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Benefits of Taking Magnesium: Why You Need This Amazing Mineral.
December 27, 2022 10:39 AM
Magnesium is an essential mineral that many people overlook, but it’s extremely important for the overall health of your body. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), more than 68% of U.S. adults don’t meet the recommended daily intake of magnesium, which is 350mgs per day. But why should you care about how much magnesium you’re consuming? Magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions and metabolic pathways in the body, so it plays a key role in our overall health and well being. Let’s take a closer look at the importance of magnesium and why we need to get enough into our bodies every day.
How Magnesium Keeps Us Healthy
Magnesium plays an important role in everything from muscle and nerve function to energy production and blood pressure control. That means if your body doesn't have enough magnesium, you could experience a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, depression, anxiety or even headaches. In addition to these uncomfortable symptoms, not getting enough magnesium can also lead to calcification of the cardiovascular system due to calcium deposits in artery Walls—a conditionn known as arteriosclerosis—which can increase your risk for heart attack or stroke. So where can we get magnesium?
Food Sources Rich in Magnesium
Fortunately there are plenty of foods that contain high levels of magnesium including dark leafy green vegetables like spinach or kale; nuts and seeds like almonds or pumpkin seeds; legumes like kidney beans or black beans; whole grains like quinoa or brown rice; avocados; bananas; figs; yogurt; dark chocolate; and even coffee! So if you're looking for ways to increase your intake of this essential mineral without having to take supplements every day, try incorporating one (or more!) of these foods into your diet on a regular basis or take a magnesium supplement.
It's can be easy to forget about minerals like magnesium when it comes to our overall health and well-being, we have to keep in mind a well rounded diet is very important because magnesium plays an important role in keeping us healthy! Now that you know how vital this mineral is for our bodies, make sure you're getting enough each day by choosing foods that are rich in magnesium from leafy greens to nuts or by taking a dietary supplement of magnesium. Doing so will help ensure that you remain healthy now and for years to come!
Increase circulation naturally with L-arginine and L-citrulline
September 07, 2022 03:09 PM
How to Increase Circulation and Nitric Oxide Production with L-arginine and L-citrulline
Do you want to improve your circulation and nitric oxide production? If so, you may want to consider taking L-arginine and L-citrulline together. These two nutrients can work together to help increase NO levels in the body, leading to better blood flow and overall health. In this article, we will discuss the benefits of these two nutrients and how they can help improve your health!
Why is circulation so important?
Circulation is one of the most important functions of the human body. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells, and for removing waste products. Without adequate circulation, cells would quickly become damaged or die. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart pumps blood through the vessels, which carry it to different parts of the body. The blood contains oxygen and nutrients that are essential for cell health. Waste products are also carried away in the blood so that they can be eliminated from the body. Because circulation is so important, it is essential to keep the heart healthy. Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help to promote good circulation by keeping the heart muscle strong and functional. Additionally, consume foods and supplements that can boost Nitric Oxide (NO) in the blood stream, avoiding tobacco use and managing stress levels can also help to keep the circulatory system functioning properly.
How does Nitric Oxide (NO) improve circulation?
Nitric oxide is a gas that is produced naturally by the body. In addition to being an important component of cell communication, nitric oxide also has several other important functions, including regulating blood pressure and improving circulation. When it comes to circulation, nitric oxide works by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the Walls of blood vessels. This allows the vessels to widen, which increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure. In addition, nitric oxide helps to prevent platelets from sticking together, which reduces the risk of clot formation. As a result, nitric oxide plays a vital role in maintaining healthy circulation.
What are L-arginine and L-citrulline and what do they do for the body?
L-arginine and L-citrulline are amino acids that are important for the body in many ways. L-arginine helps the body to make nitric oxide, which is a molecule that helps to relax blood vessels. This can help to improve blood flow and reduce blood pressure. L-citrulline, on the other hand, helps to remove ammonia from the body. Ammonia is a waste product that can build up in the blood and cause fatigue. Citrulline also helps to improve blood flow by increasing the production of nitric oxide. In addition, citrulline has been shown to boost levels of energy and stamina. These amino acids are important for many functions in the body and can help to improve overall health.
What are the benefits of improved circulation and NO production?
There are many benefits to improved circulation and NO production. Improved circulation can help more nutrients get to the cells, which helps the body to function better. In addition, NO production can help to improve blood flow, reduce inflammation, and protect against free radical damage. As a result, improving circulation and NO production can have a positive impact on overall health.
Hawthorn Berry and Heart Health: How the Two are Connected
April 29, 2022 11:59 AM
For centuries, Hawthorn Berry has been used to help support heart health. It is one of the most popular herbs for this purpose, and there is a lot of evidence to back up its use. Let's take a closer look at how Hawthorn Berry can help keep your heart healthy!
The heart and its function
The heart is one of the most important organs in the human body. It plays a central role in circulating blood throughout the body and delivering oxygen and nutrients to our tissues. In fact, without a healthy heart, we would not be able to survive for long. The heart is made up of four different chambers: two atria and two ventricles. The muscle Walls of these chambers contract and relax in a coordinated manner to pump blood through the circulatory system. Furthermore, the heart is richly supplied with nerve endings that enable it to respond quickly to any changes that might occur within our bodies. Overall, the heart is an incredibly complex and vital part of our anatomy, one that must always be treated with care and respect.
Hawthorn Berry and heart health
Hawthorn berry is a natural remedy that has long been used to promote heart health. This potent herb contains a variety of nutrients and antioxidants, which work together to lower blood pressure, strengthen blood vessels, and prevent the build-up of plaque in the arteries. Plus, hawthorn berry also contains compounds that help to reduce inflammation, both directly within the heart muscles and throughout the rest of the body. Thus, regular consumption of hawthorn berry has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in people with cardiovascular conditions.
How Hawthorn Berry helps the heart?
Hawthorn berry is a small, red fruit that has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for a variety of ailments. In recent years, Hawthorn berry has been gaining popularity as a tonic for good heart health. Hawthorn berry contains flavonoids, which are antioxidants that help to protect cells from damage. Flavonoids have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation. In addition, Hawthorn berry is believed to help relax the smooth muscles around the heart, making it less likely to develop arrhythmias. Hawthorn berry is available in supplements and can also be found in teas and tinctures. Although more research is needed, Hawthorn berry shows promise as a safe and effective way to support good heart health.
Dosage and preparations of Hawthorn Berry
Hawthorn berry is most commonly used in the form of a tea, which can be brewed using either fresh or dried berries. When using fresh berries, it is recommended to simmer 2-3 grams of berries in one cup of water for 10-15 minutes. For dried berries, it is recommended to simmer 1-2 grams in one cup of water for the same amount of time. Hawthorn berry can also be taken in capsule form, with a typical dose being 300-500 milligrams three times per day.
Final thoughts on Hawthorn Berry and heart health
At this point, it is clear that Hawthorn Berry is a powerful natural remedy for heart health. Not only has extensive research shown that it can help to protect the cardiovascular system by lowering blood pressure and improving circulation, but it also contains a unique blend of antioxidants and bioactive compounds that have been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, Hawthorn Berry is widely available and generally considered safe when taken in moderate doses; as such, anyone concerned about heart health should consider adding this incredible herb to their diet or supplementation regimen. Ultimately, with its unique therapeutic benefits and low risk of side effects, Hawthorn Berry is one of the best all-around remedies for heart health on the market today.
The key nutrients needed to prevent heart attacks, strokes andheart failure
May 08, 2019 04:33 PM
The CDC assesses that more than 5,100,000 Americans have some variant of heart disease, and that 610,000 will die from it this year alone. While the conventional range of treatments mostly relies on medications, micronutrient-based Cellular Medicine provides an alternative. Cellular Medicine pioneer Dr. Matthias Rath has carried out some very promising clinical research involving micronutrient supplementation. Dr. Rath believes that the American diet, medication side effects and modern food handling and production practices mean that many people are deprived of a range of important micronutrients, with very bad consequences for heart health.
"With the odds of surviving past the five-year mark currently standing at 50 percent, it’s clear that more effective prevention and treatment options are needed."
Read more: https://www.naturalhealth365.com/prevent-heart-attacks-2913.html
Cranberries offer an excellent way to boost your health, saynutrition researchers
May 02, 2019 12:05 PM
Cranberries are nutritious and full of antioxidants, which help the bodies that consume the cranberries to deal with oxidative stress. In fact, cranberries have been respected and used as a natural part of nature's pharmacy for centuries. For example, their use has been well-documented as part of the history of many Native American tribes. One aspect of cranberry's benefits long documented, both in anecdotal history and by scientific data is cranberry's special ability when it comes to dealing with urinary tract health. Urinary infections are a common and debilitating condition. Data now proves what our Native American forebears knew from experience, that compounds intrinsic to cranberries can help.prevent and heal a urinary tract infection. We now know that the compounds in cranberries succeed at this by creating conditions in the bladder which make it impossible for bacteria to adhere to the walls of the organ. Not only is the use of cranberries as a specific for treating bladder ailments safe, it prevents the overuse of antibiotics. As a preventative measure, cranberries can be taken in as a sauce, a drink or a supplement.
"Their study showed that polyphenols stopped bacteria from attaching themselves to the walls of the urinary tract."
Read more: https://www.naturalnews.com/2019-03-11-cranberries-excellent-way-to-boost-your-health.html
Prepping basics: 5 Effective natural remedies for ulcers
April 25, 2019 04:41 PM
Peptic ulcers occur when an individual's digestive juices cause damage to the walls of the intestines or stomach. Usually, peptic ulcers are caused by H. pylori, a bacteria that causes inflammation in the digestive tract. Burning pain is the most commonly known symptom of a peptic ulcer. Other symptoms include belching, heartburn, bloating, nausea, and weight loss. Aloe vera taken orally is one natural remedy for ulcers. Cabbage juice, chamomile, and honey also all fight peptic ulcers without the negative side effects of medication. While ulcers are usually just irritating, they will become debilitating if left untreated.
"Ulcers are common, and how they appear and their corresponding symptoms depend on their cause and where they develop on your body."
Read more: https://www.naturalnews.com/2019-03-06-natural-remedies-for-ulcers.html
7 benefits of glutamine
January 08, 2019 08:13 AM
Glutamine is just one of several free amino acids that are naturally present within the human body, but glutamine just happens to serve a plethora of benefits that most of us aren't even aware of. Glutamine has the ability to improve cognitive function through helping the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid within the brain. It can also boost our immune systems by building the gastrointestinal wall, which could be due to 70% of glutamine being found in the gut.
"Cancer treatments like radiation and chemotherapy are very intense processes that have repercussions on a person’s health. Studies have shown that taking glutamine effectively reduces the complications that therapy has on metabolism while still preventing tumor growth."
Read more: https://www.naturalnews.com/2019-01-04-7-benefits-of-glutamine.html
What's The Difference Between Niacin And Niacinamide
December 19, 2018 08:31 AM
When it comes to Vitamin B3, not all forms of Niacin are created equally. Aside from the risk of allergens and impurities, there are also separate forms with critical distinctions. The pure form is made solely of nicotinic acid which causes the flushing effect when it is taken by humans. The flushing effect is a redness that starts in the face and expands outwards through the rest of the body. It can make the skin feel warm, dry, and itchy for half an hour. The flushing effect is associated with vascular dilation that helps open up the tiny capillaries and blood vessels to clean out all the toxic junk they may have accumulated.
Nicotinic Acid Lowers Cholesterol
Nicotinic acid is also associated with increasing HDL levels in the body to prevent heart disease and plaques from accumulating on the interior Walls of arteries. Nicotinic acid is also known to lower the LDL and VLDL bad cholesterols that clog up arteries and lead to heart attacks and strokes.
Other Benefits of Vitamin B3
Vitamin B3 plays a critical role in building enzymes that help us carry out over 200 physical functions in the body. It is not produced naturally but is absorbed from foods such as yeast, green vegetables, milk, eggs, legumes, and fish. Aside from cardiovascular health, it plays a critical role in nervous health and sex hormone production.
How Does Niacinamide Differ?
Niacinamide is a water-soluble form of Niacin that is used to treat deficiencies or for therapies when patients need to take higher doses regularly to treat pellegra and the deficiencies that lead to it. When an excess of Niacin is built up in the body, your body may store it in this form. The chief distinction between this water-soluable hybrid and nicotinic acid is the effect on cholesterol and vascular dilation. Although flushing can be reduced by taking nicotinic acid daily and building up a tolerance to the effects, it is harder on the liver and more burdensome on the body to metabolize it in the high doses used for therapy of many illnesses: ADHD, Schizophrenia, nervous problems, migraines, and arthritis, among others. It is the preferred choice for maintaining a consistent and steady level of Vitamin B3 in the body and loaded into many beauty and skin products for women.
What Other Forms Can I Take?
You can take any form of the vitamin on a daily basis or supplement it with nicotinic acid when you need some additional flushing effect. You will notice that Niacinamide causes some symptoms of drying and itching that are similar to flushing when you take it in high doses. The no-flush formulation is called inositol hexanicotinate and made up from Vitamins B3 and Inositol Vitamin B8. The inositol acts as an additional buffer that makes inositol hexanicotinate easy to digest and take 1600 mg without side-effects: nausea, itching, flushing, dizziness, gout, liver damage, diabetes. Although multi-vitamin formulas and even fortified foods like breakfast shakes and cereals suggest that you are getting a full dose of B3 in each serving, this is very unlikely. The better choice is to take specifically formulated capsules rather than multivitamins if you are using it for therapeutic reasons.
Vitamin K: The Wellness Vitamin
September 18, 2018 03:31 PM
Vitamin K isn't actually one specific vitamin. There is a whole grouping of fat-soluble cofactors that are intricately involved in the creation of protein in human beings. This grouping is called vitamin K in layperson speak and for everyday purposes. There are actually four cofactors in the K grouping, which has a designated K because of its well-know ability to coagulate human blood.
K1 is an important part of the chemical process that leads directly to clotting. The other organic K variant, specifically K2 (MK-4) and K2 (MK-7), are used by the body to transport calcium. They have a profound affect on human bone density and in preventing calcium plaque formation on blood vessel walls. K3 is a synthetic variant with possible cancer applications which are being investigated.
K1 is available to eaters through a wide array of fruits and vegetables and beans and margarine. The K2s can be found in an array of cheeses and in egg yolks,chicken and beef and other non-meat proteins.
Because it has such an important role to play vis a vis calcium use in the body, it stands to reason that K is significant in the possible prevention of both osteoporosis and cardiac disease. It is becoming clear to scientists that K may also have a role to play in cognition and in increasing insulin sensitivity, thereby ameliorating the effects of diabetes.
"Vitamin K is a name given to a group of fat-soluble vitamins which are considered essential cofactors in humans for the production of various proteins involved in coagulation homeostasis and calcium homeostasis."
Read more: https://www.healthaid.co.uk/healthaid-blog/vitamin-k-the-wellness-vitamin
The facts about candida overgrowth and how to overcome it
August 21, 2018 05:53 PM
Candida is a type of yeast found in the human body that is usually dairy harmless but which can cause digestive problems and a range of other symptoms of it. Candida overgrowth can damage the intestinal walls and also cause an increase in allergy symptoms, fatigue, problems with other fungal diseases, headaches, respiratory problems and cold symptoms. Candidates overgrowth can also impede mental clarity and cognition. A combination of overuse of antibiotics, poor diet and the resulting poor immunity make people more vulnerable to candida overgrowth.
"Although it is normal to have some of this fungus in the body, candida can also invade the body beyond what is acceptable"
Read more: https://www.healthnutnews.com/the-facts-about-candida-overgrowth-and-how-to-overcome-it/
5 reasons why you should start eating mushrooms
August 16, 2018 09:53 AM
The consumption of mushrooms leads to several health benefits, many of which are fast-acting and highly prominent. For instance, one serving of mushrooms contains over three grams of fiber which leads to the production of insulin. For those who are insulin resistant or diabetic, this may be a good way to naturally aid in increasing the presence of insulin as long as their doctor approves it. The Vitamin C and potassium within mushrooms also helps promote optimal heart health.
"Mushrooms also contain selenium which has also been found to improve immune response to infection by stimulating the production of killer T-cells. The beta-glucan fibres found in the cell walls of mushrooms stimulate the immune system to fight diseases."
Read more: https://www.pulse.ng/lifestyle/food-travel-arts-culture/5-reasons-why-you-should-start-eating-mushrooms-id8577207.html
Insulin and disease
August 21, 2017 09:14 AM
Many health problems, and especially cancer and heart disease are caused by an imbalance of insulin, due to poor diet. We eat far too much sugar and too many carbohydrates. This leads to insulin resistance, which, in turn, leads to heart disease, high triglycerides, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, and diabetes. It also raises blood pressure because when we are insulin resistant our bodies cannot store magnesium, which is needed to relax the walls of the blood vessels. Dr. Michael Cutler has written a book, "The Insulin Factor" which explains how to get your insulin back in balance, through diet. This will help us to live longer, healthier lives.
"Centenarian studies show no health consistency at all except that all the centenarians have relatively low insulin (sugar) for their age and they all have low triglycerides for their age."
Read more: https://personalliberty.com/insulin-and-disease/
Is Inflammation Bad For You Or Good For You?
July 27, 2017 12:14 PM
Systemic inflammation can be a mixed bag. On the one hand, inflammation can help you during a period of injury. On the other inflammation can indicate that you are high risk for a variety of illnesses including heart disease. A test for C-reactive protein can be valuable in determining inflammation in your system, but one must be cautious as it cannot tell you what is causing said inflammation. To deal with excessive systemic inflammation, a healthy program of diet and exercise can be very helpful
"Chronic, low-level inflammation seems to play a role in a host of diseases, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer and even depression. And even though the science on inflammation and disease is far from settled, tests and treatments are being promoted that claim to reduce that risk."
Read more: http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/07/21/538377221/is-inflammation-bad-for-you-or-good-for-you
Could cranberries boost your 'good bacteria'?
July 16, 2017 07:14 AM
Xlogucans are indigestible sugars, located on the cell walls of cranberries. Scientists now know, that while void of nutritive value for their human ingestor, xlogucans are nonetheless of high value to certain strains of bacteria found inside the intestinal walls of those human ingestors. These strains of bacteria are beneficial because they promote metabolic processes, which in turn produce energy for human hosts. When these bacteria multiply, the event is inherently valuable to the human organism in which the bacteria reside. This multiplication occurs when the bacteria feed off these specific sugars, found in cranberries. Data, which shows that xlogucans are broken down in the gut and absorbed by beneficial bacteria, which may in turn break down the already broken down compounds of xlogucan even further, in order to benefit other useful forms of bacteria, may prove to be of value in the development of new and better probiotics.
Read more: Could cranberries boost your 'good bacteria'?
Do you have these 7 signs of omega-3 deficiency?
June 17, 2017 09:14 AM
Many women are lacking in omega-3 fats, found in fatty sources of fish and over-the-counter supplements. Knowing which symptoms to look for can allow women to correct their diets and improve their health. Dry skin, limp hair, and nails that break easily are indications of deficiency, because omega-3 fats are found in cell walls and hair follicles. When adequately supplied, skin, nails, and hair should be healthy and strong. Lack of concentration, insomnia, and fatigue are three more signs of deficiency; fatigue is a common symptom, and when addressed, can lead to increased energy. Omega-3 fats are also anti-inflammatory and therefore helpful for someone dealing with joint pain.
"One of the secrets to youthful and hydrated skin is omega-3 fats which are found naturally in the cell wall structure."
Read more: https://www.msn.com/en-gb/health/mindandbody/do-you-have-these-7-signs-of-omega-3-deficiency/ar-BBCxMJi
Strawberries contain powerful anti-cancer medicines and have now been scientifically shown to prevent breast cancer
May 29, 2017 04:14 PM
In the war on breast cancer, we need all the help we can get, and now scientist have discovered it in the epitome of spring, strawberries. Scientist discovered that strawberries are high in a compound called phenolic that inhibited growth, cellular division and reproduction, particularly in the A17 group classification of tumors. Strawberry concentrates, which amounts to between 10 and 15 strawberries, lysis cell walls in the tumor, killing it. This can bring new hope to millions that suffer with this aggressive cancer.
"We have shown for the first time that strawberry extract, rich in phenolic compounds, inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo models."
Read more: http://www.naturalnews.com/2017-05-01-strawberries-contain-powerful-anti-cancer-medicines-and-have-now-been-scientifically-shown-to-prevent-breast-cancer.html
High-Fiber Diet Keeps Intestinal Walls Intact
April 03, 2017 06:44 AM
A diet that is low in fiber cause your intestines to get worse as they lose mucus. Mucus is actually very helpful to your intestines. Fiber also helps the mucus that is in your colon. Scientists know all of this because the scientists have decided to test this stuff out on mice in the past. Based upon the results of the mice testing the scientists believe that people in general should double how much fiber they get.
Read more: High-Fiber Diet Keeps Intestinal Walls Intact
10 Amazing Benefits That Make Green Tea The Healthiest Drink In The World
March 18, 2017 03:44 PM
Green tea is a popular drink nowadays and lots of information is known about it. It is served in many restaurants and is also available at many stores. This explains 10 reasons why it's very good for you. It will definitely make you want to drink it more often if you don't already.
"Drinking green tea helps decrease blood sugar levels, which in turn reduces the amount of insulin needed by the body."
Study shows the way stress may harm your heart
January 22, 2017 10:59 AM
Psychological stress has been proven to have a huge impact on the health of your heart, as well as your blood pressure levels. During the trial period, they found that several testers who had PTSD suffered heart problems and even stroke during the follow-up period. Amygdala has been discovered to increase cardiac problems and raise chances of having a cardiac episode. Doctors will continue to research this and decide what measures to take in the future to help keep heart conditions and stress levels under control
"Given the increasing number of people suffering from job or social stress, doctors may have to include it when they assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease, she said."
How Vitamins Help Keep Calcium in the Bones
Your arteries and heart work full time. They require nutrients that would assist and maintain blood vessels firm and flexible. If you are worried about stroke or blood pressure, you want to read about the important vitamins which can create a great difference. Vitamins A, D3, and K2 are the most important vitamins for the cardiovascular system. These fat soluble vitamins make sure the heart and the sixty thousand miles of blood vessels perform at the optimum. Still most of the people do not understand how essential it is to obtain sufficient of these three. These three vitamins function as partners to avoid dangerous blood clots, high blood pressure and heart attacks, maintain calcium in the bones, assist keep arteries strong and flexible and decrease inflammatory triggers in the bloodstream.
Calcium has some negative sides also. If not effectively used in the tissues and blood, it can accumulate in the body when we age, a method known as calcification. Few calcifications are not dangerous. Half of the female over 50 will reveal certain benign calcification in breast tissue at the time of mammogram. But this build up may be a sign of calcium accumulation in other parts of the body such as the heart and arteries. This makes arteries inflexible and stiff, resulting to higher risk of strokes, blood clots and heart attacks. The necessary thing to keep in mind is that the body does not avail nutrients such as calcium, separately. To ensure the body is availing calcium properly, you want to ensure you are also obtaining sufficiently of the vitamins which regulate calcium.
Vitamin K is available in two types, Vitamin K1 is responsible for making clots and avoiding extra bleeding if there is any wound. Vitamin K2 boosts proteins which assist transport calcium to the place where it is required. The lower you consume vitamin K2, the higher the danger of heart attack and heart disease. The sunshine vitamin is necessary to heart and bone health. But most of the people still do not receive sufficiently of it. Vitamin D is also utilized by several cells in the cardiovascular system like cells which line the blood vessels and heart muscle cells. Lower levels of this vitamin have been connected to a higher danger of dying from stroke or heart disease.
Vitamin D assist avoid calcium accumulation in the blood vessels. It raises the expression of the vitamin K based proteins that adjust calcium. Without these, calcium cannot be received by the bones, rather stores up in the artery Walls and blood vessels. The right amount of vitamin D is needed to boost proteins. Researchers have proven that vitamin K and D function better when they are at good levels. Most of the people aware that vitamin A is vital for eyes. It also influences a variety of body processes like controlling different proteins that adjust the kinds of cells the body creates. This involves the cells which line blood vessels. This vitamin falls down when inflammation is seen, identifying its important part in fighting injury and disease.