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  Messages 1-24 from 24 matching the search criteria.
Vitamin C: A safer way to recover from drug addiction Darrell Miller 2/4/19
CBD may help smokers quit cigarettes, finds new study Darrell Miller 6/20/18
Could cannabis extract CBD replace ibuprofen as a painkiller? Darrell Miller 1/3/18
CBD for Fibromyalgia and Opioid Withdrawal Darrell Miller 11/12/17
“No known lethal dose:” New potential for marijuana is treating drug addiction Darrell Miller 5/24/17
Opium-like painkiller alternative can be found growing in your backyard Darrell Miller 4/15/17
Marijuana Compound Shows Some Potential for Treating Opioid Addiction Darrell Miller 2/9/17
FDA Steps Up Warnings for Testosterone Darrell Miller 11/2/16
What Health Benefits Does Black Currant Seed Oil Posses? Darrell Miller 4/18/14
The immense health benefits of taking evening primrose oil Darrell Miller 12/31/13
How important is it to take a GLA supplement? Darrell Miller 12/4/13
Melatonin Overdose Darrell Miller 12/27/12
Can Melatonin Help Me Sleep? Darrell Miller 12/20/12
Ashwagandha Darrell Miller 2/15/12
How Does Taurine Help the Brain? Darrell Miller 5/13/11
Melatonin, What is it, Sleep And How it Helps! Darrell Miller 12/22/10
skullcap Darrell Miller 8/10/09
Caffeine Addiction Darrell Miller 12/20/08
Guarana Seed Extract Darrell Miller 11/17/08
GABA Darrell Miller 8/26/08
Moderating Male Midlife Moodiness - The lesser known guy version of menopause is now a ... Darrell Miller 7/14/05
Gotta Habit Darrell Miller 6/14/05
Say Goodbye to Headaches Darrell Miller 6/13/05
Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime... Darrell Miller 6/2/05



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Vitamin C: A safer way to recover from drug addiction
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Date: February 04, 2019 09:52 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Vitamin C: A safer way to recover from drug addiction





One of the best and safest ways to recover from drug addiction, especially the use of heroin is through the use of Vitamin C. It is found that even after quitting the use of drugs, effects can be felt for years. The use of the vitamin along with other vital nutrients can help to relieve pain and bring back an addict's appetite. This can be important since malnutrition is a large problem for addicts to overcome. Other suggestions include the use of art, adventure or psychotherapy.

Key Takeaways:

  • Vitamin C does not cause the kinds of side effects associated with methadone.
  • High doses of Vitamin C can help recovering addicts eat better, sleep better, and feel better overall.
  • In addition to Vitamin C, other effective forms of addiction treatment include psychotherapy, art therapy, and adventure therapy.

"People who were previously addicted to heroin may still feel the symptoms of withdrawal weeks, months, or even years after abstaining from it."

Read more: https://www.naturalnews.com/2019-01-29-vitamin-c-a-safer-way-to-recover-from-drug-addiction.html

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CBD may help smokers quit cigarettes, finds new study
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Date: June 20, 2018 04:44 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: CBD may help smokers quit cigarettes, finds new study





CBD may help smokers quit cigarettes, finds new study

Humans have what is called a electrochemical system that can be directly impacted by substances referred to as endocannabinoids. One of these is cannabidiol (CBD). CBD oil was given to 30 participants in a 2013 study, and it showed that it helped them successfully reduce the amount of cigarettes that they smoked by 40%. More studies have to be done to determine a direct correlation, but this is good news for those who are continuously struggling to find natural ways to quit.

Key Takeaways:

  • Cannabinoids in marijuana can trigger an electrochemical signaling system, the endocannabinoid system, in the body which can also be activated by natural cannabinoids.
  • Using 30 nicotine-dependent smokers, some given a placebo and others CBD, the researchers sought to find out if cannabidiol (CBD) influenced tobacco cravings or withdrawals.
  • The study showed great promise but more research needs to be done to fully explore cannabis effectiveness as an aid to helping smokers stop.

"In 2013, a study published in the journal Addictive Behaviors found that smokers who were given a CBD inhaler reduced their cigarette consumption by around 40% compared to those given a placebo."

Read more: https://www.healthnutnews.com/cbd-may-help-smokers-quit-cigarettes-finds-new-study/

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Could cannabis extract CBD replace ibuprofen as a painkiller?
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Date: January 03, 2018 08:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Could cannabis extract CBD replace ibuprofen as a painkiller?





Ten years ago Richard Holt was sleeping on the top bunk at a hostel next to an open window. He rolled over and fell 24 feet onto concrete. Somehow he landed on his feet, but ended up shattering his legs. He was given Oxycontin during his recovery. The drug was great at first. Then the grogginess and a crushing feeling replaced the warm and fuzzies. Through a grueling withdrawal period, he quit Oxycontin. The pain from is crushed legs endured. Luckily through Brazilian jiu-jitsu training partners, he learned about a non-psychoactive compound found in hemp and cannabis called cannabidiol (CBD). Despite not containing THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis, adaptation of CBD oil has slow. However, it is starting gain notice and momentum. In 2016, CBD oil has been legal in the UK and it's showed promise in several studies. One thing for sure, it helps Richard Holt.

Key Takeaways:

  • The CBD oil does not contain THC and is therefore not psychoactive
  • CBD oil can be used to treat cancerous tumors that would normally be lethal
  • helped a man who shattered his leg and heel alleviate pain from injuries in a way that nothing else could.

"Everyone that uses it tells a similar story: they sleep better and feel less pain."

Read more: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health-fitness/body/could-cannabis-extract-cbd-replace-ibuprofen-painkiller/

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CBD for Fibromyalgia and Opioid Withdrawal
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Date: November 12, 2017 07:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: CBD for Fibromyalgia and Opioid Withdrawal





CBD is an alternative to the THC seen in marijuana plants, coming with all of the pain relief but with none of the psychoactive properties. It has been shown that this can help with opioid withdrawal. The author is a 70+ woman who used it daily as a tincture in olive oil to combat her dependence on opioids. It allowed her to kick that habit and develop healthier habits through the use of CBD and her pain management techniques.

Key Takeaways:

  • CBD is being debated for its medical uses in some settings too. It can be used to aid in the treatment of fibromyalgia over time.
  • Even opioid withdrawal could be minimized if the patient opts to use CBD. That is drawing attention towards the utility of CBD for medical reasons.
  • Doctors and other personnel are waiting to evaluate the true effects of CBD. Some research is hinting at its uses and may help get it approved.

"I hope the efficacy of CBD in aiding opiate withdrawal becomes more commonly known. It’s truly incredible."

Read more: https://www.projectcbd.org/science/patient-experience-surveys/cbd-fibromyalgia-and-opioid-withdrawal

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“No known lethal dose:” New potential for marijuana is treating drug addiction
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Date: May 24, 2017 04:14 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: “No known lethal dose:” New potential for marijuana is treating drug addiction





Research is showing that instead of abstinence for drug users it may be better to instead introduce them to a milder drug to help reduce the impact addiction has in their life. They believe marijuana can help crack, and cocaine users curb their addictions. Although they aren't completely certain about the science behind this development the progress made has been significant. Both crack and cocaine users have had a significantly higher success rate of quitting those drugs with the help of marijuana.

Key Takeaways:

  • Defines and explores a modern approach to opioid and crack cocaine/etc. addiction, using a step-down method to less harmful drugs to encourage the reduction of illicit drug use.
  • Explanation of how introducing cannabidiol can bind to certain brain receptors affected by illicit drug use and how it may even reverse some of the damage.
  • Explains the method as a less dangerous and more effective alternative to the current system of forced withdrawal/abstinence programs and change how we see abstinence as the only "win"

"Crack cocaine is said to be a low-end incarnation of a rich man’s drug."

Read more: http://fox6now.com/2017/05/17/no-known-lethal-dose-new-potential-for-marijuana-is-treating-drug-addiction/

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Opium-like painkiller alternative can be found growing in your backyard
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Date: April 15, 2017 01:29 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Opium-like painkiller alternative can be found growing in your backyard





If you suffer from pain, it is a good idea to look for alternatives to taking painkillers. They are addictive, and often mask the underlying instead of effectively dealing with it. There are many herbs and spices out there that can address the inflammation that causes pain and some of these herbs grow in your backyard. Wild lettuce is a plant found in yards all over the country and has been used for a long time in treating pain. Read this article for more details into the effectiveness of wild lettuce for pain.

Key Takeaways:

  • -Did you know that many herbs and spices can treat inflammation and other related conditions that cause acute or chronic pain?
  • -While it has been used for centuries, it was in the 1970s that it started to gain significant popularity, both for pain relief and recreational purposes.
  • Furthermore, it can be very beneficial for asthma patients since opiate medications can cause more asthma episodes when they go through opiate withdrawal

"Also known as Lactuca Virosa, opium lettuce, or bitter lettuce, this medicinal plant has long been used in folk medicine as a substitute to opium, hence its name opium lettuce."

Read more: http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-04-09-opium-like-painkiller-alternative-can-be-found-growing-in-your-backyard.html

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Marijuana Compound Shows Some Potential for Treating Opioid Addiction
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Date: February 09, 2017 10:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Marijuana Compound Shows Some Potential for Treating Opioid Addiction





A marijuana compound has shown some potential for treating Opioid addiction. it might help people who suffer from addiction to heroine by getting rid of some of the symptoms that come from withdrawing. More research needs to be done in this area so people can start getting help. It is a very important thing.

Key Takeaways:

  • A component of marijuana may help heroin users resist the urge to use the drug and alleviate Withdrawal symptoms, but more research should be done in this area, according to a new review of previous research.
  • So far, research on these marijuana compounds, called cannabinoids, for treating opioid addiction has been scarce because of certain regulations that restrict their testing in humans, according to the review.
  • This dearth of research in the field is particularly important considering the ongoing epidemic of opioid abuse in the United States, according to the review author.

"This dearth of research in the field is particularly important considering the ongoing epidemic of opioid abuse in the United States, according to the review author."



Reference:

https://www.google.com/url?rct=j&sa=t&url=//www.livescience.com/57738-marijuana-compound-may-treat-opioid-addiction.html&ct=ga&cd=CAIyGjViYjkzZDJlODZhNjI0ZWE6Y29tOmVuOlVT&usg=AFQjCNFcO1ZALwbr2omrwXLLL8TDxSNebg

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FDA Steps Up Warnings for Testosterone
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Date: November 02, 2016 03:49 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: FDA Steps Up Warnings for Testosterone

Testosterone and other steroid drugs can cause heart attacks, personality changes and infertility. The FDA also warned that people abusing high doses of testosterone have reported Withdrawal symptoms such as depression, irritability, decreased libido, insomnia and others. Testosterone is not approved for treating the effects of aging. Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of testosterone. These are prescribed to treat conditions such as delayed puberty and diseases that cause muscle loss like cancer or AIDS.

Key Takeaways:

  • Reported serious adverse outcomes include heart attack, heart failure, stroke, depression, hostility, aggression, liver toxicity and male infertility.
  • They are legally prescribed to treat conditions such as delayed puberty and diseases that cause muscle loss, such as cancer or AIDS.
  • They are approved to treat men will medically diagnosed low levels of testosterone.

"They are legally prescribed to treat conditions such as delayed puberty and diseases that cause muscle loss, such as cancer or AIDS."



Reference:

//www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/fda-steps-warnings-testosterone-other-steroids-n672681?cid=public-rss_20161029

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What Health Benefits Does Black Currant Seed Oil Posses?
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Date: April 18, 2014 06:10 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What Health Benefits Does Black Currant Seed Oil Posses?

black currant fruitWhat is a black currant

Blackcurrant is a small nutritious berry grown in places that experience temperate climates such as north and central Europe. For years, this nutritious fruit has been used for both food and medicinal purposes and scientists have also discovered that it contains vitamin C, antioxidants and phytochemicals.

Other medicinal properties of the fruit include:

1. It contains lots of essential fatty acids

Black currant seed oil is believed to contain lots of gamma and alpha linolenic acids, these compounds are also found in fish oils and are useful in improving memory and eyesight. Fatty acids also help in boosting cellular development including formation of healthy cell-membranes. According to a study conducted by Maryland University, gamma linolenic is the only Omega-6 fatty acid that can reduce swelling. It can also improve nerve functioning for diabetics and increase bone density by enhancing calcium absorption. Other studies also show fatty acids can help prevent allergic reactions, those who react adversely to external stimuli typically have lower levels of this compound in their bloodstream.

2. It improves cardiovascular health

Preliminary studies show that those suffering from arterial malfunction experience reduced pressure levels after taking omega-3 fatty acids. The anti-inflammatory aspects of this substance also help in cutting back cholesterol levels within the blood vessels and platelet aggregation.

3. Prevents premature aging

The substance is very useful in preventing untimely aging as it blocks wrinkle formation and fastens the process of repairing damaged tissues. Moreover, some scientists believe that omega-6 fatty compounds can be beneficial in curing eczema, including liver toxicity and symptoms of Withdrawal caused by too much alcohol abuse. Black current seed oil can also lessen premenstrual syndromes by alleviating cramps, breast tenderness and depression while at the same time reducing nervous system stress. Though this product is beneficial in treating a myriad of conditions, it should be taken in moderation for the best results. You may also consult with a nutritionist for more information on how to consume it effectively.

Sources

  1. //altmedicine.about.com/od/herbsupplementguide/a/Black-Currant-Oil.htm
  2. //www.evitamins.com/a/10-best-uses-black-currant-522#.U0xN_aJyXIU

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The immense health benefits of taking evening primrose oil
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Date: December 31, 2013 04:47 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The immense health benefits of taking evening primrose oil

primrose plantWhat is Primrose Oil

The oil is extracted from the seed of the evening primrose plant, which has yellow leaves that are known to unfold at night. The whole plant has consumed for many years by Native Indians. It is also available in capsule form. The following is a look at the health benefits of the oil.

Study about Primrose Oil

The concentration of gamma-lanoleic acid in the evening primrose plant is very high, and has been discovered to be one of the few plants that contain the essential substance. The acid has been proven to be vital for enhancing the skin’s elasticity and improving the functioning of nerves. Gama-lanoleic acid is also important in the body’s growth, development and immune response.

Studies have proven Gama-lanoleic acid to be effective in the destruction of breast cancer tumors without causing harm to adjacent healthy cells or leading to side effects. The use of the oil in combination with other breast cancer drugs has shown better results than when the drugs are taken in isolation. It is also effective in relieving breast pain, rheumatoid arthritis and severe headaches due to its anti inflammatory and hormone regulatory properties.

Benefits of Prirose Oil

Swelling, itching, redness, crusting and redness that, are common in eczema cases, can be relieved after using the oil. Gama-lanoleic acid in the oil is believed to be the active substance in such cases.

There is evidence to suggest that the oil is helpful in treating heart conditions, pediatric hyperactivity, menopause symptoms, post menstrual syndrome and ageing. Other conditions where the oil has been used to produce desirable results include schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol Withdrawal symptoms and weight control.

Evening primrose oil has become an important substance in herbal solutions because of its therapeutic and preventative qualities. There is tremendous research being conducted on the oil in bid to uncover additional benefits for the human body.

References:

  1. //www.herbwisdom.com/herb-evening-primrose.html
  2. //health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/natural-medicine/alternative/evening-primrose-oil1.htm
  3. //www.spectrumorganics.com/?id=45
  4. //altmedicine.about.com/od/herbsupplementguide/a/evening_primrose_oil.htm

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How important is it to take a GLA supplement?
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Date: December 04, 2013 06:43 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How important is it to take a GLA supplement?

How important is it to take a GLA supplement?
 

primroseMajority of people consider evening primrose oil as one of the major miraculous discoveries within preventive care after Vitamin C. This oil consists a compound called phenylalanine that can assist with pain relief and has been applied increasingly with remedying headaches. Its therapeutic and preventive features are many hence making it a regular proposal from a big number of herbalists. 

10 health benefits:

1- GLA Deficiency

Evening primrose oil has a lot of fatty acid gamma linolenic acid (GLA) which is very crucial for general operation of the body.

2- Heart Health

Studies revealed that utilizing of evening primrose oil on daily basis can assist in lowering blood pressure, cholesterol and safeguard against the coronary artery disease thus minimizing the capability of heart attacks and diseases.

3- Menstrual Pain


The oil is normally used in relieving distress that is normally related with menstrual signs. Majority of women around the world get relief by applying evening primrose oil.

4- Diabetes


Diabetics occasionally get challenges in producing GLA hence evening primrose oil is an effective supplement to assist them. Studies revealed that this oil can also safeguard people from diabetic neuropathy which is a nerve condition that often affects diabetics.

5- Skin Health


Evening primrose oil is considered as an effective remedy for eczema and other skin disorders due to GLA and other essential fatty acids that are vital for skin health.

6- Anti-Inflammatory & Discomfort Reliever

Evening primrose oil is referred to contain anti-inflammatory features and can assist to ease symptoms of chest discomfort and rheumatoid.

7- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Studies revealed that kids suffering from ADHD got relieved after taking evening primrose oil.

8- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Utilizing evening primrose oil with quality fish oil is an effective therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome.

9- Helps to Counter Impotence & Infertility

Evening primrose oil can stimulate blood flow, thus it helps in solving one of the key causes of male impotence. When taken for some time, it assists in preventing blood vessels to become narrow as a result of cholesterol.

10- Helping with Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms

The GLA prompts the brain to make a specific type of prostaglandin called prostaglandin E that can operate to resist Withdrawal symptoms.

References:

  1. //www.herbwisdom.com/herb-evening-primrose.html
  2. //www.stylecraze.com/articles/benefits-of-evening-primrose-oil-for-skin-hair-and-health/

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Melatonin Overdose
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Date: December 27, 2012 01:59 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Melatonin Overdose

Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant/hormone secreted by a small endocrine gland in the human brain. The hormone is responsible for sleep-wake cycle modulation and fine tuning of your body's "internal clock". In other words: when it gets dark, your pineal gland increases melatonin production, which induces drowsiness and makes you sleepy. When light conditions change (e.g. daytime), your body decreases melatonin production. If you expose yourself to an intense source of light during the night, or keep spending time in a dark environment during the day, you can confuse your body and disrupt melatonin production.

The hormone was also observed to affect the production and the discharge rate of female sex hormones.

As one gets older, his pineal gland produces less and less melatonin, which leads to a conclusion that melatonin is age dependent (children have the highest concentration of melatonin). The fact that our body produces melatonin to "sedate" itself when the sun goes down, implied that the hormone could be used to help people suffering from sleeping disorders, desynchronosis (jet lag) or similar conditions.

This served as a basis to study and use positive health effects of the hormone. Melatonin is not a miracle-cure, but it CAN improve the sleep quality of insomniacs, women in menopause, benzodiazepine (valium) Withdrawal patients and people who suffer from ADHD. Melatonin also improves the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer treatments and increases the chance of survival in prostate cancer patients.

If you are a healthy middle-aged person, your body will produce between 5-25 micrograms of melatonin per night (80 times less than a single melatonin capsule). This is a good indicator of recommended dosage. In fact, you should start with 0.1 - 03 mg per night, an hour before bedtime. If that doesn't help, you may increase the dosage up to 10mg a day. However, do not exceed 10 mg per night before consulting your doctor, as that may cause an overdose.

Anything above 10 mg is risky without a professional guidance . If you consider the fact that you can overdose even with a sufficient amount of vitamins, melatonin is not an exception, and should be used with caution. Typical overdose symptoms include drowsiness, upset stomach, headache, confusion, lethargy, psychotic thinking, tremors, seizures and liver issues. If you experience multiple symptoms at the same time, you should visit your doctor as soon as possible.

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Can Melatonin Help Me Sleep?
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Date: December 20, 2012 12:22 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can Melatonin Help Me Sleep?

What is melatonin?

Melatonin can be described as a hormone generated in the pineal gland found in the brain. It controls the body circadian rhythms such as sleep-wake cycle. The levels of melatonin in the blood increase before you fall asleep due to darkness (Lack of sunshine).

Where to find melatonin

Melatonin occurs naturally in humans and plants. Natural melatonin quantity produced decrease with age. Older people produce very little quantities of it.

Current Sources

It is a synthetic medication that is produced in the laboratories. It is available in pill or liquid forms. The pills can be put in the cheek, underneath the tongue or swallowed. This permits direct absorption in the body. Melatonin supplements are available in health food shops.

Food Sources

It is also found in foods, in small quantities, such as milk, chicken meat, turkey, and peanuts but in small quantities.

Melatonin and sleep

Melatonin does not work for every kind of insomnia or sleeping disorders. Your body needs to be ready for sleep for melatonin to be effective. It is safe to use melatonin supplements in low doses long term.

Melatonin treats insomnia, autism in children, and as a sleep reliever after Withdrawal from benzodiazepine drugs use. It is also very significant for changing sleep/wake patterns for people who work schedules changes regularly. It can also be used to calm individuals before anesthesia is administered for surgery purposes.

The body has an internal clock that regulates sleeping cycle and waking hours. The body clock regulates the amount of melatonin produced each day. Melatonin production is affected by light. 

For effective treatment of cycle sleep, make sure you take the supplements at the appropriate time of the day (Night time).

Use the right method and dosage for it to be helpful.

Consuming the sleep supplement at the inappropriate time of the day can lead to biological clock reset. It is essential to understand the right quantity, time of taking and its effectiveness. Taking 1-10mg of melatonin every day restores the pace in people experiencing insomnia synchronizing them to duration of 1day.

Melatonin helps enhance sleep.

It enhances sleepiness feeling and can intensify the duration of sleep. This supplement has been applied successfully for improving sleep in healthy people and also decreasing jet lag feeling during travels. Remember to consult a physician if you are experiencing sleep issues.  Give melatonin a try start with lower doses like 1 mg before bed time and gradually increase till it becomes effective.


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Ashwagandha
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Date: February 15, 2012 06:58 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha is a popularly known dietary supplement that is commonly grown in India and North America. Also known by the name Indian Winter Cherry, ashwagandha is a product of the brown roots of a shrub that goes by the same name and which is believed to have a wide range of benefits for many ailments. Ashwagandha has always been considered as a very important herb in ayurvedic medicinal systems. This is particularly because of its wide application in curing a wide range of ailments, which has earned it a lot of respect in the eyes of traditional herbal healers. In fact, even modern science has started grasping the herb's potent abilities. Research has already confirmed that ashwagandha possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anti-stress properties. This article will hence discuss some of the benefits of ashwagandha to our bodies.

Ashwagandha effects

Ashwagandha is particularly recognized for it calming effect on the body. Some researchers have even indicated that it has the ability to induce sleep. Research has demonstrated that it calming and sleep-inducing effects or properties are much similar to that of the popular amino acid known as GABA.

Ashwagandha is also popularly recognized for its ability to ease restlessness or anxiety in addition to reduction of drug Withdrawal symptoms. It has the ability to stabilize one's moods in addition to encouraging adrenal recovery which has made it very valuable among herbalists.

The benefits of ashwagandha extend far beyond mood stabilization as it also finds applicable use in helping elderly people to have a better cognitive ability, mental agility as well as enhance their memory and retention. Other than the above, ashwagandha is also known as a very effective remedy for fighting the symptoms of colds as well as coughs.

An Antioxidant

Recent research has also provided reliable prove that ashwagandha bears a lot of potential ability towards decreasing or inhibiting the growth of cancer cells without having any side effects on other healthy cells.

Ashwagandha is also an antioxidant that contains anti-aging properties and is traditionally recognized for its ability in the nourishment of muscles and the brain as well as strengthening the immune system. Studies have also indicated that the orange berries of the ashwagandha shrub can be tropically used in the treatment of skin ulcers, tumors and carbuncles. Ashwagandha also has anti-inflammatory properties that provide relief to swellings as well as restores blood supply.

Pain Relief

It also works as a suppressant to any form of pain. This is due to its “ushan virya” potency properties that help in the eradication of pain in the body. It is also known as an effective remedy for diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, as well as sciatica. It use also has effective application as a remedy for goiter, lymphadenopathy, as well as healing any wounds or injuries.

As a powerful aphrodisiac, ashwagandha helps in the enhancement of sexual energy in addition to long lasting endurance in both men and women. In men, it improves sperm count as well as sperm quality.

Further research has indicated that ashwagandha is an effective treatment for diabetes, constipation, nerve problems, memory loss, impotency, bipolar disorder among a list of other endless physical ailments.

Ashwagandha, taken with a healthy diet as well as accompanied by healthy lifestyle choices is a great way of guaranteeing one's protection from minor ailments as well as promotion of physical strength.

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How Does Taurine Help the Brain?
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Date: May 13, 2011 01:09 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How Does Taurine Help the Brain?

Taurine is an amino acid often added to energy drinks. There have been several theories on how taurine affects brain chemicals and improve cognitive function. For many years, it has been compared to caffeine due to its effects on the human brain that appear to enhance mood. Its exact mechanisms of action remain a mystery to the scientific community, but recent studies are believed to be closing in.

It has long been known that taurine crosses the blood brain barrier, allowing it to exert some effects on several neurotransmitters found in the central nervous system. It has been tied to the alleviation of many mental illnesses, such as epilepsy, post traumatic stress disorder, clinical depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety, making it the subject of a number of studies in the past few years.

Rebalances Brain Chemicals

It has been postulated that taurine influences the activities of neurotransmitters in the brain, but only recently has brain scientists been able to actually track its activities in the brain. A team of researchers at Cornell University managed to find a site for the neurological activity of taurine, with initial results pointing to its relationship with gamma the neurotransmitter aminobutyric acid, or GABA. The researchers do not discount the possibility that taurine may even have a receptor of its own.

Whether taurine interacts with brain chemicals is no longer debatable as it creates homeostasis in the central nervous system. It acts on receptors that the researchers discovered to be the same receptors present in GABAergic mechanisms. That being said, scientists remain inconclusive as to how its interaction with GABA receptors provides energy-boosting benefits as it is marketed in the food and drug industries.

Prevents Neuron Damage

The scientific community is convinced that taurine has neuroprotective properties. High levels of taurine in the brain have been observed to protect brain tissues from cerebral ischemia. Taurine has been linked to many metabolic pathways that are known to promote neurological health, such as the activation of glycine receptors and the regulation of enzymes called cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases.

In addition, taurine serves as antioxidants that protect nerve cells from cellular damage brought on by oxidative stress. The presence of taurine within cells reduces damage from calcium excesses and increases mitochondrial events. For decades, supplementation of taurine has benefited sufferers of brain ischemia, epileptic seizures, panic attacks, anxiety symptoms, and even alcohol Withdrawal.

Enhances Cognitive Function

Taurine has already been associated with physiological functions the hypothalamus controls, such as sleep-wake cycle and responses to fatigue. In several laboratory studies, administrations of taurine by way of intraperitoneal injection have successfully induced social interaction in animal subjects. It is one of the amino acids that affect cognitive development, especially in children. While it is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, it is depleted as we age, making supplementation a good option.

Protect your brain with Taurine by taking it daily!

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Melatonin, What is it, Sleep And How it Helps!
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Date: December 22, 2010 03:20 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Melatonin, What is it, Sleep And How it Helps!

What is Melatonin?

Melatonin, or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone secreted during the hours of darkness by the light-sensitive pineal gland located in the brain and also by bone marrow, epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Melatonin plays a role in the human circadian cycle because of the fact that it is secreted only when it is dark. It can therefore be used to treat sleeping disorders, although it also affects conditions such as fibromyalgia and depression.

melatonin molicule, sleep, and your healthMelatonin is also a powerful antioxidant, particularly protecting the DNA from free radical oxidation and studies have indicated a potential application in inhibiting the aggregation of amyloid beta protein in the brain that promotes Alzheimer's disease. It not only reduces the production of cholesterol in the gall bladder, but also increases the rate of conversion of cholesterol to bile, thus reducing the amount available for oxidation in the arteries that leads to atherosclerosis.

A melatonin supplement is also believed to be an effective treatment for migraine and helps the gall bladder to expel gallstones, rendering them less likely to become a problem.

Melatonin and Sleep

Melatonin is a hormone that is secreted mainly by the pineal gland, a small pea-sized gland in the brain that is sensitive to light in that it secretes this hormone only during the hours of darkness. For this reason, melatonin can be used to help people sleep earlier and awake earlier, by shifting the circadian cycle to an earlier time.

An interesting factor learned from the effect of light on melatonin is that it is suppressed only by blue light (460-480 nanometers) and by wearing blue filtering glasses it is possible to achieve the same effect as taking a supplement of the hormone. That is, to sleep earlier and waken earlier.

People suffering jet lag, or who have to adapt to differing shift work patterns, benefit by taking melatonin, and it has also been used in helping with benzodiazepine Withdrawal and helping people to stop smoking. You must let your doctor know you are using it, and in many countries it is available only by prescription.

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skullcap
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Date: August 10, 2009 12:52 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: skullcap

The Cherokee tribe used scullcap as an emmenagogue. It was also used historically as an anti-convulsant. An Asian scullcap has been used by Chinese physicians as a tranquilizer, sedative, and to treat convulsion. The herb was used in the eighteenth century as a treatment for rabies by some physicians. Later, it was recommended by eclectic physicians for insomnia, nervousness, malaria, and convulsions. The herb was officially listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 1863 to 1916. It was also found in the National Formulary from 1916 to 1947.

This herb is responsible for treating a variety of conditions. Among these include pain, anxiety, high blood pressure, and epilepsy. scullcap is well known for its ability to calm the nerves and also to help with all nervous system conditions. Additionally, it has been used to treat infertility, fatigue, inflamed tissues, digestion, coughs, and headaches. Some herbalists consider scullcap to be one of the best nervine herbs that is available. It has been used as a nerve tonic. It also can promote a feeling of well-being and promote relaxed sleep. Some people recommend scullcap for problems that are associated with drug and alcohol Withdrawal, as it may lessen the severity of the symptoms. Traditional uses of this herb have included infertility, regulation of sexual desire, and as a remedy for cramps and pain.

Research one in both Europe and Russia has proven the benefits of scullcap as a tranquilizer as well as a mild sedative. The herb is recommended for use in nervous conditions in order to induce sleep and relaxation. Some evidence has shown that Asian scullcap contains component which inhibit the enzyme sialidase. This enzyme is known to increase in certain disease states like cancer, infections, and inflammations. Another study done in vitro found an antibacterial and antifungal activity in scullcap. Some early evidence has also been found of scullcap’s ability to treat high blood pressure. The herb is used and prescribed widely in Europe. Studies using animals in Japan showed that scullcap has the ability to increase the levels of good cholesterol and prevent serum cholesterol levels from rising. This study was done on rabbits, as they were fed a high-cholesterol diet. These findings suggest that scullcap may also act as a heart disease and stroke preventive.

The entire scullcap herb is used to provide alterative, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, febrifuge, nervine, and sedative properties. The primary nutrients found in this herb are calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, vitamins C and E, and zinc. Primarily, scullcap is extremely beneficial in treating anxiety, high blood pressure, convulsions, epilepsy, infertility, insomnia, nerve problems, and restlessness.

Additionally, this herb is very helpful in dealing with alcoholism, poisonous bites, childhood diseases, chorea, poor circulation, coughing, delirium, drug Withdrawal, fevers, hangover, headaches, hydrophobia, hypertension, hypoglycemia, insanity, neuralgia, pain, palsy, Parkinson’s disease, rabies, rheumatism, rickets, spasms, spinal meningitis, thyroid problems, tremors, and urinary problems. In order to obtain the best results when supplementing with this, or any herb, it is important to consult your health care provider before beginning any regimen. For more information on the many beneficial effects provided by scullcap, please feel free to consult a representative from your local health food store with questions.

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Caffeine Addiction
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Date: December 20, 2008 11:16 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Caffeine Addiction

If starting your day with a cup or coffee or two, having another while you’re on the road, another after arriving at work, and another to get through the afternoon slump, and perhaps a can of pop or a candy bar after work followed by an ice tea and ice cream after dinner, you may have a serious caffeine addiction.

Many people often feel irritable as the next day’s events are closing in on them at bed time and are restless about the next day’s problems race through their mind. It’s been like this for years for many of us, with an estimated 80 percent of adult Americans being regular coffee drinkers and each adult coffee drinker averaging 3.3 cups of coffee per day, without taking into account other sources of caffeine.

Caffeine can be found in tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and medicines, but is most often consumed in coffee. Coffee is somewhat popular because of the stimulating effect of its caffeine constituent, but it can contribute to irritability, depression, diarrhea, insomnia, and other disorders. The number one legal mind-altering drug in the world, caffeine is odorless, slightly bitter and can be found in coffee, tea, kola nuts, ilex plants, mate, and cocoa. You may know and accept that you have a caffeine habit, but many people are convinced that they need a pick-me-up from time to time in order to get through the day. What is important is that caffeine is not actually giving you the burst of energy, but instead negative moods and emotions.

The coffee tree, which is a small evergreen, has smooth leaves and clusters of fragrant white flowers that mature into red fruits that are about half of an inch long. The fruit contains two seeds usually, which become raw coffee beans when dried. After roasting, coffee contains more than 700 volatile substances including acids, alcohols, and even residues of cancer-causing pesticides. In all fairness, caffeine does act as a mild stimulant to the nervous system when used in moderation, which results in a feeling of well-being and alertness. It increases the heart rate, urination, and stimulates the secretion of stomach acid.

Although a little caffeine may wake us up and give us a sense of energy, too much caffeine actually hurts our moods and overall well being. Two cups of caffeine per day seems to have a positive effect, but research shows that even one cup a day is enough to cause dependence. Caffeine may temporarily improve your mood and give a sense of vitality, it wears off and your mood and energy levels crash to levels even lower than before. Additionally, our bodies adjust, causing us to need more caffeine to give us the same desired effect. Caffeine does not provide any energy or increase our alertness. Instead, it stimulates our bodies.

Excessive intake of coffee can lead to restlessness, insomnia, and heart irregularities. Those people who drink a lot of coffee often complain of jittery nerves, chronic anxiety, frequent bouts of diarrhea or loose stools, and restless nights. Coffee can also cause stomach and intestinal problems, as well as coronary diseases. An occasional cup of coffee is one thing, but depending on a cup to keep you awake is something entirely different.

Harsh symptoms of Withdrawal such as headache, fatigue, and depression are common among regular caffeine users. Caffeine also causes the body to expel vital nutrients like b vitamins from the body that we need to function. If you consume more than two cups of coffee each day then a multi-vitamin should be taken once daily to help replenish was is lost by the diuretic effects of caffeine in the body.

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Guarana Seed Extract
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Date: November 17, 2008 11:24 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Guarana Seed Extract

Guarana comes from the Amazon basin, and has been used by the natives of the Amazon rain forest to treat conditions such as diarrhea, arthritis, fatigue and even to reduce hunger. It is, in fact, a climbing plant of the Sapondacaea family, although it is the fruit for which it best known. Each contains a single seed that contains around five times the amount of caffeine of a similarly sized coffee bean.

An interesting piece of trivia is that the reason why such seeds are rich in caffeine is that the substance is poisonous to certain pathogens that would otherwise attack the berry. The same is - true of all seeds that contain caffeine: it is a means of self-defense. Obviously it is an effective defense since the berries appear to relatively immune to such common plant diseases.

Guarana is named after the Guarani tribe of South America, and the language is spoken by many in the area around Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil, and also parts of Argentina. In fact over 67% of Paraguayans speak the language. There is a myth that when child of the Guarana village was killed by an evil god, a more benevolent deity planted the child's left eye in the forest and the right eye in the village. The left eye gave rise to the wild form of the plant, and the right eye the cultivated form.

This likely came about because of the appearance of the fruit when it is split open: it has the appearance of eyeballs. However, what is true is that Guaranis made tea from the seeds, and also a bread known as guarana bread by mashing the powder into a dough and shaping it into a cylindrical bread. It is dry roasted and milled to a fine powder, also known as Brazilian cocoa, but it has never quite managed to compete commercially against the coffee! However, it has its local adherents to whom it is a staple drink.

However, back to the health benefits of the seed. They were recognized as early as the 17th century when Father Felip Betendorf introduced it into Western civilization, but over the centuries since then it has been found that even in spite of the caffeine content it has been demonstrated to have brain-boosting properties and able to increase tasks requiring mental attention. It is certainly known to be an energizer, and able to give a boost to your brain when you really need it. So why should this be, and how does it do this?

The flavor is a bit like chocolate, hence its nickname of Brazilian cocoa, and has been approved by the FDA as a food additive. Extracts from the berry have been shown to possess strong antioxidant properties, and also act as bactericides and fungicide, few of which can be put down the caffeine content. In fact the seed has been proposed for use in the food industry as a natural antioxidant and preservative and as stated below, that is more acceptable to people than synthetic chemicals.

This is probably in response to the fact that synthetic antioxidants are in decline whereas the natural antioxidants such as vitamins, C and E and the various tocopherols and carotenoids are increasing in prominence due to them being more readily accepted by the consumer than the synthetics such as butylhydroxytoluene(BHT). These antioxidants are commonly used as food preservatives, in that they slow down the oxidation of foodstuffs, and people are increasingly feeling that natural products are preferable for this application than synthetic.

Guarana seeds have been found to be exceptionally high in proanthocyanadins with powerful antioxidant properties. They are fatal to free radicals and help to prevent cardiac disease and to improve cellular activity. They also display antimicrobial and antifungal activity. Chemically, they consist of up to 60% starch, pectins, saponins, proteins, and the aforementioned caffeine (3% - 5%). The guarana paste can contain up to 7% caffeine that can be dangerous to those with cardiac problems.

Guarana also contains tannins at levels of up to 12%, including catechin and some proanthocyanadins. The astringency of these tannins represents a problem to their use in the beverage and food industry, although the substance is regarded as safe by the FDA. They have little if any nutritional value and can react with alkaloid and proteins to form unwanted complexes. Were it not for tannins guarana would be more acceptable to the food industry.

However, it is for their energy-boosting properties that the guarana berries and seeds are most prized by many. The fact they it has been traditionally used as a stimulant and aphrodisiac indicates that there is something behind these claims. Studies on mice, hamsters and other animals have supported these effects. It has been found to posses the two desirable properties (to some) of stimulating the nervous system and curbing the appetite.

Consequently, it is used in diet and weight loss pills, and also to maintain high energy levels. In fact weight loss pills are used by many people to maintain their energy levels while not eating. This is a definite bonus to those that want to lose weight, but dislike the lethargy that a strict diet can cause.

There is a downside to that of course, and that is insomnia and an increased heartbeat, and also nervousness and feeling 'on edge'. Once people stop using guarana they suffer Withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, irritability and headaches.

The upshot is that it is basically the high caffeine content of guarana that allows its use as a stimulant that can boost not only energy, but also reduce appetite and act as an effective weight loss supplement. However, used excessively it can lead to nervousness and while it is included as an ingredient in many foods and drinks, you should be careful when using it as an energizing supplement if you have any heart problems at all.

Otherwise, guarana is used to energize the body naturally, and is not only very commonly used for this purpose in South America, but also increasingly so in the USA and elsewhere with some very good results.



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GABA
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Date: August 26, 2008 04:58 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: GABA

GABA is gama amino butyric acid, and is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is essential for the proper function of your brain and the central nervous system, and has the effect of reducing excessive brain activity and promoting a state of calm.

For many people, the rush of daily life, with its problems, worries and external stimuli, can over-stimulate the brain to the extent that it can all seem too much for them. They feel anxious and overwhelmed, and wish that they could just go into a quiet corner to get away from it all. Most people have felt like that at some time, but the demands of life do not allow them that luxury. They just have to bear it and get on with life.

That is where GABA can come in. It can be used to bring your nervous system back to base, and make you feel more relaxed, calmer and more able to meet these challenges that life often throws at you. When you feel that you just can’t relax or concentrate on what you are doing, GABA can help you. If you look around you and everybody else seems OK, without apparently feeling the stress and irritability that you feel, and then perhaps your problem is due to a GABA deficiency. GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in your brain, and a deficiency would certainly give you the symptoms that you are feeling. Let me explain why.

As your brain becomes excited, it can run out of control and needs some form of modification or inhibition to keep it acting as normal. Without this you would become increasingly more restless and irritable, and ultimately have seizures. GABA is not only the main inhibitor in your brain, but also helps in the production of endorphins that provide you with a sense of well being. That sense of calm you feel when endorphins are produced, for example during exercise or sexual intercourse, is commonly referred to as the ‘endorphin effect’.

GABA is at its highest concentration in specific areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus, the hippocampus and the central brain area, and is present in up to 40% of all synapses, the small gaps between neurons across which brain cells can communicate with each other.

It is produced during the Krebs or Citric Acid Cycle that is responsible for cell respiration or the production of energy from carbohydrates. It is synthesized from alpha-keto glutarate, which is produced just before the Succinyl Co-A stage of the Krebs Cycle in the brain. Vitamin B6 in involved in its metabolism, and a Vitamin B6 deficiency can lead to a deficiency in GABA that might result in seizures.

Basically GABA works by inhibiting the firing of neurons in your brain, and thus reducing general brain activity. The GABA receptor allows more chloride ion to enter the brain cell, thus helping to maintain the electrical charge within the cells. Bezodiazepines (e.g. diazepam) work by increasing the effectiveness of GABA in opening the chloride ion cells to allow more chloride ion to enter the neurons, and caffeine does the opposite, and inhibits this property of GABA. Thus diazepam works as a minor tranquilizer and caffeine as a stimulant.

Alcohol has a similar effect to the benzodiazepines, increasing the release of chloride into the neurons, and is the major way in which alcohol affects the brain. In fact, tolerance to drugs and Withdrawal symptoms can be explained by the receptors adapting to the drug. They may increase in number, which means that more of the drug is needed to work on them, and they can become hypoactive in the event of the drug being withdrawn, that enhances the symptoms that the drug was intended to treat.

So basically, that is the way that GABA works. In simple terms it increases the flow of chloride electrolyte to the brain, and in so doing affects our mood. This effect is enhanced by prescription drugs such as Valium and Ativan, which are used by those that suffer the effects of a GABA deficiency. However, these drugs have side effects, not the least of which is dependency due to the GABA receptors becoming modified to suit the drug. There is a more natural way to overcome many stress problems and symptoms of mood swings.

Knowing what causes these symptoms, it makes sense to eat foods that stimulate the creation of neurotransmitters to replace those that are deficient. Since GABA is produced in the Krebs Cycle and complex carbohydrates produce glutamine that is an important part of that Cycle, and is also the precursor to GABA, then the consumption of such foods should in theory produce more GABA. In this case the theory works, and you should eat foods rich in complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, brown rice and oats as part of your diet.

Other foods that are high in glutamine or its precursors, glutamic acid and glutamate, include citrus fruits, beef liver, broccoli, halibut and lentils. A useful supplement to take is L-theanine, an amino acid found in green tea, and available in supplement form. L-theanine can calm your nerves while maintaining clarity of thought. In other words it calms you down, but doesn’t make you drowsy and allows you to enjoy your day with anxiety.

Your doctor can determine whether or not you have a neurotransmitter deficiency through a simple urine test, and might also test your saliva for hormone content. A GABA supplement might be indicated, and if so it other beneficial effects on your body other than its effect on your brain cells.

It improves your sleep cycles and promotes vivid dreaming, and can also have a positive effect on your blood pressure. It is also an effective pain killer, and can provide relief from such conditions as back pain and arthritis. Its stimulating effect on the anterior pituitary gland to secrete Human Growth Hormone might also be regarded as a benefit by many. Increasing the level of HGH in your blood can lead to fat loss and improved anabolic activity (increase in muscle tissue). This can be of benefit to older people whose level of HGH secretion has dropped off, and who find it more difficult to lose fat.

GABA is a substance that has many known benefits and no known side effects other than a slight tingling and increase in heart rate when the supplement is first used. It has a definite benefit for people to whom the world seems too hectic and overwhelming.



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Moderating Male Midlife Moodiness - The lesser known guy version of menopause is now a ...
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Date: July 14, 2005 09:28 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Moderating Male Midlife Moodiness - The lesser known guy version of menopause is now a ...

Moderating Male Midlife Moodiness

The lesser known guy version of menopause is now a syndrome

Question: How can you tell if a man has irritable male syndrome?
Answer: You ask him to pass the salt and he yells, "Take, take, take - that's all you ever do!"

Irritable male syndrome (IMS) may sound like a joke, but it's really no laughing matter. Just as women experience anxiety, depression and irritability with hormonal changes, men too can suffer from cyclic and menopausal symptoms-they're just more likely to be chastised for it instead of being consoled with a pint of Ben & Jerry's ice cream.

Since men's hormones actually fluctuate every hour rather than every 28 days, it should come as no surprise that male behavior should be affected. For some men over 40, however, the behavior swing can be quite dramatic, leaving a guy in a chronic bad mood. But try telling the grouch that he suffers from "male menopause" and he just might chuck the Ben & Jerry's at you.

The term "irritable male syndrome" was coined by Gerald A. Lincoln, a researcher at the Medical Research Council's Human Reproductive Sciences Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. Lincoln first observed IMS while studying Soay sheep, a large, curly-horned variety known for their boisterous rutting rituals that rival the masculine intensity of any Super Bowl party. After mating season, however, Lincoln noticed that as testosterone levels dropped off, the rams became agitated, fearful, withdrawn and likely to irrationally strike out at other males. The hypothesis behind this behavior is that the Withdrawal of androgens affects melatonin and serotonin uptake and can make for one cranky ram. However, IMS in two-legged, human subjects can present itself with more complexity.

Psychotherapist Jed Diamond, author of The Irritable Male Syndrome: Managing the Four Key Causes of Depression and Aggression (Rodale Books), defines IMS as "a state of hypersensitivity, anxiety, frustration and anger that occurs in males and is associated with biochemical changes, hormonal fluctuations, and loss of male identity" that can occur at any time during a man's life. A lot of IMS involves depression; normally thought of as a female problem, this emotional downer often comes out differently in men, more outwardly than inwardly directed.

One point of similarity between the sexes is that IMS, like depression in women, is often linked to the multi-source stress that pervades modern living. The result? According to Diamon, "Up to 30% of men, especially those in adolescence and midlife, exhibit symptoms of IMS. In its mildest forms, it can cause men to be moody and irritable. At its worst, it can lead to violence and even suicide."

Is it a Bad Day or a Bad Decade?

So how can you really tell if a man has irritable male syndrome? Since a guy isn't likely to say flat out that he's having trouble with relationships or is having hot flashes (you read that right), there are other, more telltale signs to look for. While we all may temporarily experience bad moods, if you or someone you know exhibits one or more of these feelings with frequency over a period of time, IMS may be the cause: anger, sarcasm, defensiveness, blaming, Withdrawal, anxiety, defiance, being argumentative, feeling unappreciated, frustration.

Physical IMS symptoms include fatigue, unexpected weight gain or loss, frequent urination, hair loss (besides the typical male pattern) and impotence. The thyroid gland, which serves as the body's master energy controller, is often out of whack on men suffering from IMS. If that sounds familiar, see your practitioner for a thyroid hormone check.

Less Flabby Means Less Crabby

Sometimes, IMS is not a matter of lowered testosterone levels but one of elevated estradoil, the usable form of the female hormone estrogen. This condition can develop with consumption of too many hormone-laced meats (eating organic meat is a good option). In addition, a diet high in high-glycemic carbs such as white breads and white pasta will undermine testosterone levels as well as pack on unwanted pounds.

To help trim down and keep IMS symptoms at bay, Larrian Gillespie, MD, author of The Gladiator Diet: How to Preserve Peak Health, Sexual Energy, and A Strong Body at Any Age (Healthy Life Publications), recommends a diet that's 40% protein, 35% low-glycemic carbs (read: green veggies) and 25% fat, of which only 10% should be saturated fat. To help keep testosterone levels up, avoid apricots, carrots, white potatoes, white rice (whole wheat past and rise are okay) and-sorry guys-dark beer.

Gillespie also recommends that men take a multivitamin daily along with calcium, magnesium and the herb saw palmetto to inhibit the breakdown of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone a precursor to prostate disease.

Now that you know IMS is real, you can take the bull (or Soay ram) by the horns and do something about it. IMS can be treated through diet, natural hormone replacement therapy and counseling, if necessary.

Question: What do you call a man who is always tired, miserable and irritable?
Answer: Normal.

Wrong answer! That was the old guy. Mr. Nice is back. -Karyn Maier



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Gotta Habit
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Date: June 14, 2005 06:26 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Gotta Habit

Gotta Habit

by Catherine Heusel Energy Times, October 1, 1998

Quitting a bad habit presents quite a challenge. Just ask anyone who's ever tried to give up cigarettes. Or alcohol. Or even coffee. You start out with the best of intentions but cravings can push you off the straight and narrow. The result: giving up a nasty habit often means regenerating your resolve and trying again. And again. And again. While some blame an inability to give up a bad habit on poor will power, in actuality, the tenacious chains of these habits may derive from the body as well as the mind. "People don't seem to realize the effects these substances have on the body," says Joan Mathews-Larson, Ph.D., director of the Health Recovery Center, in Minneapolis, and author of Seven Weeks to Sobriety. Dr. Mathews-Larson is one of a growing number of addiction professionals who stress physical recovery when giving up a drug, whether it's caffeine or cocaine. "You can't disrupt your internal chemistry for months or years on end and then expect your body to automatically bounce back," she says. "You have to give it some help."

Breaking Off is Hard to Do

The substances we love to overdo all share a common characteristic: they mimic or enhance the body's chemical messengers. Opiate drugs such as heroin, for example, are virtually identical to substances called endorphins, neurochemicals that the body produces to mask feelings of pain. (When an injured Kerri Strug performed her final Olympic vault, her endorphins enabled her to push past her protesting nerve endings.) Stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine can provide a "rush" similar to that produced by adrenaline and noradrenaline, the neurochemicals that provide the quick and excited feeling that swells down your spine during frightened or thrilling moments. On the other hand, some drugs (notably alcohol and cocaine) boost the activity of several different neurochemicals, including those that control sensations of pleasure. From a biological perspective, then, none of the drugs that people take are totally unfamiliar to the body. Your body makes similar chemicals all the time, in response to specific events and needs. "The main advantage of drugs is that they act powerfully and immediately," explains Andrew Weil, M.D., in his book, From Chocolate to Morphine: Everything You Need to Know About Mind Altering Drugs. "Their main disadvantage is that they reinforce the notion that the state we desire comes from something outside us."

Serious Disadvantage

Another serious disadvantage of drugs resides in their impact on the body's everyday neurochemical balance. Under normal circumstances, the body maintains its internal chemical environment on a fairly even keel. It may pump out oodles of adrenaline in response to a specific threat, like a near miss on the highway, but for every such scary "high" a corresponding low sets in: that rubbery-kneed sense of relief you feel when things calm down.

Over time, the body mistakes the introduction of mind-altering, foreign chemicals as an excess of its own production of neurochemicals. As a result it slows down its own manufacture of these vital substances. So when you stop drinking caffeine or other stimulating drugs, the body finds its neurochemical receptors begging for relief: Cravings raise their ugly heads while so-called Withdrawal symptoms raise your discomfort level. A general sense of ill health sets in until the body's natural production of neurotransmitter production reaches an acceptable level.

Healthy Behavior

Breaking a bad habit may be complicated by a lack of regenerative health habits. "A proper diet is pretty low on an addict's list of priorities," says Mathews-Larson. "Most of the people we see live on fast food and junk food." Many people trying to give up bad habits are attacked by the chemical and physical problems resulting from eating fatty foods and not exercising: their bodies are chemically and physically challenged from a poor lifestyle.

Fortunately, recovery from a bad habit can be enhanced by balancing your diet, exercising and using nutritional supplements to straighten out your interior biochemical environment.

"We target substances that are essential for maintaining optimal brain chemistry," points out Mathews-Larson. Foremost among these substances are a variety of amino acids that the body needs to rebuild its supply of neurotransmitters. In addition, nutrients such as B vitamins and vitamin C are often in short supply among those who indulge in addictive drugs and alcohol.

Exercise and meditation are equally important to recovery, since both activities naturally prompt production of mood-enhancing neurochemicals. (The so-called "runner's high" is believed to result from endorphins and other neurochemicals stimulated by jogging.) More importantly, natural stimulation that pushes the body to create its own, endogenous supply of feel-good chemicals produces a longer sense of well-being than the transitory high induced by drugs and alcohol. "The potential for highs is always there, and many techniques exist for eliciting them," declares Dr. Weil. "Drug highs differ from other highs only in superficial ways."

Natural Appreciation

To experienced treatment professionals such as Mathews-Larson, kicking a long-standing habit depends on learning to appreciate the natural high of good health, through an overall healthy lifestyle. "It's not enough to just stop using the substance you abused," she contends. "You have to build a high quality of life for yourself, so you can fully enjoy every day."

Recommended Reading: Seven Weeks to Sobriety, by Joan Mathews-Larson (Fawcett Books, 1997) Healing Anxiety With Herbs by Harold H. Bloomfield. (Harper Collins, 1998.)



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Say Goodbye to Headaches
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Date: June 13, 2005 07:25 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Say Goodbye to Headaches

Say Goodbye to Headaches by Susan Weiner Energy Times, December 8, 1999

What's in a name? A headache by any other name hurts just as much. But categorizing your headache can be as overwhelming as finding an obscure breakfast cereal at the supermarket. Medical folks pigeonhole headaches as tension headaches, allergy headaches, morning headaches and sinus headaches, plus the organic, migraine, cluster, trauma, TMJ, eyestrain, rebound, exertion, hormonal and muscle tension varieties. You may also suffer the self-induced hangover and toxicity headaches.

Americans are no strangers to self-medication, and as a society we battle these headaches by consuming nearly 80 billion tablets of aspirin each year, about 20 million aspirins a day, according to Burton Goldberg, co-author of An Alternative Medicine Definitive Guide to Headaches (Future Medicine Publishing). And while we drown ourselves in over-the-counter and powerful prescription products, our tolerance, just like a drug addict's, grows. So what begins as a twodose headache slowly evolves into three, four or five doses, until you realize that no dosage can make your headache go away.

Unless you're fond of medieval practices such as ritualistic healings and bloodletting, drugs seem the only answer to headache misery. But even modern medicine has been unable to solve headaches. Rather than a cure, medications provide only temporary relief, and even that isn't guaranteed. Additionally, over-reliance on medications can lead to chronic head pain. According to Goldberg, rebound headaches often result from the consumption and Withdrawal of drugs.

Halt Your Headaches

Rather than strive to simply eliminate headache pain, why not identify the underlying cause and prevent the headache? Almost always, every type of headache results from a health or lifestyle-related activity. In an ideal world, the best approach would be to eliminate the tensions, stress, frustrations, anger, insufficient sleep, excessive drinking and poor diet that contribute to your headaches. For better or for worse, however, you can't always: a. quit your job; b. ask your spouse to leave; c. sit on the beach all day; or d. all of the above. But you can make appropriate lifestyle changes and learn to express suppressed feelings.

This approach, lifestyle modification, is a treatment program based on a Loma Linda University study, originally published in Medical Hypothesis and the Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine and later explained in No More Headaches, No More Migraines: A Proven Approach to Preventing Headaches and Migraines by Zuzana Bic, DrPH and L. Francis Bic, PhD (Avery). The program, conducted on a group diagnosed with chronic migraines, dramatically decreased the frequency, intensity and duration of headaches in nine of 10 headache sufferers. Rather than demand radical life changes, the lifestyle modification program introduces gradual changes in three specific areas: nutrition, exercise and understanding stress. The study doesn't expect you to change your entire diet, join a gym and eliminate everything that triggers stress, but teaches techniques to make subtle lifestyle changes and reduce the impact of daily stress. These same techniques can also improve sleep patterns, a factor known to affect headaches. The lifestyle modification approach clarifies that while very few headaches directly result from existing acute conditions, recurring headaches often derive from a larger lifestyle factor. If these issues are ignored, the body's natural defense mechanisms may kick into overdrive and become exhausted, leaving you susceptible to other chronic diseases. By finding and eliminating the cause of your headaches, you may be saving yourself from other eventual illnesses.

Natural Alternatives

Willing to make some lifestyle changes and step away from medications? Try these remedies, courtesy of Nature's Pharmacy by Lynn Paige Walker, PharmD and Ellen Hodgson Brown, JD (Prentice-Hall).

For simple headaches, start with relaxation and neck stretches. Or try rubbing your forehead with peppermint oil, a natural antispasmodic and diuretic shown in German research to be as effective as acetaminophen in easing tension headaches.

Never underestimate the old-fashioned ice pack to the forehead as an effective treatment that works by constricting the swollen blood vessels that cause your head to ache. If the ice pack isn't enough, try putting your arms in icy water up to your elbows to constrict additional blood vessels. But if it's a sinus headache you're fighting, take the opposite approach and try hot compresses.

The herbal, and original, form of aspirin is white willow bark. Used by Chinese practitioners 2,500 years ago, it contains salicin, nearly the same pain reliever found in aspirin. Other herbal aspirins include meadowsweet tea, just as effective as aspirin with few side effects. For migraines, Walker and Brown recommend feverfew and magnesium supplements, which reduce nerve excitability and migraine susceptibility. In fact, individuals with frequent headaches have been found to have low brain and tissue magnesium, says Julian Whitaker, MD, author of Julian Whitaker's Guide to Natural Healing (Prima). For all headaches, Goldberg suggests essential fatty acid supplementation with evening primrose oil (EPO), which improves circulation, helps regulate inflammation and relieves pain.

The Curse of the Migraine

Migraines, a debilitating headache distinguished by a throbbing pain, may be humanity's oldest malady. The name is derived from the word the Greek physician Galen used to describe the disorder in 200 A.D. Six-thousand-year-old Sumerian writings refer to the ravages of migraines, and prehistoric skeletons bear testimony to a crude form of trephination-holes chiseled in skulls to allow the escape of pain-creating demons, according to Lifetime Encyclopedia of Natural Remedies by Myra Cameron (Parker Publishing).

In the common migraine, throbbing pain develops gradually from distended veins around the brain and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light. These miseries can be preceded by 15 to 90 minutes of an "aura," which includes visual disturbances, distorted perception, hallucinations, flashes of light and temporary loss of sight or hearing. In fact, skeptical historians attribute some of the religious visions of the Middle Ages to the visual effects of migraine aura, according to Cameron.

Snacking on high fiber foods between three light meals each day helps stabilize blood sugar and prevent migraines. And while some doctors summarily attribute migraines to diet, other experts attribute at least half of all migraines to food sensitivities. The most common edible villains are aged cheeses, yeast breads, chocolate, cured meats, citrus fruits, eggs, fermented foods, wheat, milk, milk products, alcoholic drinks and food additives, including nitrates and MSG.

Suggested daily supplements for migraine-susceptible individuals include a multivitamin, one capsule of B complex to help maintain normal vascular control, 3,000 to 6,000 milligrams in divided doses of vitamin C with bioflavonoids to assist the production of anti-stress hormones, and 500 to 1,000 milligrams of magnesium to reduce nerve excitability and pain. At the onset of a migraine, says Cameron, try homeopathic remedies, dilutions of natural substances from plants, minerals and animals. For throbbing pain, take natrum muriaticum according to package directions. Other homeopathic options to explore include iris versicolar, lac defloratum and sanguinaria.

Take Charge of Your Headaches

Headache management involves managing your life. Practice relaxation techniques to reduce stress. Calmly discuss your feelings. Take a leisurely stroll at lunch. Walk your dog, or a neighbor's dog, after dinner. Keep a food diary. Sit and stand tall. Skip the fast food tonight. Join a yoga class. Take vitamins and supplements. Get a two-hour massage. Turn the television off earlier and sleep in a little later.

Taking the time to care may take effort, but it will soon become second nature. Invest in yourself. It's your most precious possession.



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Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...
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Date: June 02, 2005 12:18 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Higher Mind - Smart Nutrients for the Performance of a Lifetime...

Our adult years are the time to reap the fruit of an active, meaningful life – appreciated by family and friends who value our experience and knowledge. For some, however, their later years are clouded by a mental decline that erodes their capacity to enjoy life. More of us are becoming apprehensive about the future health of our minds. Will we still be able to communicate our needs as well as our wisdom? As science focuses its investigative might on the workings of the human brain, new findings suggest that it is possible to enjoy a vital, healthy brain and mind – well into old age. Based on compelling research, Source Naturals formulated HIGHER MIND. It contains the most important Neuroceuticals™ now recognized by nutrition scientists – including phosphatidyl serine, a natural nutrient that promotes cognitive function. The connection is clear: nourish your brain; enrich your life.

To have a healthy, well-functioning brain and nervous system, we need the correct nutrients. Our diets must provide the necessary raw materials for nerve cells to grow, for the synthesis of neurochemicals, and for the maintenance of nerve cell membranes. Nutritional deficiencies can alter the brain’s metabolism, which is expressed by changes in perception and thinking, behavior and mood.

Brain Cells – Issued at Birth

Before birth, neurons (nerve cells) are created at the amazing rate of 15 million per hour. As infants, we have over 100 billion neurons, but this is the most we will ever have because – unlike most other cells in our body – nerve cells do not reproduce. A different strategy is used to replace the neurons that are naturally lost throughout life: nerve cells repair themselves and grow by extending branches of nerve fibers called dendrites (from the Latin word for tree). These are the communication links with other neurons that form the circuitry of the brain. A single neuron may be in contact with up to a hundred thousand others! When the density of this fragile organic communication network decreases, we experience a corresponding decline in mental acuity.

Brain Cell Membranes

The membrane is the working surface of a cell. It needs to be strong yet flexible, so the cell can maintain its integrity and be able to move and change shape. The membrane regulates the flow of nutrients into the cell and the removal of waste, plus controls the passage of molecular messages from outside the cell to its interior. Membrane ion pumps use a third of the cell’s energy just to maintain the correct ratio of sodium to potassium. In neurons, a rapid exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the nerve membrane is responsible for their unique ability to generate the electrical impulses that are the basis of all communication in the nervous system. As cells age, their membranes become less fluid and more rigid. Key membrane molecules called phospholipids are crucial to the health of neuron membranes, allowing the brain to maintain its youthful quality. The phospholipids in HIGHER MIND – especially phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl choline – are essential nutritional supplements for the aging brain.

Phosphatidyl Serine – Key to Cognition

For the past decade, researchers have been investigating the role in brain health of a remarkable neuroceutical, phosphatidyl serine (PS). This key structural molecule is integral to the matrix of fats and proteins that compose cell membranes. Although PS is found in all the cells of the body, its highest concentration is in nerve cell membranes. PS is rarely found in the foods we eat, so the body has to synthesize it, but the process is energy- intensive and becomes less efficient with age. Consequently, our levels of PS tend to decline as we get older. PS taken as a dietary supplement is well-absorbed, readily reaching the brain, where it helps create more effective, well-structured nerve cell membranes. The positive effects of PS supplementation have been demonstrated by 23 clinical studies with over 1200 human subjects, ages 43 to 90. Consistent and statistically significant results have confirmed the value of PS in improving age-related cognitive decline, as well as in improving behavioral aspects such as apathy and Withdrawal.1 A major study concluded that for one particular measurable parameter of higher mental functions, PS recipients achieved scores of persons roughly 12 years younger.2 Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is one of the most important proteins the body makes. It enables neurons to extend dendrites out to other neurons, allowing the brain to maintain an effective communication network. In experiments, PS enhanced the production and reception of NGF, which tend to drop off radically with age.3 The effects of PS at the cellular level are manifest in the performance of the brain as a whole. Subjects taking PS showed increased levels of brain energy metabolism. This enhancement corresponded to higher performances on cognitive tests.4

The Chemistry of Thought

Science now understands the role of neurotransmitters in regulating the body’s complex network of behavior. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals used by neurons to communicate with each other. Activated by a neuron’s electrical impulse, neurotransmitters travel between nerve cells, where they excite or inhibit (in various degrees) the electrical impulse in neighboring cells. One of HIGHER MIND’S key strategies is to improve the brain’s ability to produce and use acetylcholine, a key excitatory neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is essential for both the storage and recall of memory, and partly responsible for concentration and focus. It also plays a significant role in muscular coordination. Patients showing cognitive decline may exhibit reduced ability to synthesize and utilize acetylcholine.5 The chemical building blocks of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters are called precursors. The most important one for acetylcholine is DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol). This natural substance is found in various fish, such as anchovies and sardines. Supplements of DMAE (and phosphatidyl choline) promote increased levels of choline in the brain. Acetylcholine is created when an acetyl group is attached to the choline molecule, with the help of choline acetyl transferase (CAT), a key brain enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine is an amino acid that activates this enzyme. Acetyl L-carnitine may also help reduce lipofuscin deposits in the brain because of its involvement in the metabolism of fatty acids.6 Lipofuscin is composed of oxidized fats and proteins; the brown “age spots” on the back of an elderly person’s hand are made of lipofuscin. The amino acid L-pyroglutamic acid sensitizes the acetylcholine receptor sites on a neuron membrane. A given amount of acetylcholine will then have a larger, more powerful effect. Studies have shown that supplements of L-pyroglutamic acid seem to enhance the ability to focus, remember, and learn.

Total Nutrition for the Brain

The neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenalin are critical to motor coordination, motivation, concentration, and alertness. Like acetylcholine, their production tends to decline with age. The precursors and activators of dopamine and noradrenalin included in HIGHER MIND are the amino acids N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine and DL-phenylalanine (DLPA), plus folic acid, vitamins B-3, B-6, and C. DLPA is also a precursor to PEA, a neuroamine that has a stimulating effect on the brain. Glutamine is an amino acid precursor to glutamic acid, a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in mental activity and learning. Glutamine acts as an alternative fuel source for the brain when blood sugar levels are low. It also helps the brain dispose of waste ammonia, which is a natural result of protein breakdown but is irritating to neurons even at low levels. GABA is a dietary amino acid which is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA works to calm and balance the mind, enhancing mental focus. Along with taurine, these two relaxing neurotransmitters provide a balancing influence to the other, excitatory neurotransmitters. Taurine is found in brain tissue more than anywhere else in the body. It has antioxidant properties and serves as a nerve cell membrane stabilizer, preventing excessive or erratic electrical activity in the brain.

The Importance of Magnesium

Magnesium must be present in adequate amounts in the synaptic gaps between neurons or the neurons become hyper-reactive: causing noises to sound excessively loud and emotional reactions to be extreme. Magnesium also activates a key enzyme responsible for maintaining cellular sodium- potassium balance, which is absolutely essential to the electrical activity of nerve cells, as well as to the existence of the cell itself. (Cells would burst if the sodium-potassium ratio were wrong.) Magnesium also helps relax cerebral blood vessels and is important to the manufacture of ATP, the chief energy molecule of the brain. A buildup of aluminum has been found in the brains of some elderly. In 1989, the British medical journal Lancet published a study showing that drinking water with aluminum can increase the risk of damage by up to 50%. An abundant natural element, aluminum is now a common feature in our culture. It’s found in tap water, cookware, deodorants, beverage containers, baked goods, and of course as aluminum foil. In the brain, aluminum breaks down the structure of neurons – causing them to starve – by displacing magnesium from tubulin, a glycoprotein responsible for making microtubules. These tiny pipe-like structures within a neuron provide needed rigidity, as well as transport nutrients from the nucleus down the dendrites to the ends of the nerve cell. Magnesium malate is an excellent form of magnesium that ensures neurons receive this vital mineral.

B is for Brain Vitamins

HIGHER MIND also contains a high profile of B vitamins and other key nutrients that are often N A T U R A L S S O U R C E Strategies for Wellness SM ¤ lacking in older individuals. A deficiency in any of the B vitamins can alter nerve function and psychological well-being. Thiamine (B-1), known as the “nerve vitamin,” was first recognized because its deficiency caused beriberi, a degenerative nerve disease. Thiamine is part of the structure of nerve cell membranes and is important to the reparative process that neurons need to offset the stress of continual firing of the electrical impulse. Low amounts of thiamine can cause cell malnutrition in the hypothalamus, the brain’s memory center. 7 NAD and NADH, two coenzyme forms of Niacin (B-3), are the most plentiful coenzymes in the brain. They are essential to hundreds of enzymatic reactions, including ones that produce energy. NADH can stimulate the synthesis of key mood-elevating neurotransmitters. It is also one of the body’s most potent antioxidants. Pantothenic acid (B-5), cyanocobalamin (B-12), and folic acid are required to form the myelin sheath – the insulating covering of nerve fibers. A diet low in pantothenic acid has been shown to make test subjects emotionally upset, irritable, and depressed.7 A lack of B-12 can result in poor concentration and, in severe deficiencies, hallucinations. Pyridoxine (B-6) is precursor to over 60 enzymatic reactions and is involved in the synthesis of several neurotransmitters.

Brain Power

Brain cells almost exclusively burn glucose for their energy (other cells can also burn fat), and typically require 50% of all the glucose in the blood. Two B-like vitamins help in the utilization of glucose: PAK (pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate) may potentiate the effects of insulin and improve glucose utilization to the cells;8 Biotin is important for the transformation of glucose into energy in the brain. Lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 are metabolic energizers that help produce ATP, the primary energy molecule in the body. Since the brain uses 20% of the body’s total energy supply, efficient ATP production is vital. Lipoic acid and CoQ10 are also powerful antioxidants that help regenerate other antioxidants in the body. The blood vessels feeding the brain become less efficient as we pass middle age. Since the brain depends on the bloodstream to deliver nutrients and oxygen and to remove waste, the quality of this blood flow is paramount to proper brain nutrition. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown in scientific studies to increase blood flow to the brain by helping vessels to dilate. It also promotes the smoothness and healthy integrity of blood vessel linings.

For the Life of Your Mind Without proper nutrition, the brain will deteriorate; therefore strategies are needed to both enhance current brain function and protect it throughout life. Based on the latest scientific findings, Source Naturals HIGHER MIND is formulated with neuroceuticals that support the mental functions that tend to decline with age. They give your brain the nourishment it needs to integrate perception, memory, and learning into a more comprehensive awareness – so you can excel for a lifetime.

References
1. Palmieri, G., et al. (1987). Clin. Trials J. 24: 73- 83.
2. Crook, T.H., et al. (1991). Neurol. 41: 644-49.
3. Nunzi, M.G., et al. In Phospholipids: Biochemical, Pharmaceutical and Analytical Considerations (ed. I. Hanin and G. Pepeu).
New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
4. Heiss, W.D., et al. (1993). Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 695: 327-31.
5. Passeri, M., et al. (1990). Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. X(1/2): 75-79.
6. Kohjimoto, Y., et al. (1988). Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 48(3): 365-71.
7. Philpott, William H. Brain Allergies: the Psychonutrient Connection. New Canaan: Keats, 1987.
8. Passariello, N., et al. (1983). Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 21: 252-56.



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