloodstream over a period of hours following ingestion.11 Inositol hexanicotinate has all the benefits of niacin for controlling blood fats. The flushing effect of ordinary niacin, which metabolizes much more rapidly, does not occur. Taking as much as four grams per day has not been reported to raise liver enzymes or cause other side-effects, but prudence dictates that people with liver problems should avoid very high doses of inositol hexanicotinate, or any form of niacin.12


    We often think of vitamin E as synonymous with d-alpha tocopherol. Vitamin E is actually a whole family of compounds that includes various tocopherols and a group of lesser known but highly beneficial substances called "tocotrienols." All have vitamin E activity. Tocotrienols are similar in chemical structure to tocopherols, but they have important differences which give them unique and highly beneficial properties for human health.

    Vitamin E is one of the most recognized antioxidants, nutrients that deactivate potentially toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism known as free radicals. Vitamin E neutralizes peroxides, which result from the free radical oxidation of lipids, making it a key antioxidant in cell membranes. While d-alpha tocopherol has generally been regarded as the form of vitamin E with the strongest antioxidant activity, tocotrienols are even stronger.

    The tocotrienol story is another example of a natural product slow to gain recognition. A Univeristy of California research team discovered that d-alpha tocotrienol is over six times more effective than d-alpha tocopherol at protecting cell membranes against free radical damage.13 In the presence of vitamin C, which recycles vitamin E-like compounds, its antioxidant activity is 40 to 60 times higher than d-alpha tocopherol. This study was published in 1991. Its safe to say few cardiac physicians know about tocotrienols, and we have yet to see 60 Minutes do a piece on "the powerful new form of vitamin E."

    It would be a tremendous service to public health if they did, because the benefits of tocotrienols go far beyond their stellar antioxidant ability. Tocotrienols also lower total cholesterol and LDL, by impressive percentages. In one double-blind controlled study, tocotrienols reduced total cholesterol by 16 percent and LDL by 21 percent after twelve weeks. Another study recorded drops of 15 to 22 percent in total cholesterol along with 10 to 20 percent decreases in LDL levels.14 Now appearing on health food store shelves, tocotrienols are a health-protecting nutrients whose long overdue time has come. Derived from food oils such as palm oil and rice bran oil, tocotrienols have the same lack of toxicity as ordinary vitamin E.


    1. Satyavati, G. Gugulipid: a promising hypolipidaemic agent from gum guggul (Commiphora wightii). Economic and Medicinal Plant Research 1991;5:47-82.

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    7. Kimura, S., Furukawa, Y., Wakasugi, J. Effects of pantethine on the serum lipoprotiens in rats fed a high cholesterol diet (Abstract) Seventh International Symposium on Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism, Milan, Italy, 1980.

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    9. Avogaro, P. Bittolo Bon, G. Fusello, M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Current Therapeutic Research 1983;33(3):488-93.

    10. Crouse, J.R. New developments in the use of niacin for treatment of hyperlipidemia: new considerations in the use of an old drug. Coronary Artery Disease 1996;7(4):321-26.

    11. Welsh, A.L. Ede, M. Inositol hexanicotinate for improved nicotinic acid therapy. International Record of Food Medicine 1961;174(1):9-15.

    12. "Inositol hexaniacinate" (Monograph). Alternative Medicine Review 1998;3(3):222-3.

    13. Serbinova, E., et. al. Free radical recycling and intramembrane mobility in the antioxidant properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha tocotrienol. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1991;10:263-275.

    14. Qureshi, N. Qureshi, A.A. Tocotrienols: Novel Hypercholesterolemic Agents with Antioxidant Properties. in 'Vitamin E in Health and Disease' Lester Packer and Jürgen Fuchs, Editors. 1993; New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

    Control Cholesterol with the following Supplements

  • Policosanol -- Reduces Production of Cholesterol by the Liver
  • Red Yeast Rice -- Reduces production of cholesterol like pharmaceutical Statins on the market today
  • Sytrinol -- Lowers Cholesterol by reducing production of cholesterol in the body like Statins on the market today
  • Fiber -- Helps elimate waste and reduce cholesterol

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    VitaNet ® Staff


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