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The Health Benefits Of Beets Darrell Miller 7/30/17
These raised bed gardening tricks beat traditional gardening every time Darrell Miller 3/29/17
Do you fancy nettle bubble and squeak? Darrell Miller 3/19/17
Researchers develop tiny, shining crystals that detect and clean heavy metals in water Darrell Miller 12/16/16
Can You Get Too Much Protein? Darrell Miller 12/12/16
Can Glutamine Improve Nitrogen Balance in the Body? Darrell Miller 5/7/14
How L-Glutamine Increases Memory And Cognitive Functions! Darrell Miller 1/20/14
Arginine and Ornithine Supplementation for Enhanced Athletic Performance Darrell Miller 1/19/14
Interesting Facts About Activated Charcoal Darrell Miller 11/3/13
Niacin And Niacinamide? Darrell Miller 11/18/12
The Health benefits of L-Arginine Darrell Miller 6/8/12
Can Tart Cherry Protect The Brain? Darrell Miller 12/15/11
What are the Essential Amino Acids we must get from our Diet to Survive? Darrell Miller 8/17/11
Do you Need Uric Acid Cleanse? Darrell Miller 7/28/10
Fight Free Radical Damage From Toxins With Vitamins And Herbs Darrell Miller 7/28/10
Mugwort Darrell Miller 8/13/09
Strengthen The Liver and Kidneys With Leucine Darrell Miller 4/27/09
L-Arginine An Amino Acid Essential Or Not You Be The Judge? Darrell Miller 1/6/09
Acidophilus Darrell Miller 8/23/08
Folic Acid Darrell Miller 8/19/08
Vitamin C Darrell Miller 8/12/08
The next logical step Darrell Miller 6/26/07
Revita Darrell Miller 3/8/07
Tru-E Bio Complex Darrell Miller 12/8/05
Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant Darrell Miller 12/7/05
The “Power” of trace Minerals… Darrell Miller 10/8/05
<B>DO WE NEED EXTRA LIVER PROTECTION?</b> Darrell Miller 7/12/05
HAWAIIAN NONI (Morinda citrifolia) Darrell Miller 7/11/05
Gamma E 400 Complex - Vitamin E with Powerful Tocotrienols Darrell Miller 6/29/05
L-ARGININE - For Increased Circulation Darrell Miller 6/29/05
ENDNOTES Darrell Miller 6/23/05
Pep Up and Go! Darrell Miller 6/14/05
Your Healthy Harvest Darrell Miller 6/14/05
Certified Foods Darrell Miller 6/12/05
AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN Darrell Miller 6/9/05
Muscle Mass - Reach Your Maximum Muscle Potential Darrell Miller 6/4/05
COLLOIDALIFE Trace Minerals - The Precious Elements of Life... Darrell Miller 6/1/05
Methoxy Ecdysone - Build Lean Body Mass. Darrell Miller 5/7/05




The Health Benefits Of Beets
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Date: July 30, 2017 09:14 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Health Benefits Of Beets





Beets are a valuable addition to the diet, especially if looking to increase health. Once considered a healthy but un-extraordinary food, it's now known that beets contain the precursors to nitrogen which is turned into nitrogen oxide in the body. This compound is a hormone that regulates health. Beets are also known to contain high levels of antioxidants as well as potassium, touted as a cause for muscle cramps and used as a booster for athletic performance. For decades they were found on store shelves as canned or bottled but the beet is finally getting its day in supplements, juices and a stellar health food.

Key Takeaways:

  • Supplements using beets have found to improve athletic performance, strength and endurance.
  • The secret is the nitrogen content and how it used to help bring out the beets true value.
  • Beets can significantly down play many medical problems we face.

"The secret to the beet boost for athletes and workout warriors is in its nitrogen content, specifically in the form of nitrates and nitrites."

Read more: http://criticalhealthnews.com/health-news/25-ben-fuchs-articles/275-the-health-benefits-of-beets

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These raised bed gardening tricks beat traditional gardening every time
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Date: March 29, 2017 11:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: These raised bed gardening tricks beat traditional gardening every time





Raised bed gardening methods involves preparing crops in a variety of ways using elevated garden beds. Benefits of raised garden beds include better drainage as well as better retention of moist soil. This makes raised beds particularly effective in rainy environments. In addition to better drainage, raised beds also provide better aeration. Raised beds allow effective use of the loose soil such as air circulation and nitrogen being converted to useful minerals. Other benefits include better weed control, pest control, and improved mobility.

Read more: These raised bed gardening tricks beat traditional gardening every time

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Do you fancy nettle bubble and squeak?
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Date: March 19, 2017 11:44 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Do you fancy nettle bubble and squeak?





Due to nitrogen released from diesel vehicles, nettles are growing like crazy on the countryside. This is bad, because they are overrunning the native flora and causing problems. But there may be some benefit to them. You can bubble and squeak them. Another weed that is overrunning the countryside is hogweed. This is a weed that is very similar to nettles. They both are growing in abundance due to the nitrogen that is being released.

Key Takeaways:

  • While it would appear to be an entirely negative observation that nettles are overtaking the countryside, in part due to diesel engines, one chef suggests otherwise.
  • One chef suggests that nutritious nettles can be gathered from the countryside and put to culinary use.
  • For example, Bubble and squeak, a British tradition, for incorporating leftovers, can be tailored to use the nettles.

"The charity Plantlife told us that the countryside is becoming overrun by weeds like nettles and hogweed because of nitrogen compounds emitted by diesel engines."

Read more: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-39264877

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Researchers develop tiny, shining crystals that detect and clean heavy metals in water
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Date: December 16, 2016 12:59 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Researchers develop tiny, shining crystals that detect and clean heavy metals in water





Researchers from Rutgers University crystals, aka luminescent metal-organic frameworks (LMOF), that detect and are able to bond with heavy metal contaminants in water. The LMOF are highly effective and it is hopeful that they will be a great tool to clean up contaminated drinking water. Researchers continue to try to develop the crystals so that they may be created less expensively and can be used several times.

Key Takeaways:

  • A team of researchers led by academics at Rutgers University has developed tiny, glowing crystals that are able to detect and then bind heavy-metal toxins in drinking water such as lead and mercury.
  • The team found that one type of LMOF can be selective in identifying and absorbing more than 99 percent of mercury from a test mixture of both heavy and light metals over 30 minutes.
  • The research team also discovered that the crystals contain hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and zinc atoms that line large, open channels.

"A team of researchers led by academics at Rutgers University has developed tiny, glowing crystals that are able to detect and then bind heavy-metal toxins in drinking water such as lead and mercury."



Reference:

//www.naturalnews.com/2016-12-11-researchers-develop-tiny-shining-crystals-that-detect-and-clean-heavy-metals-in-water.html

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Can You Get Too Much Protein?
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Date: December 12, 2016 07:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (support@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can You Get Too Much Protein?





Excessive protein can have a stimulating effect on an important biochemical pathway called the mammalian target of rapamycin. This pathway has an important and significant role in many cancers. When you reduce protein to just what your body needs, mTOR remains inhibited, which helps minimize your chances of cancer growth. Additionally, when you consume too much protein, your body must remove more nitrogen waste products from your blood, which stresses your kidneys. Chronic dehydration can result, as was found in a study involving endurance athletes.

Key Takeaways:

  • some researchers worry that the muscle building properties that consumers seek in protein may be a double-edged sword, perhaps even leading to an increased risk of cancer
  • The vast majority of Americans already get more than the recommended daily amounts of protein from food
  • Large population studies also suggest an association between habitual high protein intake and a heightened risk of diabetes

"Protein has achieved a venerated status in the dietary world for everything from building muscle to preventing weight gain. But can you get too much of a good thing?"



Reference:

//www.nytimes.com/2016/12/06/well/eat/can-you-get-too-much-protein.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0

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Can Glutamine Improve Nitrogen Balance in the Body?
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Date: May 07, 2014 09:08 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can Glutamine Improve Nitrogen Balance in the Body?

Can Glutamine Improve Nitrogen Balance in the Body?

Glutamine also abbreviated as Q is one of the 20 amino acids the genetic code encodes. Glutamine is not an essential amino acid and this means the body can produce it. It is the most abundant of all amino acids with a concentration of 500 to 900 molecules per liter.

Glutamine structure

It has an amide side chain that is formed by replacement of an hydroxy group of glutamic acid. It is coded by COG and CAA.

Glutmine and nitrogen balance

Glutamine does actually improve nitrogen balance in the body. The regulation mechanism occurs by feedback inhibition mechanism. The deamination of glutamate by glutamate dehydrogenase leads tp production of ammonia (NH3) and an alpha ketoglutarate. High concentrations of ammonia can be dangerous to the body, they are neurotoxic and cause disruption of the Urea Cycle and affect the liver. High concentrations of ketoglutarate helps activate glutamine synthetase which acts a a catalyst in the synthesis of glutamate.

This process is controlled by 9 feedback inhibitors. Of the 9 inhibitors, six are products found in glutamate pathway cycle. This helps in regulation of nitrogen at cellular level which is very sensitive. It helps control ammonia levels which can be dangerous at high levels.

Improving anabolic state of the body

Glutamine helps the body muscles recover after intense training. This occurs through energy repletion in the muscles. Boosting of the immune system has also being discovered to be associated by glutamine. It also buffers against the build up of lactic acid in muscles leading to muscle growth.

Glutamine increases the size of the cells and promotes the integrity of the intestines leading to increased absorption by the cells. It also releases a growth hormone that helps in muscle growth.

Conclusion

Essentials of glutamine have been found to be many. Nowadays there are commercially produced glutamine which are taken as strong anti-catabolic supplement.

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How L-Glutamine Increases Memory And Cognitive Functions!
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Date: January 20, 2014 09:26 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: How L-Glutamine Increases Memory And Cognitive Functions!

 L-Glutamine

brain memoryAssuming that you are one of the numerous people that experience the ill effects of cerebrum fogginess, weakness and even laziness, you can discover the easing you require since L-Glutamine enhances memory and cognitive capacities. This amino acid is extremely pervasive in a few parts of the mind, the spinal string, and even organs of assimilation and detoxification. These methodologies all work synergistically with one another to handle optimal health conditions that abandon you feeling extraordinary constantly. When you have ever battled to recall certain occasions, data, or basic portions, you have to adjust the way your cerebrum appreciates data, which might be adequately finished when you utilize L-Glutamine to upgrade memory capacity. This compelling cell reinforcement does everything, and revitalizes your cells so you profit from improved vigor levels for your health and against maturing necessities.

How the medicinal utilization of L-Glutamine enhances your memory

Presently you can encounter all the rushes of having the ability to recall again when you use this characteristic elective health supplement for sum figure quality and persistence. This animated amino acid works through protein combination and compound transformations in distinctive parts of the form which invigorate sound responses to happen. Engaging your psyche from the cell level up, L-Glutamine enhances memory and evacuates collections of smelling salts and nitrogen in the blood which at last influences the working of your cerebrum. Smelling salts is available when this fixing is changed over into glutamic acid which obliges certain measures of alkali. When you standardize these levels, the mind fogginess vanishes as your units accept fitting measures of oxygen and supplements for sound working.

Health points of interest of utilizing L-Glutamine to improve memory capacity

Furthermore, there are other sound motivating forces to utilize this part also. The point when this valuable substance is changed over into its hostile to oxidizing structure, it improves the benefit of the focal apprehensive framework, beginning at the cerebrum. It can likewise secure your nerves from harm because of hormones, chemicals, and extreme electrical indicators. When you utilize L-Glutamine to improve memory capacity, you are likewise diminishing the dangers of experiencing tension, melancholy, and a large portion of its identified indications in view of its stimulant qualities. This elective health supplement impacts the pituitary organ to discharge certain chemicals, indicators, and hormones all around the figure to equalize out physiological capacities.

Reference:

  1. //natural-alternative-health-supplements.com


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Arginine and Ornithine Supplementation for Enhanced Athletic Performance
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Date: January 19, 2014 07:41 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Arginine and Ornithine Supplementation for Enhanced Athletic Performance

Arginine and ornithine

Arginine and ornithine are two amino acids that are incorporated in protein that is found in many dietary sources, such as meat, egg whites, soy or fish. Although these two amino acids can be supplied to your muscles from food sources, several research studies have examined the benefits of arginine and ornithine supplements. Fitness researchers found positive and promising results in terms of muscular growth, endurance and fatigue prevention. These supplements are especially known and popular among bodybuilders and other types of strength athletes, as it has been clearly demonstrated that they improve athletic ability on a biochemical level.

Arginine Intake is Associated With a More Intense Production of Human Growth Hormone

Arginine is an amino acid that is able to exert a potent stimulation of the pituitary gland following intense workout routines. The pituitary gland is a small region in the human brain that is able to manufacture a hormone that is the most powerful accelerator of muscle and bone growth, which is the Human Growth Hormone (HGH). Several medical tests and research trials examined the effects of supplemental arginine intake on the HGH levels after bodybuilding or strength exercise aimed to increasing muscle size and strength. The results reveal that additional arginine intake through supplements results in a better HGH response to exercise, which stimulates muscle development through an accelerated protein synthesis in muscle fibers.

Ornithine Intake Results in Fatigue Prevention in Athletes

Ornithine is also a popular amino acid supplement among athletes because it allows for a more efficient energy production and utilization in muscle fibers. Moreover, arginine and ornithine taken together stimulate the faster elimination of toxic waste from the muscles, especially nitrogen removal. The combined benefits of arginine and ornithine supplementation for athletes and sports enthusiasts consists in their capacity to induce a better HGH response for muscle fiber growth and prevention of fatigue during strenuous physical exercise.

References:

  1. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19083482
  2. hhtp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17143054

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Interesting Facts About Activated Charcoal
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Date: November 03, 2013 12:19 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Interesting Facts About Activated Charcoal

 How Activated Charcoal is Made

charcoalActivated charcoal is very similar to normal charcoal which is made from coconut shell, wood, petroleum, peat or coal. To make activated charcoal, the common charcoal is heated in the presence of some gases like argon, oxygen or nitrogen in a variety of processes, namely; physical or chemical activation. These processes open up millions of tiny pores between the present carbon atoms. These pores help the charcoal to easily trap select chemicals in a process known as adsorption. It is known by a myriad of names from Animal charcoal, Gas black to lamp black etc.

Uses of Activated Charcoal

The earliest documented usage of activated charcoal was reported in the early 19th century in England where it was sold as charcoal biscuits. It was generally administered as an antidote to a wide variety of stomach problems and flatulence. It has since gained mainstream usage for a wide variety of ailments and can either be sold as an over the counter drug in certain countries as tablets or capsules or be prescribed by doctors in hospitals. It can also be used for pre-hospital purposes in emergency treatments.

One of the main uses of activated charcoal has been in treating instances of overdoses and poisonings in the human body. It does this by adsorption (attaching to the poison by chemical attraction) thereby preventing its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also known to interrupt the enteroenteric circulation of some toxins and drugs thereby preventing poisoning. The correct dosage is usually 1 gram per kilogram of body mass and is usually given once to the patient even though in very acute instances it can be given to the patient more than once. Apart from the adsorption process, activated charcoal can also be used to filter out any harmful drugs from affected person’s blood stream. It is worth noting though that for long term accumulation of toxins in the body through a variety of methods such as toxic herbicide infection, that the use of activated charcoal to reverse the effects will not be successful.

References:

  1. //www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-269-ACTIVATED CHARCOAL.aspx?activeIngredientId
  2. //science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/question209.htm
  3. //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activated_carbon

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Niacin And Niacinamide?
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Date: November 18, 2012 10:32 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Niacin And Niacinamide?

Niacin Vs Niacinamide

Niacin

Niacin also known as nicotinic acid is an organic compound and it is one of the essential human nutrients. Niacin deficiency can result to pellagra. It is also used for reducing cardiovascular issues. A chemist called Hugo Weidel first described niacin in 1873 in his studies of nicotine in the oxidation of nicotine using nitric acid. The name niacin was derived from nicotinic acid + vitamin.

Niacinamide

Niacinamide is also known as nicotinamide or nicotinic acid amide. It is the amide of niacin. Niacianamide is part of B-vitamin and it is water soluble. Niacinamide is derived from niacin. These two are components of B3-vitamin and they are often used as supplements interchangeably. However, there are some critical differences between these two vitamin B3 components. Niacinamide is derived from niacin and the body is able to convert niacin into niacinamide.

Niacinamide can also be made by our body from an amino acid known as trytophan which is usually present in animal foods. A chemical compound known as an amide is what makes niacinamide. Amide is defined by a nitrogen atom which is combined with a carbonyl group or C=O. Therefore, the main distinction between these two components is that niacinamide is a derivative of niacin.

Different Pharmacological Properties

Although the two are used interchangeably, they have different pharmacological properties. Their physical effects on the body also differ and people who are sensitive to their effects may prefer to use one over the other. Their usefulness in treating different conditions for instance high cholesterol, circulatory problem and osteoarthritis can also differ. Because of the pharmacological properties difference in niacin and niacinamide, different people can have different physical reactions when they take one as opposed to the other.

High niacin doses can cause flushing a condition that causes blood vessels to widen. This makes the capillaries under the skin to expand to allow more blood to flow making the skin to become red and itchy. Niacinamide does not have the effect of skin flushing and that is why it is preferred over niacin in the treatment of pellagra, a condition that results due to lack of vitamin B3. The only affect that niacinamide may cause is excessive sweating.

Niacin And Cholesterol

Niacin on the other hand it is preferred in the treatment of high cholesterol levels while niacinamide is not preferred in this treatment. This is because since niacinamide is a derivative of niacin, the cholesterol lowering properties in niacinamide are inhibited. Niacin is also preferred in treating circulatory problems because of its effects on the blood vessels and the role it plays in lowering high cholesterol levels hence preventing hardening of the arteries.

This in addition reduces the risk of heart attacks. On the other hand, Niacinamide may also be preferred for treating osteoarthritis and diabetes. The two can be used in treating physical and emotional stress. Either niacin or niacinamide may be used for treating anxiety and depression. For these two components of Vitamin B3 to be effective, doctors recommend that they ought to be taken in combination with Vitamin B1, B2 and C.

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The Health benefits of L-Arginine
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Date: June 08, 2012 08:10 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The Health benefits of L-Arginine

What is L-Arginine?

L-Arginine, also referred to as Arginine, is a non-essential amino acid-it's produced naturally in the body-and it is vital for the normal functioning of pituitary gland. This substance comes from natural sources such as nuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, popcorn, chocolate, brown rice, raisins, carob, oatmeal, gelatin desserts, protein rich foods, and whole wheat bread. Men, whose seminal fluids consist of up to 80 percent of this amino acid, especially need L-Arginine as a deficiency could cause infertility. L-Arginine is not only obtained from food sources but through supplementation as well. As we age, the production of this amino acid decreases in the body and this is thought to cause many degenerative processes associated with aging. Thus, Arginine is vital for maintaining your overall health as well as sexual health.

Arginine deficiency

Deficiency of L-Arginine can delay sexual maturity, impair insulin production, cause liver lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance.

Functions of L-Arginine

L-Arginine amino acid performs various functions in the body, including:

It is a component of collagen, enzymes, ejaculate, hormones, connective tissues, and skin. It plays an important role in the manufacture of protein molecules such as insulin and creatine. It's a precursor of nitric oxide as well as other metabolites.

Health benefits of L-Arginine

Although the benefits of Arginine supplements are debated, proponents state that Arginine converts into nitric oxide inside the body and enlarges or dilates the blood vessels. This helps better circulation and it's one of the reasons it is used to cure erectile dysfunction. This amino acid produces positive results as it enhances blood circulation, especially to the genitalia. Arginine is also a key component in sperm and seminal fluid production, so it's used to treat sterility in men. Other health benefits of L-Arginine include:

Boosts energy

Aids in muscle-building

Helps maintain blood-sugar levels

Increases immune function

Increase fertility in females

Improves blood flow and decreases clogged arteries

Increases sperm count

Helps in liver detoxification

Maintains nitrogen balance

Promotes body fat burning

Promotes better bone density

Provides anti-oxidant properties

Reduces effects of alcohol toxicity

Reduces blood pressure

Reduces heart and vascular disease, cholesterol risk and stroke

Helps reduce body fat

Helps remove excess ammonia

Aids faster healing of wounds

L-Arginine anti-aging properties

One last benefit to note about L-Arginine is the fact that it simulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), IGF, and testosterone. As your body ages, it produces less and less of these hormones which directly affects the aging process. These hormones are responsible for reducing body fat, keeping the skin elastic, and increasing sexual stamina. While your body won't turn into that of a teenager, taking L-Arginine supplements can make you feel and look younger.

Conclusion

Just as other forms of supplementation, you should take caution while using L-Arginine. This means that you have to get a doctor's approval before you take this drug. You should carefully follow the drug's instructions on dosage and frequency. As long as you take L-Arginine with care, you can greatly enhance your overall health and wellbeing.

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Can Tart Cherry Protect The Brain?
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Date: December 15, 2011 09:40 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Can Tart Cherry Protect The Brain?

Though cherries are small in terms of size, the health benefits of the fruit are really vast. Many of the health benefits of cherries can be associated to the chemical that gives the fruit a red appearance. Anthocyanins are the chemicals responsible why many fruits, flowers and berries are colored red and blue.

There are arrays of health benefits that one could reap from the anthocyanin content of cherries and other plants; anthocyanins are utilized by the body to manufacture essential amino acids that are vital to health. Since anthocyanins are also antioxidants, they could shield the cells of the body especially the neurons in the brain from injury, disease producing effects of oxygen, UV radiation, nitrogen, and aging.

Anthocyanins are also effectual in giving pain and inflammation a relief because the chemicals have certain properties that could inhibit Cox-2 enzymesi> production just like the way how prescription pain relievers respond. The natural anti-inflammatory components of anthocyanins are proven to be effective in reducing your risk of acquiring cancer hence, tart cherries is considered a wonder food because of its ample anthocyanin content.

Tart cherries also have properties that could help promote sleep and relaxation. When a person get enough sleep every day, he or she could think better, could focus and concentrate hence, would be more efficient in everything that he or she will do. This particular effect of tart components in your brain is very vital because as we are all aware of, our brain is the control center of the body thus, at all times we should keep it well functioning because if we don’t, there will be a lot of undesirable effects that you will encounter. Since tart cherries are great food for the brain, experts advise their clients to eat the fruit or take supplements that are made of tart cherries because these regimens are effective in maintaining the health of your brain.

Cherries like many other fruits contain ample amounts of vitamin C which is a very potent antioxidant that could help you combat detrimental free radicals. It has been proven by many clinical studies that vitamin C has certain components that can kill cancer causing cells and inhibits their replication. In addition, the fiber content of tart cherries is also liberal hence it is necessary to maintain a healthy digestive system. Nowadays, a diet rich with fiber is very important because it could greatly protect you from the risk of developing colon and rectal problems as well as other diseases that involves the digestive system.

With all the benefits that tart cherries could offer the human body, it has become a regimen of choice especially for those individuals who want to ensure a healthy and sound body. The properties that tart cherries have that could improve your memory and ability to focus is also very necessary therefore, it has gained vast popularity among those people who are always on the go.

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What are the Essential Amino Acids we must get from our Diet to Survive?
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Date: August 17, 2011 12:13 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: What are the Essential Amino Acids we must get from our Diet to Survive?

Amino acids or the building blocks of protein are very important in overall functioning of the body. Proteins, to mention, are responsible for the build up of most of our body parts specifically our muscles, ligaments, tendons, organs, tissues, glands, nails and hair. Moreover, the repair and preservation of those parts still rely on proteins. Amino acids can be of two different forms which are the non-essential and essential. On this selection, we will be focusing more on the latter.

Essential amino acids are those which cannot be produced by the body therefore it has to be supplied through our diet. This category of amino acids includes tryptophan, lysine, methionine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine and phenylalanine.

Tryptophan, which is a precursor to serotonin and melatonin, can be acquired from peanuts, meat, turkey, fish, milk, dried dates, cottage cheese, banana, oats and chocolates. A deficiency of this can bring up serious neurological problems, depression, anxiety and sleeping difficulties.

Another essential amino acid is methionine. The production of sulfur and other compound needed for a healthy growth and metabolism depends on the presence of this amino acid. Fish, whole grains and dairy are its sources.

Lysine, which is effective in the treatment and prevention of herpes, is present in soybeans, green beans, lentils, spinach and amaranth. Low levels of lysine can also compromise the levels of niacin and this leads to pellagra.

Tissue healing, muscle metabolism and keeping the equilibrium of nitrogen levels in our body are the functions of valine. It has proven to be efficient in the treatment of liver and gallbladder disorders. Deficiencies that results from drug addiction are can also be reversed by this amino acid. Its sources are peanuts, soy proteins, dietary products, grains, meat and mushrooms.

Leucine can be obtained from chicken, fish, cottage cheese, lentils, peanuts and sesame seeds. It functions in muscle protein build up and is the main medium in tissue building process. Inability to acquire such makes a person prone to protein wasting since leucine, together with valine and isoleucine, serves as energy and protein reservoirs.

In boosting energy levels, blood sugar regulation, muscle build - up and repair as well as hemoglobin development, isoleucine has shown its relevance. Its dietary sources are fish, poultry, beef, dairy, eggs, lentils, seeds, soy, almonds and wheat. Isoleucine deficiencies may result into neurological disturbances such as confusion, depression, irritability, fatigue, headache and dizziness.

Threonine is significant in synthesis of antibodies. Beans, nuts, seeds, dairy, poultry, eggs and beef are rich in threonine. A low level of this amino acid causes disorders of the skin and weakness.

Adrenaline and noradrenalin which are stimulates the central and peripheral nervous system requires phenylalanine to perform their function. Phenylalanine can be acquired from peanuts, seeds, almonds, lima beans and dairy. Liver damage, weakness, skin lesions, lethargy and slowed growth are results of its deficiencies.

In summary, our body needs networks of essential amino acids for its proper functioning. Eating healthy foods and living a healthy lifestyle is the secret towards maintaining your optimum general health.

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Do you Need Uric Acid Cleanse?
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Date: July 28, 2010 12:49 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Do you Need Uric Acid Cleanse?

Uric acid is a problem when you have high levels in your blood. So what is this chemical that can cause you so much pain when it deposits as crystals in your joints and rips your joint tissues to shreds? Uric acid is the final metabolic by-product of purine metabolism. No, that doesn't help you much, but it does when you find out that meat products are high in purine and vegetable products very low in this nitrogenous heterocyclic compound that is the base behind several amino acids, and an essential component of DNA. The final end product of the metabolism of purine is uric acid, and unless this is cleansed from the body it can precipitate as needle-like crystals in your connective tissues and cause damage. It is uric acid crystals that cause the pain of gout where you movement will be not only be restricted, but damage can also be caused to the joint itself.

A uric acid cleanse will reduce the concentration of the acid in your blood, and hence render it less likely to precipitate as crystals and cause problems such as gout.

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Fight Free Radical Damage From Toxins With Vitamins And Herbs
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Date: July 28, 2010 11:34 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Fight Free Radical Damage From Toxins With Vitamins And Herbs

There are many things that destroy the immune system. Each day we are bombarded with them in many forms. The following are some of the most common ones that are encountered.

Agene, also known as Nitrogen Trichloride, is used to bleach flour and give it a white appearance. Unfortunately, it can cause epileptic-like fits along with failure of muscle coordination. Excessive use of alcohol also severely impairs the immune system. It increases susceptibility to infection and weakens the central nervous system. Alcohol promotes chronic lung disease, malignancies of the neck and head, intestinal problems, hypoglycemia, diabetes, liver disease, and a whole variety of other problems. B vitamins, folic acid, niacin, vitamin E, magnesium, zinc, and protein are depleted by alcohol. All of these nutrients play a huge role in immune health. Aspartame breaks down in the digestive tract into a toxic material known as methanol. In order to prevent methanol from metabolizing into formaldehyde, a poison, a person needs to take another poison, ethanol.

Glutamic acid is a substance that is found in monosodium glutamate, a flavor enhancer. It affects the central nervous system and can trigger depression, gloomy fantasies, and rage for as long as two weeks following the ingestion of monosodium glutamate. High-diet fat intake increases the levels of bile acids in the colon. This breaks down into deoxycholic and lithocholic acids, both of which are cancer-causing elements. This can cause cancer of both the colon and the rectum. A diet that is high in animal protein and fat can cause cancer of the pancreas, breast, gallbladder, ovaries, uterus, prostate, and leukemia. Junk food such as sweets, white flour, and white sugar products, put a double amount of stress on the body. When too much junk food is eaten, the appetite for good, wholesome food is dulled.

Caffeine decreases immunity in the body, with fibrocystic breast disease being connected with the consumption of foods that contain caffeine. It is often caused by the chemicals methylxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine, which are found in coffee, black tea, cola drinks, chocolate, and other soft drinks. These elements act on hormones that cause breast tissue to develop fibrocystic lumps. Caffeine takes away the body’s own use of iron and inositol, and is often suspected of causing cancer in the pancreas.

Food dyes and flavorings are the culprits in behavioral problems that occur in children and adults, with some of these problems being learning disabilities and hyperactivity. Sodium nitrate is a preservative that is often found in cured meats like hot dogs, bologna, and ham. It has the potential to produce permanent epileptic changes in brain activity and damage the central nervous system.

High protein diets can deplete calcium in the body, especially when the source of protein is an animal product. There are concentrated doses of hormones and antibiotics that are found in beef which suppress the immune system and promote tumor growth. Poly-unsaturated fats undergo a process that produces rancidity in oils. This process releases dangerous free radicals, which eventually lead to cancer.

Heavy metals like lead and mercury can cause serious damage to the nervous system, with even small amounts being considered toxic. Lastly, the wide use of vaccinations and antibiotics is considered to be one of the main causes of immune system disorders.

Our bodies are under constant attack by our toxic environment. Fortunately, with regular vitamin and herb use, one can help the body restore its immune system to proper function so we can live a happier healthier life.

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Mugwort
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Date: August 13, 2009 12:09 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Mugwort

The mugwort plant is one of several species in the genus Artemisia. In Northern America, this plant is considered to be an invasive weed. The plant is very common and can be found growing on nitrogenous soils, like weedy uncultivated areas such as waste places and roadsides. The mugwort plant is a tall herbaceous perennial plant that grows from one to two meters tall and has a woody root. The leaves, which are between five to twenty centimeters in length, are dark green, pinnate, with dense hairs on the underside. The stem has a red-purplish tinge. The flowers are rather small with many yellow or dark red petals. This plant can be found flowering from July to September.

The mugwort plant is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. Sometimes, it is referred to as the felon herb, St John’s plant, chrysanthemum weed, and wild wormwood. The plant’s root has a history of medicinal use. Mugwort was used in the ancient world as a treatment for fatigue and to guard travelers from evil sprits and wild animals. Roman soldiers are said to have placed mugwort in their sandals to keep their feet energized. One could curb fatigue by chewing mugwort leaves. Sometimes, mugwort is confused with wormwood.

Mugwort is popular in witchcraft. It is said to promote lucid dreaming and astral travel. Smoking or eating mugwort before going to sleep is supposed to make dreams much more intense. It also helps the dreamer to remember them upon waking. This herb contains wormwood oil, thujone, flavonoids, triterpenes, and coumarin derivatives. Thujone is toxic. For this reasons, expectant mothers should avoid consuming large amounts of mugwort. Due to toxicity concerns, the plant is recommended less often now.

In traditional Chinese medicine, mugwort still has a role in an aged, pulverized, and recompounded form. In this form, it is used to correct breech birth presentation. Additionally, mugwort can cause uterine contractions, so it has been used to induce abortion.

The leaves of the mugwort plant have been recommended for colic, diarrhea, constipation, stomach cramps, weak digestion, worm infestation, and persistent vomiting. This herb has also been used to stimulate the secretion of bile and gastric juices. It has also been used as a laxative, liver tonic, and sedative. Mugwort promotes circulation. Additionally, it helps with hysteria, epilepsy, convulsions in children, and menstrual problems. This herb has been used as a tonic to boost energy and strength. It has been used, combined with other ingredients, for neuroses, neurasthenia, depression, hypochondria, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety.

In summary, the root and leaves of the mugwort plant are used to provide abortifacient and anthelminthic properties. The primary nutrients found in this herb are lipophilic flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones. Primarily, mugwort is extremely beneficial in treating anxiety, colic, constipation, depression, diarrhea, digestion, epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, menstrual problems, vomiting, and worms. In order to obtain the best results when supplementing with this, or any herb, it is important to consult your health care provider before beginning any regimen. For more information on the many beneficial effects provided by mugwort, please feel free to consult a representative from your local health food store with questions.

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Strengthen The Liver and Kidneys With Leucine
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Date: April 27, 2009 02:08 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Strengthen The Liver and Kidneys With Leucine

L-leucine is an amino acid that is used by the body to fuel exercise and muscle-building to provide you with that athletic edge that gets you ahead of your opponents. It does so in a number of ways, none of them specifically by the direct generation of energy as such.

It is also an essential amino acid, since it cannot be manufactured by your body and hence must be taken as a supplement or as part of your diet. Foods rich in leucine include nuts, whole wheat products such as wholemeal bread, and brown rice. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, meaning that it does not like water.

It is also one of three essential branched chain amino acids, the other two being L-valine and L-isoleucine, and offers many benefits to athletic performance that shall be discussed below It also helps to preserve the body's stores of glycogen, used as an emergency energy source. Other than these properties, it possesses others, such as the maintenance of the nitrogen balance in the body.

So how does it work to fuel your body while you are exercising? The answer is not as you might think. L-leucine doesn't increase your energy levels as creatine does when it elevates your ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels. ATP is the molecule of energy that is synthesized in your body cells, and is then converted back to ADP, the diphosphate, with the release of energy in the form of muscular contractions.

This amino acid is what is referred to as a 'limiting' substance, in that the other amino acids cannot do their jobs in your body unless you have sufficient L-leucine in proportion to them. Specifically, you need two parts of L-valine and two parts of L-leucine to one part of L-isoleucine for optimum usage of the food that you eat.

Therefore you cannot just take the supplement without considering how much should be taken to ensure this balance. Excess will be wasted and a deficiency would fail to make proper use of the protein content of your food.

If you suffer from a deficiency, therefore, your body cannot make best use of the protein in your diet to the extent that muscle tissue will not be generated during exercise. In fact it causes catabolism, or the breakdown of muscle tissue, resulting in a loss of performance and possible increase in fatty tissue as opposed to lean muscle. The only way to build muscle is take in sufficient nitrogen in the form of amino acids and protein, along with L-leucine to put that protein to best use.

One of the major properties of L-leucine is in stimulating the synthesis of skeletal muscle tissue and by using a supplement, the protein balance can be positive after a workout. It has been shown that this protein balance is generally negative until specifically L-leucine is consumed.

The way it works is to activate a muscle-generating pathway known as mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin). mTOR is normally activated when the levels of ATP in the muscle cells is high, and when these levels drop then mTOR is deactivated. The activity of mTOR is sensitive to the concentration of L-leucine, and when the concentration of the amino acid in the body rises it informs mTOR that the protein in the diet is sufficient to manufacture skeletal muscle tissue, and so mTOR s activated.

Exactly how this is done is unknown, but is a fact the mTOR depends upon both L-leucine concentration and also ATP levels. This amino acid also decreases catabolism through a number of different mechanisms, one of which involves increasing insulin levels.

In fact, when insulin and L-leucine levels increase at the same time, there is a synergy that promotes the synthesis of new protein. Not only that, but the response of insulin to the presence of carbohydrates is enhanced, this resulting in an enhancement of your body's metabolism.

The amino acid can also be used to help those suffering from kidney and liver problems because it increases liver protein synthesis. It is therefore a useful adjunct both to diabetics and those suffering from liver and kidney disease.

However, because L-leucine is an essential amino acid with so many important properties, a deficiency can have specific consequences. Catabolism has been stated earlier as one such reaction to a deficiency, and others include decreased energy levels and irregularities in the levels of blood sugar.

Everything about this substance is not good however, and when taken by itself in excess, it can reduce the amount of the other amino acids in the blood, particularly of the other two branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). This in turn upsets the balance of amino acids, and reduces further the ability of the body to produce muscle tissue until a balanced supplement is taken.

Leucine also helps to maintain the nitrogen balance. It is essential for the human body to maintain a positive nitrogen balance, and L-leucine supports this. In fact, one study has demonstrated that after 12 hours infusion with L-leucine, nitrogen balance was improved by as much as 23%.

A supplement alone is not always sufficient to maintain a positive nitrogen balance. It is generally essential that you rest your body for a sufficient length of time to allow protein to be generated. If you don't take the required amount of rest, a surplus of protein could be used to maintain energy levels rather than replace lost protein and maintain a good nitrogen balance.

A positive nitrogen balance is essential for the generation of muscle tissue, such as in bodybuilding for example, since all proteins contain nitrogen and the net nitrogen intake must exceed the excretion rate. Not in gaseous form, of course, but in the intake of amino acids and proteins. The more positive your nitrogen balance is, the faster you will recover after exercise. It is essential for anabolic exercise.

L-leucine, therefore, is a supplement that can help to maintain your current muscle mass while undergoing strenuous exercise, in addition to increasing it while resting. It offers other health benefits, one being helping to maintain clarity of thought in the aged. However, it is for its effect on muscular build-up and the athletic edge that provides that the supplement is most commonly taken.

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L-Arginine An Amino Acid Essential Or Not You Be The Judge?
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Date: January 06, 2009 04:01 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: L-Arginine An Amino Acid Essential Or Not You Be The Judge?

L-Arginine is an amino acid that is one of 20 needed by the body for its existence. To some, it is not what is known as an essential amino acid, since it can be biosynthesized by the body, but arginine is termed a conditionally essential amino acid in that we must include some in our diet because our biochemistry does not produce all that our body needs, particularly during the growing years.

Amino acids are the building blocks of life, and are the units from which proteins and ultimately our DNA are built. In fact DNA contains the blueprints for every protein used by our bodies, including all the enzymes without which our biochemistry could not occur. When a supply of a particular protein is needed, the DNA template provides the sequence of amino acids needed to produce it.

Of the 20 amino acids we need, only 10 can be produced by our body: the other 10 must be included in our diet and are termed 'essential' because they are an essential part of our diet, just as vitamins and minerals are. Without an adequate supply of essential components, we cannot survive, and if the essential amino acids are depleted in our diet then the body will break down muscle tissue to release them.

Although L-arginine is termed a 'conditionally' essential amino acid, it is included by many among the 10 regarded as being essential. Hence, depending upon who you read, it can be either essential or non-essential. That is because, as inferred earlier, arginine is needed for growth and development, and there is insufficient in the diet to meet these needs. Therefore, while it is essential in cases where growth is still taking place, it is not in those where normal growth is complete.

Proteins are essential for all animal life, forming not only the enzymes, or biochemical catalysts, but also muscles and DNA among other bodily tissues. Protein is also a necessary part of our diet, and it is from protein, animal or vegetable, that we get the amino acids in our diet. L-arginine is one of these, being available from all meats and seafood’s, and vegetables rich in protein such as soy, seeds, nuts and grains.

So what does arginine do for us, quite a lot in fact, many of its functions being related to our health? Arginine plays an important role in the healing of wounds, especially bone, assisting the immune function, decreasing blood pressure and speeding up the repair time of tissue. However, it possesses other properties such as increasing muscle mass, helping to increase male fertility and improving the circulation.

It also helps to remove ammonia from the body, and is a precursor for the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO2). It is in the way that L-arginine works with the nitrogen stores of the body that we will focus on here, prior to touching on its other properties.

L-Arginine transports, stores and excretes nitrogen, and used biochemically to manufacture nitric oxide. This oxide of nitrogen plays a very important role in your body, and is produced in every cell of your body. Nitric oxide helps in the dilation of your blood vessels, allowing a reduction in blood pressure, better circulation and helping to prevent a mans man-hood dysfunction, all of which are due to its relaxing effect on smooth muscle contraction and the promotion of the increased blood flow necessary for men and their functions. It is also important to your immune system and nervous system.

It works in a similar way to the effect of nitroglycerine on the heart: this is converted in the body to nitric oxide which relaxes the blood vessels and so reduces the amount of work needed by the heart. The way in which L-arginine forms nitric oxide is by the action of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.

The amino acid is also an important component of the Citric Acid or Kreb's cycle, where it reacts with ammonia which is a toxic by-product in the generation of energy in the mitochondria. Ammonia is converted to urea by L-arginine and excreted from the body. This is another way in which L-arginine is involved in the storage and use of nitrogen-containing compounds in your biochemistry.

It was mentioned earlier that arginine is an essential amino acid for children. Studies have indicated that it supports the release of the human growth hormone from the pituitary gland although the amount released through supplementation of the amino acid varies widely between individuals. The growth hormone maintains the production of proteins and muscle tissue in the body cells. This reduces as we age, and arginine becomes non-essential, the smaller amounts needed in our biochemistry being manufactured by the body.

The anabolic effect of the supplement is believed to increase the effectiveness of exercise intended to increase muscle bulk and reduce the percentage of body fat, and many take L-arginine as a supplement while undergoing such anabolic fitness and exercise programs. It is normally best to start with low supplement levels and work up due the potential side effects (diarrhea and nausea).

Arginine is an important component in the body's healing mechanisms for both tissue and bone, and studies have confirmed accelerated healing of wounds and fractures with arginine supplementation. Although the mechanism by which this occurs is not yet understood, there is evidence that it may be connected with the nitric oxide pathway and increased blood flow, and also with its effect on the immune system in reducing inflammation at the healing site.

Diabetics, however, should be careful with substances that promote the release of growth hormone, and children with incomplete bone growth should also use such agents only under medical supervision. With diabetics, their condition could be either exacerbated or improved, and those with herpes and some psychotic conditions should also be careful.

Nitrogenous compounds are essential to life, and L-arginine plays a significant role in the storage, use and secretion of them. Without it life would not be possible, although it is its visible uses, such as the effect of nitrous oxide on blood flow and of proteins on muscle metabolism, for which it is best known to those that use it, either as a supplement or as a remedy. Pure supplement form is available at your local or internet health food store.

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Acidophilus
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Date: August 23, 2008 11:59 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Acidophilus

Acidophilus is correctly named Lactobacillus acidophilus, and is one species of Lacobacillus used commercially in the preparation of certain types of yoghurt. The name refers to the fact it is found in milk (lacto), is rod-like in shape like many bacteria (bacillus) and it likes acidic conditions (acidophilus). It not only likes them, but creates them.

In fact, acidophilus thrives at a pH of 4-5 or less, and occurs naturally in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, and also the mouth and vagina. It ferments milk to lactic acid, and dies in the presence of sunlight, excessive moisture and at high temperatures. Some, but not all, strains are probiotic, or ‘friendly’ bacteria that aid digestion and help to protect against harmful bacteria and their toxic emissions.

The fermentation of nutrients by friendly bacteria produce acids, such as the lactic acid previously referred to, hydrogen peroxide and other substances hostile to harmful organisms, and also reduces the population of harmful bacteria by competing for their food. There are additional health benefits that shall be discussed later, but first some comments about the stability of acidophilus to heat.

The growth rate of acidophilus reaches an optimum at around 36-37F (2.2C), and it tends to die off at temperatures much above this over a period of time. It also tends to be sensitive to oxygen and moisture, and if exposed to heat, moisture and oxygen, a supplement will lose its potency over time. This is true of all such supplements, and after purchase must be quickly refrigerated. It is possible, however, to purchase stabilized forms of acidophilus that die off slower than normal. This extra resistance is built in during the manufacturing process, and many forms of acidophilus claim to be stable. Although there will never be a truly stable form of the probiotic, these stabilized versions do last longer than those not claimed to be so.

During manufacture, the bacteria are first concentrated by removing the excess liquid by means of sedimentation, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis and centrifuging. A substance is then added to protect the bacteria from the shock of freezing and the acidophilus freeze dried. A stabilizer is then added to maintain its properties between freezing and consumption.

It has also been found that bacteria grown at higher pH levels last longer than those at lower pH. The packaging is also important, and since the bacteria are sensitive to oxygen, nitrogen flushing the bottles will improve the stability of the product. Glass bottles are less porous than plastic, and so is the preferred packaging material for maximum stability and life. Another factor is refrigeration. If you keep the bottle in the fridge it was last a lot longer than at room temperature, but take care not to freeze it since acidophilus does not freeze well. If it is not refrigerated then it will quickly lose its potency.

The form in which you take the supplement is immaterial regarding the potency: at least initially. However, through time the powder will become less potent quicker, because it will adsorb oxygen and moisture. Otherwise the form in which it used is immaterial. So, yes, acidophilus can be stabilized, but only for a while, and if allowed to warm up to room temperature in the presence of oxygen will quickly degrade, although this takes more than just a day or two.

Many health benefits are claimed for Lactobacillus acidophilus, although your daily consumption to achieve these should be at least 2 billion CFU, and preferably 5 billion. You can also fortify the bacteria with a prebiotic of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). These provide nutrition for the acidophilus and accelerate its growth.

One thing to be careful of is assuming that yoghurt contains acidophilus. It does not contain sufficient to be of benefit to you. Commercial yoghurt acidifies over time and kills off the bacteria, so commercial yoghurt sitting on a supermarket shelf has very little beneficial bacterial content. Natural yoghurt is better, and certainly contains beneficial bacteria, but not enough to make a significant difference. A supplement is therefore needed if you are to keep your intestinal tract sufficiently healthy. If you cannot take dairy products, acidophilus is available in non-dairy form. The major health benefits they impart are:

1. Digestive Problems.

Acidophilus can control many types of digestive disorder, particularly traveler’s diarrhea. In fact if you are traveling to countries where drinking water might be a problem, also take some acidophilus and this will tend to prevent you from becoming ill. Even if you drink bottled water, there are still washed salads, beverages made with local water and showers and the like whereby you could ingest some dodgy water.

2. Constipation

Acidophilus, especially when supported by FOS, helps both to hydrate the feces, and improve their transport through the colon, an also to improve the general health and well-being of your entire intestinal system.

3. Yeast Infections (Candidiasis)

Acidophilus possess antifungal properties that kill off yeasts, particularly Candida albicans found in the vagina. This is due to the lactic acid produced by the bacteria, and there is evidence that gastrointestinal yeasts are affected in the same way by the oral probiotic. Furthermore, when bacteria and yeasts are killed off by medication, including friendly bacteria, the sites they occupied on the intestinal walls become free and acidophilus should be present to take these up and prevent any more yeast or bacterial infections. That is one reason why probiotics should be taken immediately after a course of antibiotic treatment.

4. Immune System Support

Lactobacillus acidophilus is believed to modify the balance of microbes in the intestine so as to lead to an enhanced production of antibodies, and white blood cells with increased phagocytic activity. The bacteria also appear to have some reducing properties, which can also give support to the immune system through the resultant antioxidant properties.

However, by far the most important property of probiotics are their properties in acidifying the intestinal tract, and so rendering them less attractive to harmful pathogens, and in producing hydrogen peroxide which has a similar effect. They also produce natural antibiotics, and there is now doubt that a supplement of acidophilus will provide you with several health benefits and also make you feel fitter and more alert.



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Folic Acid
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Date: August 19, 2008 08:38 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Folic Acid

Folic acid is an important vitamin to the developing fetus in that it aids cell development, particularly those cells involved in the development of the baby's spine. A deficiency can result in neural tube defects, in which the neural tube, down through which the central nervous system passes, fails to close properly.

However, let's first discuss the substance itself so that its function in that process can be more easily understood. Neither should we ignore the other benefits that folic acid gives us, or the problems we can have in the event of a deficiency.

Folic acid is a form of Vitamin B9, sometimes referred to as Vitamin M. Its anionic form is known as folate, which is the form in which it is frequently offered in supplements. Incidentally, it gets its name from the Latin for leaf, so is from the same root as foliage. It is water soluble, and like Vitamin C can be leached through the body if not immediately used.

It is available naturally from leafy and green vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli, spinach and peas, but is also available in fortified breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds and some fruits. You would not normally suffer a deficiency, but if you are taking anticonvulsants, have liver problems or undergoing kidney dialysis, then you might need a supplement. Pregnancy, of course, is the important case in which a supplement should be taken, although, surprisingly, many mothers-to-be are unaware of this.

New body cells need folate for their production, particularly when they are dividing and growing rapidly such as during pregnancy and in infancy. The formation of DNA depends on many chemical entities, among them four nitrogenous bases, of which three, thymine and the two purine bases, adenine and guanine, depend on folate for their synthesis. If the growing fetus is lacking folate then DNA synthesis will be hindered. This retards cell division and growth.

Among the conditions this can cause are a form of anemia known as megaloblastic anemia, and neural tube deficiencies, where the sheath that surrounds the main nerve canal up the spine fails to close properly. The best known of such neural tube defects is spina bifida, though any condition caused by a lack of cell division can also occur. Anemia can be contracted by both adults and children, since production of red blood cells takes place constantly throughout your lifetime. These are the reasons why folic acid or folate is used in breakfast cereals.

The biochemistry is fairly simple to understand, and is important because it explains the importance of two other B vitamins, B3 and B12, in DNA synthesis. The initial stages are a six step reaction that forms methyl tetrahydrofolate from folate, starting with the reduction of folate to dihydrofolate, and then a further reduction to the tetrahydrofolate (THF). Vitamin B3 (in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is an essential cofactor for these reductions. Vitamin B12 is necessary as an acceptor for the methyl-THF so that it can continue along the biochemical pathway - now that is too complex to discuss here!

However, the inference you can rightly draw from this is that a deficiency of Vitamin B12 can cause what is known as a 'methyl trap', whereby the methy-THF cannot be used, and so a deficiency in Vitamin B12 can lead to the same symptoms as a folic acid or folate deficiency.

The implications of that are that vitamin B12 is also an essential component of a pregnant woman's diet. The problem here is that this vitamin is available only from animal sources, including dairy products. Its presence in vegetable organisms such as certain algae and fungi has been proposed, but it is believed that the cobalamin (chemical term for the vitamin) from these sources is not bioavailable to humans.

Vegans, therefore, who do not eat dairy products, will need a Vitamin B12 supplement in addition to folic acid or folate, particularly when they are pregnant and with young growing children. In this respect, a vegan diet is unsuitable for young children until their rapid growth period has stabilized.

For those of you wondering why the biochemistry above was discussed: that is your answer. Such discussions can frequently explain why certain supplements are necessary, or certain diets should be reconsidered under particular circumstances. Such things are easier to understand and accept when the logic behind them are explained. A folic acid supplement taken from the onset of pregnancy up to 12 weeks at least, and also a Vitamin B12 supplement in the case of those with a low meat intake, should prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida.

A daily supplement of 0.4 mg should be sufficient, along with a diet rich in green vegetables, fortified cereals and breads and oranges. Your greens are best steamed since prolonged boiling destroys folic acid - as it destroys Vitamin C. One source of folic acid that you might read about is liver, and its additional iron content might lead you to believe this to be a good component of your diet when pregnant. However, although normally a very nutritious food, liver should be avoided during pregnancy due to its high Vitamin A content. This can be harmful to your baby.

Finally, there are some circumstances under which the dose during pregnancy should be greater. If you have previously had a child with a neural tube defect, or have an NTD yourself (or your partner), if you are diabetic, if you have celiac disease (a gluten allergy) or are taking anti-epileptic medication, you should increase your dose to 5 mg (milligrams) for which you will likely need a prescription from your physician.

NTD is rare, so don't over-worry much about it, but take the above precautions to put your mind at rest since pregnancy is not a time during which you should be nervous but to enjoy. That will pass on to your growing baby, which will then itself be happy.

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Vitamin C
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Date: August 12, 2008 01:37 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Vitamin C

Vitamin C is the most widely taken nutritional supplement on the market and is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, drink mixes, crystals in capsules or bulk powdered crystals. Vitamin C is present in mother's milk and, in lower amounts, in raw cow's milk, with pasteurized milk containing only trace amounts. This vitamin is most present in the liver and least present in the muscle but needed through out the body.

Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, skin, and bone. Vitamin C can regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E; in the body vitamin E can regenerate C as well. This vitamin is required for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. Relatively large doses of vitamin C may cause indigestion, particularly when taken on an empty stomach.

It has been shown that smokers who have diets poor in vitamin C are at a higher risk of lung-borne diseases than those smokers who have higher concentrations of Vitamin C in the blood. Biological tissues that accumulate over 100 times the level in blood plasma of vitamin C are the adrenal glands, pituitary, thymus, corpus luteum, and retina.

Studies suggest the presence of large quantities of sugar either in the intestines or in the blood can slow absorption of this vitamin. Several studies have demonstrated a blood pressure lowering effect of vitamin C supplementation. Also, when consumed in high doses it appears to interfere with the blood thinning effects of warfarin by lowering prothrombin time, as noted in case reports in the 1970s so consult your doctor if on medications..

In one Study, researchers instructed patients with documented coronary artery disease to take a single oral dose of either 2 g vitamin C or a placebo. Results, the researchers discovered that high doses of vitamin C can help prevent blood platelet sticking and fight cholesterol oxidation. Also, researchers discovered this vitamin can reduce the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrogen-containing compounds in the stomach, offering protection from stomach cancer, researchers have reported.

French and German researchers found that vitamin C appeared to keep cells in the blood vessel wall from dying. The researchers, who studied immune indicators, such as serum immunoglobulin and neutrophil phagocytosis (how well your white blood cells can engulf and digest foreign bodies), concluded that vitamin C exerts a remarkable immuno-modulating action, in other words, improved immune function in all those who consumed vitamin C on a regular basis.

What are deficiency symptoms for vitamin C?

Scurvy is a disease resulting from lack of vitamin C, since without this vitamin, the synthesized collagen is too unstable to perform its function. Scurvy was common among those with poor access to fresh fruit and vegetables, such as remote, isolated sailors and soldiers. The amount of vitamin C required to prevent “chronic disease” appears to be more than that required for prevention of scurvy which is 30 – 60 milligrams per day. Based on scientific research, vitamin C also appears to improve oral absorption of iron, which is good news for those that are anemic.

Half of us in the United States will die from heart disease. The foundation of heart disease is atherosclerosis, the narrowing of our arteries with plaque. Treatment with vitamin C has consistently resulted in improved dilation of blood vessels in individuals with atherosclerosis as well as those with angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Researchers believe this protection from cell death could explain previous study findings which suggest that vitamin C benefits blood vessel function in people with congestive heart failure.

Vitamin C supplements are also generally regarded as safe in most individuals in recommended amounts, although there are rarely reported side effects including nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal cramps, and headache. In addition, this vitamin is required for the synthesis of l-Carnitine, a small amino acid that is essential for the transport of fat to cellular organelles called mitochondria, for conversion to energy. If you have chronic fatigue syndrome, vitamin C may help by boosting energy production through the mitochondria.

Therefore, as in many studies of vitamin C intake and cardiovascular disease risk, it is difficult to separate the effects of vitamin C on stroke risk from the effects of other components such as diet and the consumption of fruits and vegetables. As with all dietitians an emphasis on the benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is important to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. If one can not consume fruits and vegetables on a daily basis then supplementation of vitamin C is need in either capsule of tablet to fight the risk of disease.

--
Vitanet ®, LLC

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The next logical step
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Date: June 26, 2007 02:04 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The next logical step

When you examine the minerals involved, it is not surprising that remineralization is so much more effective for healthy plants than current methods. “Agriculture in the last several decades has mainly relied on three minerals—nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, known as NPK,” says Joanna Campe. “Lately they’ve begun to add more minerals, maybe up to twelve, but that’s still nothing compared to the broad spectrum of a hundred or so minerals provided naturally by mineralized soil.”

Another great aspect to mineralization is that it can help eliminate our heavy reliance on petrochemicals (oil-based products). Modern farming relies on chemical fertilizers that are petrochemical based. “We can shift from an economics of scarcity to an economics of abundance by switching from reliance on chemical fertilizers to remineralizations.” Campe says. “Fossil fuels are quickly disappearing, and rocks are the most abundant resource on the earth.”

This kind of economic effectiveness should come as great news to the organic food industry. According to current statistics, the U.S. buys nearly half of all the organic food produced in the world, and only 0.2 percent of its farmland is dedicated to organic growing. Much of the food produced is also of suspect quality. The reason for this scarcity and lack of quality lie partially in the expense and difficulty of growing organic food due to the poor soil. Such problems would be easily remedied by the next logical step in natural food production—remineralization—making it possible for farmers everywhere to grow natural food easily and within economic boundaries.

Organic growers are starting to take notice and participate in remineralization. For example, the largest carrot farmer in the world is turning over its acreage to remineralization, and remineralized carrots can now be purchased from cal-organic at whole food markets. World-renowned Chef Alice Waters, inventor of what has become known as California Cuisine, is also an advocate of remineralization and has up to 70 remineralized fruits and vegetables grown for her famous restraint, Chez Panisse, by Bob cannard.

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Revita
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Date: March 08, 2007 12:27 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Revita

Revita, the most efficient hair growth stimulating shampoo available in the market is the final result of DS Laboratories efforts on cutting edge research. Revita is a powerful and unique SLS/SLES free combination of active ingredients specially designed to maintain scalp vitality and act on folicle dysfunctions in order to achieve best results in short periods of time. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate, commonly used low cost detergents in shampoos and cleansers, are linked to skin irritation, skin drying and hair loss due to follicle attack. Revita is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate free, providing a high quality scalp skin safe shampoo product.

Revita was developed with a cost-no-object approach. Revita’s compounds have been chosen based exclusively on their properties, quality and efficacy (in the opposite of the majority of available products, which are usually developed with production costs in mind). The final result is a very high quality shampoo product with absolutely no equivalent competitor in the market. Revita combines costly first line compounds at high concentrations like Caffeine at 4.0%, Pyrus Malus (Apple) Seed Extract at 1.0% and Spin Traps (SOD Mimic) at 0.1% with other top level ingredients which make Revita a unique product in its class.

To improve the efficacy of this synergic combination, DS Laboratories developed a unique “chemical free” extraction process that keeps original properties and clinical efficacy of final components. Through gentle mechanical compression, Revita’s compounds are obtained as pure and chemically preserved active molecules.

Revita starts acting on your scalp and hair follicle since the first day of use. The time you will need to note the first results will depend of the severity and duration of your hair loss. No matter how long or how intense your hair loss is, using Revita on daily basis will improve the vitality of your scalp, maintaining the quality of your hair and stimulating new hair growth.

Through the synergic interaction of very effective compounds, Revita brings you a highly effective product designed to maintain scalp vitality and act on hair loss. By combining an antioxidant effect, anti-DHT properties, powerful hydrating molecules, hair growth stimulants and structural amino acids, Revita brings you the most effective hair growth stimulating shampoo available.

Apple Polyphenol (procyanidin B2 and C1) - phytochemical concentrate found in the skin of unripe apples that acts as potent antioxidant. It protects cells against free radicals, reactive atoms that contribute to tissue damage in the body. These chemical compounds are being studied extensively in labs around the world for their health effects in major diseases including treatment of hair growth. Studies showed that after sequential use, an increase of almost 80% of hair diameter and an increase in number of total hairs was shown, with no side effects.

In 2000, Japanese researchers presented their findings to the international community on the hair growth effects of apple polyphenols - specifically one known as procyanidin B-2. They identified two successful compounds- one from chardonnay grapes, and one extracted from unripe apples. The procyanidin B-2 fraction clearly outperformed the grape extract. "Procyanidin B-2 purified from apples," stated the research team, "shows the highest activity of more than 300% relative to controls."

In the same year, in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, nineteen men with male pattern baldness were studied with a daily topical application of a 1% procyanidin B-2 solution, extracted from apples. Ten other balding men served as controls, receiving a placebo solution. After 6 months, the study concluded:

• The increase in number of total hairs and terminal hairs in the procyanidin B-2 group subjects was significantly greater than controls.

• 78.9% of subjects showed an increased mean value of hair diameter.

• "Procyanidin B-2 therapy shows promise as a cure for male pattern baldness."

Following the revelations, an attempt was made to further understand the mechanism by which the remarkable hair growth effects occurred. The results were published in the prestigious British Journal of Dermatology: Procyanidin B-2, extracted from apples, promotes hair growth: a laboratory study, Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):41-51. In this study, the researchers concluded that procyanidin B-2 acts to diminish protein kinase C isozymes, which play an important role in the hair growth cycle. Procyanidin B-2 seems to promote hair growth by down regulating PKC in both the anagen (active growth phase) and telogen (resting phase) of the hair follicle. When the anagen phase is prolonged, and the telogen phase is shortened, increased hair growth results.

Two more clinical trials and a total of seven published studies have now confirmed the surprising hair growth-promoting effects of apple procyanidins. Here is a summary of those findings:

• Total Number of Hairs: Significantly Increased

• Total Number of Terminal Hairs: Significantly Greater

• Increase in Hair Diameter: 78.9% Positive • Ratio of Thicker (terminal) Hairs: Significantly Higher

• Hair Follicle Activation: Intensive

In the most exciting development yet, Japanese researchers released a new study late in 2005. Once again, procyanidin therapy was proven successful in regrowing hair in subjects with male pattern baldness. The new study, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, confirmed the findings of earlier studies, showing clear improvement in the number of hairs and the density of hairs in the treated area. Building on the success of earlier trials, the study was extended to 12 months in the procyanidin group, and proved that longer term procyanidin therapy was even more successful than prior 4 and 6 month trials.

Cooper Peptides - Cooper Peptides have two main properties: (1) potent tissue protective anti-inflammatory agents that limit oxidative damage after tissue injury, and (2) tissue remodeling activation agents, that is, the processes for removal of damaged protein and scar tissue and their replacement by normal tissue. Studies at numerous universities and research institutes have found copper-peptides to improve hair transplant success, increase hair follicle size, stimulate hair growth and reduce hair loss.

Research scientists at the University of San Francisco Wound Center stumbled upon very interesting results. Their discovery was made while applying a synthetically formulated compound, Copper Peptide, to severe wound areas on several patients. During this process something unusual happened. Not only did the wounds heal about 30 percent faster, but a significant stimulation of the follicular cells occurred. As a side effect, these tripeptide complexes actually grew hair around the wound area.

The discovery was so startling that they then applied the same Copper Peptide complex to a female patient who had suffered roughly 90 percent alopecia (hair loss) for years. After about six months of use, she had recovered almost 100 percent of her hair. Dr. Loren Pickart, the leading authority in Copper Peptide technology, describes it as being like a protein injection to the scalp.

Tests were then conducted with chemotherapy patients and recent hair transplant recipients, all with great success in stimulating newer and stronger hair follicles.

Spin traps – are very special compounds that were originally utilized in measuring free radical activity because they react with free radicals both in vitro and in vivo, producing stable complexes. The most commonly used spin trap and the standard which measures new ones is PBN - alpha-phenyl- N-tert butyl nitrone. Hundreds of studies have been conducted over the last ten years that have tested PBN and other “spin traps” in numerous conditions. Later it was discovered that these spin traps had powerful free radical quenching abilities in living systems and could treat a variety of conditions. Spin traps could provide unique protection against free radical damage that complements and enhances the activities of the classical antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E.

Spin traps modulate NF kappa-B regulated cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthases that are implicated in pro-inflammatory disease conditions. A method for ameliorating a cellular dysfunction of a tissue such as the treatment of hair loss and stimulation of hair growth comprises administering a nitroso or nitrone spin trap to the affected tissue. These agents inhibit the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide to produce peroxinitrite. Scientists discovered that nitrone and nitroso spin traps have properties in the body for ameliorating cellular dysfunction in tissue attributed, in part, to high energy oxygen and hydroxyl free radicals, and enhancing recuperation of the tissue. Alpha-phenyl-N-tert butyl nitrone (PBN) can be administered, for example, as an anti-alopecia agent to stimulate hair growth.

Spin traps can be administered to the skin to be treated, such as the scalp. Depending on the type of hair loss or alopecia being treated and the conditions thereof, the stimulation of hair growth can usually be obtained by topical application, preferably repeated daily application. The utility of topically applied spin traps is not limited thereto, however, and the stimulation of hair growth can include an increased rate of growth, increased hair diameter, follicular neogenesis, and the like; inhibiting hair loss or alopecia from progressing.

Ketoconazole - Topical ketoconazole shows itself to have an anti-DHT binding effect in the scalp. Nevertheless, it is likely that ketoconazole exhibits other methods to its anti-hair-loss effect. One such theory of ketoconazole anti-alopecia effects may be on its activity upon the removal of sebum, a fatty substance that accumulates in the scalp around the hair follicles. In addition, ketoconazole is an antifungal medication and is significant for people combating hair loss since acting as an antifungal agent it reduces scalp irritation caused by fungal colonization or infection. Reduction of the inflammatory process that occurs in male pattern alopecia is crucial.

If we first examine the role of androgens, specifically dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we find that this hormone has been thought to slowly "choke" the growth of the hair follicle by inhibiting the function of an enzyme in the hair follicle called adenylate cyclase. Suffice it to say that when DHT concentrations remain high in the scalp, we see terminal (thick, coarse) scalp hair become reduced to vellus hair (fine, thin peach fuzz). On March 04, 2001, at the American Academy of Dermatology Meeting in Washington DC, scientists presented the findings of a study done on 1% ketoconazole shampoo which had good news for hair loss sufferers. In the study presented, one hundred male volunteers with mild to moderate dandruff and somewhat oily scalp, were using in a double-blind fashion either a 1% ketoconazole shampoo or a 1% zinc pyrithione shampoo, 2-3 times a week for 6 months.

Analysis of the different parameters set up in the study shows that the hair diameter gradually increased with ketoconazole use (+8.46%) over a 6 month period, whereas the diameter showed a trend to decrease with zinc pyrithione use over the same period (-2.28%). The sebum excretion rate was reduced with ketoconazole (-6.54%) while it increased with zinc pyrithione (+8.2%) over the same period of time. The number of hairs shed over a 24-hour period was reduced by 16.46% with ketoconazole and 6.02% with zinc pyrithione after 6 months. Finally, the percentage of hairs in the anagen phase increased by 6.4% and 8.4% respectively during the study.

The results are similar to a previous study done on 2% prescription strength Ketokonazole where it was shown that use of 2% ketoconazol yielded an increase in hair shaft diameter similar to what was achieved by the control group using 2% Minoxidil and a non-medicated shampoo.

Rooibos - Rooibos or Red Bush Tea - a hardy shrub indigenous to the North Western Cape of South Africa – is an exciting new botanical ingredient with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties well documented in medical literature. In alternative medicine Rooibos is often prescribed for nervous tension, allergies, stomach and digestive problems. Results from an independent study also showed a significant improvement in hair loss. Studies were initiated at an independent laboratory (Dermascan, France) to study the effect of the use of Rooibos in a hair lotion on a group of healthy persons who were suffering from the problem of hair loss. A 90 day trial was conducted comparing a hair lotion containing Rooibos with a placebo lotion.

After 90 days results showed a significant increase of the hair growth in the lotion containing Rooibos compared with the placebo. An increase in the hair growth was observed with 89% of the volunteers with no undesirable reactions (irritation or allergy). The participants were next asked to fill in a questionnaire. When the results were tallied, 67 percent rated their hair loss as zero or low, 78 percent saw a low to medium improvement, 45 percent saw a low to medium regrowth of hair, and 63 percent considered their hair had become smoother and shinier.

Conclusion: results show that most of the volunteers had a remarkable improvement in both the increase of hair growth and the decrease in hair loss.

MSM - Sulphur is present in protein-rich foods containing high levels of the amino acids methionine and cysteine. These foods include meat, fish, legumes, nuts, eggs, and vegetables, especially onions. However, sulphur has recently become a popular nutritional supplement and topical treatment thanks to the discovery of methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM.

The use of MSM as a nutritional supplement and topical application is relatively recent. An American chemist named Robert Herschler, began studying MSM in 1955. However, another man, Dr. Stanley Jacob with Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, is considered by many to be the father of MSM. Dr. Jacob found that simple marine life like algae and plankton convert inorganic sulphur to organic sulphur compounds. These compounds are known as dimethylsulfonium salts. These salts are transformed into dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is released into the atmosphere and is converted by ultraviolet light into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). When DMSO oxidizes, it turns into MSM and is absorbed by plants that become food for animals and humans. MSM is a white, crystalline powder that is odorless and nearly tasteless. When taken as a dietary supplement, MSM proved to have the same health benefits as DMSO without side-effects such as bad breath, itchy skin, nasal congestion, and shortness of breath. Why does MSM help with the development of stronger hair? Various scientific studies have proven that MSM contributes a definite normalizing effect on body functions. The sulfur normally provided to the body by MSM is required for healthy collagen and keratin which are essential for healthy hair, skin and nails. MSM also has proven antioxidant benefits which can disrupt or alter damaging chain reactions of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

MSM has been widely used as a dietary supplement without any reports of allergy or intolerance related to its use. Supplements of MSM are comfortably assimilated without side effects. There are no known contraindications.

Caffeine 4% - Active caffeine ingredient helps to regulate the effects of testosterone levels. Male pattern baldness is known to occur in individuals with sensitivity to testosterone, causing damage to hair follicles that eventually leads to baldness. Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.

The independent study at the University of Jena used hair samples from the scalps of young men entering into the first stages of hormone-related hair loss. The study relied on a hair organ culture that used four different types of testing samples. The first was a nutrient-based sample, the second a testosterone only sample, the third was a caffeine only sample and the fourth a mixture of caffeine and testosterone.

According to the research, the results showed that the samples containing the caffeine nutrient helped to stave off hair loss and encouraged new hair growth, while the sample that relied on testosterone only led to increased hair loss. But perhaps the most impressive was the testosterone and caffeine sample, which helped to prevent further hair loss.

The results showed that using the caffeine treatment average growth was increased by around 46 per cent and the life cycle of the hair was extended by 37 per cent, when compared to the control study.

Carnitine Tartrate - L-Carnitine, a vitamin-like nutrient, occurs naturally in the human body and is essential for turning fat into energy. Active energy metabolism is an essential prerequisite for the growth of strong and healthy hair. In biological systems ATP acts as the universal energy currency. One of the most potent bio-actives that significantly increases cellular ATP content is carnitine tartrate.

Statistical evaluation demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate, showing that carnitine tartrate is an ideal ingredient for hair care formulations, providing energy for the optimal environment to produce strong and healthy hair. Throughout the test period ATP content within plucked hair follicles was determined twice daily using a commercially available test kit. Statistical evaluation of baseline adjusted values demonstrated a significant increase in ATP equivalents in human hair roots treated with carnitine tartrate. These effects were absent in the placebo group, thus underlining the stimulating activity of carnitine tartrate.

The outstanding bio-activity of carnitine tartrate was furthermore demonstrated in a second study, assessing the effects after a single application of a shampoo formulation supplemented with carnitine tartrate. Again, ATP levels in plucked human hair follicles were significantly increased.

Amino Acids: Ornitine, Taurine, Cysteine - Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, from which hair is created. They are assembled in the correct sequence by stem cells to form keratin, a complex and immensely strong hair protein. Vital amino acids have to be replaced consistently, as damage is accumulated over time. We can replace a combination of these lost amino acids directly into the hair, where they are shown to provide significant tensile benefits to the hair shaft.

Hair is composed primarily of proteins (88%). These proteins are of a hard fibrous type known as keratin. Keratin protein is comprised of what we call "polypeptide chains.” The word, polypeptide, comes from the Greek word "poly" meaning many and "peptos" meaning digested or broken down. In essence, if we break down protein, we have individual amino acids.

Many (poly) amino acids joined together form a "polypeptide chain". Two amino acids are joined together by a "peptide bond", and the correct number of amino acids placed in their correct order will form a specific protein; i.e. keratin, insulin, collagen and so on. The "alpha helix" is the descriptive term given to the polypeptide chain that forms the keratin protein found in human hair. Its structure is a coiled coil. The amino acids link together to form the coil and there are approximately 3.6 amino acids per turn of the helix (coil). Each amino acid is connected together by a "peptide bond". The peptide bond is located between the carbon atom of one amino acid extending to bond with the nitrogen atom of the next amino acid. In many individuals the extremities, including the top of the head, are the most difficult places to maintain blood flow. Follicles which are constantly deprived of blood, and therefore nutrients, cannot produce hair properly. Lack of proper nutrients, amino acids, minerals and vitamins can certainly hamper hair growth.

L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid synthesized by the body from L-Ornithine. Arginine + Ornithine support protein synthesis because they are involved in the transport and storage of nitrogen. The usage of taurine corrects the "rigidification" of the connective sheath that surrounds the Pilosebaceous unit and hair follicles, specifically those affected by pattern hair loss. This is a novel and previously undisclosed angle on hair loss treatment that has yet to be touched upon in any of the medical literature or prior publications.

The amino acid, l-cysteine speeds up hair growth and increases hair shaft diameter resulting in fuller hair. L-cysteine has been reported to facilitate longer hair growth, beyond what is genetically programmed. L-cysteine also provides potent antioxidant protection to the hair follicle. Users of topical n-acetyl-cysteine have reported hair regrowth.

Emu Oil - The emu, dromaius nova hollandiae, is a flightless bird part of a group called ratites which also includes the ostrich and the kiwi. Modern Australians learned early on from the Aborigines the many valuable qualities in the emu and its oil. The earliest research studies in emu oil come from Australia, and Australia continues to export emu oil to this day.

In the United States today there is a growing network of research labs interested in emus and their incredible oil. Emu oil is rendered from a thick pad of fat on the back of the bird that was apparently provided by nature to protect the animal from the extreme temperatures in its Australian homeland. Emu oil is deep penetrating and super hydrating to the skin - an all-natural tissue nutrient. Michael Hollick, MD, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Physiology, and Dermatology at Boston University School of Medicine conducted a study involving emu oil and hair growth. His study found that there was a 20% increase in growth activity of skin that received emu oil compared to skin that received corn oil. Looking at the hair follicles Dr. Hollick realized they were much more robust, the skin thickness was remarkably increased suggesting that emu oil stimulated skin growth and hair growth. Additionally, the study showed that over 80% of hair follicles that had been "asleep" were woken up, and began growing.

Emu oil is anti-inflammatory, which may be in part why it stimulates hair growth. Emu Oil has also been shown to be a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor in target tissues when topically applied, which likely contributes significantly to its hair growth properties. A third important property of emu oil is that it is bacteriostatic.

Emu Oil contains a multitude of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) which helps to "feed" the skin. Consumers who suffer from natural forms of baldness have reported hair re-growth. Since Alopecia Areata only suppresses the hair follicle (vs. killing the hair follicle), emu oil may have an effect to assist with hair regrowth.

Biotin – Biotin is a member of the B-vitamin family and a major component in the natural hair manufacturing process -- it is essential to not only grow new hair, but it also plays a major role in the overall health of skin and nails. The beneficial effects of biotin on hair may be linked to its ability to improve the metabolism of scalp oils. Biotin when absorbed by the scalp may promote hair growth and it is able to penetrate the hair shaft making it expand which actually thickens the hair cuticle.

Biotin is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in the Krebs Cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food. Biotin is so important to hair health, that many dermatologists prescribe biotin supplements to their patients as part of their medical treatment for hair loss.

After applying Revita with a gentle massage, you should leave it on the scalp from 1 – 2 minutes before rinsing. Then repeat and leave on the scalp for 3 – 5 minutes. If desired, follow with a high quality conditioner. For optimal results, Revita should be used at least 5 times per week.

This formulation is contraindicated in individuals with a history of sensitivity reactions to any of its components. It should be discontinued if hypersensitivity to any of its ingredients is noted.

Q. Is Revita safe ?

A. Revita primarily contains compounds that are not only safe in topical use, but actually dramatically enhance overall skin health. The other active ingredients such as Ketoconazole have been tested in clinical studies and have been shown safe.

Q: Can I use hair sprays, mousses, gels, etc.?

A: Hair spray, gel, and other styling aids are not recommended since they tend to clog the hair shaft. However, you can use them while using Revita.

Q: Can I have my hair colored or permed while using Revita ?

A: While there is no evidence that coloring or perming hair can lead to or even worsen hair loss, it is generally not recommended for people with hair loss. If you are experiencing hair loss then perming and coloring hair is not recommended. However, this will not interfere with Revita.

Q: What is SLS/SLES free ?

A: SLS means Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and SLES means Sodium Laureth Sulfate, commonly used low cost detergents in shampoos and cleansers. They are linked to skin irritation, skin drying and hair loss due to follicle attack. Revita is Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate free, and that means that Revita does not irritate you scalp and preserves your hair follicale health.

Q: Can I blow dry my hair after using Revita ?

A: Extreme heat damages the proteins in the hairs making them fragile. Nevertheless, if you need or want to blow dry your hair, you can do it after using Revita.

Q: Who is a candidate for Revita ?

A: Ideal candidate is someone with little hair loss or at the beginning stages of hair loss, since it is much easier to prevent hair loss then to grow new hair. Someone who is concerned with hair loss prevention should start using Revita immediately.

Q: What type of results should I expect with Revita ?

A: When deciding to use Revita, it is important to have realistic expectations. Depending of severity and duration of your hair loss, it could take some time to see hair growth. In fact, during the first 2 weeks of treatment you may actually notice increased hair loss as old hairs are being pushed out and the hair follicles start growing new hair. Do not become alarmed with this and just stick to the treatment.

Q. Does Revita have any systemic side effects ?

A. No, when used as directed, Revita active ingredients have a long history of use both orally and topically.

Q. Does Revita work for women?

A. Yes. In most cases, the cause of hair loss in women is surprisingly similar to men. Fortunately for women, estrogen helps to protect the hair follicle from the destructive effects of DHT. However, many women develop thinning hair and loss due to fluctuation of estrogen levels and/or over production of DHT. Revita can help protect the hair follicle from DHT resulting in a thicker, fuller and healthier hair.

Q. I am using other topical treatments. Can I use Revita at the same time ?

A. Yes. Revita has no side effects and does not cross react with other topical treatments. You can safely opt to use Revita with other products, and we strongly recommend the association with Spectral.DNC for more severe hair loss or Spectral.RS for thinning hair.

Q. Do I need to use Revita for a long time ?

A. Once you have reached the desired results, you should continue to use Revita as your regular shampoo to maintain the revitalized hairs and a healthy scalp.

Q: Is stress a factor in hair loss?

A: When the body is under significant physical and emotional stress it is possible that the immune system will produce anti-bodies that attack hair follicles, and this results in bald patches or diffuse loss. Stress-induced loss will respond very well to Revita and you should keep using Revita as your regular daily shampoo to keep your scalp healthy.

(https://vitanetonline.com:443/forums/Index.cfm?CFApp=1&Message_ID=1480)


Tru-E Bio Complex
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Date: December 08, 2005 04:58 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Tru-E Bio Complex

Tru-E Bio Complex TM

Neil E. Levin, CCN, DANLA 7/27/05

LIKELY USERS: Most Americans are deficient in Vitamin E 8,9,10; People needing superior antioxidant protection3,5,6; People needing cardiovascular or cholesterol support27,30,31; People needing nervous system support7; Those wanting healthier skin6; Diabetics may need additional Vitamin E24 KEY INGREDIENTS: Tocopherols from IP-Preserved, non-GMO Soy; Tocotrienols and tocopherols from non-GMO virgin palm; Tocotrienols from non-GMO annatto seed

MAIN PRODUCT FEATURES: NOW Tru-E Bio ComplexTM is a unique biologically balanced, patent-pending formula designed to provide optimal Vitamin E activity. This product features 100% natural, Non-Genetically Modified sources of all 8 isomers (forms) of the Vitamin E “family” in ratios similar to what is found in a healthy diet. It provides the superior benefits of foodsource Vitamin E versus those obtained from traditional E supplements.

NOW® Tru-E Bio ComplexTM has been carefully blended to supply high levels of the natural gamma and delta “desmethyl” forms of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. This is important because recent research indicates that these isomers work best as a team to quench the lipid and nitrogen free radicals known to cause injury to cells and tissues. This product supports a healthy cardiovascular system, youthful skin and nervous system function with potent antioxidants. This science-based natural Vitamin E supplement is unlike any other and the first to combine all of these benefits in one convenient non-GMO formula! 25-32

Recent research indicates that these isomers work best as a team to quench the lipid and nitrogen free radicals known to cause injury to cells and tissues.1-4, 25-32

This product supports a healthy cardiovascular system, youthful skin and nervous system function with potent antioxidants.1,4-7

Levels of Vitamin E above 100 IU daily are associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and certain types of cellular disorders, as well as enhancement of immune function. These vitamin E intakes are considerably above levels obtainable from diet alone. 11,12,13

ADDITIONAL PRODUCT USE INFORMATION & QUALITY ISSUES:

This is a product that is Patent Pending, based on months of research into optimal forms, potencies and ratios of the 8 isomers of natural Vitamin E. All of the Vitamin E formulas currently on the market use potencies of tocopherols that are very dissimilar to what is found in a healthy diet, with either too low or too high amounts of gamma and alpha tocopherols for a good balance. Some do not even include tocotrienols.

All of the Vitamin E formulas on the market that do contain a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols tend to use either 400 IU or 100 IU of alpha tocopherol, some as little as 50-60 IU, combined with varying doses of gamma tocopherol. We have reduced the alpha tocopherol from the standard 400 IU per capsule to 200 IU, allowing more gamma tocopherol in the capsule to follow the typical ratio in a healthy diet. Other brands either cut the alpha tocopherol too low (to keep the gamma tocopherol at a good level) or else cut the gamma and other tocopherols too low (to keep the alpha tocopherol at 400 IU).

Special care was used to maintain a certain ratio of tocopherols and of tocotrienols that is unique and from natural sources. Our formula is also unique in mixing sources of tocotrienols to achieve our desired balance, whereas other formulas include only one source, despite the dissimilarity of the mixture to what is found in a healthy, varied diet.

Other formulas use either Vitamin E derived from genetically engineered soybeans and/or add soybean oil from similar sources as a base. NOW uses expensive non-GMO sources, the first formula to do so, with no soybean oil added. This enhances the quality of our product compared to every other formula on the market.

We use the expensive virgin palm oil rather than the cheap palm distillates because it is un-denatured and contributes additional, valuable oil nutrients such as CoQ10, Squalene and Sterols. Also, much of the clinical research done on tocotrienols was done using virgin palm oil sources 32

Natural Vitamin E is more effective than synthetic Vitamin E.14 - 23

SERVING SIZE & HOW TO TAKE IT: One or two capsules per day, preferably with meal(s). Oils enhance the absorption of Vitamin E. Concentrated fiber supplements may decrease the absorption of Vitamin E, so it is best not to take both at the same meal.

SYNERGISTS: Antioxidants (Alpha Lipoic Acid, Vitamin C Complex, Pine or Grapeseed Extracts, VitaBerry Plus+, CoQ10, etc.), Plant Sterols, Fish Oil, Flaxseed Oil, GliSODin, EGCg Green Tea Extract, Lecithin, Nuts and Seeds

CAUTIONS: None.

SPECIFIC: Aspirin and blood thinners should not be taken with Vitamin E without physician’s approval. Many other pharmaceutical drugs deplete Vitamin E, adding to the likelihood that a person will be deficient.

GENERAL: Pregnant and lactating women and people using prescription drugs should consult their physician before taking any dietary supplement. This information is based on my own knowledge and references, and should not be used as diagnosis, prescription or as a specific product claim. This document has not been reviewed by the FDA or by the company posting it. Information given here may vary from what is shown on the product label because this represents my own professional experience and understanding of the science underlying the formula and ingredients. When taking any new formula, use common sense and cautiously increase to the full dose over time.

REFERENCES:

1. Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN (2001) g-Tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr 74:714-722.
2. Schneider C (2005) Chemistry and biology of vitamin E. Mol Nutr Food Res 49(1):7-30.
3. Pfluger P, Kluth D, Landes N, Bumke-Vogt C, Brigelius-Flohe R (2004) Vitamin E: underestimated as an antioxidant. Redox Rep 9(5):249-254.
4. Liu M, Wallin R, Saldeen (2002) Effect of mixed tocopherols on ecNOS, SOD, and PKC in leukocytes in human subjects. Nutr Res 22:1253-1263.
5. Saldeen T, Li D, Mehta JL (1999) Differential Effects of a- and g-Tocopherol on Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation, Superoxide Activity, Platelet Aggregation and Arterial Thrombogenesis. J Am Coll Cardiol 34:1208-1215.
6. "Packer L, Valacchi G. (2002) Antioxidants and the response of skin to oxidative stress: vitamin E as a key indicator. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 15(5):282-90."
7. Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S. (2004) Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Ann N Y Acad Sci 1031:127-42.
8. Dial S, Eitenmiller RR. 1995. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in key foods in the U.S. diet. In: Ong ASH, Niki E, Packer L, eds. Nutrition, Lipids, Health, and Disease. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. Pp. 327–342.
9. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000). Institute of Medicine
10. JASPREET K.C. AHUJA, JOSEPH D. GOLDMAN, and ALANNA J. MOSHFEGH. Current Status of Vitamin E Nutriture. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004 1031: 387-390.
11. Bauernfeind, J. Tocopherols in Foods. In: Vitamin E: A Comprehensive Treatise. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York and Basel, pp. 99-167, 1980.
12. Horwitt, M.K. The Promotion of Vitamin E. J. Nutr. 116:1371-1377, 1986.
13. Weber, P., Bendich, A. and Machlin, L.J. Vitamin E and Human Health: Rationale for Determining Recommended Intake Levels. Nutrition 13:450-460, 1997.
14. Acuff RV et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998;67:459-64
15. Acuff RV et al, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994, 60:397-402
16. Behrens, W.A. and Madere, R. Tissue Discrimination between Dietary RRR-Alpha- and All-Rac-Alpha-Tocopherols in Rats. J. Nutr. 121:454-459, 1991.
17. Burton G et al, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998,67:669-84
18. Ferslew, K.E., Acuff, R.V., Daigneault, E.A., Woolley, T.W. and Stanton, P.E. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the RRR and All Racemic Stereoisomers of Alpha-Tocopherol in Humans after Single Oral Administration. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 33:84-88, 1993.
19. Horwitt, M.K. The Promotion of Vitamin E. J. Nutr. 116:1371-1377, 1986.
20. Ogihara, T., Nishida, Y., Miki, M. and Mino, M. Comparative Changes in Plasma and RBC Alpha-Tocopherol after Administration of dl-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate and d-Alpha-Tocopherol. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 31:169-177, 1985.
21. Traber M et al, FEBS Letters 1998,437:145-148
22. Traber MG, et al. J Lipid Res. 1990,31(4):675-85
23. Weiser, H. and Vecchi, M. Stereoisomers of Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate. II. Biopotencies of All Eight Stereoisomers, Individually or in Mixtures, as Determined by Rat Resorption-Gestation Tests. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 52:351-370, 1982.
24. Polidori MC, Mecocci P, Stahl W, et al. Plasma levels of lipophilic antioxidants in very old patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000;16:15–9.
25. Cooney RV, Franke AA, Harwood PJ, Hatch-Pigott V, Custer LJ, and Mordan LJ. gamma-Tocopherol Detoxification of Nitrogen Dioxide: Superiority to alpha-Tocopherol. PNAS 1993; 90: 1771-1775.
26. Morris MC, Evans DA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Wilson RS, Aggarwal NT, Scherr PA. Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):508-14. PMID: 15699242
27. Inokuchi H, Hirokane H, Tsuzuki T, Nakagawa K, Igarashi M, Miyazawa T. Anti-angiogenic activity of tocotrienol. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Jul;67(7):1623-7. PMID: 12913317
28. Kline K, Yu w, Sander BG, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols. (1999), Nutr Cancer, 33 : pp : 26 – 32
29. The Chicago Health and Aging Project, Martha Clare Morris, Denis A Evans, Christine C Tangney, Julia L Bienias, Robert S Wilson, Neelum T Aggarwal and Paul A Scherr. Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 2, 508-514, February 2005
30. Parker RA, Pearce BC, Clark RW, Gordon DA, Wright JJ. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 25;268(15):11230-8. PMID: 8388388
31. Pearce BC, Parker RA, Deason ME, Qureshi AA, Wright JJ. Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J Med Chem. 1992 Oct 2;35(20):3595-606. PMID: 1433170
32. Soelaiman IN, Ahmad NS, Khalid BA. Palm oil tocotrienol mixture is better than alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bones against free-radical induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;13(Suppl):



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Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant
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Date: December 07, 2005 05:43 PM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: Vitaberry Plus + Super Fruit Antioxidant

Vitaberry Plus +™ Super Fruit Antioxidant

By Nilesh Patel, NOW Quality Assurance, April 20, 2005 Why are FRUITS AND VEGETABLES important? “Diets rich in FRUITS AND VEGETABLES may reduce the risk of some types of cancer and other chronic diseases.”- National Cancer Institute. OXYGEN AND ANTIOXIDANTS As we all know, “Oxygen is critical to life,” but is itself a double-edged sword. While oxygen is necessary to sustain life and for natural defense against microbes, too much oxygen in our cells can lead to the production of “free radicals” (mitochondrial respiratory chain) or ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Free radicals come in many forms - singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, superoxideperoxynitrite, to name a few - but all have one commonality. Each has an unpaired (unbalanced) electron, a situation it remedies by stealing an electron from a stable molecule. This sets off a domino effect of oxidation, a chain reaction that usually ends up damaging cellular integrity and compromising overall health. Nature has a defense system in place to protect these processes in the form of antioxidants. Whether endogenous (produced by the body, such as liver enzymes, SOD, coenzymes and sulfur-containing compounds) or exogenous (obtained through the diet, such as vitamins C & E, bioflavonoids, carotenes, etc.), antioxidants “quench” free radicals by donating an electron to stabilize a molecule, thus controling the chain reaction and stopping the oxidation “domino effect”. ANTIOXIDANT-RICH FOODS Research suggests that eating plenty of foods high in antioxidants helps to slow the processes associated with aging and protect against many chronic diseases. Maximizing one’s antioxidant power will enhance overall health. Fruit and vegetables contain both nutritive and non-nutritive factors that can affect oxidative damage and enzymatic defense and might contribute to redox (antioxidant and prooxidant) actions. A new “6-a-day” study looked into the effects of fruits and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers by The Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research in Denmark. The study found that fruits and vegetables increase erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and resistance of plasma lipoproteins to oxidation more efficiently than do the nutritive factors (vitamins and minerals) that the fruits and vegetables are also known to contain. Certain berries, such as blackberries, also contain salicylates, which are also linked to heart health and prevention of atherosclerosis. The protective effects of fruits and vegetables intake on both heart disease death and deaths in general have previously been demonstrated but researchers at the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston. Quercetin is an anti-oxidizing flavonoid found in many berries (such as cranberries, bilberries, blueberries, strawberries, etc.) and can prevent CVDs (coronary vascular diseases), according to a recent Finnish study. All these natural plant polyphenols are responsible for the colors of many red and purple berries, fruits, vegetables and flowers. GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES The new federal guidelines released earlier this year by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommend eating more fruits and vegetables, combined, than any other food group -- five cups or about 10 servings a day for most adults. The amount of fruits and vegetables recommended has increased for men and women of every age. “Fruits and vegetables are the "good news" story of the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans for food-loving consumers, the industry and America's public health”, stated the Produce for Better Health Foundation (PBH). Eating a variety of colorful phytochemical-rich fruits and vegetables has been associated with lower risk of some chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Many authoritative organizations such as the National Cancer Institute and The American Heart Association recommend getting phytochemicals from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables, rather than from individual component supplements. The Scottish government is promoting healthy eating through a scheme designed to increase purchasing of fruit and nutritional foods. Scottish health minister Andy Kerr said, "This initiative shows that healthy eating can be good for customers and good for business." Scottish women are said to have the highest rates of death from lung cancer in the world as well as the highest rates in Europe for coronary heart disease. They also have low consumption of fruits and vegetables, shown in studies to help protect against some cancers and benefit heart health. ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) Free radicals and oxygen free radicals play an important role in the development and progression of many brain disorders such as brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and Down syndrome. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes & is also linked to other host of degenerative health conditions. Fortunately, antioxidants are available to support the body’s defense and fight disease and aging. Examples of “Fast acting antioxidants” in the body (serum) are: uric acid (polyphenols), ascorbate, bilirubin, vitamin E (the later two are lipid soluble). Examples of “Slow acting antioxidants” are glucose, urea nitrogen etc. In short, free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated as by-products of normal cellular metabolism. Their deleterious effects are minimized in vivo (in the body) by the presence of antioxidant systems. How do Antioxidants work? Antioxidants are substances in plants that help maintain health. Antioxidants protect against damage to cells caused by too many “free oxygen radicals,” which form because of the effects of oxidation. Smoking, sunlight, heavy exercise, and pollution all increase oxidation in the body. Most people would benefit by eating more (five to nine or more servings) fruits and vegetables & colorful plant foods, such as purple, dark green, yellow, orange, blue, and red ones, each day. These have healthful pigments along with antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C, carotenoids, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, selenium, flavonoids, and other beneficial substances. There are numerous ways in which these antioxidants affect, but can be explained in two groups: Alpha (a) Effects: This refers to the scavenging or neutralizing of free radicals. These effects do not change the way humans (or animals) feel. There are also no noticeable health, psychological or emotional benefits. While there are no obvious changes, increased total antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased tumor rates, prevention of heart attacks and increased longevity. Beta (ß) Effects: These are the changes on health, psychological or emotional state that you or others will notice. In this case, the antioxidant is affecting metabolic processes (enzymes) with consequent changes in the physical (improvement in joint movements, improved skin condition, tissue damage recovery), emotional (better ability to cope with stress) or psychological state (increased alertness). The ORAC value Because most of the active nutritional components in fruits and vegetables are antioxidants, accurate measurement of antioxidant activity serves as a good indicator of potential health benefit. Scientific opinion runs high that ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity) will eventually become a government standard of reference for overall daily fruits and vegetables intake. ORAC units are a measurement of the ability of food to stop oxidation. It is most generally expressed in terms of Trolox equivalent per gram (µmole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). POPULATION DATA A survey done by the National Research Council indicates that only 10% of the US population consumes the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The equivalent to eating 5 mixed servings of fruits and vegetables per day is about 1,670 ORAC units. Based on scientific evidence it is suggested that daily antioxidant intake should be increased to between 3,000 and 5,000 ORAC units per day, per human subject, in order to reach a significant antioxidant capacity in blood plasma and other tissues. WHAT IS NOW DOING TO HELP? In accord with our mission, “To provide value in products and services that empower people to lead healthier lives,” NOW® Foods is introducing an ALL-FRUIT-DERIVED antioxidant product called VitaBerry Plus +™ Super Fruit Antioxidant Vcaps (vegetarian capsules) (product number #3336). At time of manufacture this product provides an ORAC value of at least 2,500 units per serving from a full-spectrum antioxidant blend of fruits containing phytochemicals and phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, quinic acid, resveratrol , many organic acids, resveratrol and vitamin C. VitaBerry Plus +™ is formulated with VitaBerry™ Hi-ORAC Fruit Blend [a proprietary blend of fruit extracts & concentrated powders containing Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) extract, Grape (Vitis vinifera) & Grape seed extract, Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) & Raspberry seed extract, Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Prune (Prunus domestica), Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus), Wild Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extract & Strawberry (Fragaria virginia)], Hi-Active™ Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Pomegranate (Punica granatum) min. 40% ellagic acid fruit extract. One gram of VitaBerry™ Hi-ORAC Fruit Blend provides at least 6,000 ORAC units (i.e., µmole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g). (Also watch for an upcoming antioxidant product from NOW called Enzogenol® (Pinus radiata bark extract from New Zealand) with Rutin (a flavonoid from South American fruit of Dimorphandra mollis) and Grapeseed extract. IS IT EFFECTIVE? Total ORAC value includes both lipophilic and hydrophilic components. VitaBerry Plus +™ contains only water/hydroethanol based extracts and concentrated (100:1 to 125:1) freeze-dried fresh fruit blends, so the lipophilic ORAC value is mere 2-4% of the total ORAC value. Glutathione peroxidase is a selenium-containing enzyme that decreases cell death from brain injuries. It also acts as a critical first-line antioxidant defense on the airway (respiratory) epithelial surface against ROS and RNS (reactive nitrogen species. Genetics research has found that the glutathione S-transferase gene controls the onset of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease etc. Taking glutathione (GSH) itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since it breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells. So glutathione precursor dietary supplements (such as NAC and GliSODin), along with fruits and vegetables, are effective in boosting intracellular levels of GSH. The lungs have a defense system against the ROS oxidants consisting of low molecular weight antioxidants such as GSH and intracellular enzymes such as SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase to protect against the toxic effects of oxidants generated within the cells. Some of the primary effects of VitaBerry Plus +™ against the common reactive free-radical species or ROS are as follows: - Superoxide dismutase-SOD (destroys Superoxide radicals),
- Catalase (neutralizes peroxides),
- Functions similar to reduced Glutathione (GSH),
- Glutathione peroxidase enzyme (detoxifies peroxides, using GSH as a reducing agent),
- Functions similar to Glutathione S-transferase (GST),
- Nullifies Superoxide-generating NADH/NADPH oxidase system In conclusion More concentrated than fresh berries, with over 6000 ORAC units per gram, VitaBerry Plus +™ provides consumers with the antioxidant power of almost 15 servings per day of FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ina convenient vegetarian capsule form! VitaBerry™ PLUS +™ (# 3336) provides a powerful, convenient way to supplement diets that do not include sufficient fruit and vegetable antioxidants Selected References: USDA/HHS guidelines report at: etaryguidelines/dga2005/document/

ls.com/proprietary/pdf/VitaberryBrochure.pdf g Kaplan M., Hayek T. , Raz A., Coleman R. and Aviram M. Pomegranate juice supplementation to apolipoprotein E deficient mice with extensive atherosclerosis reduces macrophages lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis. J. Nutr. 131: 2082-2089 (2001) Lars O Dragsted et. al., The 6-a-day study:effects if fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1060-1072, June 2004 Fuhrman B. and Aviram M. Polyphenols and flavaonoids protects LDL against atherogenic modifications.In: Handbook of Antioxidants Biochemical, Nutritional and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Edition. Cadenas E & Packer L (Eds.) Marcel Dekker, NY(Pub.). 16:303-336 (2001) Wood, Jacqueline, et al. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 77 (2002) 155-161 Aviram M. Pomegranate juice as a major source for polyphenolic flavonoids and it is most potent antioxidant against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Free Radical Research 36 (Supplement 1): 71-72 (2002) Jennifer Schraag, Antioxidants: Nature’s Way of Balancing Life. HSR Health Supplement Retailer, Vol. 11, No. 2, 24-27, February 2005 com/news/printNewsBis.asp?id=58665 com/news/printNewsBis.asp?id=58697

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The “Power” of trace Minerals…
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Date: October 08, 2005 11:56 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: The “Power” of trace Minerals…

The “Power” of trace Minerals…

These articles piqued hartley’s interest with information about the amazing results people were receiving from drinking a little bit of sea water each day. This led him to research the great salt Lake, an inland sea located near his home. He found that the Great Salt Lake not only had the same minerals and balance discussed by George Crane, but that it was 6 to 10 times more concentrated than regular sea water without the pollution. Hartley knew there was a need for these minerals himself and had seen results from other people that the company was established with initial product sales.

Science was slow to provide answers as to why the minerals from this desert sea caused such a dramatic and varied results in people, but Hartley knew from his growing stack of testimonials that the company’s first product, Inland sea water, was effective. He and his wife, Gaye, founded Trace Minerals Research in 1968 and started selling pure Great Salt Lake water to the public and a short time later, they discovered how to use nature’s own processes to remove the sodium, thereby creating low-sodium, Concentrace TraceMineral Drops.

Hartley and Gaye founded their company on the principle that nutritional supplements should get results and that if a customer does not actually feel an improvement in their health, they should not have to pay for it. This same principle is still evident today in Trace Mineral Research.

Not a single bottle of product leaves our manufacturing facility unless we can confidently back it up with the guarantee of “Feel the Difference or your Money Back.” This guarantee is made possible because minerals and trace minerals needed by Americans today are found in rich abundance, a natural balance and a highly assimilable principle ionic form from the Great Salt Lake. Trace Mineral Research sent most of their products into development because of the spectacular results many people were already discovering from low sodium ConcenTrace and Trace Mineral Drops. The company then combined their formulas of vitamins, herbs, enzymes and other nutrients to enhance the specific benefits people were reporting.

Trace Minerals Research now has a complete line of highly effective nutritional supplements each backed by our guarantee of “Feel the Difference of Your Money Back”. These products are also backed by research and we are continually researching new information on our existing and new products.

Our Philosophy at Trace Mineral Research has always been that the Earth was created with the prefect balance of all the nutrients that humans need to be healthy and happy. The only problem is that over the years humans have become victims of the water cycle. Dr. U. Aswathanarayana states, “Soil erosion leads to the depletion of essential nutrients elements in crops grown in depleted soil. When people consume a diet derived from such crops, the intake of essential elements becomes inadequate. This leads to the impairment of the relevant physiological functions, and causes disease.” For millions of years, every sprouting seed and towering tree has dissolved minerals to ionic form and raised them from the depths of the soil where they could easily be washed away by water. To add to this problem, aggressive farming has further depleted the soils. Furthermore, many fertilizers and pesticides bind trace minerals in the soil so that fewer minerals are absorbed by fruits and vegetables. The importance of minerals in the soil and their effects on human health are not new concepts. Dr. Alexis Carrel, Winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1912, states, “Soil is the basis of all human life and our only hope for a healthy world… All of life will be either healthy or unhealthy according to the fertility of the soil. Minerals in the soil control the metabolism of cells in plants, animal and man … Diseases are created chiefly by destroying the harmony reigning among mineral substances present in infinitesimal amounts in air, water and food, but most importantly in the soil. Even the AMA recognized the importance of minerals in our diet. “Variations in the distribution of certain minerals in the environment are known to have an effect on health.

The Lack of minerals in our soil is evidenced through the need for constant fertilization. Plants need nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, carbon, boron, sulfur, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and molybdenum, some of which are commonly replaced through fertilizers to provide maximum crops through minimum investment. However, humans are known to additionally need calcium, sodium, fluorine, bromine, chromium, iodine, silicon, selenium, beryllium, lithium, cobalt, vanadium and nickel, which would not necessarily be replaced through fertilization for plants.

This continual cycle of soil depletion and minor replacement of minerals through fertilization in conjunction with a diet of processed foods has left many Americans deficient in minerals and trace minerals. This does not need to follow the water cycle. As water goes through the constant cycle from evaporation to precipitation, minerals are transported through rivers and streams where it is then collected in the seas thereby creating a natural equilibrium.

Today, Trace Minerals Research harvests minerals and trace minerals from the Great Salt Lake, a uniquely rich and pure desert sea. These minerals are the basis for each of their unique products and help provide a strong foundation for balanced supplementation.



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DO WE NEED EXTRA LIVER PROTECTION?
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Date: July 12, 2005 10:15 AM
Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
Subject: DO WE NEED EXTRA LIVER PROTECTION?

DO WE NEED EXTRA LIVER PROTECTION?

Even if you don’t suffer from any liver disease or don’t abuse alcohol, you may still require the therapeutic effects of Milk Thistle. Everything that enters the liver through the portal vein must be de-toxified and neutralized. Many of us eat diets that are too high in protein, take overthe- counter or prescription drugs, and routinely expose ourselves to radiation and other pollutants. Everything we breath, eat and absorb through our skin is purified and refined in the liver. Some of the more detrimental compounds we ingest that increase the liver’ s work load include:

  • pain killing drugs
  • heavy metals
  • excess hormones
  • saturated and rancid fats
  • metabolite waste products from biochemical reactions
  • pesticides and herbicides
  • nicotine
  • stress
  • high protein diets

    Dr. Andrew Weil, M.D. author of Natural Health, Natural Medicine says, “High protein diets impose a considerable work load on the digestive system and may contribute to feelings of fatigue and lack of energy.” The problem with protein is that the liver has to work harder to detoxify the body from the nitrogen waste which results when it is metabolized. This compound called ure a has to eventually be eliminated from the body through the kidneys.

    Most of us are routinely exposed to nicotine, toxins of various kinds and a whole host of synthetic drugs fro m ibuprofen to steroids. Most of us overeat the wrong things and pass up what’s really good for us. High fat, high sugar, high protein diets stress the liver. Overeating, especially overcooked, fatty foods puts added strain on the liver. In addition, lack of exercise has an indirect effect on the liver. When we don’t exercise, an excess of toxins can build up and has to be transformed by the liver.

    Typically, when we are exposed to chemicals which can injure the liver, the amount of glutathione in the liver d e c reases. When this substance is reduced, the liver becomes susceptible to damage. The Silymarin content of Milk Thistle keeps concentrations of glutathione in the liver elevated by up to 35%.19 The ability of the liver to detoxify the system is largely dependent on the present of glutathione.

    According to the American Liver Foundation, liver diseases are the fourth leading cause of death up to the age of 65. It is not commonly known that a significant incidence of liver disease exists in this country. In the past, liver disease was only associated with chronic alcoholics. Now, however, liver disease strikes obese people, social drinkers and people who eat poorly. Milk Thistle can help prevent the subtle kind of liver damage any of us may be susceptible to.

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    HAWAIIAN NONI (Morinda citrifolia)
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    Date: July 11, 2005 08:50 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: HAWAIIAN NONI (Morinda citrifolia)

    INTRODUCTION

    In a time when we are more concerned than ever with issues of health, a tried and true tropical herb called noni needs t o be added t o our list of the best natural remedies. It susage over hundreds of years supports it s description as a veritable panacea of therapeutic actions. At this writing, noni continues to accrue impressive medicinal credentials, and its emergence as an effective nat ural healing agent is a timely one. Amidst rising cancer rates, the high incidence of degenerative diseases like diabetes, and the evolution of ant ibiotic resist ant bacteria and new viral strains, herbs like noni are sought after for their natural pharmaceutical properties. Unquest ionably, all of us want to know how to:

  • • protect ourselves f rom toxins and pollut ants
  • • prevent t he premature onset of age-related diseases such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes and stroke
  • • boost our immune defenses to protect ourselves from new viral and bacterial strains that have become antibiotic-resist ant
  • • reduce our risk of developing cancer
  • • better digest our food for proper assimilation and purge the intestinal system wit hout the dangerous side effects of harsh drugs. Its actions are multifaceted and must be considered when assessing natural treatment s for disease or injury. It s impressive and widespread use among various native cult ures of t ropical island regions supports the notion that it does indeed possess valuable, therapeutic compounds.

    Genus Rubiaceae

    Common Names

    Indian Mulberry (India), Noni (Hawaii), Nono (Tahiti and Raratonga), Polynesian Bush Fruit, Painkiller Tree (Caribbean islands), Lada (Guam), Mengkudo (Malaysia), Nhau (Southeast Asia), Grand Morinda (Vietnam), Cheesefruit (Australia), Kura (Fiji), Bumbo (Africa) Note: This is only a small sampling of vernacular names for Morinda citrifolia. Almost every island nation of the South Pacific and Caribbean has a term for this particular plant . This booklet will refer to the herb mainly as “ noni” or M. citrifolia, and is referring primarily to Hawaiin noni.

    Parts Used

    The parts of the noni plant most used for their medicinal and nutritional purposes are the fruit, seeds, bark, leaves, and flowers. Virtually every part of the noni plant is utilized for its individual medicinal properties; however, it is the fruit portion that is regarded as its most valuable. The seeds have a purgative action, the leaves are used to treat external inflammations and relieve pain, the bark has strong astringent properties and can treat malaria, the root extracts lower blood pressure, the flower essences relieve eye inflammations and the f ruit has a number of medicinal actions.

    Physical Description

    Morinda citrifolia is technically an evergreen shrub or bush, which can grow to heights of fifteen to twenty feet . It has rigid, coarse branches which bear dark, oval, glossy leaves. Small white fragrant flowers bloom out of cluster-like pods which bear creamy-white colored fruit. The fruit is fleshy and gel-like when ripened, resembling a small breadf ruit . The flesh of the fruit is characterist ically bitter, and when completely ripe produces a rancid and very dist inctive odor. Noni has buoyant seeds that can float formont hs in ocean bodies. The wood of the inflammatory, astringent, emollient, emmenagogue, laxative, sedative, hypotensive (lowers blood pressure) , blood purif ier, and tonic.

    Chemical Constituents

    Noni has various chemical constituents. First, it has an impressive array of terpene compounds, three of which—L. Asperuloside, aucubin, and glucose— have been identified by their actyl derivatives. Both caproic and caprylic acids have been isolated.1 Second, bushfruits, a category of which noni fruit is a member, are also considered a good source of vit - amin C.2 Third, Hawaiin noni has been linked to the synthesis of xeronine in the body which has significant and widespread health implications. Last , the alkaloid cont ent of the noni fruit is thought to be responsible for its therapeutic actions. Alkaloids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological and biological act ivitiesin the human body. They are nitrogencontaining organic compounds which can react with acids to form salts and which are the basis of many medicines. The following is an in-depth chemical analysis of each plant part and it s chemical constituents.

  • • amino acids (which include alanine, arginine, asparticacids, cysteine, cystine, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan tyrosine, and valine)
  • • anthraquinones
  • • glycosides
  • • phenolic compounds
  • • resins
  • • B-sitosterol
  • • ursolic acid

    FLOWER

  • • acacet in 7-0-D (+) -glucophyranoside
  • • 5,7,-dimet hylapigenin-4-0-8-D(+) -galactophyranoside
  • • 6,8,-dimet hoxy-3-methyl anthroquinone-1-0-8-rhamnosyl glucophyranoside

    FRUIT

  • • antioxidant
  • • alizarin
  • • anthraquinones
  • • caproic and caprylic acids

    discovered an alkaloid in the Hawaiin noni fruit which he calls proxeronine and which he believes has appreciable physiological actions by acting as a precursor to xeronine, a very crucial compound (see later sections) . In addition, a compound found in the fruit called damnacanthol is believed to help inhibit cert ain viruses and cellular mutations involved in cancer.

    ROOT AND ROOT BARK

  • • carbonate
  • • chlorubin
  • • rubicholric acid
  • • soranjidol
  • • chrysophanol
  • • phosphate
  • • magnesium
  • • ferric iron
  • • sodium
  • • glycosides
  • • morinadadiol
  • • morindine
  • • resins
  • • rubiadin
  • • sterols4

    Pharmacology

    Recent surveys have suggested that noni fruit exerts antibiotic action. In fact, a variety of compounds which have antibacterial properties (such as aucubin) have been identified in the fruit.5 The 6-Dglucopyranose pentaacet ate of the fruit extract is not considered bacteriostatic.6 Constituents found in the fruit portion have exhibited ant imicrobial action against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi (and other types) , Shigella paradysenteriae, and Staphylococcus aureaus. Compounds found in the root have the ability to reduce swollen mucous membrane and lower blood pressure in animal studies. Proxeronine is an alkaloid constituent found in Hawaiin noni fruit which may prompt the production of xeronine in the body. It is considered a xeronine precursor and was discovered in noni fruit by Dr. Ralph M. Heinicke. He has theorized that this proenzyme can be effective in initiating a series of beneficial cellular reactions through its involvement with the integrity of specific proteins. He points out that tissues contain cells which possess certain recept or sites for xeronine. Because the reactions that can occur are so varied, many different therapeutic actions can result when xeronine production escalates, explaining why Hawaiin noni is good for so many seemingly unrelated disorders. Damnacanthol is another compound contained in the fruit of the Hawaiin noni plant which has shown the ability to block or inhibit the cellular function of RAS cells, considered pre-cancerous cells.

    Body Systems Targeted

    The following body systems have all been effec-freeze-dried capsules, dehydrated powder or fruit, and oil. Noni plant constituents are sometimes offered in combination with other herbs. Some products contain a percent age of the fruit, bark, root and seeds for their individual therapeutic properties.

    Satety

    Extracts of M. citrifolia are considered safe if used as directed; however, pregnant or nursing mothers should consult their physicians before taking any supplement . High doses of root extracts may cause constipation. Taking noni supplements with coffee, alcohol or nicotine is not recommended.

    Suggested Uses

    Ideally, noni extracts should be taken on an empty stomach prior to meals. The process of digesting food can interfere with the medicinal value of the alkaloid compounds found in Hawaiin noni, especially in its fruit . Apparently, stomach acids and enzymes destroy the specific enzyme which frees up the xeronine compound. Take noni supplements without food, coffee, nicotine or alcohol. Using supplements that have been made from the semi-ripe or light - green fruit is also considered preferable to the ripe, whit ish fruit .

    NONI: ITS USE AND HISTORY

    Noni is a tropical wandering plant indigenous to areas of Australia, Malaysia and Polynesia. It is considered native to Southeast Asia although it grows from India to the eastern region of Polynesia. Morinda citrifolia has a long history of medicinal use throughout these areas. It is thought to be the “most widely and commonly used medicinal plant prior to the European era.” 7 Centuries ago, the bushfruit was introduced to native Hawaiians, who subsequently called it “noni” and considered its fruit and root as prized medicinal agents. Among all Polynesian botanical agents of the 19th and 20th centuries, Hawaiin noni has the widest array of medical applications. Samoan and Hawaiian medical practitioners used noni for bowel disorders (especially infant diarrhea, constipation, or intestinal parasites) , indigestion, skin inflammation, infection, mouth sores, fever, contusions and sprains. Hawaiians commonly prepared noni tonics designed to treat diabetes, stings, burns and fish poisoning.8 The herb’s remarkable ability to purge the intestinal tract and promote colon health was well known among older Hawaiian and Tahitian natives and folk healers. Interestingly, field observations regarding its repu-remarkable healing agent .

    Wonder Herb of Island Folk Healers

    Common to t he thickets and forests of Malaysia and Polynesia, and the low hilly regions of the Philippine islands, noni has been cultivated throughout communities in the South Pacific for hundreds of years. Its Hawaiian use is thought to originate from inter-island canoe travel and settlement dating to before Christ . Its hardy seeds have the ability to float which has also contributed to its distribution among various seacoasts in the South Pacific region. Historical investigation has established the fact that some of Hawaii’s earliest settlers probably came viaTahiti. For this reason, Tahitian herbal practices have specific bearing on the herbal therapeutics of islands to the nort h. The very obvious similarities between the Hawaiian vernacular for herbal plants like noni and Tahitian names strongly suggests the theory of Polynesian migrations to Hawaii. Cultures native to these regions favored using Morinda citrifolia for treating major diseases and ut ilized it as a source of nourishment in times of famine.9 Noni fruit has been recognized for centuries as an excellent source of nutrition. The peoples of Fiji, Samoa and Rarat onga use the fruit in both its raw and cooked forms.10 Traditionally, the fruit was propicked before it was fully ripe and placed in the sunlight . After being allowed to ripen, it was typically mashed and its juice extracted through a cloth. Noni leaves provided a veget able dish and their resiliency made them desirable as a fish wrap for cooking.

    Noni’s Medical Reputation

    Elaborate traditionalrituals and praying rites usually accompanied the administration of noni. Int erestingly, cultures indigenous to the Polynesian islands had a significant understanding of their flora. For example, native Hawaiians maint ained a folkmedicine taxonomy t hat was considered second to none.11 Noni was not only used for medicinal purposes but for its food value, for clot hing and for cloth dyes as well. Research indicates that noni was among the few herbal remedies that islanders considered “ tried and true.” In Hawaii, trained herbal practitioners reserved the right to prescribe plant therapies.12 Records indicate that Hawaiian medical practices were based on extensive and very meticulous descriptions of symptoms and their prescribed herbal treatments. Dosages were controlled and the collection and administration of plant extracts was carefully monitored.13 In addition to Morinda, it was not uncommon for these herbal doctors to also recommend using In regard to its application for common ailments, Hawaiians and other island communities traditionally prescribed noni to purge the bowel, reduce fever, cure respiratory infections such as asthma, ease skin inflammations, and heal bruises and sprains. In other words, noni was widely used and highly regarded as a botanical medicine.

    A Timely Reemer gence

    Today, the natural pharmaceutical actions of the chemical constituents contained in noni are scientif-ically emerging as valuable bot anical medicines. Tahitian “nono” intrigued medical practitioners decades ago; however, due to the eventual emergence of synthetic drugs, interest in this island botanical diminished until recent years. Ethnobot anists are once again rediscovering why Hawaiian people havet reasured and cultivat ed Morinda citrifolia for generations. Noni is now finding its way into western therapeutics and is referred to as “ the queen” of the genus Rubiaceae. Its ability to reduce joint inflammation and target the immune system have made it the focus of the modern scientific inquiry. Dr. Ralph Heinicke has conducted some fascinating studies on the chemical constituents of the Hawaiin noni fruit. His research centers on the proxeronine content of the fruit juice and how it profoundly influences human physiology. In addition, scientific studies investigating noni as an anti-cancer agent have been encouraging. It s conspicuous attributes and varied uses have elevat edits status to one of the best of the healing herbs. Today Morinda citrifolia is available in liquid, juice, freezedried capsules, or oil forms, and is considered one of nature’s most precious botanicals.

    TRADITIONAL USES OF NONI

    Throughout tropical regions, virtually every part of Morinda citrifolia was used to treat disease or injury. Its curative properties were well known and commonly employed. PatoaTama Benioni, a member of the Maoritribe from the Cook Islands and a lecturer on island plants explains: Traditionally Polynesians use noni for basically everything in the treatment of illness. Noni is a part of our lives. Any Polynesian boy will tell you he’s had exper ience with it . We use juice from its roots, its flowers, and its fruit... my grandmother taught me to use noni from the roots and the leaves to make medicine for external as well as internal use, and for all kinds of ailments, such as coughs, boils, diseases of the skin, and cuts.15

    decoctions to stimulate delayed menst ruation.

  • • Noni was frequently utilized for its antiparasitic activity.
  • • Respiratory ailments, coughs, and colds were treated with noni.
  • • A juice made from pounding noni leaves, roots and fruit mixed with water was administered for diarrhea.
  • • Dried and powdered forms of the bark mixed with water and administ ered with a spoon treated infant diarrhea.
  • • Small pieces of fruit and root infused with water were given to kill intestinal parasites.
  • • Boiled bark decoctions were given as a drink for stomach ailments.
  • • Coughs were treated with grated bark.
  • • Charred unripe fruit was used with salt on diseased gums.
  • • Pounded fruit combined with kava and sugar cane was used to treat tuberculosis.
  • • Babies were rubbed with fresh, crushed leaves for serious chest colds accompanied by fever.
  • • Eye washes were made from decoctions for eye complaint s from flower extracts.
  • • Leaf infusions were traditionally taken to treat adult fevers.
  • • A mouthwash consisting of crushed ripe fruit and juice was used for inflamed gums in young boys.
  • • Pounded leaf juice was used for adult gingivitis.
  • • Sore throats were treated by chewing the leaves and swallowing the juice.
  • • Skin abscesses and boils were covered with leaf poultices.
  • • Swelling was controlled with leaf macerations.
  • • Heated leaves were often used for arthritic joins and for ringworm.16

    XERONINE: THE SECRET OF NONI?

    One informed professional on the subject of noni is Dr. Ralph Heinicke, a biochemist who has researched the active compounds of noni fruit for a number of years. He discovered that the Hawaiin noni fruit contains an alkaloid precursor to a very vital compound called xeronine. Wit hout xeronine, life would cease. In Dr. Heinicke’s view, noni fruit provides a safe and effective way to increase xeronine levels, which exert a crucial influence on cell health and protction. His research suggests that the juice from the M. citrifolia fruit contains what could technically be considered a precursor of xeronine—proxeronine. This compound initiates the release of xeronine in the intestinal tract after it comes in contact with a specific enzyme which is also contained in the fruit .

    Because proteins and enzymes have so many varied roles within cell processes, the normalization of these proteins with noni supplemenation could initiate avery wide variety of body responses and treat many disease condit ions. Proteins are the most important catalysts found in the body. The beauty of obtaining a precursor to xeronine from the noni fruit is that the body naturally decides how much of this precursor to convert to xeronine. Disease, stress, anger, trauma and injury can lower xeronine levels in the body, thus creat ing a xeronine deficit . Supplementing the body with noni fruit is considered an excellent way to safely and naturally raise xeronine levels. It is the research and theories of Dr. Heinicke which have made the juice of the Hawaiin noni fruit a viable medicinal substance. He writes: Xeronine is analkaloid, a substance the body produces in order to activate enzymes so they can function properly. It also energizes and regulates the body. This par-ticular alkaloid has never been found because the body makes it, immediately uses it, and then breaks it down. At no time is there an appreciable, isolable amount in the blood. But xeronine is so basic to the functioning of proteins, we would die without it . Its absence can cause many kinds of illness.17 Because so many diseases result from an enzyme malfunction, Dr. Heinicke believes that using the noni fruit can result in an impressive array of curative applications. Interestingly, he believes that we manufacture proxeronine while we are sleeping. He proposes t hat if we could constantly supply our bodies wit h proxeronine from other sources, our need to sleep would diminish.18

    NONI PROCESSING

    How an herb is processed is crucial to how beneficial it is: this is especially true of noni, with its unique enzymes and alkaloids. Morinda citrifolia should be picked when the fruit is turning from its dark green immature color to its lighter green color, and certainly before it ripens to its white, almost translucent color. Once picked, noni, like aloe, will denature extremely quickly due to its very active enzymes. After harvesting, it should swiftly be flash frozen. This is similar to what is done to fish caught at sea to keep them f esh. This stops it from losing its potency while not damaging any of its constituents. To process noni, freeze-drying is recommended. This removes only the water without damaging any of this miracle plant’s vital enzymes and other phytonutrients like xeronine and proxeronine. This pure high-quality noni fruit juice powder is then encapsu-has a very harsh taste and an extremely foul smell, similar to the fruit it self . Other methods of processing include thermal processing, dehydrat ion and air drying. Thermal processing is generally found in liquids, while the dehydrat ed noni is then milled and encapsulated. Unfortunately both methods utilize high heat (110+°F) , which can deactivate many of the vital compounds that make noni so import ant . Air-drying is effect ive without using damaging heat but has serious quality control problems for commercial production.

    MODERN APPLICATIONS OF NONI

    Overview

    Noni possesses a wide variety of medicinal properties which originat e from its differing plant component s. The fruit and leaves of the shrub exert antibacterial activities. Its roots promote the expulsion of mucus and the shrinkage of swollen membranes making it an ideal therapeutic for nasal congest ion, lung infect ions, and hemorrhoids. Noni root compounds have also shown natural sedative properties as well as the ability to lower blood pressure.

    Leaf extracts are able to inhibit excessive blood flow or to inhibit the formation of blood clots. Noni is particularly useful for its ability to treat painful joint conditions and to resolve skin inflammations. Many people drink noni fruit extracts in juice form for hypert ension, painful menstruation, arthritis, gastric ulcers, diabetes, and depression. Recent studies suggest that its anticancer activit y should also be considered. Concerning the therapeutic potential of the Hawaiin noni fruit, Dr. Heinicke writes: I have seen the compound found in noni work wonders. When I was still investigating its possibilities, I had a friend who was a medical research scientist administer the proxeronine to a woman who had been comatose for three months. Two hour safter receiving the compound, she sat up in bed and asked where she was. . . . Noni is probably the best source of proxeronine that we have today.19 Studies and surveys combined support the ability of noni to act as an immunost imulant, inhibit the growth of certain tumors, enhance and normalize cellular function and boost tissue regeneration. It is considered a powerful blood purifier and contributor to overall homeostasis.

    xeronine, which appears to be able to regulate the shape and integrity of cert in proteins that individually contribute to specific cellular activities. Interestingly, this effect seems to occur after ingestion, inferring that the most active compound of noni may not be present in uneaten forms of the fruit or other plant parts. Some practitioners believe that xeronine is best obtained from a noni fruit juice precursor compound. The enzymatic reactions that occur with taking the juice on an empty stomach are what Dr. Heinicke believes set cellular repair intomotion.

    Cancer

    A study conducted in 1994 cited the anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia against lung cancer. A team of scientists from the University of Hawaii used live laboratory mice to test the medicinal properties of the fruit against Lewis lung carcinomas which were artificially transferred to lung tissue. The mice that were left untreated died in nine to twelve days. However, giving noni juice in consistent daily doses significantly prolonged their life span. Almost half of these mice lived for more than fifty days.20 Research conclusions state that the chemical constituents of the juice acted indirectly by enhancing the ability of the immune system to deal with the invading malig-nancy by boosting macrophage or lymphocyte activit y. Furt her evaluation theorizes that the unique chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia initiate enhanced T-cell activity, a reaction that may explain noni’s ability to treat a variety of infectious diseases. 21

    In Japan, similar studies on tropical plant extracts found that damnacanthol, a compound found in Morinda citrifolia, is able to inhibit the function of KRAS- NRK cells, which are considered precursors to certain types of malignancies.22 The experiment involved adding noni plant extract to RAS cells and incubating them for a number of days. Observation disclosed that noni was able to significantly inhibit RAS cellular function. Among 500 plant extracts, Morinda citrifolia was determined to contain the most effective compounds against RAS cells. Its damnacanthol content was clinically described in 1993 as “a new inhibit or of RAS function.” 2 3 The xeronine fact or is also involved in that xeronine helps to normalize the way malignant cells behave. While they are still technically cancer cells, they no longer function as cells with unchecked growth. In time, the body’s immune system may be able to eradicate these cells.

    Arthritis

    with arthritic disease. One link to arthritic pain may be the inability to properly or completely digest proteins which can then form crystal-like deposits in the joints. The ability of noni fruit to enhance protein digestion through enhanced enzymatic function may help to eliminate this particular phenomenon. In addition, the alkaloid compounds and plant met abolites of noni may be linked to its apparent anti-inflammatory action. Plant sterols can assist in inhibiting the inflammatory response which causes swelling and pain. In addition, the antioxidant effect of noni may help to decrease free radical damage in joint cells, which can exacerbate discomfort and degeneration.

    Immune System

    The alkaloid and other chemical compounds found in noni have proven themselves to effectively control or kill over six types of infectious bacterial strains including: Escherichia coli, salmonellatyphi (and other types) , shigella paradysenteriae, and staphylo - coccus aureaus.25 In addition, damnacanthol, was able to inhibitt he early antigen stage of the Epstein- Barr virus.

    The bioactive components of the whole plant, combined or in separate portions, have demonst rat - ed the ability to inhibit several different strains of bacteria. Anecdotal reports support this action in that noni seems particularly effective in shortening the duration of certain types of infection. This may explain why noni is commonly used to treat colds and flu. The chemical constituents found in noni and the possibility that they stimulate xeronine production— as well as initiate alkaloid therapy—may explain noni’s reputation for having immuno-stimulatory properties. Alkaloids have been able to boost phagocytosis which is the process in which certain white blood cells called macrophages attack and literally digest infectious organisms. Interestingly, the ant it umoraction of noni has been ascribed to an immune system response which involves stimulating T-cells. tropical regions during World War II learned of the fruit’s ability to boost endurance and stamina. Native cultures in Samoa, Tahiti, Raratonga and Australia used the fruit in cooked and raw forms. M. citrifolia is considered a tonic and is especially recommended for debilitated conditions.

    Antioxidant

    The process of aging bombards the body with free radicals which can cause all kinds of degenerative diseases. The xeronine theory promoted by Dr. Heinicke submit s t hat as our bodies age, we lose our ability to synthesize xeronine. To make matters worse, the presence of many environment altoxins actually blocks the production of xeronine as well. He believes that the proxeronine content of Hawaiin noni fruit juice can help to block these actions, thereby working as an antiaging compound.26 The phytonutrients found in noni assist in promot - ing cell nourishment and prot ect ion from free radicals created by exposure to pollution and other potentially damaging agents. In addition, Morinda citrifolia contains selenium, which is considered one of the best antioxidant compounds available.

    Diabetes

    While scientific studies are lacking in this particular application of noni, Hawaiians used various parts of the plant and its fruit to treat blood sugar disorders. Anecdotal surveys have found t hat noni is current ly recommended for anyone with diabetes.

    Pain Killer

    A 1990 study found that extracts derived from the Morinda citrifolia root have the ability to kill pain in animal experiments.27 Interest ingly, it was during this study that the natural sedative action of the root was also noted. This study involved a French team of scientists who noted a significant central analgesic activity in laboratory mice.28 Dr. Heinicke has stated, “Xeronine also acts as a pain reliever. A man wit h very advanced int est inal cancer was given three months to live. He began taking the proxeronine and lived for a whole year, pain-free.” 29

    Skin Healing Agent

    One of the most prevalent hist rical uses of noni was in poultice form for cuts, wounds, abrasions, burns and bruises. Using its fruit extract for very serious burns has resulted in some extraordinary healing. Because skin is comprised of protein, it immediately responds to the presence of xeronine.

    burn site throught he direct application of a noni poultice is considered quite effective by Dr. Heinicke and his colleagues, who have studied enzymatic therapy. Concerning burns, he has written: I believe that each tissue has cells which contain proteins which have receptor sites for the absorption of xeronine. Certain of these proteins are the inert for ms of enzymes which require absorbed xeronine to become active. This xeronine, by converting the body’s procol- langenase system into a specific protease, quickly and safely removes the dead tissue from burns.30

    Drug Addiction

    The xeronine link to treat ing drug addiction is based on the notion that flooding t he brain with extra xeronine can reverse the neurochemical basis for addiction. This natural alkaloid is thought to normalize brain receptors which subsequent ly results in the cessation of physiological dependence on a certain chemical like nicotine.3 1 The potential of Hawaiin noni as a natural stimulat or for t he production of xeronine may have profound implications in treating various types of addictions.

    Complementary Agents of Noni

  • cat’s claw papaya
  • kava kava
  • pau d’arco
  • bioflavonoids
  • selenium
  • germanium
  • grapeseed extract
  • echinacea
  • proteolytic enzymes
  • aloe vera
  • glucosamine
  • shark
  • cartilage

    PrimaryApplications of Noni

  • abrasions
  • arthritis
  • atherosclerosis
  • bladder infections
  • boils bowel disorders
  • burns cancer
  • chronicfatigue syndrome
  • circulatory weakness
  • colds congest ion
  • cold sores constipation
  • depression diabetes
  • eye inf lammations fever
  • fract ures gastric ulcers
  • gingivit is headaches
  • high blood pressure immune
  • weakness
  • indigestion intestinal parasites
  • kidney disease menstrual



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    Gamma E 400 Complex - Vitamin E with Powerful Tocotrienols
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 29, 2005 10:50 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Gamma E 400 Complex - Vitamin E with Powerful Tocotrienols

    Gamma E Complex for better health

    Source Naturals brings you a better way of life with breakthrough research in vitamin E, the second most-recommended daily supplement today after multivitamins. No doubt you’ve heard how important vitamin E is to your health, but did you know that all vitamin E supplements are not alike? The bottle many people grab is usually a type of vitamin E chemically known as d-alpha tocopherol. Yet vitamin E is actually a general name for a whole family of compounds—and gamma E is gaining attention as a highly significant and potent form. Only Source Naturals GAMMA E 400 COMPLEX contains all four natural tocopherol forms, supplying 400 mg of gamma E tocopherol, 200 IU of alpha tocopherol, plus 5 mg of all four tocotrienols. And it takes the whole family together as they naturally occur, to derive the synergistic benefits of this remarkable vitamin.

    Vitamin E refers to eight related, lipidsoluble antioxidant compounds widely distributed in plants and especially in vegetable oils: the tocopherol sub-family (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-) and tocotrienol sub-family (alpha-tocotrienol, beta-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol and delta-tocotrienol). These vital antioxidants are effective against free radicals inside the cell because they are fat-soluble and can pass through the lipid layer of the cell membrane. The American diet is naturally high in gamma E tocopherol compared to alpha—and research now indicates there may be a good reason for this.

    The Missing Link?

    Since alpha tocopherol has historically been the major form sold, gamma tocopherol received little attention. But new research demonstrates that gamma-tocopherol may be the missing link to advanced cardiovascular protection. The combination of vitamin E tocopherols— particularly those with a high gamma-toalpha ratio—is a more potent antioxidant than alpha-tocopherol alone. Gamma-tocopherol protects against peroxynitrite free radicals and lipid peroxidative damage. Research has shown that gamma can inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX-2) activity, the production of irritating prostaglandin E2, and protect against nitrogen-based free radicals as well as afford improved cardiovascular support. Gamma has also been shown to support the activity of the alpha form as well as offer activity of its own—gamma supplementation results in an increase in alpha tocopherol concentrations in the body, whereas taking alpha only may suppress or decrease tissue gamma tocopherol. The eight forms of E are wisely delivered in a base of sesame oil, which is naturally high in gamma tocopherol and other components, including restorative lignans.

    Your Source of Advanced Nutrition

    Epidemiological research and clinical trials have suggested that vitamin E can help maintain healthy blood sugar levels, support healthy cholesterol levels, provide positive effects on the growth and regulation of cells and tissues and even nerve transmission. Source Naturals GAMMA E 400 COMPLEX is the most advanced form of this essential vitamin. We are dedicated to bringing you the finest nutrients modern research has to offer and a better way of life through optimal nutrition and a healthy lifestyle. Make GAMMA-E 400 COMPLEX part of your health plan for more complete nutrition.

    References
    Li, D et al. 2001. Different isoforms of tocopherols enhance nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and inhibit human platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation: implications in therapy with vitamin E. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 6 (2): 155-161. Jiang, Qing et al. 2001. Gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 74:714-22. Nesaretnam, et al. 2000. Tocotrienols inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 51, S95-S103.



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    L-ARGININE - For Increased Circulation
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 29, 2005 10:16 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: L-ARGININE - For Increased Circulation

    L-Arginine

    L-Arginine is an amino acid present in the proteins of all life forms. Under normal circumstances your body can synthesize sufficient quantities from your diet to meet your needs, but in times of stress conditions, such as trauma and wound healing, you may not be able to manufacture enough. L-Arginine’s primary function involves the metabolism of protein and nitrogen. But the scientific community recently became excited about arginine’s newfound role as a promoter of cardiovascular health. L-Arginine is the primary precursor to nitric oxide, a small molecule that is responsible for relaxing blood vessels. If you are among the many people concerned about your circulatory health, then L-arginine should be a part of your wellness program. Source Naturals L-ARGININE is available in 500 mg tablets or capsules and the convenient higher potency 1,000 mg tablets.

    L-Arginine is an amino acid that is found in most proteins consumed in your diet. A small amount is produced in the liver but it is predominantly synthesized in the kidneys. L-Arginine has several roles in the body, such as assisting in wound healing, helping remove excess ammonia from the body, stimulating immune function, and promoting secretion of several hormones, including glucagons, insulin, and growth hormone. It plays an important role in muscle metabolism by working to transport, store and excrete nitrogen. L-Arginine is required by the body to synthesize nitric oxide, which is produced by all tissues of the body, and plays important roles in the cardiovascular system, immune system and nervous system. Nitric oxide supports blood vessel dilation, which may help circulation.

    Cardiovascular Support

    L-Arginine is a nitric oxide precursor. Nitric oxide is formed from arginine via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase or synthasetase (NOS). One of its functions is to regulate smooth muscle contraction. Nitric oxide’s effect on blood vessels is the reason nitroglycerine is prescribed for patients with pain that results from inadequate blood flow to the heart. The nitroglycerine is converted to nitric oxide, which relaxes blood vessels and in turn reduces the workload of the heart.

    Protein Metabolism

    L-Arginine is a key nutrient in the energy generating Krebs cycle, where it participates in the detoxification of ammonia. Ammonia is a toxic byproduct of energy metabolism. It is converted to urea and eliminated from the body. Any L-arginine not converted to urea enters general circulation, where it is distributed to various tissues and metabolized for other uses such as protein synthesis.

    A Wellness Revolution – Taking Charge of Your Health

    Taking personal responsibility for your health is at the heart of the wellness revolution. Mainstream health care has still not caught up to this wellness approach that health food stores have been promoting for decades. Source Naturals is committed to bringing you effective, safe, advanced natural products like L-ARGININE for your lifelong health.

    References:
    Lerman, A. et al. 1998. Long-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans. Circulation. 97:2123-2128. Creager M. et al. 1992. L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Clin Invest. 90:1248-1253. Moncada S., Higgs A. 1993. The LArginine –Nitric Oxide Pathway. The New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (27):2002-2012.



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    ENDNOTES
    TopPreviousNext

    Date: June 23, 2005 11:50 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: ENDNOTES

    ENDNOTES


    1 G.A. Cordell and O.E. Araujo, “Capsaicin: Identification, nomenclature, and pharmacotherapy.” Ann. Pharmacother. 27: 1993, 330-336.
    2 A.Y. Leung. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in Food. (John Wiley and Sons, New York: 1980.
    3 Cordell, 330-36.
    4 J.J. Jang, D.E. Defor, D.L. Logsdon and J.M. Ward. “A 4-week feeding study of ground red chile (Capsicum annuum) in male mice.” F o o d - C h e m - T o x i c o l . S e p t . 1992 30 (9): 783-7.
    5 John R. Christopher. Capsicum. (Christopher Publications, Springville, Utah: 1980), 27.
    6 Jack Ritchason. The Little Herb Encyclopedia, 3rd ed. (Woodland Publishing, Pleasant Grove, Utah: 1994), 44.
    7 Christopher, 4.
    8 Juliette Bairacli-Levy. Common Herbs for Natural Health. (Schocken Books, New York: 1974), 41-43.
    9 Charles B. Heiser. Nightshades. (W.H. Freeman, San Francisco: 1969), 18.
    10 Lenden H. Smith, M.D., E.P. Donatelle, M.D., Vaughn Bryant, Ph.D. et al. Basic Natural Nutrition. (Woodland Books, Pleasant Grove, Utah: 1984), 157.
    11 J. Jurenitsch et al. “Identification of cultivated taxa of Capsicum: taxonomy, anatomy and composition of pungent principle.” Chemical Abstracts. 91 July 30, 1977: 35677g.
    12 Daniel B. Mowrey. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. (Keats Publishing, New Canaan, Connecticut: 1986), 159.
    13 Ibid., 208-09.
    14 Michael T. Murray. The Healing Power of Herbs, 2nd ed. (Prima Publishing, Prima, California: 1995), 71.
    15 J. De Lille and E. Ramirez. “Pharmacodynamic action of the active principles of chile (capsicum annuum L.) Anales Inst. Biol. 1935: 6, 23-37. See also C.C. Toh, T.S. Lee et al. “The pharmacological actions of capsaicin and its analogues.” B r i t i s h Journal of Pharmacology. 1955: 10, 175-182.
    16 N.A. Castle. “Differential inhibition of potassium currents in rat ventricular myocytes by capsaicin.” Cardiovasc-Res. Nov. 1992, 26 (11): 1137-44.
    17 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 72.
    18 Ritchason, 46.
    19 T. Kawada, et al. “Effects of capsaicin on lipid metabolism in rates fed a high fat diet.” Journal of Nutrition. 1986: 116, 1272-78. See also J.P. Wang, et al. “Antiplatelet effect of capsaicin.” Thrombosis Res. 1984: 36, 497-507, and S. Visudhiphan, et al. “The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1982: 35, 1452-58.
    20 K. Sambaiah and N. Satyanarayana. “Hpocholesterolemic effect of red pepper and capsaicin.” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1980: 18, 898-99. See also M.R. Srinivasan, et al. “Influence of red pepper and capsaicin on growth, blood constituents and nitrogen balance in rats.” Nutrition Reports International. 1980: 21 (3): 455-67.
    21 Mowrey, 12.
    22 Ibid.
    23 Toh, 175-182.
    24 Mowrey, 12.
    25 Ibid., 19-20.
    26 Louise Tenney. The Encyclopedia of Natural Remedies. (Woodland Publishing, Pleasant Grove, Utah: 1995), 42. See also Peter Holmes. The Energetics of Western Herbs. (Artemis Press, Boulder: 1989), 322.
    27 Y. Lee, et al. “Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars.” Journal of Food Science. May 1995: 60 (3): 473-76. See also L.R. Howard, et al. “Provitamin A and ascorbic acid content of fresh pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum) and processed jalapenos.” Journal of Food Science. M a r c h , 1994: 59 (2): 362-65.
    28 J.J. Espinosa-Aguirre, et al. “Mutagenic activity of urban air samples and its modulation by chile extracts.” Mutat-Res. Oct. 1993: 303 (2): 55-61.
    29 Ibid.
    30 Howard, 362-65.
    31 Z. Zhang, S.M. Hamilton, et al. “Inhibition of liver microsomal cytochrome P450 activity and metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK by capsaicin and ellagic acid.” Anticancer-Res. Nov-Dec. 1993: 13 (6A): 2341-46.
    32 C.H. Miller, Z. Zhang, et al. “Effects of capsaicin on liver microsomal metabolism of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK.” Cancer-Lett. Nov. 30, 1993: 75 (1): 45- 52.
    33 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 71.
    34 Cordell, 330-36. See also Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 70-71.
    35 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 72.
    36 C.P.N. Watson, et al. “The post-mastectomy pain syndrome and the effect of topical capsaicin.” Pain. 1989: 38, 177-86. See also C.P.N. Watson and R.J. Evans. “The post-mastectomy pain syndrome and topical capsaicin: A randomized trial.” Pain. 1992: 51, 375-79.
    37 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 73.
    38 Watson, 177-86.
    39 C. Nelson. “Heal the burn: Pepper and lasers in cancer pain therapy.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1994: 86, 1381.
    40 Ibid.
    41 “The capsaicin study group: Effect of treatment with capsaicin on daily activities of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.” Diabetes Care. 1992: 15, 159-65. See also R. Tanden, et al. “Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy. Effect on sensory function.” Diabetes Care. 1992: 15, 8-14, K.M. Basha and F.W. Whitehouse. “Capsaicin: A therapeutic option for painful diabetic neuropathy.” Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal. 1991: 39, 138-40, and M.A. Pfeifer, et al. “A highly successful and novel model for treatment of chronic painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.” Diabetes Care. 1993: 16, 1103-15.
    42 R. Tanden, et al. “Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy: controlled study with long- term follow-up.” Diabetes Care. Jan. 1992: 15 (1): 8-14.
    43 Ibid.
    44 J.E. Bernstein, et al. “Topical capsaicin treatment of chronic post-herpetic neuralgia (shingles) with topical capsaicin. A preliminary study. Journal of American Academy of Dermatologists. 1987: 17, 93-96. See also Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 72.
    45 Sid Kircheimer. The Doctor’s Book of Home Remedies. (Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania: 1993), 228.
    46 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 74.
    47 G.M. McCarthy and D.J. McCarty. “Effect of topical capsaicin in therapy of painful osteoarthritis of the hands.” Journal Rheumatol. 1992: 19, 604-07. See also C. L Deal, et al. “Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: A double blind trial.” Clinical Therapy. 1991: 13, 383-95.
    48 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 74.
    49 Kircheimer, 14.
    50 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 74.
    51 Michael T. Murray, N.D. and Joseph Pizzorno, N.D. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. (Prima Publishing, Rocklin, California: 1991), 419.
    52 J. Y. Kang, et al. “The effect of chile ingestion of gastrointestinal mucosal proliferation and azoxymethane-induced cancer in the rat.” Journal of Gastroenterology- Hepatol. Mar-Apr. 1992: 7 (2): 194-98.
    53 K. G. Yeoh, et al. “Chile protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans.” Dig-Dis-Sci. Mar. 1995: 40 (3): 580-83.
    54 Ibid.
    55 Ibid.
    56 L. Limlomwongse, et al. “Effect of capsaicin on gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow in the rat.” Journal of Nutrition. 1979: 109, 773-
    77. See also T. Kolatat and D. Chungcharcon. “The effect of capsaicin on smooth muscle and blood flow of the stomach and the intestine.” Siriraj Hospital Gazette. 1972: 24, 1405-18, O. Ketusinh, et al. “Influence of capsaicin solution on gastric acidities.” A m e r i c a n Journal of Proceedings. 1966: 17, 511-15, and Mowrey, 48.
    57 Mowrey, 48 and Limlomwongse, 773-77.
    58 M. Horowitz, et al. “The effect of chile on gastrointestinal transit.” Journal of Gastroenterology-Hepatol. Jan-Feb, 1992 7 (1): 52-56.:
    59 Christopher Hobbs. “Cayenne, This Popular Herb is Hot.” Let’s Live. April 1994: 55.
    60 V. Badmaev and M. Majeed. “Weight loss, the Ayurvedic system.” Total Health. Aug, 1995: 17 (4): 32-35.
    61 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 75.
    62 C.N. Ellis, et al. “A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1993: 29 (3): 438-42.
    63 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 75.
    64 S. Marabini, et al. “Beneficial effect of intranasal applications of capsaicin in patients with vasomotor rhinitis.” Eur Arch-Otorhinolaryngol. 1991: 248 (4): 191-94.
    65 Ibid.
    66 Mowrey, 242.
    67B. Dib. “Effects of intrathecal capsaicin on autonomic and behavioral heat loss responses in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1987: 28, 65-70.
    68 Murray, The Healing Power of Herbs, 72.
    69 Christopher, 31.
    70 M. Ponce, et al. “ In vitro effect against giardia of 14 plant extracts.” Rev-Invest-Clin. Sept- Oct. 1994: 46 (5): 343-47.
    71 Ibid.
    72 Humbart Santillo. Natural Healing with Herbs. (Hohm Press, Prescott, Arizona: 1993), 100.
    73 Daniel B. Mowrey. “Capsicum ginseng and gotu kola in combination.” The Herbalist premier issue, 1975: 22-28.
    74 Ibid.
    75 Mowrey, The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine, 102.
    76 J. Roquebert, et al. “Study of vasculotropic properties of Capsicum annuum.” Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises. 1978: 36 (7-8): 361-68.
    77 Rita Elkins. Depression and Natural Medicine. (Woodland Publishing, Pleasant Grove, Utah: 1995), 161.



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    Pep Up and Go!
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    Date: June 14, 2005 05:45 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Pep Up and Go!

    Pep Up and Go!

    by Harris Parker Energy Times, February 2, 2000

    Feel your energy flagging?

    You've lost count of the number of phone calls you fielded all afternoon-the last was from your son, who missed the late bus home from school-and colleagues needing your decision are lined up outside your office. Your husband has invited clients home for dinner. You wilt like a new hairdo on a damp August day and pray for a miracle to jump-start your engine.

    Your pep quotient depends on three essential ingredients: nutrients you consume through your diet and supplements, how much you exercise and your sleep schedule.(Of course, if you're troubled by any kind of disabling, ceaseless fatigue accompanied by mental fuzziness, joint pain, sore throat, swollen glands, headaches and other chronic distress, consult your health practitioner.)

    Vitamins and Energy

    Certain nutrients are called vitamins because scientists consider them to be crucial for vitality. They generally function as coenzymes, partnering with the enzymes that are catalysts for the chemical reactions constantly taking place in our bodies. Our need to replenish our store of vitamins, which may merge with cell, muscle, enzyme, hormone, blood and bone structure once they have been absorbed, depends on their rate of utilization, according to The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book (Avery) by Shari Lieberman, PhD, and Nancy Bruning.

    While a low-fat diet rich in raw fruits and vegetables helps supply important nutrients, a B complex supplement and a balanced multivitamin can guarantee daily vitamin levels.

    Be Energetic with B Vitamins

    Vitamins, especially the B vitamins, play extremely important roles in producing cellular energy. The chart on page 39 lists the key vitamins and describes their effects as well as the consequences of not getting enough of them. Their benefit is felt most profoundly in the energy producing process known as the Krebs cycle (which we'll explain in a moment).

    Vitamins B2 and B3, for example, supply the major building blocks for substances that are called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and FADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and NADH), which are critical elements of energy production in the Krebs cycle as well as a process called oxidative phosphorylation.

    Hundreds of Reactions

    Even though you may never have heard of NAD and NADH, these molecules are found in very many places throughout your body; they play a role in hundreds of biochemical reactions in all kinds of cells. B vitamins also combine with other materials to build coenzymes, chemicals which help form other chemicals necessary for cellular energy. B vitamins are crucial: miss out on one or more and you may break these metabolic chains necessary for peak energy.

    Energy to Spend

    The main energy currency of every cell single cell is ATP: a chemical called adenosine triphosphate. This material is used by cells for every imaginable task including reproduction, growth, movement and metabolism. Specialized metabolic cycles within the cell are designed to generate ATP.

    Consequently, the more ATP our cells create, the more energy can be generated. The raw materials used to make cellular energy are glucose (blood sugar) and "free" fatty acids. The best way to supply your cells with the sugar they need is to consume complex carbohydrates which also supply fiber and other nutrients. When you eat carbohydrates, they are made into glucose which is stored as a starch called glycogen in muscles and the liver. Your body can rapidly turn glycogen into glucose for extra energy. (The process of making energy from glycogen yields carbon dioxide and water as well as ATP.)

    Making Energy

    The first step in making glucose into energy is called glycolysis. This complicated process requires nine different steps. During these steps, glucose is made into a substance called pyruvate. The process of glycolysis requires ATP, but yields twice as much ATP as is present when it starts.

    From here, the process gets a little more complicated as pyruvate enters into a complex chain of events in tiny cellular structures called mitochondria. (Many metabolic events take place in the mitochondria.) The pyruvate molecules are converted to a molecule known as acetyl coenzyme A and eventually made into carbon dioxide, water and more ATP.

    This process is known as the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle. It also involves a series of events known as oxidative phosphorylation in which NADH formed during the Krebs cycle is oxidized to form ATP.

    Why is fat such a concentrated source of energy? Free fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle to help generate ATP much more efficiently than glucose - producing roughly six times more energy per gram than glucose.

    And Don't Overlook. . . . . .other supplements that may aid energy production: • Alpha Lipoic Acid, an antioxidant that works in the fatty tissues of cell membranes and in cells' watery interiors • Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone as it exists everywhere in the body, acts like a vitamin because it stimulates some reactions. CoQ10 protects cell membranes, especially of the heart, against oxidation and toxins.

    Ginsengs: Energy Generators

    With their legendary and slightly mysterious characteristics, the ginsengs are greatly respected natural energy boosters. " Perhaps no herb has excited so much interest in medical circles as ginseng, and yet, strangely, it does not actually 'cure' any one particular ailment," reports Michael Hallowell, the author of Herbal Healing (Avery) and a frequent lecturer on botanic medicine. "Rather, its virtue lies in its tremendous power as a tonic and invigorator. Russian athletes are prescribed large amounts of ginseng because researchers in Moscow have shown that it not only improves stamina, but also increases the efficiency with which blood is pumped to the muscles."

    What are the physiological mechanisms that allow ginseng to bolster your get up and go? In order to unravel the legend and lore of ginseng, the first step is understanding the intricacies of the three types: • Asian (Panax ginseng), which produces the strongest and most profound stimulation; • American (Panax quinquefolium), which soothes at a more subtle level; • Siberian (Eleutherococcus senticosus), a stamina booster embraced by a wide range of athletes. All three varieties are treasured for their ability to help people adjust to stress.

    Biologically Active

    The ginsengs are adaptogens, "biologically active substances found in certain herbs and plants that help the body and mind adapt to the changes and stress of life," says Stephen Fulder, MD, author of The Book of Ginseng and Other Chinese Herbs for Vitality (Inner Traditions). "Stress is not an illness in itself. Stress is change, our ability to adapt to all the changes that occur in life, emotional or physical, from exercise, work, chemicals, drugs, food, radiation, bacteria, disease, temperature, or simply too many late nights or too much fun."

    The body reacts to stress by producing the hormone adrenaline, which throws the whole body into a state of alert. Metabolism, blood pressure and circulation accelerate; immunity and resistance drastically decline; performance suffers.

    Top-Notch Tonics

    Enter the ginsengs, with their varied, subtle tonic qualities. The Greek name for this herb, "panax," means "panacea" or cure-all. But the Chinese, who first referred to it 2,000 years ago, more literally called it "ren shen" or "person root," in reference to its physical resemblance to a miniature human form.

    " Most exhibit medicinal properties, but each species has a different chemical makeup and has a unique application in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)," says Kim Derek Pritts, author of Ginseng: How to Find, Grow and Use America's Forest Gold (Stackpole). "In general, all true ginseng contains biologically active saponins (chemicals similar to human hormones), essential oils, carbohydrates, sugars, organic acids, nitrogenous substances, amino acids, peptides, vitamins and minerals."

    Building Vital Energy

    All the ginsengs strengthen, nourish and build Qi, the TCM concept describing basic vital energy circulating through our bodies. Every physical and mental function, from breathing, thinking, nutrition and circulation, is regulated by Qi. Although many of the Native American tribes used the abundant, indigenous Panax quinquefolium ginseng extensively, particularly to increase mental acuity and boost fertility, the herb never has been as popular in North America as it is in Asia. American ginseng traditionally has been a lucrative export crop to China, where the wild native variety suffers from overharvesting. Even today, according to Paul Bergner in The Healing Power of Ginseng & the Tonic Herbs (Prima), 95% of the American ginseng crop is exported to China, where XiYang Shen, or "western sea root," as it is called, is immensely valued and costs double what it does here.

    Energy Boost

    Jacques MoraMarco, author of The Complete Ginseng Handbook: A Practical Guide for Energy, Health and Longevity (Contemporary), as well as a licensed acupuncturist and doctor of Eastern medicine, suggests American ginseng for a slight energy boost. The moderate effect of American ginseng is considered a more appropriate tonic to the intensity of our pace and diet.

    Variations on a Theme

    In TCM terms, American ginseng cools and moistens, as well as lubricates and strengthens the body. It is reputed to reduce fevers and night sweats and alleviate hot, dry lung problems like smoker's cough. With its emollient qualities, American ginseng is considered to treat dry, wrinkled skin effectively.

    The Bolder Energizer

    Asian ginseng, which includes red Korean panax, is a bolder energizer taken by those who feel depleted from anemia, blood loss, cardiovascular weakness, injury, shock or trauma, as well as the disabling effects of age. In general, Asian ginseng is warming and stimulating, urging the body to run faster.

    Siberian ginseng, though botanically not a true ginseng, still acts similarly to Asian ginseng in its reputed power to control stress, boost energy, support the immune system, enhance performance and increase longevity. Called Wu Cha Seng in Chinese, Siberian ginseng is perceived by natural practitioners as an ideal herb for the healthy who want to lift both stamina and endurance. Experts believe it counteracts the effects of cortisol, the stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to injury, pain or emotional turmoil.

    Natural Energy Boosters

    The herbal pharmacopeia includes several other natural energy boosters available in various forms-shakes and bars for those on the run-loaded with nutrition absent from commercial snacks. Some choices: • Ginkgo biloba-used in Chinese medicine to heat the body and increase sexual energy. Ginkgo enthusiasts take this herb to increase the supply of oxygen to the brain and generally increase circulation. • Gotu kola-may stimulate the central nervous system and help eliminate excess fluid, thereby reducing fatigue. • Astragalus-a Chinese herb that enhances energy and builds the immune system. It is credited with strengthening digestion, improving metabolism, increasing appetite, combating diarrhea and healing sores. • Schisandra-also a Chinese herb, treats respiratory illness, insomnia and irritability and rejuvenates sexual energy. Its mild adaptogens help the body to handle stress. • Licorice-is a favored endocrine toner in Chinese medicine. It is reputed to support the adrenals, the pair of small glands directly above the kidneys that secrete steroidal hormones, norepinephrine and epinephrine, the "fight or flight" hormones. People with high blood pressure or edema, or pregnant women, should avoid it. • Ashwagandha-an Ayurvedic herb used for thousands of years in the traditional healing of India as a potent strength builder for men and women.

    Experienced herbal practitioners acquire an impressive and fascinating store of knowledge and experience-you'll find it helpful to visit one as you begin your course of ginseng or other energy-boosting herbs.

    TCM Visitation

    When you visit a TCM practitioner, you'll notice that she evaluates your body's condition through an extremely careful examination of all the different systems: Several pulse points are felt in order to ferret out and detect troubling abnormalities. The condition and color of the tongue is observed to decipher digestive disorders. In addition, your urine may be examined to determine other imbalances and specific health problems.

    In many cases, your TCM practitioner will recommend ginseng as an adaptogen that can give you an overall boost. When taking ginseng, follow the directions on the package. Note: in some cases, you may want to consume a little bit less if you suffer headaches, insomnia or high blood pressure. Consult your health practitioner if you are afflicted with either acute inflammatory disease or bronchitis.

    Then take comfort in the eternal soothing wisdom of Chinese Traditional Medicine. In the first century A.D., the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (The Divine Husbandman's Classic of the Materia Medica) effusively described ginseng and the tonic herbs in this beguiling and intriguing manner: "The first class of drugs...are considered to perform the work of sovereigns. They support human life and they resemble heaven. They are not poisonous regardless of the quality and duration of administration."



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    Your Healthy Harvest
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    Date: June 14, 2005 11:05 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Your Healthy Harvest

    Your Healthy Harvest by Marjorie Flakowitz Energy Times, August 15, 2004

    Once frowned on by conventional farmers, organic food has won respect from everyone concerned about the health of both the earth and the people who inhabit it.

    Today, organic farming is considered one of the most rapidly growing areas of American agriculture. Organic foods sales topped $9 billion in 2002 and grew about 20%, up to almost $11 billion in 2003 (Organic Trade Association).

    So when you buy organic, you join an expanding market that takes advantage of great-tasting, good-for-you food. Long ago, when the practice of farming was first devised, all farming was organic farming. So today's organic movement is bringing farming back to its roots.

    But, safe to say, that is not what's motivating most consumers. A main reason for the popularity of organic food derives from the reassurance that organic foods, raised without artificial chemicals and pesticides, cut your exposure to toxic residues. A growing body of research shows organic food is richer in beneficial natural substances, too.

    " Organic food and organic farming represent a philosophy that goes beyond just the quality of the food," says Steve Meyerowitz in The Organic Food Guide (Globe Pequot). "It strives to maintain the integrity of the entire food chain-plants, soil, air, water, animals and people. We are all part of the same ecosystem."

    By eating organic, you eliminate pollution both from your body and the earth. Because our bodies are made of the animal and plant products we consume, our internal, physiological ecosystem and the earth's environment are inexorably entwined.

    Chilling Arctic Evidence

    As evidence of this connection, consider what's happened in the Arctic. Researchers who have analyzed Arctic water, ice, snow, soil and plants have found that chemicals used in farming and industry in other parts of the world have traveled north and accumulated in alarming quantity. How and if these chemicals break down depends on sunlight and the amount of organic matter contained in Arctic waters (American Chemical Society, 9/11/03).

    " Once pollutants enter the water column, their behavior is poorly understood-particularly the processes that govern their lifetime and concentrations," says Amanda Grannas, PhD, a researcher at Ohio State University. "Such pollutants are now being found in wildlife, from fish to seals to whales, and even in people living in the Arctic."

    Dr. Grannas and others looked at the pesticides lindane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), two chemicals that have migrated to Arctic waters. Lindane is used by American farmers to treat seeds before they are planted. HCB, banned in the US in 1984, is still used in other countries to protect wheat from fungus.

    The scientists found that sunlight at the top of Arctic waterways can help break down some pesticides. At lower depths, however, cut off from the sun's rays, pesticides can remain largely intact. In this research, lindane proved to persist much more readily than HCB.

    " Lindane is one of the most persistent of pollutants," warns Dr. Grannas. "This could be because it's photochemically inert, whereas pollutants like HCB degrade relatively quickly. The main message is that pollutants can behave quite differently. These pollutants already affect local ecosystems, and could have repercussions for human health."

    Organics Means More Benefits

    Researchers are also finding that organic produce contains larger quantities of beneficial natural chemicals. For instance, one study (Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2/26/03) showed that berries and corn grown organically can have almost 60% more polyphenolics. Polyphenolics are antioxidants plants use for protection against disease and which are good for humans. Researchers believe that when crops are grown conventionally, protected by pesticides and herbicides, they produce fewer of these substances. " This really opens the door to more research in this area," says Alyson Mitchell, PhD, assistant professor of food science at University of California at Davis, who led the research.

    These scientists compared levels of total polyphenolics and vitamin C content in marionberries (a type of blackberry) and corn grown organically, sustainably or conventionally, and also looked at chemicals in strawberries grown either sustainably or conventionally. (Sustainable farming falls between the organic and conventional methods, and concentrates on farming that's self-sufficient-for example, feeding cows hay you've grown yourself, and then using the cows' manure to fertilize another crop.) They found that organic marionberries and corn had 50% to 58% more polyphenolics. The sustainably grown strawberries had 19% more polyphenolics. And all the organic produce contained more vitamin C.

    Self-Defense for Plants

    According to Dr. Mitchell, the organic crops contained the high levels of polyphenolics you'd expect to find in wild plants, suggesting that, on conventional farms, pesticides reduce the necessity for plants to make these protective, natural chemicals. " If an aphid is nibbling on a leaf, the plant produces phenolics to defend itself," she says. "[P]henolics guard the plant against these pests."

    Pesticides kill insects like aphids and thereby reduce the antioxidants produced by the plant. " This helps explain why the level of antioxidants is so much higher in organically grown food," Mitchell says. "By synthetically protecting the produce from these pests, we decrease their need to produce antioxidants. It suggests that maybe we are doing something to our food inadvertently.

    " We know [polyphenolics] are beneficial [to human health], but we don't know what types of polyphenolics are beneficial, or in what quantities," Dr. Mitchell notes. " Originally, the question was just really intriguing to me. I found that the higher level of antioxidants is enough to have a significant impact on health and nutrition, and it's definitely changed the way I think about my food."

    Vitamin C in Oranges

    Meanwhile, nutritional research on the vitamin C in oranges turns up similar results: organic oranges are richer in this antioxidant nutrient than conventionally grown oranges (Great Lakes Regional Meeting, American Chemical Society, 6/2/02).

    The more common supermarket oranges are significantly larger than organically grown oranges, and they have a deeper orange color. Because of their larger size, "we were expecting twice as much vitamin C in the conventional oranges," says Theo Clark, PhD, chemistry professor at Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri.

    But when he isolated the chemicals in the oranges and further refined his search with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectroscopy demonstrated that organically grown oranges possess 30% more vitamin C than the conventionally grown fruits-even though they are only about half as large.

    Dr. Clark isn't sure why organic oranges are richer in vitamin C, but he says, "...[W]e speculate that with conventional oranges, [farmers] use nitrogen fertilizers that cause an uptake of more water, so it sort of dilutes the orange. You get a great big orange but it is full of water and does not have as much nutritional value.

    " However, we can only speculate. Other factors such as maturity, climate, processing factors, packaging and storage conditions require consideration." Along with analyzing oranges, Dr. Clark and his research team questioned about 70 people to measure their concept of the nutritional value of organic oranges. In this survey, 85% of the respondents thought that organic oranges have a higher nutritional content than conventionally grown fruit.

    Dr. Clark's laboratory work shows that "they were right on." In Dr. Clark's view, these issues are important because consumers have a right to know the real nutritional content of organic produce, and the fact that analyses show that organic fruit has much more vitamin C validates the benefits of eating organic.

    Defense Mechanism

    Both plants and animals protect themselves from disease with many of the same chemicals. The natural substances that, in a farmer's field, defend vegetables from insects and microbes before they are harvested for your dinner go to work defending your body after you eat and digest them.

    When you eat organic you bolster your health with more of these natural wonders. No wonder organic is becoming so popular!



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    Certified Foods
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    Date: June 12, 2005 01:59 PM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Certified Foods

    Certified Foods by Glenda Olsen Energy Times, July 13, 2003

    What's in your food, and where does it come from? To most American consumers, that question may seem unimportant. But the answers might surprise you. Your food's origin and processing can make a big difference in its nutritional value, for better and for worse. Increasingly, concern over the quality of food and its influence on health are persuading shoppers to take a greater interest in their food. The result: More visits to natural food stores and more sales of organic food.

    Once upon a time, food used to be just food. Crops were grown on family farms, and animals were raised in barnyards. But today, corporations have conquered food production in a big way. Agribusiness is just that-a big business in which animals and plants are treated like assembly-line items and raised on factory farms.

    Organic Regulation

    While the term "organic" gets tossed around endlessly in the media, the term is often misconstrued. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Organic food is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations. Organic meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones."

    In addition, organic farmers generally do not use pesticides, sewage sludge or synthetic fertilizers. This type of food is also produced without genetically modified organisms and is not subject to radiation used to zap the bugs on food. Today, USDA-approved certifying agents inspect the farms where organic food is raised to ensure organic standards are followed. In addition, the companies that process food and handle organic food have to be USDA-certified. Meeting these standards allows companies to use the USDA's organic label on foods that are at least 95% organic in origin. Labels for foods that contain between 70% and 95% organic content can use the words "Made With Organic Ingredients," but cannot use the seal.

    Solid Nutrition

    While the debate over the nutritional benefits of organic food has raged for decades, recent research is beginning to turn up evidence that organically grown fruits and vegetables may contain extra helpings of vitamins and other nutrients. A study at Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri, found that organically grown oranges contain more vitamin C than conventional supermarket oranges (Great Lakes Regional Meeting, Amer Chem Soc, 6/02).

    Theo Clark, PhD, the Truman State professor who investigated the organic oranges, says that when he and his students began their research, "We were expecting twice as much vitamin C in the conventional oranges" because they are larger than organic oranges. To his surprise, chemical isolation combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed that the organically grown oranges contained up to 30% more vitamin C than the conventionally grown fruits-even though they were only about half the size. "We speculate that with conventional oranges, (farmers) use nitrogen fertilizers that cause an uptake of more water, so it sort of dilutes the orange. You get a great big orange but it is full of water and doesn't have as much nutritional value," Dr. Clark says. "However, we can only speculate. Other factors such as maturity, climate, processing factors, packaging and storage conditions require consideration."

    Dodging Pesticides

    If you want to avoid pesticide residues in your food, research shows that going organic can make it much less likely that you or your family consumes these unwanted chemicals. Research, for instance, into the diets of children (Enviro Hlth Persp 3/03) shows that dining on organic fruits and vegetables, and organic juice, can lower kids' intake of pesticides.

    These scientists took a look at the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide breakdown products in the blood of kids ages two to five who ate conventional supermarket produce and compared it with the OP found in organic kids.

    The children on the organic diet had less OP in their blood than the other kids. As a matter of fact, the children on the conventional diet had six times the dimethyl metabolites, dimethyl being a pesticide suspected of affecting nerve function and growth. "Consumption of organic produce appears to provide a relatively simple way for parents to reduce their children's exposure to OP pesticides," note the researchers. "Organic foods have been growing in popularity over the last several years," says Jim Burkhart, PhD, science editor for the journal that published the study. "These scientists studied one potential area of difference from the use of organic foods, and the findings are compelling."

    GMO Development

    On the way to tonight's dinner, researchers have created genetically modified organisms (GMO), plants and animals that have been transgenically engineered. In the food world, that means organisms containing genes inserted from another species. Chances are if you eat food purchased at the typical supermarket, those comestibles contain GMO ingredients. In the United States, food companies are not required to label for GMO content.

    A growing number of American consumers are upset about not being told about the GMO products in their food. But industry scientists, worried that informed consumers may someday turn their back on GMO foods, consider consumer ignorance to be an acceptable state of affairs.

    For instance, the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) is fighting regulations that would require GMO labeling. According to ASPB President Daniel Bush, PhD, of the University of Illinois at Urbana, "The language...(in these types of regulations) is based on a system of beliefs of what is 'natural,' rather than a scientifically defined set of criteria focused on content and nutritional value. This is a radical departure from food labeling up to now, which is designed to maximize useful information for consumers concerning what is in the food they are buying."

    Dr. Bush continues, "There are, of course, examples of voluntary labeling standards in the food industry that reflect how foods are processed, such as organic foods. The voluntary organic labeling standards were sought by the organic food industry. Kosher foods are also labeled as having been produced in accordance with specific beliefs. However, mandatory labeling of targeted production methods has never before been required and we believe would obscure rather than clarify important issues of food safety."

    In other words, Dr. Bush opposes GMO labeling because he feels it would unnecessarily stigmatize GMO food items. Others are not so sanguine about the safety of GMO foods.

    GMO Objections

    The arguments against GMO foods include:

  • * The genes from GMO plants may end up in weeds and other unintended species, creating superweeds that will be difficult to eradicate. Animals, such as fish on fish farms, may interbreed with animals in the wild and cause harmful changes.

  • * People may grow ill or die from unexpected allergies to GMO foods (NEJM 1996; 334(11):688-92).

  • * GMO plants may harm other wildlife, such as butterflies, that depends on pollen from these plants (Nature May 1999; 399(6733):214).

    These types of risks have motivated industry groups to urge more regulation of GMO crops. The Food Marketing Institute, the Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA) and the National Restaurant Association, plus seven other food groups, are worried that GMO plants grown to produce pharmaceutical drugs could contaminate the food supply and destroy consumer trust in food.

    Mary Sophos, a vice president of GMA, warns, "To minimize the possible risks, a clear system of regulatory enforcement and liability needs to be in place. Until then, no permits for new field trials or for commercialization should be issued because there is no room for trial and error."

    These food industry groups have voiced their concerns to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the USDA. Last year, the USDA forced ProdiGene Inc., a biotech firm, to dispose of 500,000 bushels of soybeans contaminated with a drug meant to treat diabetes. What are the chances of more GMO accidents? No one knows. But if you buy and eat organic, you minimize your risk and maximize your chances of dining on safer food.



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    AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN
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    Date: June 09, 2005 09:48 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN

    Amino Acids

    AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN

    Next to water, protein is the most abundant substance in the human body. Complex mega-molecules of protein are the structural building blocks of tissue. The thousands of different proteins in our bodies are composed of 20 molecules called amino acids. In the last 20 years, research has shown the benefits of amino acid supplementation to such diverse areas of human biochemistry as metabolism, enzyme and neurotransmitter production and antioxidant protection. Source Naturals utilizes the latest-breaking research to bring you a highly comprehensive line of amino acid supplements.

    Amino Acids

    DNA provides the instruction manual for life, RNA reads the manual and the genetic information is expressed by proteins. Proteins are the most abundant macromolecules in living cells constituting 50% or more of their dry weight. They create the structure of our cells and tissues, and play an essential role in virtually all of the biochemical events that animate those tissues.

    The term "protein" refers to a set of macromolecules that encompasses an extensive variety of structure and function&endash;from helical rods with the tensile strength of steel to elastic sheets to huge molecular machines with hinged jaws that snap closed to hold other molecules in place. Amazingly, all proteins, in their remarkable variety, are built out of a set of 20 simple molecules called amino acids.

    Amino acids are one of the four types of small molecules out of which all life is constructed. The other three are: palmitic acid (see "Essential Fatty Acids," page #), adenine and glucose. All amino acids share a common chemical "backbone" which consists of an a -carbon atom to which four substituent groups are bonded: a nitrogen-containing amino group (H2N), a carboxyl group (COOH), a hydrogen atom and an "R" group. The "R" group or side chain (figure #) varies in electric charge, size, structure and solubility in water, giving each amino acid its distinct chemical properties. Since all amino acids (except glycine) contain at least one asymmetrical carbon atom, each one exists in at least two forms: the l form and its mirror image or stereoisomer, the d form. While both forms are found in biological systems, only the l form is present in proteins.

    Amino acids are linked together like beads on a string to form proteins, sometimes called peptides because of the peptide bonds that link the amino acids together. They range in size from simple two-amino-acid dipeptides to polypeptides which contain more than 1800 connected amino acids. The chemical backbone of the amino acids and their sequence constitutes the primary structure of a protein. Polypeptide chains then fold into specific 2 and 3-dimensional configurations that are unique for each type of protein. The pattern of folds, along with the chemical nature of the amino acid side chains contained in it, give a protein its characteristic biological activity. For example, the connective tissue proteins collagen and elastin give structure to cellular organelles and tissues, while proteins called enzymes catalyze and facilitate metabolic chemical reactions.

    Nine of the 20 amino acids involved in protein synthesis are considered "essential";they cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food sources. The term "non-essential" is sometimes used to classify the other eleven amino acids. However, this word is perhaps a misnomer; a better term might be synthesizable. These amino acids are just as vital to human metabolism as the "essential" amino acids; so vital that the body can synthesize them. They are, however, more available, more versatile, and more interchangeable.

    When the presence or absence of a particular amino acid will determine whether a protein can be created or not, that amino acid is called a rate-limiting factor for that protein. For example, the tripeptide glutathione, a compound that forms an important part of the body's protective mechanisms, is made of the amino acids glutamic acid, glycine and cysteine. Glutamic acid and glycine tend to be plentiful in the diet, and can be easily interconverted. Cysteine is the rate-limiting factor for glutathione; the amount of cysteine in the diet will determine the amount of glutathione that can be manufactured by the body.

    Amino acids have a special role to play in brain nutrition, because all neurotransmitters are derived from amino acids or related compounds such as choline. Brain neurotransmitters, specifically, are biochemical keys to the workings of the mind. They are substances that perform chemical transmission of nerve impulses between neurons or between neurons and other cell types such as muscle. They work in the following way: an electric current (or action potential) travels down the length of a neuron, or nerve cell, until it reaches the synapse - a narrow gap between two cells. The incoming nerve impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitter (NT) molecules, which diffuse across the synaptic gap. The neurotransmitter molecules bind with receptor proteins embedded in the membrane of the post synaptic neuron and activate a physiological response. Excitatory neurotransmitters propagate a new action potential while inhibitory NT's inhibit the development of new action potentials.

    The amino acid precursors of neurotransmitters are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, a structural feature of brain anatomy that prevents many substances from contacting brain tissue. Thus, it is possible to influence brain metabolism (and therefore emotional states) through the mechanism of neurotransmitter synthesis. The enhancement of neurotransmitter production is one of the most exciting advancements to occur in the field of nutrition in modern times.

    A major portion of the amino acid requirement in humans is derived from the proteins in food. Successive proteolytic enzymes attack the peptide bonds, cleaving one amino acid at a time from the polypeptide chain. Ultimately, free amino acids as well as small peptides (especially dipeptides) are absorbed through the mucosal cells of the small intestine. The small peptides are then further hydrolyzed so that only free amino acids enter the liver and portal vein. This sounds like a fairly straightforward process. However, the presence of a particular amino acid profile in a certain food does not guarantee the assimilation of those amino acids when the food is ingested. There are three types of amino acids: acidic, basic and neutral; each of these classes has a different transport mediator. Therefore, there is competition for the carrier between any two amino acids in a certain class, both in the digestive tract and at the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the isolation of "free-form" amino acids is an important aid to nutritional engineering. In many cases, the consumption of high potencies of a particular amino acid allows that nutrient to overwhelm the competition for absorption. The resulting increase in blood and tissue levels will yield the benefits conferred by that nutrient.

    The isolation of free-form amino acids is an important advancement in the field of nutrition science. Amino acid supplements offer a broad range of choices to complement your nutritional program.



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    Muscle Mass - Reach Your Maximum Muscle Potential
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    Date: June 04, 2005 09:49 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Muscle Mass - Reach Your Maximum Muscle Potential

    The serious athletes of today know how much it takes to fulfill their competitive goals: careful training, a strong will, and also the right kind of nutrition. Sports science now makes available key nutrients which help assure that strenuous workout regimes will show results. Results that are both nutritionally sound and dramatically visible, without the need for dangerous steroids or chemicals. MUSCLE MASS™ is such a state-of-the-art sports science formula.

    THE PURPOSE OF MUSCLE MASS ™ is to help translate distant goals for greater strength and power into quicker, awesome reality. It is the premier formula combining all essential nutrients known to maximize muscle development and optimize strength.

  • • Gamma Oryzanol: This safe, natural rice bran extract, heavily researched in Japan since the 1950s, is rightfully winning raves among athletes who have discovered its startling developmental properties.
  • • Ornithine: Celebrated by the Life Extension and Eat to Win books, this free-form amino acid also has noticeable building effects, and in addition, adds tone and definition to the results.
  • • Lipotropic Factors: Helping to turn excess fats into energy quickly are LCarnitine, L-Methionine, Choline, and Inositol.
  • • Branched Chain Amino Acids: L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, and L-Valine protect muscles during stressful exertion by providing extra nitrogen and energy.
  • • Special Herbs: Chosen from both the American and Chinese herbal traditions for their building and energizing qualities are Saw Palmetto, Ginseng, and others.
  • • Co-Nutrients: For the oxygenating, transporting and catalyzing contributions are included Glycine, B-5, B-6, Betaine, and Licorice Root.

    In sum, all these balanced, cutting-edge factors combine to assist you in meeting the challenges you’ve set for your body. Power, endurance, strength, tone, and the winner’s circle are now closer.



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    COLLOIDALIFE Trace Minerals - The Precious Elements of Life...
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    Date: June 01, 2005 11:41 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: COLLOIDALIFE Trace Minerals - The Precious Elements of Life...

    ColloidalLife

    Throughout history, minerals were crucial to the growth and success of civilizations. From the iron spear to the silicon chip, elements of the earth have influenced the fate of nations. Today, we’re beginning to appreciate the importance of minerals to the growth and health of the human body – especially in light of so many new challenges to our health. It’s no surprise then that trace minerals are in great demand; after all, our lives depend on them. Due to denatured soils and the widespread use of agricultural chemicals, food plants now contain fewer essential minerals. These precious elements of health are our real wealth, and like a modern gold rush, the search is on for valuable trace minerals. Unfortunately though, there’s a lot of “fools’ gold” on the market. Source Naturals built its reputation with leading-edge formulas that make a difference you can feel. Now, after very thorough research, we are proud to offer COLLOIDALIFE, the finest and safest complete trace mineral formula available today.

    The ColloidaLife Advantage

  • • 72 colloidal minerals and ionic electrolytes
  • • 20 individually produced, discrete, stable mineral colloids
  • • Trace amounts of 52 other minerals in the form of ionic electrolytes from highly purified ocean water
  • • Emulates fluid found in blood system: colloidal particles suspended in ionic fluid
  • • Neutral in taste due to its low concentrations and small particle size: can be held under the tongue or swallowed directly
  • • No toxic levels of minerals

    Minerals – the Foundation of Life

    As human beings, we are profoundly connected with our world. The elements of this earth become the minerals essential to every cell in the body. The millions of chemical reactions occurring within us each second – as molecules are continually broken down and rebuilt into necessary forms – cannot take place without enzymes; and enzymes can’t work unless they’re activated by the right mineral or vitamin. For example, magnesium is the activator mineral for over 300 different metabolic enzymes that facilitate the biochemical processes of life. Most of us are familiar with the minerals that are found in significant quantities in our bodies. We’re aware of the importance of calcium, magnesium, and potassium. There are, however, other minerals that we need in minute quantities called “trace minerals.” Though less understood, research is revealing the vital role they have in the overall structure and function of the human body. Many people are recognizing the need to supplement their diets with trace minerals such as copper, zinc, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, silver, and boron.

    Modern Agriculture and Mineral Deficiencies

    Minerals cannot be produced by the human body and therefore must be obtained from the diet. However, intense agriculture has depleted the soil of most essential minerals, returning only a few used in fertilizers to stimulate rapid plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Consequently few people get anywhere near a hundred percent of the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowances) of minerals (and these RDAs are only the minimum amount needed to avoid a full-blown deficiency condition).

    A Superior Solution

    The key to formulating colloidal trace mineral supplements is found at the molecular level. Colloids are particles in a solution that are completely dispersed and will not settle out. Many trace mineral products are just water leached through mineral deposits, and contain high levels of undesirable minerals. COLLOIDALIFE is prepared through a proprietary process whereby 20 minerals are individually prepared as colloids. These USP grade minerals are then blended with 52 charged ionic mineral electrolytes derived from highly purified ocean water. This ionic solution strengthens the net surface charge of the colloidal particle, creating a more stable colloid. The trace mineral electrolytes in COLLOIDALIFE are present in extremely small, but optimal quantities that prevent the colloids from precipitating out. Because the ionic matter is easily absorbed and is highly reactive in the body, only trace amounts of the different electrolytes are needed. COLLOIDALIFE therefore provides protection from possible deficiencies while avoiding the possibility of toxicity.

    Safety First

    Some trace mineral formulas have multi-gram per liter levels of aluminum, iron, or sulfur – much higher than desirable – as well as high amounts of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. (Although a high level of iron produces an energy rush, in the long run it may promote excessive free radicals.) Because COLLOIDALIFE’s mineral colloids are individually prepared, their quantities are specifically controlled. COLLOIDALIFE contains safe levels of the minerals that should be limited in the diet, unlike simple solutions of earth and water. The ocean water containing the ionic minerals is purified by several procedures that remove any environmental or biological contaminants.

    The Ocean Within

    The minerals in COLLOIDALIFE emulate the way minerals are carried in the blood and used by the cells: colloidal particles suspended in ionic fluid. Sea water – except for its higher salt content – has a mineral profile very compatible to that of the body’s three fluid systems: blood plasma, lymphatic, and extra-cellular. This similarity underscores our intimate connection to the earth and its oceans. Neutral in taste, Source Naturals COLLOIDALIFE can be held under the tongue for sublingual absorption, or swallowed directly. COLLOIDALIFE is the perfect solution to compensate for a mineral-poor diet that may be limiting your ability to enjoy a healthy and vital life.

    ColloidaLife – Mineral Profile*

    COLLOI D A L MI N E R A L S

    PER TSP: PER TSP:
    Boron 0.26 mcg Molybdenum 0.075 mcg Calcium 100 mcg Phosphorus 0.279 mcg Chromium 0.012 mcg Potassium 30.75 mcg Copper 0.045 mcg Rhodium 0.035 mcg Iodine 0.035 mcg Selenium 0.002 mcg Iridium 0.002 mcg Silicon 40.5 mcg Iron 0.54 mcg Silver 0.205 mcg Lithium 0.079 mcg Sulfur 12.4 mcg Magnesium 105 mcg Vanadium 0.105 mcg Manganese 1.71 mcg Zinc 33.5 mcg IONIC MI N E R A L S PER TSP: PER TSP : Antimony 0.01 mcg Neodymium 0.0005 mcg Aluminum1 0.42 mcg Nickel 0.014 mcg Arsenic2 0.0004 mcg Niobium 0.001 mcg Barium 0.24 mcg Osmium 0.00002 mcg Beryllium 0.00007 mcg Palladium 0.625 mcg Bismuth 0.0015 mcg Platinum 0.002 mcg Bromine 0.001 mcg Praseodymium 0.002 mcg Cadmium3 0.025 mcg Rhenium 0.0002 mcg Cerium 0.0001 mcg Rubidium 0.007 mcg Cesium 0.1 mcg Ruthenium 0.003 mcg Chlorine 175 mcg Samarium 0.00003 mcg Cobalt 0.0009 mcg Scandium 0.00005 mcg Dysprosium 0.00004 mcg Sodium 1.205 mg Erbium 0.00001 mcg Strontium 0.275 mcg Europium 0.0001 mcg Tantalum 4.2 mcg Fluorine 0.8 mcg Tellurium 0.001 mcg Gadolinium 0.00001 mcg Terbium 0.0001 mcg Gallium 0.005 mcg Thallium 0.0001 mcg Germanium 0.006 mcg Thorium 0.00003 mcg Gold 0.0002 mcg Thulium 0.000005 mcg Hafnium 0.00015 mcg Tin 0.22 mcg Holmium 0.0025 mcg Titanium 0.21 mcg Indium 0.13 mcg Tungsten 0.01 mcg Lanthanum 0.0025 mcg Ytterbium 0.0015 mcg Lead4 0.003 mcg Yttrium 0.015 mcg Lutetium 0.00005 mcg Zirconium 0.0015 mcg

    *minute variations may occur among lots.
    At 1 teaspoon per day, a 4 ounce bottle of ColloidaLife is a 24 day supply.
    1) 0.01% of the daily intake of aluminum in a typical diet
    2) 0.0003% of the daily intake of arsenic in a typical diet
    3) 0.08% of the daily intake of cadmium in a typical diet
    4) 0.002% of the daily intake of lead in a typical diet
    Percentages are based on estimated average U.S. daily intake per person.
    (Nutritional Biochemistry & Metabolism, edited by Maria C. Linder, 1991)



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    Methoxy Ecdysone - Build Lean Body Mass.
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    Date: May 07, 2005 11:03 AM
    Author: Darrell Miller (dm@vitanetonline.com)
    Subject: Methoxy Ecdysone - Build Lean Body Mass.

    Natural Sport

    Need an extra PUNCH to achieve that lean Body? You Need Methoxy-Ecdysone!

  • A combination of two ingredients, 5-Methyl-7-Methoxy Isoflavone and 20-Hydroxyecdynsone intended to provide nutritive support to help maximize the body's ability to use protein to support lean muscle mass as part of a healthy exercise and diet program.
  • Ecdysone is a naturally occuring phytochemical from the herb Cyanotis Vaga that is reputed to help support protein synthesis which may contribute to lean body mass.
  • 5-Methyl-7-Methoxy Isoflavone - Commonly called Methoxy or Methoxy Isoflavone is a plant compound that may help support the body's protein use and, studies suggest, may help support calcium, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen retention.
  • Methoxy Endysone 60 caps




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